National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for including building envelope

  1. Building Envelope Stakeholder Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is hosting a building envelope stakeholder workshop on behalf of the DOE Building Technologies Office.

  2. Heat and moisture transfer through building envelope components subjected to outdoor weather conditions including rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayamaha, S.E.G. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Singapore experiences a warm and humid climate with abundant rainfall during the entire year. Such conditions are typical of tropical climates where many of today`s metropolitan cities are situated. Rain has been found to affect the thermal performance of building components in two ways, namely, by cooling the surface during rain and thereafter by drying of the absorbed moisture after rain. However, existing software used for predicting the thermal performance of building components do not consider such effects and are therefore inadequate for accurate estimation of the thermal performance of building components in tropical climates. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and moisture flow through porous building materials exposed to outdoor conditions such as solar radiation and rain.

  3. Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2001-01-01

    Model For Infiltration Heat Recovery. Proceedings 21st AivcLBNL 47329 HEAT RECOVERY IN BUILDING ENVELOPES Max H.contribution because of heat recovery within the building

  4. Heat recovery in building envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-01

    2003). Infiltration heat recovery – ASHRAE Research ProjectModel for Infiltration Heat Recovery, Proc. 21 st AnnualN ATIONAL L ABORATORY Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes

  5. Heat recovery in building envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-01

    2003). Infiltration heat recovery – ASHRAE Research ProjectModel for Infiltration Heat Recovery, Proc. 21 st AnnualWalker, I.S. (2001). "Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes".

  6. Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Cover of windows and envelope report, depicting a...

  7. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  8. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy Residential Building Envelopes Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy ResearchOzone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff

  9. Building America Expert Meeting: Advanced Envelope Research for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Expert Meeting: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing Building America Expert Meeting: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing This...

  10. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Bahman Habibzadeh, U.S. Department of Energy...

  11. Building America Webinar: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Envelope Research for Factory-Built Housing Building America Webinar: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory-Built Housing This webinar was conducted on December 14, 2011,...

  12. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the Current State of Energy Retrofits Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Building...

  13. Advances in Understanding Durability of the Building Envelope...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activity to improve existing building envelopes. To better understand energy efficiency features and their interaction with moisture and ultimately durability, Oak Ridge...

  14. Solar Correction Factors of Building Envelope in Tebei 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Tang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Tebei has very rich solar energy in China and needs heating in winter,but the present energy building design code has no solar correction factor for the overall heat transfer coefficient of building envelope for Tebei. ...

  15. Building envelope membrane as flexible formwork for concrete panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprague, Chelsea Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of a building envelope membrane as fabric-like formwork for exterior cladding systems in buildings. The exterior wall system (i.e., fagade) has evolved to meet the demands of the built ...

  16. Integrating Acclimated Kinetic Envelopes into Sustainable Building Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jialiang

    2014-05-28

    affects the energy usage of a building. In an effort to simultaneously consider and satisfy all of the various indoor comfort requirements, changing climatic conditions can generate conflicting conditions. Acclimated Kinetic Envelope (AKE) is a notion...

  17. Enhancing Residential Building Operation through its Envelope 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vazifeshenas, Y.; Sajjadi, H.

    2010-01-01

    -IC-10-10-71 Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference Enhanced Building Operations, Kuwait, October 26-28, 2010 or environmental pollution this amount is somehow substantial. 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE SOFTWARE Various methods with different...-IC-10-10-71 Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference Enhanced Building Operations, Kuwait, October 26-28, 2010 and table 3 shows the results of cooling load for the building. Table 2. Heat Load of the Whole Building Before Insulation...

  18. Building Technologies Office Window and Envelope Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies R&D Program Karma Sawyer, Ph.D. karma.sawyer@ee.doe.gov BTO Goal Reduce building energy use by 50% in 2030, compared to the "business-as- usual" energy consumption...

  19. #AskEnergySaver: Building Envelopes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar: Demonstration of NREL'sWind WindBuilding Envelopes

  20. Performance of Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings VIII: Integration of Building Envelopes Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Envelopes Proceedings This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable.34 and 0.37 quads are required for heating and cooling respectively (DOE Core Data Book, 2000 Improving Information Technology to Maximize Fenestration Energy Efficiency Dariush Arasteh, Robin Mitchell

  1. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboards were performed to determine their actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The models were first validated using field data, and then used to perform annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis to evaluate the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced building components.

  2. Webinar: Introduction to Pre-engineered Metal Building Envelope Commissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The metal building industry produces more than 50% of all new low-rise nonresidential construction in the United States. These buildings serve many different end uses, including commercial,...

  3. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  4. Regionalism and the design of low-rise building envelope systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tapia, Jason W. (Jason Wilfredo)

    2010-01-01

    This investigation proposes the use of a three-pronged approach to evaluating building envelopes for low-rise affordable housing in urban contexts: construction cost estimating, building performance modeling, and cradle ...

  5. Hotbox Test R-value Database and the Building Envelopes Program (BEP)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Building Envelopes Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a program within the Buildings Technology Center (BTC), the premier U.S. research facility devoted to developing technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings. Our program is divided into two parts: building envelope research, which focuses on the structural elements that enclose a building (walls, roofs and foundations), and materials research, which concentrates on the materials within the envelope systems (such as insulation). The building envelope provides the thermal barrier between the indoor and outdoor environment, and its elements are the key determinants of a building's energy requirements that result from the climate where it is located. [copied from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/

  6. Integrated Hygrothermal Performance of Building Envelopes and Systems in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagiozis, A. N.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

    2000-01-01

    Building Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Espoo, Finland Building Technology Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, US Oak Ridge, Tennessee, US ABSTRACT In hot and humid climates the interior and exterior environmental..., Proceedings of the 4th Symposium, Building Physics in the Nordic Countries, Espoo, Finland, Sept. 9-10, pp.447-454. Karagiozis, A. and Hadjisophocleous G. "Wind- Driven Rain on High-Rise Buildings", Thermal Performance of Exterior Envelopes of Buildings...

  7. Thermal Performance of Building Envelope in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S. S.; Helal, M. A.; El-Demirdash, M.

    2010-01-01

    of Building Envelope in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky Region) S.S. Sheble* M. H. Khalil M. A. Helal Prof. M. El- Demirdash3 Asso. Prof. Building Physics Institute (HBRC) Asso. Prof. Building Physics Institute (HBRC) Prof. & head... of Building Physics Institute (HBRC) Prof. & Chairman of HBRC Housing & Building National Research Center (HBRC) Cairo, Egypt * Author ABSTRACT Toshky region is a desert region located in the south east of Egyptian western desert...

  8. Inclusion of Building Envelope Thermal Lag Effects in Linear Regression Models of Daily Basis Building Energy Use Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Inclusion?of?Building?Envelope?Thermal?Lag? Effects?in?Linear?Regression?Models?of?Daily? Basis?Building?Energy?Use?Data The?12th International?Conference?for?Enhanced?Building?Operations October?22nd?26th,?2012 Manchester,?UK Hiroko...?enhanced?building?operations. October?18?20,?2011,? Brooklyn,?NY. Rabl,?A.?and?Rialhe,?A.?(1992).?Energy?Signature?Models?for?Commercial?Buildings:?Test?with?Measured?Data?and?Interpretation. Energy?and?Buildings,?19,?143?154. Shao,?X.?and?Claridge,?D.E.?(2006).?Use?of?first?law?energy?balance?as?a?screening?tool?for?building?energy...

  9. HEAT RECOVERY IN BUILDING ENVELOPES Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL 47329 HEAT RECOVERY IN BUILDING ENVELOPES Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker Energy formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building physical model has been developed and used to predict the infiltration heat recovery based on the Peclet

  10. Building America Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    'The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deters program participants, and dissuades them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.' This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing, the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities, could easily be six times that and that's only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  11. Cost Analysis of Simple Phase Change Material-Enhanced Building Envelopes in Southern U.S. Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Shukla, N.; Fallahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional thermal designs of building envelope assemblies are based on static energy flows, yet building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles and their dynamic operation can decrease thermal efficiency. Design work supporting the development of low-energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not always be the most cost effective solution to improvement envelope thermal performance. PCM-enhanced building envelopes that simultaneously reduce the total cooling loads and shift the peak-hour loads are the focus of this report.

  12. Evaluation on Cooling Energy Load with Varied Envelope Design for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Tamimi, N.; Fadzil, S.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the economy in the recent years, Malaysia is maintaining a high economic growth and therefore, its energy consumption increases dramatically. Residential buildings are characterized by being envelope-load dominated buildings...

  13. Determining Adaptability Performance of Artificial Neural Network-Based Thermal Control Logics for Envelope Conditions in Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Jin Woo; Chang, Jae D.; Kim, Sooyoung

    2013-07-18

    This study examines the performance and adaptability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based thermal control strategies for diverse thermal properties of building envelope conditions applied to residential buildings. The thermal performance using...

  14. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  15. Integrated envelope and lighting systems for commercial buildings: a retrospective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1998-06-01

    Daylighting systems in use world-wide rarely capture the energy-savings predicted by simulation tools and that we believe are achievable in real buildings. One of the primary reasons for this is that window and lighting systems are not designed and operated as an integrated system. Our efforts over the last five years have been targeted toward (1) development and testing of new prototype systems that involve a higher degree of systems integration than has been typical in the past, and (2) addressing current design and technological barriers that are often missed with component-oriented research. We summarize the results from this body of cross-disciplinary research and discuss its effects on the existing and future practice of daylighting in commercial buildings.

  16. Building America Webinar: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory-Built

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels ResearchofDerivativeColdSealedOverviewBuildingJulyDepartment

  17. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  18. Building America Expert Meeting: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De pEnergy IndustrialofofBuildingCladdingSanWilliams

  19. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01

    systems. N. s. passive Billington, Building Physics: Heat ,conse- quences for passive solar buildings. H. G. Davies, "buildings constructed as part of the effort. "Bibliography on Passive

  20. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  1. Low-cost phase change material as an energy storage medium in building envelopes: Experimental and numerical analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Mr. Ramin

    2014-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of a phase change material (PCM) in the building envelope. Numerous studies over the last two decades have reported the energy saving potential of PCMs in building envelopes, but their wide application has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel PCM made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application. The PCM-HDPE pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation and then added to an exterior wall of a test building in a hot and humid climate, and tested over a period of several months, To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation in reducing the building envelope heat gains and losses, side-by-side comparison was performed with another wall section filled with cellulose-only insulation. Further, numerical modeling of the test wall was performed to determine the actual impact of the PCM-HDPE pellets on wall-generated heating and cooling loads and the associated electricity consumption. The model was first validated using experimental data and then used for annual simulations using typical meteorological year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the experimental data and numerical analyses showing the energy-saving potential of the new PCM.

  2. Evaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation strategies for low energy cooling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    strategies for low energy cooling in offices and commercial sector Laurent Grignon-Massé, Dominique Marchio and automatic controls and the use of adequate ventilation strategies show great potential in energy savingsEvaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation

  3. Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy-efficient solutions. Improving the building envelope (roof or attic system, walls,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . Improving the building envelope (roof or attic system, walls, foundation) is an obvious choice as heating needed to retrofit today's poor energy performing walls. · Partnering with the Single Ply Roofing Industry, ORNL helped in understanding the role cool roofing plays in moisture accumulation in these types

  4. Tone signal generator for producing multioperator tone signals using an operator circuit including a waveform generator, a selector and an enveloper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Jenkins, M.V.; Bernadas, S.R.

    1997-09-09

    A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal. 17 figs.

  5. Pushing the Envelope: A Case Study of Building the First Manufactured Home Using Structural Insulated Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Sparkman, Ronald; Lubliner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    This paper for the ACEEE Summer Study describes construction of the first manufactured home ever produced from structural insulated panels. The home was built in July 2000 by Champion Enterprises at its Silverton, Oregon, plant. The house was completed on the assembly line in 9 days including a 300-mile road test. The paper examines the design and approval process leading to the project, the manufacturing process and its adjustment to SIPs, and the transportation and energy performance of the house after it was built. PNNL coordinated this project and conducted long-term monitoring on the house. The WSU Energy Program conducted building diagnostics testing once the house was occupied. PNNL’s and WSU’s involvement was funded by the U.S. DOE Building America Program. The Oregon Office of Energy conducted blower door and duct blaster tests. The completed home was estimated to reduce energy consumption by 50% and to have twice the structural strength required by HUD code for manufactured homes. The demonstration proved that the manufactured home production line could support SIPs production simultaneously with traditional construction and without major modifications, the line work in parallel with SIPs and traditional materials. The project revealed severl possibilities for further improving cost and time savings with SIPs construction, that might translate into increased capacity.

  6. Comparison of Building Energy Efficiency and Life Span for Different Envelopes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Li, D.; Li, L.; Zhang, G.; Liu, J.

    2006-01-01

    life and provide occupants a more comfortable indoor climate. At the same time, this heat preservation technology can ensure building energy efficiency and economy. It is reasonable to adopt the external heat preservation wall mode to make the building...

  7. IFC-Based Framework for Evaluating Total Performance of Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammad, Amin

    of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 2 Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 3 Ryerson of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 1 #12

  8. Energy Impacts of Nonlinear Behavior of PCM When Applied into Building Envelope: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    Previous research on phase change materials (PCM) for building applications has been done for several decades resulting in plenty of literature on PCM properties, temperature, and peak reduction potential. Thus, PCMs are a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have PCM modeling features, and even fewer have been validated. Additionally, there is no previous research that indicates the level of accuracy when simulating PCM from a building energy simulation perspective. This study analyzes the effects a nonlinear enthalpy profile has on thermal performance and expected energy benefits for PCM-enhanced insulation.

  9. The Framework of an Optimization Model for the Thermal Design of Building Envelopes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Homoud, M. S.; Degelman, L. O.; Boyer, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    to the decision making process of building design. In dealing with the building as a thermal system, the proper selection of its components and their relationships can be organized using a systems approach. This can be achieved by coupling an optimization...

  10. Window and Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating...

  11. Annual energy analysis of concrete containing phase change materials for building envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    of residential and com- mercial buildings for electricity varies significantly during the day [3]. To satisfy schedules to encourage ratepayers to shift their electricity use to off-peak hours. In practice, the price Engineering Department, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los

  12. Experimental evaluation of a naturally ventilated PV double-skin building envelope in real operating conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Introduction France is undergoing an energy transition towards technologies with a lower environmental impact Fax. +33472438811 Abstract Building integrated photovoltaic systems are fast becoming a feature of a prototype naturally-ventilated photovoltaic double-skin facade, designed to maintain favourable operating

  13. An Analysis of Building Envelope Upgrades for Residential Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J.

    2006-01-01

    and exterior walls, and windows. A DOE-2 simulation model of a 2000/2001 IECC code-compliant house in Houston, Texas, was used for the analysis. The results demonstrated the effect of incremental changes in these properties on the building's energy use...

  14. Building Envelope Air Leakage Failure in Small Commercial Buildings Related to the Use of Suspended Tile Ceilings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, C. R.; Cummings, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    is associated with the suspended ceiling. Ceiling airtightness test results from two buildings are presented in this paper and show that they are very leaky. The pathways in the ceiling plane are one necessary constituent for airflow to occur across the ceiling...

  15. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  16. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    case study describes the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, that demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope...

  17. Simulation as a Tool to Develop Guidelines of Envelope Design of a Typical Office Building in Egypt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samaan, M.M.; Ahmed, A.N.; Farag, O.M.A.; El-Sayed Khalil, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of building performance simulation software in order to develop guidelines for designing energy-efficient office building. In Egypt energy codes for all building types are being under development. On the other hand...

  18. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  19. Monitoring Progress with Dynamic Programming Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    developed a technique for building decision rules, called envelopes, that monitor plan execution Hart90. In their original formulation envelopes provided advance warning of plan failure in the form of a simple continueMonitoring Progress with Dynamic Programming Envelopes Robert St. Amant, Yoshitaka Kuwata, Paul R

  20. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  1. Dynamic building enclosures : the design of an innovative constructive system which permits mechanically-driven, computer-controlled shape transformations to the building envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Eric (Eric Freeman), 1964-

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic Building Enclosures is a system of prefabricated, lightweight, kit-of-parts wall and/or roof elements. This system has the unique capability of dynamically altering, or mutating its shape in reaction to changing ...

  2. Particle penetration through building cracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D L; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    advanced our knowledge, they have not fully elucidated the extent to which particles penetrate building envelopes.

  3. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  4. 2.2 Existing Facilities The HPL contains 51 structures, including the UMCES Administration Building and Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    2.2 Existing Facilities The HPL contains 51 structures, including the UMCES Administration serving as the UMCES Administration Building. Below is a summary of the current condition of all information.) 370 UMCES Administration Building This two story (basement and first floor) former residence

  5. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  6. Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy-efficient solutions. Improving the building envelope (roof or attic system, walls,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy- efficient solutions penetration rates; validate models; and assist industry to develop new and more energy-efficient materials systems) resulting in affordable, moisture-durable products to increase energy efficiency. · ORNL

  7. Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy-efficient solutions. Improving the building envelope (roof or attic system, walls,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy- efficient solutions rates; validate models; and assist industry to develop new and more energy-efficient materials-durable products to increase energy efficiency. · ORNL established test facilities to measure essential property

  8. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    ply membrane Single-ply thermoplastic Single-ply Single-plysynthetic rubber (Hypalon®); and thermoplastics,including thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) and polyvinyl

  9. Building Teacher-Scientist Partnerships: Teaching About Energy Through Inquiry.(Statistical Data Included)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Carol

    charged with building a windmill that can generate enough electricity to light a small light bulb with principles of science education and best teaching practice, which are essential skills and knowledge

  10. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  11. Building America Webinar: Saving Energy in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory-Built Housing Building America Webinar: Ventilation in...

  12. Analysis of Solar Passive Techniques and Natural Ventilation Concepts in a Residential Building Including CFD Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quince, N.; Ordonez, A.; Bruno, J. C.; Coronas, A.

    2010-01-01

    are double glazed (10mm + 8mm air + 10mm), with aluminium frame and cold bridge breaking. All apartments are designed to allow cross ventilation. The project of the building (Pastor and Toral 2006) plans two basic natural ventilation mechanisms: a stack...

  13. An Assessment of Envelope Measures in Mild Climate Deep Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and pair these with high efficiency, off-the-shelf HVAC equipment. Enhanced building envelopes should be considered in...

  14. Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies (DE-FOA-0000621) Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope...

  15. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-01-01

    leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performingadvanced our knowledge, they have not fully elucidated the extent to which particles penetrate building envelopes.

  16. Energy & Society Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations Back-of-the-Envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    .3. Impacts of Increasing Power Plant Efficiency in China 19 4. Building a Basic Energy Budget 21 5. Light scientific, technical, economic, social, political, and environmental opportunities and impacts of the energyEnergy & Society Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations 1 Toolkit 2: Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations

  17. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    advanced commercial lighting products and less successful at increasing the number of whole-building, HVAC, and building envelope

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  2. Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical Facilities

    2013-11-12

    MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES BUILDING. BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN. Date Adopted: Sept 20, 2013. Date Revised: Sep 20. 2013. Prepared By: Kelly ...

  3. Nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins in differentiation systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batrakou, Dzmitry G.

    2012-11-30

    Historically, our perception of the nuclear envelope has evolved from a simple barrier isolating the genome from the rest of a cell to a complex system that regulates functions including transcription, splicing, DNA ...

  4. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  5. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Loads Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory-Built Housing...

  6. Building America Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De pEnergy IndustrialofofBuilding SciencePerformance

  7. NMF Matrix Generation Using Probabilistic Spectrum Envelope for Mixed Music Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    NMF 1 2 2 NMF NMF NMF NMF NMF Matrix Generation Using Probabilistic Spectrum Envelope for Mixed for the analysis, it is hard to build the practical system of the method. The latter approach should cause. At the beginning, a common spectram envelope to an instrument, called a probabilistic spectrum envelope (PSE

  8. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3—Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research — stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  9. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  10. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  11. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance - Part II: Development of an accelerate aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amadine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-11-18

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products?single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles?and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. This accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  12. Linac Envelope Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baartman, Rick

    2015-01-01

    I develop the formalism that allows calculation of beam envelopes through a linear accelerator given its on-axis electric field. Space charge can naturally be added using Sacherer formalism. A complicating feature is that the reference particle's energy-time coordinates are not known a priori. Since first order matrix formalism applies to deviations from the reference particle, this means the reference particle's time and energy must be calculated simultaneously with the beam envelope and transfer matrix. The code TRANSOPTR is used to track envelopes for general elements whose infinitesimal transfer matrices are known, and in the presence of space charge. Incorporation of the linac algorithm into TRANSOPTR is described, and some examples given.

  13. Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities by Census Division, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  14. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3—Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. This work is part of a multiphase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). This report describes Phase 3, which was completed in two stages and continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  15. Three Envelopes Sergiu Hart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Sergiu

    Three Envelopes Sergiu Hart Spetember 12, 2006 Consider the variant of the so-called "secretary of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem, Israel. e-mail: hart@huji.ac.il web page: http://www.ma.huji.ac.il/hart 1 #12

  16. Building Envelope Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at the Edge of aCamberlyEnergy AmirISTN extruded

  17. Windows and Building Envelope | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950DepartmentWaveWind Program R&DResearchWindowWindows

  18. The Circumstellar Envelope of pi Gru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Knapp; K. Young; M. Crosas

    1999-03-23

    CO(J = 2-1) and SiO(J = 5-4) emission has been observed from the molecular envelope around the nearby S star pi Gru. The CO line profile differs from the usual parabolic shape seen in uniformly expanding envelopes; it has a Voigt-like profile and two horns. A model for line formation in the envelope shows that a tilted, expanding disk reproduces the observations well. The star also has a fast molecular wind, with a projected outflow speed of at least 70 and perhaps as high as 90 km/s. The fast wind is presumably ejected from the poles of the disk. These observations show that the complex structure seen in many planetary nebulae, including quadrupolar structure and fast winds, may largely evolve from structure formed while the progenitor star is in the last stages of evolution on the AGB.

  19. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  20. TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    TESTING FORM Please deliver exams with envelope & testing form at least 24 hours in advance to in a sealed envelope to Disability Services, or deposited into the mail slot located on the outside the door: ________________________________________ (Building/Office Number) ______ Return test to the Departmental Office

  1. Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Windows and Building Envelope

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at the Edge ofEnergy Program Peer Review

  2. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  3. Dynamic Simulation and Analysis of Factors Impacting the Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lian, Y.; Hao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Buildings have a close relationship with climate. There are a lot of important factors that influence building energy consumption such as building shape coefficient, insulation work of building envelope, covered area, and the area ratio of window...

  4. Dynamics of a Supernova Envelope in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korolev, V V; Kovalenko, I G; Shchekinov, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a supernova remnant in a cloudy medium as a function of the volume filling factor of the clouds is studied in a three-dimensional axially symmetrical model. The model includes the mixing of heavy elements (metals) ejected by the supernova and their contribution to radiative losses. The interaction of the supernova envelope with the cloudy phase of the interstellar medium leads to nonsimultaneous, and on average earlier, onsets of the radiative phase in different parts of the supernova envelope. Growth in the volume filling factor $f$ leads to a decrease in the time for the transition of the envelope to the radiative phase and a decrease in the envelope's mean radius, due to the increased energy losses by the envelope in the cloudy medium. When the development of hydrodynamical instabilities in the supernova envelope is efficient, the thermal energy falls as $E_t\\sim t^{-2.3}$, for the propagation of the supernova remnant through either a homogeneous or a cloudy medium. When the volume filling...

  5. Estimation of Building Parameters Using Simplified Energy Balance Model and Metered Whole Building Energy Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Claridge, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates an indirect data-driven method to estimate influential building parameters: air exchange rates and overall heat transfer coefficients of building envelopes from the separately metered energy use for electricity...

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  7. Advanced Technologies and Practices - Building America Top Innovations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    practices that improve the building envelope; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); water heating components; and indoor air quality and safety issues....

  8. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project More...

  9. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes:...

  10. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    platforms and  building automation systems (BAS), a including  basic  building  automation  control,  fault Smart building power management automation. Building

  11. Wall Design Redundancy for Improving the Moisture Performance of Building Cladding Systems in Hot-Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    problem for building owners. In recent years reports of damage to building envelope components, including rot of wood framing and corrosion of metal earning and fasteners, have increased dramatically. For example, numerous reports of water... the wood fiaming supporting their cladding. Water-related problems with EIFS in over 300 homes in the Wilmington, North Carolina area were reported by the NAHB Research Center in 1996, and before that in the same area by the Wilrnington Section...

  12. Method and apparatus for controlling carrier envelope phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Zenghu (Manhattan, KS); Li, Chengquan (Sunnyvale, CA); Moon, Eric (Manhattan, KS)

    2011-12-06

    A chirped pulse amplification laser system. The system generally comprises a laser source, a pulse modification apparatus including first and second pulse modification elements separated by a separation distance, a positioning element, a measurement device, and a feedback controller. The laser source is operable to generate a laser pulse and the pulse modification apparatus operable to modify at least a portion of the laser pulse. The positioning element is operable to reposition at least a portion of the pulse modification apparatus to vary the separation distance. The measurement device is operable to measure the carrier envelope phase of the generated laser pulse and the feedback controller is operable to control the positioning element based on the measured carrier envelope phase to vary the separation distance of the pulse modification elements and control the carrier envelope phase of laser pulses generated by the laser source.

  13. Experimental plan for investigating building-earth heat transfer at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1980-11-01

    An experimental plan is presented for investigating heat transfer between below-grade portions of building envelopes and the surrounding soil. Included is a detailing of data to be collected at an earth-sheltered structure (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research Building) to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The attributes of the required data collection instrumentation are defined and a program to assure the accuracy of the collected data is discussed. The experimental plan is intended to be used as a guide to selection, installation, and maintenance of instrumentation as well as in data collection and verification.

  14. CIV498 Design Project Winter 2016 Project Title: Building Science (Sustainable building design and energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    emissions from burning fossil fuels at buildings and at thermal electrical generation for building in the building's thermal envelope and electrical consuming systems up front to minimize thermal and electrical Building-as-a-System principles. Using a basic architectural design provided the students will work

  15. Retrofit of Existing Residential Building: a Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, L.; Xu, W.; Li, L.; Gao, G.

    2006-01-01

    retrofit of the envelope of existing residential buildings should be placed on the wall in northern region. It is possible to reduce about 50 percent of energy consumption of buildings by insulating the wall. The external insulation is suitable...

  16. Case Study of Envelope Sealing in Existing Multiunit Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Conlin, Francis; Podorson, David

    2012-10-01

    This report describes envelope air sealing that was included in the retrofit of a 244 unit low-rise multifamily housing complex in Durham, N.C. On average, total leakage was reduced by nearly half, from 19.7 ACH50 to 9.4 ACH50. Important air leakage locations identified included plumbing and electrical penetrations, dropped ceilings/soffits, windows, ducts and wall-to-floor intersections. Specifications and a pictorial guide were developed for contractors performing the work.

  17. Advanced building skins : translucent thermal storage elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienzl, Nico, 1971-

    1999-01-01

    Advances in the material sciences continue to provide designers with a wealth of new materials that challenge preconceived notions of the building envelope and its performance. These new technologies can be used to create ...

  18. REDUCING ENERGY USE IN FLORIDA BUILDINGS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raustad, R.; Basarkar, M.; Vieira, R.

    2008-01-01

    were simulated. Simply using the selected envelope measures resulted in savings of less than 10% for all building types. However, if such measures are combined with aggressive lighting reductions and improved efficiency HVAC equipment and controls, a...

  19. RECOVERY ACT CASE STUDY CHP and district energy serve Texas A&M's 5,200-acre campus, which includes 750 buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Congressman Chet Edwards Texas A&M's CHP system includes a gas turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator, and steam turbine generator. Photo courtesy of Texas A&M University 3 Riley, Jim, "Combined Heat, 2010. Brush Generator 34 MW RO Water Dresser Rand Steam Turbine Ideal Generator 11 MW 12.47 kV EIT HRSG

  20. Impact assessment and performance targets for lighting and envelope systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-06-01

    Electric lighting loads and cooling from solar heat gains and from lights are the two largest components of peak demand in commercial buildings. The most cost effective demand side management solutions are generally those that directly reduce or eliminate these loads. Existing technologies can provide modest reductions, however they are typically applied an a piecemeal manner that yields less than optimal results. The full potential of existing technologies will be realized when they are commercially available in an integrated package easily specifiable by architects and engineers. Emerging technologies can also be developed to provide even greater savings and extend the savings over a greater portion of the building floor area. This report assesses achievable energy and peak demand performance in California commercial buildings with technologies available today and in the future. We characterize energy performance over a large range of building envelope and lighting conditions, both through computer simulation models and through case study measured data, and subsequently determine reasonable energy targets if building design were further optimized with integrated systems of current or new technologies. Energy targets are derived from the study after consideration of industry priorities, design constraints, market forces, energy code influence, and the state of current building stock.

  1. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building...

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  3. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3-Design Development and Prototyping Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3-Design Development...

  4. High Efficiency Broadband Envelope-Tracking Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Jonmei Johana

    M. ,   “   Wideband High Efficiency Envelope Tracking PowerPeter  M. ,  “High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking High PowerMemory! DPD! Drain! Efficiency! (%)! Gain! (dB)! Output!

  5. Model Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficiency Building Performance Standards (EEBPS) are statewide minimum requirements that all new construction and additions to existing buildings must satisfy. Exceptions include...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State (ECCCNYS) requires that all government, commercial and residential buildings, including renovations involving building system replaceme...

  7. Practical Integration Approach and Whole Building Energy Simulation of Three Energy Efficient Building Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J. P.; Zhivov, A.; Heron, D.; Deru, M.; Benne, K.

    2010-08-01

    Three technologies that have potential to save energy and improve sustainability of buildings are dedicated outdoor air systems, radiant heating and cooling systems and tighter building envelopes. To investigate the energy savings potential of these three technologies, whole building energy simulations were performed for a barracks facility and an administration facility in 15 U.S. climate zones and 16 international locations.

  8. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters which nuclear facilities may operate within to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a result of the U.S. having no operating nuclear chemical reprocessing plants, there has been a strong interest in obtaining process monitoring data from the ICPP. The ICPP was shut down in 1996 and a recent effort has been made to retrieve the PM data from storage in a data mining effort. In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z- testing7.

  9. Experimental Method to Determine the Energy Envelope Performance of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, J.; Tasca-Guernouti, S. T.; Humbert, M.

    2010-01-01

    supply; Solar supply; Ventilation and airflow losses; Distributions losses. The aim of this paper is to present the developed method and monitoring protocol. In order to validate the proposed experimental approach, we will present applications...

  10. Sealing building envelopes may have just gotten much

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    HEATING AND COOLING FLOOR AREA IN CALIFORNIA. Few RTUs can meet the rigor- ous standards that the West, but in heating and gas-based applications. "--Mark Modera, Director #12;WESTERN COOLING CONNECTION3 »WCEC

  11. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 -Disclaimer:

  12. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 -Disclaimer:Current

  13. Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesyEducation DataMaySavingsApplications - Report

  14. Next Generation Building Envelope Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|in the subsurface isProject | DepartmentVacuum insulation

  15. Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMay 13, 2015 The newManagement |Projects AMO'sNatural

  16. Windows and Building Envelope Facilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| Department of EnergyDataWind The United States is home to one of

  17. Windows and Building Envelope Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherize » AirareAbout Key

  18. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherize » AirareAbout Keyof Energy Windows and

  19. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    multifamily buildings, including how to successfully implement those strategies through smart design, specification, and construction techniques. webinarventilationmultifamily...

  20. Isolated vs. Common Envelope Dynamos in Planetary Nebula Progenitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Nordhaus; E. G. Blackman; A. Frank

    2006-10-02

    The origin, evolution and role of magnetic fields in the production and shaping of proto-planetary and planetary nebulae (PPNe, PNe) is a subject of active research. Most PNe and PPNe are axisymmetric with many exhibiting highly collimated outflows, however, it is important to understand whether such structures can be generated by isolated stars or require the presence of a binary companion. Toward this end we study a dynamical, large-scale alpha-Omega interface dynamo operating in a 3.0 M_sun Asymptotic Giant Branch star (AGB) in both an isolated setting and one in which a low-mass companion is embedded inside the envelope. The back reaction of the fields on the shear is included and differential rotation and rotation deplete via turbulent dissipation and Poynting flux. For the isolated star, the shear must be resupplied in order to sufficiently sustain the dynamo. Furthermore, we investigate the energy requirements that convection must satisfy to accomplish this by analogy to the sun. For the common envelope case, a robust dynamo results, unbinding the envelope under a broad range of conditions. Two qualitatively different types of explosion may arise: (i) magnetically dominated, possibly resulting in collimated bipolar outflows and (ii) thermally induced from turbulent dissipation, possibly resulting in quasi-spherical outflows. A range of models is presented for a variety of companion masses.

  1. A Prediction of Energy Savings Resulting from Building Infiltration Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McWatters, K.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

    1996-01-01

    , working to reduce or increase it. This study uses simulation to evaluate the potential energy impact of the interaction when several different strategies for controlling air leakage direction and velocity in building envelope components are implemented...

  2. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01

    walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal...

  3. Decomposing Envelopes of Rational Hypersurfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüttler, Bert

    (design of matching pairs of gear teeth surfaces), geometrical op- tics (caustics), NC-machining (offset from several fields. These include robotics (collision detection and avoidance) and gearing theory curves for tool path generation) and Com- puter Aided Geometric Design (sweeps, convolutions, Minkowski

  4. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  5. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  6. Safeguards Envelope: The First Steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Metcalf; Jean Ragusa; Robert Bean

    2008-03-01

    The possibility exists for real time accountancy and assay of nuclear materials as they move through a reprocessing facility. This project aims to establish working parameters and local figures of merit to identify possible diversion in real time with minimal operational impact. Factors such as pH, NOX gas concentration, flow speeds and radiation fields are rarely taken into account in safeguards methodologies and will be included to increase the confidence of location and assay of nuclear materials. An adaptable, real data model is being created of the contactors of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility and will be analyzed using the appropriate modeling codes. This model will then be subjected to three, diversion scenarios and a figure of merit methodology will be utilized to create the operational parameters under which these diversion scenarios would be detected. This analysis for figure of merit methodology will include statistical fluctuations, operator error, and a rudimentary analysis of transient conditions. The long term goal of the project includes expansion universally over the plant, methods of detection without requiring access to proprietary information, and an evaluation of the requirements for future figure of merit methodologies.

  7. Modeling water emission from low-mass protostellar envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. van Kempen; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; M. R. Hogerheijde; J. K. Joergensen

    2008-05-06

    Within low-mass star formation, water vapor plays a key role in the chemistry and energy balance of the circumstellar material. The Herschel Space Observatory will open up the possibility to observe water lines originating from a wide range of excitation energies.Our aim is to simulate the emission of rotational water lines from envelopes characteristic of embedded low-mass protostars. A large number of parameters that influence the water line emission are explored: luminosity, density,density slope and water abundances.Both dust and water emission are modelled using full radiative transfer in spherical symmetry. The temperature profile is calculated for a given density profile. The H2O level populations and emission profiles are in turn computed with a non-LTE line code. The results are analyzed to determine the diagnostic value of different lines, and are compared with existing observations. Lines can be categorized in: (i) optically thick lines, including ground-state lines, mostly sensitive to the cold outer part; (ii) highly excited (E_u>200-250 K) optically thin lines sensitive to the abundance in the hot inner part; and (iii) lines which vary from optically thick to thin depending on the abundances. Dust influences the emission of water significantly by becoming optically thick at the higher frequencies, and by pumping optically thin lines. A good physical model of a source, including a correct treatment of dust, is a prerequisite to infer the water abundance structure and possible jumps at the evaporation temperature from observations. The inner warm (T>100 K) envelope can be probed byhighly-excited lines, while a combination of excited and spectrally resolved ground state lines probes the outer envelope. Observations of H218O lines, although weak, provide even stronger constraints on abundances.

  8. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Parke LLP’s Project Finance Newswire, June 2008, pp. 18-26.the Envelope of Project Finance Mark Bolinger Environmentalthe envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. – in many

  9. Development of Building Automation and Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Zhu, Qi; Maasoumy, Mehdi; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    A design flow for building automation and control systems,’’Development of Building Automation and Control Systems Yangdesign of the build- ing automation system (including the

  10. SEP Special Projects Report: Buildings Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    The buildings section of this Sharing Success document describes SEP special projects in the buildings sector including funding.

  11. Case Study of Envelope Sealing in Existing Multiunit Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Podorson, D.

    2012-10-01

    Envelope air sealing was included in the retrofit of a 244 unit low-rise multifamily housing complex in Durham, N.C. Pre- and post-retrofit enclosure leakage tests were conducted on 51 units and detailed diagnostics were performed on 16. On average, total leakage was reduced by nearly half, from 19.7 ACH50 to 9.4 ACH50. Costs for air sealing were $0.31 per square foot of conditioned floor area, lower than estimates found in the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database (NREMD) and other sources, perhaps due in part to the large-scale production nature of the project. Modeling with BEopt software -- using an estimate of 85% of the envelope air leakage going to the outside (based on guarded tests performed at the site) -- calculated a space conditioning energy cost savings of 15% to 21% due to the air sealing retrofit. Important air leakage locations identified included plumbing and electrical penetrations, dropped ceilings/soffits, windows, ducts and wall-to-floor intersections. Previous repair activity had created significant leakage locations as well. Specifications and a pictorial guide were developed for contractors performing the work.

  12. Building America Webinar: Building America Research Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar was held on March 18, 2015, and reviewed Building America Research Tools, including Field Test Best Practices, BEopt, and National Residential Efficiency Measures Database.

  13. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  14. Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  15. BMT provides in-house specialists in green building project management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the LCA tools. Energy Simulation BMT can analyse the energy efficiency of buildings and provide advice on building envelop and services systems for more energy efficient development. Energy Use: Typical BuildingBMT provides in-house specialists in green building project management and co

  16. Estimates of Energy Consumption by Building Type and End Use at U.S. Army Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    of existing building and energy use data and obtain energydata; IFS building inventory data, building prototypes,Inventory The IFS building inventory data included building

  17. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  18. Better Buildings Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Summit is a national meeting where Better Buildings partners, including AMO’s Better Plants Program partners, and leading organizations can exchange best practices and showcase...

  19. The envelope glycoprotein from tick-borne encephalitis virus at 2 Aresolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    H. MEMBRANE glycoproteins of enveloped viruses have essential functions in the viral life cycle, including protein of a flavivirus reveals an unusual architecture. The flat, elongated dimer extends in a direction-395, most of the ectodomain. We describe here the structure at 2.0 A resolution. Its architecture is very

  20. Retinoic Acid Induction of Nuclear Envelope-Limited Chromatin Sheets in HL-60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    vitamin D3, sodium butyrate, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promote monocyticRetinoic Acid Induction of Nuclear Envelope-Limited Chromatin Sheets in HL-60 Ada L. Olins leukemic cell line (HL-60) to 1 M retinoic acid (RA) induces in vitro granulopoie- sis, including

  1. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  2. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  3. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01

    affecting wall heat transmission and tabulates calculatedprinciples for the heat transmission and thermal performanceexclusively on heat transmission and thermal performance.

  4. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01

    With Transient Radiation Heat Transfer," pp. 179-187 in Heatconvec- tion, and radiation heat transfer are considered. P.Queer, "Importance of Radiation in Heat Transfer Through Air

  5. Atomic Carbon in the Envelopes of Carbon-Rich Post-AGB Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Knapp; M. Crosas; K. Young; Z. Ivezic

    1999-12-23

    Atomic carbon has been detected in the envelopes of three carbon-rich evolved stars: HD 44179 (=AFGL 915, the `Red Rectangle'); HD 56126; and, tentatively, the carbon star V Hya. This brings to seven the number of evolved star envelopes in which CI has been detected. Upper limits were found for several other stars, including R CrB. CI was not detected in several oxygen rich post asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (OH231.8+4.2, for example), although it is detected in their carbon-rich analogues. Two trends are evident in the data. First, circumstellar envelopes with detectable CI are overwhelmingly carbon rich, suggesting that much of the CI is produced by the dissociation of molecules other than CO. Second, the more evolved the envelope away from the AGB, the higher is the CI/CO ratio. The oxygen-rich supergiant star Alpha Ori remains the only oxygen rich star with a wind containing detectable CI. These data suggest an evolutionary sequence for the CI/CO ratio in cool circumstellar envelopes. This ratio is small (a few %) while the star is on the AGB, and the CI is located in the outer envelope and produced by photodissociation. The ratio increases to about 0.5 as the star evolves away from the AGB because of the dissociation of CO and other carbon-bearing molecules by shocks caused by the fast winds which appear at the end of evolution on the AGB. Finally, the ratio becomes >> 1 as the central star becomes hot enough to photodissociate CO.

  6. Pitfalls in Building and HVAC Audits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidwani, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of an energy audit is to identify and analyze areas of energy consumption and to propose methods of conservation. In the process of completing an audit the following areas of consumption should be considered: 0 Building Envelope 0 Air...

  7. Precision envelope detector and linear rectifier circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Thomas J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for the precise linear rectification and envelope detection of oscillatory signals. The signal is applied to a voltage-to-current converter which supplies current to a constant current sink. The connection between the converter and the sink is also applied through a diode and an output load resistor to a ground connection. The connection is also connected to ground through a second diode of opposite polarity from the diode in series with the load resistor. Very small amplitude voltage signals applied to the converter will cause a small change in the output current of the converter, and the difference between the output current and the constant current sink will be applied either directly to ground through the single diode, or across the output load resistor, dependent upon the polarity. Disclosed also is a full-wave rectifier utilizing constant current sinks and voltage-to-current converters. Additionally, disclosed is a combination of the voltage-to-current converters with differential integrated circuit preamplifiers to boost the initial signal amplitude, and with low pass filtering applied so as to obtain a video or signal envelope output.

  8. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  9. Dynamics of nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    instability due to nuclear fusions. The universal action ofnegatively regulates nuclear membrane fusion and nuclearrequired for vesicle fusion during nuclear envelope assembly

  10. Building Stones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    3). Photographs by the author. Building Stones, Harrell, UEEOxford Short Citation: Harrell, 2012, Building Stones. UEE.Harrell, James A. , 2012, Building Stones. In Willeke

  11. Public Assembly Buildings

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as "primary energy," which includes the energy consumed during the generation and transmission of electricity. Public assembly buildings used 577 trillion Btu of primary...

  12. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Liu, Bing; Winiarski, David W.; McBride, Merle F.; Suharli, L.; Walden, D.

    2006-11-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings (AEDG-SO), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small office buildings over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-SO is the first in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the New Buildings Institute (NBI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Each of the guides in the AEDG series will provide recommendations and user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers and owners of small commercial buildings that will encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The guides will provide prescriptive recommendation packages that are capable of reaching the energy savings target for each climate zone in order to ease the burden of the design and construction of energy-efficient small commercial buildings The AEDG-SO was developed by an ASHRAE Special Project committee (SP-102) made up of representatives of each of the partner organizations in eight months. This TSD describes the charge given to the committee in developing the office guide and outlines the schedule of the development effort. The project committee developed two prototype office buildings (5,000 ft2 frame building and 20,000 ft2 two-story mass building) to represent the class of small office buildings and performed an energy simulation scoping study to determine the preliminary levels of efficiency necessary to meet the energy savings target. The simulation approach used by the project committee is documented in this TSD along with the characteristics of the prototype buildings. The prototype buildings were simulated in the same climate zones used by the prevailing energy codes and standards to evaluate energy savings. Prescriptive packages of recommendations presented in the guide by climate zone include enhanced envelope technologies, lighting and day lighting technologies and HVAC and SWH technologies. The report also documents the modeling assumptions used in the simulations for both the baseline and advanced buildings. Final efficiency recommendations for each climate zone are included, along with the results of the energy simulations indicating an average energy savings over all buildings and climates of approximately 38%.

  13. Systematic time-based study for quantifying the uncertainty of uncalibrated models in building energy simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2005-07-27

    models were created for all the buildings; the massless model with emphasis on the envelope using massless construction and typical values for system parameters and the advanced model with the inclusion of thermal mass and extensive as-built details...

  14. An Application of State-Of-The-Art HVAC and Building Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1988-01-01

    This case study describes the successful application of state-of-the-art HVAC and building systems at a large commercial office and industrial facility. The facility's exterior envelope systems, HVAC systems, lighting ...

  15. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    component selection. 13 EnergyPlus is a building envelope,program. 14 The roots of EnergyPlus are in the BLAST (weather patterns) and interfaces. EnergyPlus version 5.0 was

  16. InfraMation 2009 Proceedings 2009-029 Schreyer Interactive Three-Dimensional Visualization of Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Building Envelope Systems Using Infrared Thermography and SketchUp Alexander C. Schreyer and Simi Hoque Building Materials and Wood Technology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA ABSTRACT Proper insulation building. As a result, it is important to have a continuous, stable, and integral boundary between

  17. Knee's Motion Path Relative to the Passive Coupled Kinematic Envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodd, Kevin A.

    2009-06-15

    , and describe motion relative to them. The coupled envelopes of internal/external (IE), varus/ valgus (VV), and anterior/ posterior (AP) motion and a neutral path were used to describe loaded lunges and a simulated walk cycle. The envelopes were created...

  18. Simulations of beam envelope dynamics in circular accelerators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chao, Hung-Chun; Lee, S.?Y.

    2015-02-01

    The envelope instability of high intensity beams in circular accelerators is studied via multiparticle simulations. The space charge kicks are derived from a Gaussian potential model for an efficient tracking. The evolution of the envelope phase space coordinates are derived from the bunch distribution. We found that the envelope stop band played an important role in emittance growth. Correction schemes of the envelope stop bands are studied. Because the space charge force pushes the envelope tunes downward, harmonics less than twice the betatron tunes are also important on emittance growth. Our code is efficient and fast, it can be usedmore »to study the effect of space charge force on high power accelerators.« less

  19. Nuclear Envelope and Chromatin Compositional Differences Comparing Undifferentiated and Retinoic Acid-and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    Nuclear Envelope and Chromatin Compositional Differences Comparing Undifferentiated and Retinoic/macrophage form with phorbol ester (TPA). The granulocytic form acquires nuclear lobulation, nuclear envelope cells, localized into the nuclear envelope fol- lowing TPA. Normal human granulocytes revealed

  20. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    building trends and energy use in commercial and residential buildings, including environmental impacts of buildings and trends in select product specification and market insights....

  1. Mass-radius relations and core-envelope decompositions of super...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hsub 2-He envelope masses, and associated envelope entropies. For planets in the super-Earthsub-Neptune regime for which both radius and mass are measured, we estimate...

  2. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENVELOPE COMPONENT APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floor Area: General Information Building Type: Nonresidential High-Rise Residential Hotel/Motel Guest2 Item or System Tags (i.e. AC-1, RTU-1, HP-1) Equipment Type3 : No of Systems Max Allowed Heating Capacity1 Minimum Heating Efficiency1 Max Allowed Cooling Capacity1 Cooling Efficiency1 Duct Location/ R

  3. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  4. BUILDING NAMES AA Architecture Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    P18$ P16 BUILDING NAMES AA Architecture Building AC Recreation and Athletics Centre AH Alumni Hall AP Azrieli Pavillion AT Azrieli Theatre CB Canal Building CO Residence Commons DT Dunton Tower FH Interaction Building (HCI) HP Herzberg Laboratories IH Ice House LA Loeb Building LE Leeds House LH Lanark

  5. Center for HigH PerformanceHigH Performance Building SyStemSBuilding SyStemS (CHiPBS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Center for HigH PerformanceHigH Performance Building SyStemSBuilding SyStemS (CHiPBS) ·Advanced Envelope Research Laboratory (BERL) ·Building Environment Simulation and Testing (BEST) Facility ·Center Coatings Lab ·Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) ·Building Enclosure Test Laboratory (BeTL) ·Building

  6. Cooling season performance of an earth-sheltered office/dormitory building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1984-07-01

    Detailed hourly measurements taken in and around an underground office-dormitory building for two summers document energy savings; whole building-component interface problems; and specific cooling contributions from earth contact, interior thermal mass, and an economizer. The Joint Institute Dormitory (JID) saves about 30% compared with well-built above-grade buildings in a climate typical of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The detailed measurements, which include extensive thermal comfort data, indicate that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time. The thermal performance measurements and analysis determine that the peak cooling requirement of this building is 50% less than that of well-built above-grade structures, permitting a cost savings on installed cooling capacity. The dominant building components contributing to the good thermal performance are the structural thermal mass, the earth-covered roof, and the earth contact provided by the bermed walls and slab floor. The 372-m/sup 2/ (4000 gross ft/sup 2/) building used about $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate from May through September. Eliminating a number of building design and construction anomalies could improve the whole-building performance and reduce the seasonal cooling cost another $85. Close examination of the thermal performance of this building revealed that a very efficient heat pump and thermally sound envelope do not necessarily produce otpimum performance without careful attention given to component interface details. 8 references, 24 figures, 12 tables.

  7. Building Emergency Response Plan Forest Science Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    British Columbia, University of

    Building Emergency Response Plan Forest Science Centre (Including the Advanced Wood Processing;Building Emergency Response Plan 17/05/2013 Page 1 Table of Contents Emergency Telephone Numbers ......................................................................................................................... 5 Life Safety Systems and Building Features

  8. Management and monitoring of public buildings through ICT based systems: control rules for energy saving of lighting , J. Virgone2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title Management and monitoring of public buildings through ICT based systems: control rules an intelligent ICT-based building monitoring and managing system. Actions of retrofitting on building envelopes ICT-based service to monitor and control environmental conditions, energy loads and plants operation

  9. Building Technologies Research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Impact of Buildings Centers of Excellence · 40% of total primary energy consumption · 74% of electricity consumption · 56% of natural gas consumption (including gas-generated electricity used in buildings) · 39 the nation accounts for its energy consumption, making the energy savings potential even greater. National

  10. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). Each REC represents a specified amount of renewable electricity production and provides an offset of environmental externalities associated with non-renewable electricity production. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible issues with RECs and comparable alternative compliance options. Existing codes have been examined to determine energy equivalence between the energy generation requirement and the RECs alternative over the life of the building. The price equivalence of the requirement and the alternative are determined to consider the economic drivers for a market decision. This research includes case studies that review how the few existing codes have incorporated RECs and some of the issues inherent with REC markets. Section 1 of the report reviews compliance options including RECs, green energy purchase programs, shared solar agreements and leases, and other options. Section 2 provides detailed case studies on codes that include RECs and community based alternative compliance methods. The methods the existing code requirements structure alternative compliance options like RECs are the focus of the case studies. Section 3 explores the possible structure of the renewable energy generation requirement in the context of energy and price equivalence. The price of RECs have shown high variation by market and over time which makes it critical to for code language to be updated frequently for a renewable energy generation requirement or the requirement will not remain price-equivalent over time. Section 4 of the report provides a maximum case estimate for impact to the PV market and the REC market based on the Kaufmann et al. proposed requirement levels. If all new buildings in the commercial sector complied with the requirement to install rooftop PV arrays, nearly 4,700 MW of solar would be installed in 2012, a major increase from EIA estimates of 640 MW of solar generation capacity installed in 2009. The residential sector could contribute roughly an additional 2,300 MW based on the same code requirement levels of 4 W/ft{sup 2} of r

  11. Design of a Green Demo Building in a Hot and Humid City in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammer, W.; Kluz, E.; Sonan, A.; Jiang, Y.; Bacall, A.; Jones, B.

    2006-01-01

    advanced green design practice and technologies to reduce energy consumption and improve comfort, and to achieve sustainable demonstration. CODE INVESTIGATION The design needs to comply with the relevant standards and building regulations in China..., in conjunction with the best design practice in the USA. To recommend building parameters for the building, the local regulations on building envelope were compared with ASHRAE 90.1 (ASHRAE, 2004). ASHRAE 90.1 divided US territories into different climate...

  12. Building Songs 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-10-28

    stream_source_info Sman_shad_building_song_7.doc.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2792 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Sman_shad_building_song_7.doc.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859... shad building song 7.WAV Length of track 00:09:57 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Building Songs 7 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Skar ma chos mdzin sings...

  13. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  14. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  15. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Medium office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  16. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  17. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  18. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Midrise Apartment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  19. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  20. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  1. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  2. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  3. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  4. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Hospital

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  5. Pitfalls in Building and HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidwani, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    AND HVAC SYSTEMS B. N. Gidwani, P.E. Roy F. Weston, Inc. West Chester, Pennsylvania ABSTRACT The purpose of an energy audit is to identify and analyze areas of energy consumption and to pro pose methods of conservation. In the process... opportunities for energy savings. When performing a detailed energy audit, the fol lowing areas should be examined with respect to the building envelope: Walls ? Roofs ? Windows ? Doors ? Ceiling Height ? In order to minimize energy losses through...

  6. Oxygen Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelope of the Carbon-Rich Star IRC+10216

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelino Agundez; Jose Cernicharo

    2006-05-25

    In this paper we study the oxygen chemistry in the C-rich circumstellar shells of IRC+10216. The recent discoveries of oxygen bearing species (water, hydroxyl radical and formaldehyde) toward this source challenge our current understanding of the chemistry in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The presence of icy comets surrounding the star or catalysis on iron grain surfaces have been invoked to explain the presence of such unexpected species. This detailed study aims at evaluating the chances of producing O-bearing species in the C-rich circumstellar envelope only by gas phase chemical reactions. For the inner hot envelope, it is shown that although most of the oxygen is locked in CO near the photosphere (as expected for a C/O ratio greater than 1), some stellar radii far away species such as H2O and CO2 have large abundances under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium. It is also shown how non-LTE chemistry makes very difficult the CO-->H2O,CO2 transformation predicted in LTE. Concerning the chemistry in the outer and colder envelope, we show that formaldehyde can be formed through gas phase reactions. However, in order to form water vapor it is necessary to include a radiative association between atomic oxygen and molecular hydrogen with a quite high rate constant. The chemical models explain the presence of HCO+ and predict the existence of SO and H2CS (which has been detected in a 3 mm line survey to be published). We have modeled the line profiles of H2CO, H2O, HCO+, SO and H2CS using a non-local radiative transfer model and the abundance profiles predicted by our chemical model. The results have been compared to the observations and discussed.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  8. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  9. Obama Administration Expands Better Buildings Challenge to Multifamily...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The three Better Buildings Accelerators announced today include: Better Buildings Energy Data Accelerator: More than 30 cities and utilities - including Xcel, Atlanta Gas and...

  10. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  11. Field Study and Energy-Plus Benchmarks for Energy Saver Homes having Different Envelope Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL] [ORNL; Stannard, Eric E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    An alliance to maximize energy efficiency and cost-effective residential construction (ZEBRAlliance) built and field tested four homes that are 50 percent more energy efficient than a code compliant home. The homes are unoccupied for the duration of a two-year field study, thereby eliminating the confounding issue of occupancy habits. All homes have about the same consistent and scheduled internal load. Each home showcases a unique envelope strategy: 1) structural insulated panel (SIP), 2) optimal value wall framing (OVF), 3) advanced framing featuring the benefits of insulations mixed with phase change materials (PCM), and 4) an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). All homes have different weather resistive barriers (WRBs) and/or air barriers to limit air and moisture infiltration. Three homes provide space conditioning and water heating via a ground loop heat exchanger, while the fourth home uses a high efficiency air-to-air heat pump and heat pump water heater. Field performance and results of EnergyPlus V7.0 benchmarks were made for roof and attics as compared to cathedral design and for wall heat flows to validate models. The moisture content of the wall sheathing is shown to prove the protecting effectiveness of WRBs. Temperature distributions through insulations in the wall and ceiling with and without PCMs are described to characterize the performance of the PCM building envelopes.

  12. Leading Edge Antiviral Strategies: Building a Better Defense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Andrew

    Leading Edge Select Antiviral Strategies: Building a Better Defense Viruses are a widespread demand. In this Select, we look at recent papers that are helping to advance antiviral research that are surrounded by a lipid bilayer that is needed for cellular entry and infec- tivity (enveloped), and those

  13. REFERENCE APPENDICES For the 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through cracks, gaps and openings in the envelope of a building, driven by wind pressure and the stack of cubic feet per hour per square foot per inch of mercury pressure difference. AIRFLOW ACROSS in the case of a heat pump). See Thermostatic Expansion Valves (TXV). AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER is a device

  14. Audit Procedures for Improving Residential Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audit Procedures for Improving Residential Building Energy Efficiency This report analyses in thermal envelopes. The report was submitted by HNEI to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability As part of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0003507 Under Task 3.5: Energy

  15. Performance of coupled building energy and CFD simulations Zhiqiang John Zhaia,*, Qingyan Yan Chenb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, John Z.

    a coupled energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics program with different coupling methods/cooling energy required and building envelope thermal information, such as surface temperature and heat fluxPerformance of coupled building energy and CFD simulations Zhiqiang John Zhaia,*, Qingyan Yan Chenb

  16. Infiltration Heat Recovery in Building Walls: Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigations Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12.........................................................................................................................................8 2.1.1. Energy flux through the building envelope

  17. BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY A JOURNAL REVIEW TTP 289A-003, CRN #42059 Friday 3, cultural). Topics: May include: Zero net energy, `smart' building controls, passive design strategies, human health and wellness in buildings. Students are encouraged to introduce their own topic of interest

  18. Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  19. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test procedure which could lead to the certification of building materials and systems as flood damage resistant.

  20. Buildings to Grid Technical Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    A meeting book created for the Buildings to Grid Technical Meeting that includes speaker and attendee bios, as well as white papers and discussion questions.

  1. NREL SBV Pilot Building Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    access to state-of-the-art and unique equipment for analyzing a wide spectrum of building energy efficiency technologies and innovations. NREL facilities include: * Advanced...

  2. Building technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick

    2014-07-14

    After growing up on construction sites, Roderick Jackson is now helping to make buildings nationwide far more energy efficient.

  3. Building technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick

    2014-07-15

    After growing up on construction sites, Roderick Jackson is now helping to make buildings nationwide far more energy efficient.

  4. Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building America Top Innovation Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building America Top Innovation House...

  5. Beardmore Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Priest River, ID Originally built in 1922 by Charles Beardmore, the building housed offices, mercantile shops, a ballroom and a theater. After decades of neglect under outside ownership, Brian Runberg, an architect and great-grandson of Charles Beardmore, purchased the building in 2006 and began an extensive whole building historic restoration.

  6. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  7. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  9. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  10. Photon Bubbles in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Young Massive Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; E. Quataert; H. W. Yorke

    2007-01-28

    We show that the optically-thick dusty envelopes surrounding young high-mass stars are subject to the photon bubble instability. The infrared radiation passing through the envelope amplifies magnetosonic disturbances, with growth rates in our local numerical radiation MHD calculations that are consistent with a linear analysis. Modes with wavelengths comparable to the gas pressure scale height grow by more than two orders of magnitude in a thousand years, reaching non-linear amplitudes within the envelope lifetime. If the magnetic pressure in the envelope exceeds the gas pressure, the instability develops into trains of propagating shocks. Radiation escapes readily through the low-density material between the shocks, enabling accretion to continue despite the Eddington limit imposed by the dust opacity. The supersonic motions arising from the photon bubble instability can help explain the large velocity dispersions of hot molecular cores, while conditions in the shocked gas are suitable for maser emission. We conclude that the photon bubble instability may play a key role in the formation of massive stars.

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. FILAMENTARY STAR FORMATION: OBSERVING THE EVOLUTION TOWARD FLATTENED ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Katherine; Looney, Leslie; Johnstone, Doug; Tobin, John E-mail: lwl@illinois.edu E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu

    2012-12-20

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous from large-scale molecular clouds (a few parsecs) to small-scale circumstellar envelopes around Class 0 sources ({approx}1000 AU to {approx}0.1 pc). In particular, recent observations with the Herschel Space Observatory emphasize the importance of large-scale filaments (a few parsecs) and star formation. The small-scale flattened envelopes around Class 0 sources are reminiscent of the large-scale filaments. We propose an observationally derived scenario for filamentary star formation that describes the evolution of filaments as part of the process for formation of cores and circumstellar envelopes. If such a scenario is correct, small-scale filamentary structures (0.1 pc in length) with higher densities embedded in starless cores should exist, although to date almost all the interferometers have failed to observe such structures. We perform synthetic observations of filaments at the prestellar stage by modeling the known Class 0 flattened envelope in L1157 using both the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We show that with reasonable estimates for the column density through the flattened envelope, the CARMA D array at 3 mm wavelengths is not able to detect such filamentary structure, so previous studies would not have detected them. However, the substructures may be detected with the CARMA D+E array at 3 mm and the CARMA E array at 1 mm as a result of more appropriate resolution and sensitivity. ALMA is also capable of detecting the substructures and showing the structures in detail compared to the CARMA results with its unprecedented sensitivity. Such detection will confirm the new proposed paradigm of non-spherical star formation.

  13. IAEA-CN-60/F-II-6 Requirements and Design Envelope for Volumetric Neutron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    IAEA-CN-60/F-II-6 Requirements and Design Envelope for Volumetric Neutron Source Fusion Facilities Scientific Research Institute, RF #12;IAEA-CN-60/F-II-6 Requirements and Design Envelope for Volumetric

  14. David G. Eller Oceanography and Meteorology Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David G. Eller Oceanography and Meteorology Building Building # 0443 EMERGENCY EVACUATION PLAN Prepared by Maureen Reap, Building Proctor October 4, 2011 #12;i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION a building. Examples of such occasions include: smoke/fires, gas leaks, and bomb threats. Planning

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  16. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  17. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

  18. Flexibility of Commercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    applications in Energy Efficient Building Control Systems,systems in energy efficient buildings,” Master’s thesis,include energy-efficient buildings, sensor networks, and

  19. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  20. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  1. Expanded Content Envelope For The Model 9977 Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G. A.; Loftin, B. M.; Nathan, S. J.; Bellamy, J. S.

    2013-07-30

    An Addendum was written to the Model 9977 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging adding a new content consisting of DOE-STD-3013 stabilized plutonium dioxide materials to the authorized Model 9977 contents. The new Plutonium Oxide Content (PuO{sub 2}) Envelope will support the Department of Energy shipment of materials between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Savannah River Site facilities. The new content extended the current content envelope boundaries for radioactive material mass and for decay heat load and required a revision to the 9977 Certificate of Compliance prior to shipment. The Addendum documented how the new contents/configurations do not compromise the safety basis presented in the 9977 SARP Revision 2. The changes from the certified package baseline and the changes to the package required to safely transport this material is discussed.

  2. Building Envelope Design/Retrofit Utilizing Fresnel Type Overhangs in Hot Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, B. J.; Griffith, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The selection of exterior elements for control of solar incidence has been a major concern for engineers, architects, and lighting designers. This concern relates to problems of thermal heat gain, direct glare and veiling reflectance. Of equal...

  3. ORNL Researchers Study Market Entry Challenges for Building Envelope Retrofit Product

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE laboratories that are participating in the Lab-Corps pilot program have assembled entrepreneurial teams to identify private sector opportunities for commercializing promising sustainable energy...

  4. Energy Impacts of Nonlinear Behavior of PCM When Applied into Building Envelope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tabares-Velasco

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability & 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference on July 23-26, 2012, this study analyzes the effects a nonlinear enthalpy profile has on thermal performance and expected energy benefits for PCM-enhanced insulation.

  5. Impact of Columns and Beams on the Thermal Resistance of the Building Envelope 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omar, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of thermal bridging due to columns and beams on energy consumption and peak load requirements of typical private residential villas in Kuwait. Although it is common practice to apply thermal insulation to walls...

  6. Building Technologies Office Window and Envelope Technologies Emerging Technologies R&D Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at the Edge ofEnergy Program Peer Review to

  7. Opportunities for Building America Research to Address Energy Upgrade Technical Challenges: HVAC, Envelope & IAQ (301)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailableHighOffice| Department ofEnergy 3Hanford|

  8. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherize » AirareAbout Keyof Energy Windows

  9. Building Technologies Office Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roland Risser Director, Building Technologies Office Building Technologies Office Energy Efficiency Starts Here. 2 Building Technologies Office Integrated Approach: Improving...

  10. Stripped-envelope supernova rates and host-galaxy properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Maoz, Dan; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe Ibc) remain to be conclsuively identified, but correlations between SN rates and host-galaxy properties can constrain progenitor models. Here, we present one result from a re-analysis of the rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Galaxies with stellar masses less than $\\sim 10^{10}~{\\rm M_\\odot}$ are less efficient at producing SNe Ibc than more massive galaxies. Any progenitor scenario must seek to explain this new observation.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  12. Enveloping algebra Noncommutative SM: Renormalisability and High Energy Physics Phenomenology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Josip Trampetic

    2009-01-09

    In this talk we discuss enveloping algebra based noncommutative gauge field theory, constructed at the first order in noncommutative parameter theta, as an effective, anomaly free theory, with one-loop renormalizable gauge sector. Limits on the scale of noncommutativity parameter Lambda_NC, via related phenomenology and associated experiments, are analyzed and a firm bound to the scale of the noncommutativity is set around few TeV's.

  13. Augmented reality building operations tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  14. Deep meridional circulation below the solar convective envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. M. Hiremath

    2008-03-08

    With reasonable assumptions and approximations, we compute the velocity of the meridional flow $U$ in the convective envelope by modified Chandrasekhar's (1956) MHD equations. The analytical solution of such a modified equation is found to be $U(x,\\mu) = \\sum_{n=0}^\\infty \\bigl[u1_n x^n + u2_n x^{-(n+3)}\\bigr] C_n^{3/2}(\\mu)$, where $x$ is non-dimensional radius, $\\mu = cos{\\vartheta}$, ${\\vartheta}$ is the co-latitude, $C_n^{3/2} {(\\mu)}$ are the Gegenbaur polynomials of order 3/2, $u1_n$ and $u2_n$ are the unknown constants. The results show that meridional velocity flow from the surface appears to penetrates deep below base of the convective envelope and at outer part of the radiative zone. With such a deep flow velocity below the convective envelope and a very high density stratification in the outer part of the radiative zone with likely existence of a strong ($\\sim$ $10^{4}$ G) toroidal magnetic field structure, the velocity of transport of meridional flow is considerably reduced. Hence, it is very unlikely that the return flow will reach the surface (with a period of solar cycle) as required by some of the flux transport dynamo models. On the other hand, deep meridional flow is required for burning of Lithium at outer part of the radiative zone supporting the observed Lithium deficiency at the surface.

  15. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report...

  16. Building America Residential Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting: July 2010 Building America Residential Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting: July 2010 On this page, you may link to the summary report and...

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a variety of data sets and includes statistics on residential and commercial building energy consumption. Data tables contain statistics related to construction, building...

  18. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Net-Zero Building Technologies Create...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in commercial building technologies, including improved insulation, windows, and heating and cooling systems. Despite these strides, energy use by commercial buildings...

  19. Natural Ventilation for Energy Savings in California Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    include: EnergyPlus, Modelica, Building Controls Virtualfaçade constructions. Modelica is a, “ non-proprietary,and control systems”. The Modelica Buildings Library, is

  20. Type I Superluminous Supernovae as Explosions inside Non-Hydrogen Circumstellar Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorokina, Elena; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Quimby, Robert; Tolstov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    A number of Type I (hydrogenless) superluminous supernova (SLSN) events have been discovered recently. However, their nature remains debatable. One of the most promising ideas is the shock-interaction mechanism, but only simplified semi-analytical models have been applied so far. We simulate light curves for several Type~I SLSN (SLSN-I) models enshrouded by dense, non-hydrogen circumstellar envelopes, using a multi-group radiation hydrodynamics code that predicts not only bolometric, but also multicolor light curves. We demonstrate that the bulk of SLSNe-I including those with relatively narrow light curves like SN~2010gx or broad ones like PTF09cnd can be explained by the interaction of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter (CSM), though the range of parameters for these models is rather wide. Moderate explosion energy ($\\sim (2 - 4)\\cdot 10^{51}$~ergs) is sufficient to explain both narrow and broad SLSN-I light curves, but ejected mass and envelope mass differ for those two cases. Only 5 to 10 $M_\\odot$ o...

  1. Multi-Messenger Tests for Fast-Spinning Newborn Pulsars Embedded in Stripped-Envelope Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Bartos, Imre; Kiuchi, Kenta; Margutti, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Fast-spinning strongly-magnetized newborn neutron stars, including nascent magnetars, are popularly implemented as the engine of luminous stellar explosions. Here, we consider the scenario that they power various stripped-envelope supernovae, not only super-luminous supernovae Ic but also broad-line supernova Ibc and possibly some ordinary supernovae Ibc. This scenario is also motivated by the hypothesis that Galactic magnetars largely originate from fast-spinning neutron stars as remnants of stripped-envelope supernovae. By consistently modeling the energy injection from magnetized wind and Ni decay, we show that proto-neutron stars with >~ 10 ms rotation and B_dip >~ 5 x 10^14 G can be harbored in ordinary supernovae Ibc. On the other hand, millisecond proto-neuton stars can solely power broad-line supernovae Ibc if they are born with poloidal magnetic field of B_dip >~ 5 x 10^14 G, and superluminous supernovae Ic with B_dip >~ 10^13 G. Then, we study how multi-messenger emission can be used to discriminate...

  2. Building debris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahmen, Joseph (Joseph F. D.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis relates architectural practices to intelligent use of resources and the reuse of derelict spaces. The initial investigation of rammed earth as a building material is followed by site-specific operations at the ...

  3. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  4. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  5. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5065E Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Simulation, 4(3):185-203, 2011. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB

  6. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  7. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  8. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Program; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1: baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2: installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season and energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades to be implemented in Phase 3.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the "normal leakage paths through the building envelope" disappear. Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. This research effort included several weeks of building pressure monitoring to validate system performance of the different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments.

  10. Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Annkatrin

    Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency

  11. Building Technologies Office Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Building Technologies Office Overview Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  12. Building America System Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Residential Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  13. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  14. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  15. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit: Annapolis, Maryland. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  16. Office Buildings - Full Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PDF Office Buildings Although no one building type dominates the commercial buildings sector, office buildings are the most common and account for more than 800,000 buildings or 17...

  17. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota financed by an intrastate offering of both debt and equity, (4) a 6 MW project in Washington state that taps into New Markets Tax Credits using an 'inverted' or 'pass-through' lease structure, and (5) a 9 MW project in Oregon that combines a variety of state and federal incentives and loans with unconventional equity from high-net-worth individuals. In most cases, these are first-of-their-kind structures that could serve as useful examples for other projects - both community and commercial wind alike. This report describes each of these innovative new financing structures in some detail, using a case-study approach. The purpose is twofold: (1) to disseminate useful information on these new financial structures, most of which are widely replicable; and (2) to highlight the recent policy changes - many of them temporary unless extended - that have facilitated this innovation. Although the community wind market is currently only a small sub-sector of the U.S. wind market - as defined here, less than 2% of the overall market at the end of 2009 (Wiser and Bolinger 2010) - its small size belies its relevance to the broader market. As such, the information provided in this report has relevance beyond its direct application to the community wind sector. The next two sections of this report briefly summarize how most community wind projects in the U.S. have been financed historically (i.e., prior to this latest wave of innovation) and describe the recent federal policy changes that have enabled a new wave of financial innovation to occur, respectively. Section 4 contains brief case studies of how each of the five projects mentioned above were financed, noting the financial significance of each. Finally, Section 5 concludes by distilling a number of general observations or pertinent lessons learned from the experiences of these five projects.

  18. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3?Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performed using BEopt (Building Energy Optimization), software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the purpose of selecting among measures based on their...

  19. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  20. MULTI-COLOR OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF 64 STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Hicken, M.; Friedman, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Marion, G. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O'Hara Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: fb55@nyu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present a densely sampled, homogeneous set of light curves of 64 low-redshift (z ? 0.05) stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe of Type IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL). These data were obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, with the optical FLWO 1.2 m and the near-infrared (NIR) Peters Automated Infrared 1.3 m telescopes. Our data set consists of 4543 optical photometric measurements on 61 SNe, including a combination of U BV RI, U BV r{sup ?}i{sup ?}, and u{sup ?} BV r{sup ?}i{sup ?}, and 1919 JHK{sub s} NIR measurements on 25 SNe. This sample constitutes the most extensive multi-color data set of stripped-envelope SNe to date. Our photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host-galaxy light contamination. This work presents these photometric data, compares them with data in the literature, and estimates basic statistical quantities: date of maximum, color, and photometric properties. We identify promising color trends that may permit the identification of stripped-envelope SN subtypes from their photometry alone. Many of these SNe were observed spectroscopically by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN group, and the spectra are presented in a companion paper. A thorough exploration that combines the CfA photometry and spectroscopy of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe will be presented in a follow-up paper.

  1. Relative concordance of human immunodeficiency virus oligomeric and monomeric envelope in CCR5 coreceptor usage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeravechyan, Samaporn; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Essex, Max; Lee, Tun-Hou

    2008-01-20

    A major difference between binding and fusion assays commonly used to study the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope is the use of monomeric envelope for the former assay and oligomeric envelope for the latter. Due to discrepancies in their readouts for some mutants, envelope regions involved in CCR5 coreceptor usage were systematically studied to determine whether the discordance is due to inherent differences between the two assays or whether it genuinely reflects functional differences at each entry step. By adding the binding inhibitor TAK-779 to delay coreceptor binding kinetics in the fusion assay, the readouts were found comparable between the assays for the mutants analysed in this study. Our finding indicates that monomeric binding reflects oligomeric envelope-CCR5 interaction, thus discordant results between binding and fusion assays do not necessarily indicate differences in coreceptor usage by oligomeric envelope and monomeric gp120.

  2. Revealing Carrier-Envelope Phase through Frequency Mixing and Interference in Frequency Resolved Optical Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snedden, Edward W; Jamison, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that full temporal characterisation of few-cycle electromagnetic pulses, including retrieval of the carrier envelope phase (CEP), can be directly obtained from Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) techniques in which the interference between non-linear frequency mixing processes is resolved. We derive a framework for this scheme, defined Real Domain-FROG (ReD-FROG), as applied to the cases of interference between sum and difference frequency components and between fundamental and sum/difference frequency components. A successful numerical demonstration of ReD-FROG as applied to the case of a self-referenced measurement is provided. A proof-of-principle experiment is performed in which the CEP of a single-cycle THz pulse is accurately obtained and demonstrates the possibility for THz detection beyond the bandwidth limitations of electro-optic sampling.

  3. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  4. Mechanisms of receptor/coreceptor-mediated entry of enveloped viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarah A. Nowak; Tom Chou

    2008-11-18

    Enveloped viruses enter host cells either through endocytosis, or by direct fusion of the viral membrane envelope and the membrane of the host cell. However, some viruses, such as HIV-1, HSV-1, and Epstein-Barr can enter a cell through either mechanism, with the choice of pathway often a function of the ambient physical chemical conditions, such as temperature and pH. We develop a stochastic model that describes the entry process at the level of binding of viral glycoprotein spikes to cell membrane receptors and coreceptors. In our model, receptors attach the cell membrane to the viral membrane, while subsequent binding of coreceptors enables fusion. The model quantifies the competition between fusion and endocytotic entry pathways. Relative probabilities for each pathway are computed numerically, as well as analytically in the high viral spike density limit. We delineate parameter regimes in which fusion or endocytosis is dominant. These parameters are related to measurable and potentially controllable quantities such as membrane bending rigidity and receptor, coreceptor, and viral spike densities. Experimental implications of our mechanistic hypotheses are proposed and discussed.

  5. Criteria for Selection of Seed Motions to Envelop Design Response Spectra

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Criteria for Selection of Seed Motions to Envelop Design Response Spectra DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Workshop October 25, 2011 Michael Costantino, Thomas Houston, Greg Mertz, Andrew Maham

  6. Buildings & Connective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Signage Program Complete New Signage, Wayfinding, Campus Identity Program 2 4 4 0 2 2 0 4 2 4 2 5 16 47 Sciences Greenway Interim Landscape New Green Pathway Connecting Parking, Building Entrances Courtyard 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 4 2 2 0 16 34 Ashland/Taylor Lot G/K Interim Green Gate Provide New Green

  7. Better Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neukomm, M.

    2012-01-01

    replicable programs/solutions. Emphasis on home energy improvement Federal Performance-based Contracting Challenge ?Leverage ARRA ?Overcome Barriers ?Drive Action/Change ?Grow Partnerships Better Buildings promotes energy efficiency as top... Senior Executive --Announce innovations/market solutions Take Action -Showcase project within 9 months -Organization wide plan, schedule and milestones within 9 months Report Results -Share information and implementation models -Share...

  8. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. BuildingB7. Building6.

  9. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. BuildingB7. Building6.8.

  10. Sermon 2: Building High-Performance Systems 2.1 Options for performance tuning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Michael D.

    Sermon 2: Building High-Performance Systems 2.1 Options for performance tuning 1. Make every line in advance. 3. Tuning takes time and makes system more complicated Biggest gain is going from non systems are used, see where bottleneck is. 2. Modeling -- back of the envelope calculations (example: 100

  11. Designing an Urban Food-Vending Stand Objective: Design and build a prototype for an urban food-vending stand that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    for flowers and newspapers/magazines). It will be an exploration of how energy efficiency relates to the formDesigning an Urban Food-Vending Stand Objective: Design and build a prototype for an urban food, e.g., super-insulated building envelopes, and renewable energy systems. And it applies analytical

  12. Cool Roofs Will Revolutionize the Building Industry Adoption of infrared-reflective paints is one of the major advances in roofing in our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . Cool Roofs Will Revolutionize the Building Industry Adoption of infrared-reflective paints is one of the major advances in roofing in our century. ORNL's Building Envelopes Program has conducted research for many roofing consortiums and their affiliates to help them develop cool roof products. Based

  13. Residential Building Stockg Assessment (RBSA)for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9/4/2013 1 Residential Building Stockg Assessment (RBSA)for Multi-Family Housing Tom Eckman Objectives Characterize Residential Sector Building Stock ­ Single Family (Four-plex and below) l if il ( i representation Characterize Buildings ­ Detailed On Site Energy Audit, including lighting survey ­ Basic

  14. Research and Application of RCF Technology in Public Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, J.; Pan, D.

    2014-01-01

    , Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 Research and Application of RCF Technology in Public Buildings ? “a” start-up moment ? TP = 293T ? Envelope surface TS = 301 with ?T = 8T ? Ceiling load Qa ? “b” state, about 20mins after start-up ? TP = 293T... of RCF Technology in Public Buildings 6. CONCLUSION OF RCF APPLICATION 6.1 Purpose of the RCF Study ? Regulate human comfort level by thermal radiation ? Advance indoor air quality by deeply dehumidified fresh air and discharge of CO2 without...

  15. Two-dimensional heat transfer from earth-sheltered buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krarti, M. (Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)); Claridge, D.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    This paper describes use of the interzone temperature profile estimation (or ITPE) technique, an analytical calculation procedure to predict heat transfer within earth in contact with a structure. The solutions governing steady-state and steady-periodic heat conduction are derived for rectangular earth-sheltered buildings. The procedure accepts continuously variable values of geometric dimensions, insulation levels, and constant soil thermal characteristics and considers the presence of a finite water table level. Soil temperature profiles are shown for both steady-state and steady periodic conditions. The effects of insulation and water table depth on the heat losses from an earth-sheltered building envelope are discussed.

  16. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  17. Building Technologies Office Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roland Risser Director, Building Technologies Office Building Technologies Office Overview Our Homes and Buildings Use 40% of Our Nation's Energy and 75% of Electricity Energy Use...

  18. Building Performance Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Y (2008). DeST—An integrated building simulation toolkit,Part ? : Fundamentals. Building Simulation, 1: 95 ? 110.Y (2008). DeST—An integrated building simulation toolkit,

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rhode Island Building Code Standards Committee adopts, promulgates and administers the state building code. Compliance is determined through the building permit and inspection process by local...

  20. Building America Expert Meeting: Delivering Better, Cheaper,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    was conducted by Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership and Gas Technology Institute on November 16, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting objectives included: * Review...

  1. Accessible buildings Moderately accessible buildings*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Campus neighborhood map Moderately accessible paths** Accessible building entrance via parking lot to the University Park campus. This map, provided by UAC, is designed to assist persons with disabilities in finding accessibility. Your observations and suggestions regarding architectural For more information on UAC, you can

  2. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  3. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Building Activity Comparison

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Activity Comparison Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity, 1999 Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity,...

  4. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, Cheryn E.; Rashkin, Samuel; Huelman, Pat

    2015-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to building science education. This report summarizes the steps DOE has taken to develop guidance for building science education and outlines a path forward towards creating real change for an industry in need. The Guidelines for Building Science Education outlined in Appendix A of this report have been developed for external stakeholders to use to certify that their programs are incorporating the most important aspects of building science at the most appropriate proficiency level for their role. The guidelines are intended to be used primarily by training organizations, universities, and certification bodies. Each guideline can be printed or saved as a stand-alone document for ease-of-use by the respective stakeholder group. In 2015, DOE, with leadership from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is launching a multi-year campaign to promote the adoption of the Guidelines for Building Science Education in a variety of training settings.

  5. Improve predictive maintenance with HFE monitoring. [High Frequency Envelope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, E.A. ); Berggren, C. )

    1994-01-01

    New on-line machine vibration monitoring systems are offering substantially lower costs and simpler installation requirement. By incorporating high-frequency envelope (HFE) spectrum analysis, these systems can provide earlier and more reliable fault detection. These new capabilities are spurring a transition to on-line predictive monitoring of even noncritical machinery. These condition-monitoring systems automatically perform both conventional vibration analysis and HFE spectrum analysis. Conventional low-frequency spectrum analysis, between 0 to 10 kHz, is widely acknowledged as the most effective means of detecting imbalance, misalignment, mechanical resonances and looseness on machinery. HFE spectrum analysis, above 15 kHz, is now accepted as the most effective method for detecting machine faults, such as pitting or cracking in bearings and gears, insufficient lubrication, shaft rubbing and pump cavitation. The performance and economics of this method is discussed.

  6. Power functions and envelopes for unit root tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juhl, Ted P.; Xiao, Z. J.

    2003-04-01

    ! closely+ We prove the result for case 2 because the other cases are similar+ The proof is completed by finding E~e uLR 2 ! and then replacing u by iu+ First, LR~c, Sc! 5 ~ Sc 2 2 2c Sc!E~W 1 c ! 2 1 2 ScEW 1 c dW 1 1~ Sc 2 2 2c Sc! S R 2 12 R 2 DE ~W 1 c 2... ~2000! extend the covariate augmented unit root tests de- veloped by Hansen ~1995! to form point optimal tests invariant to deterministic terms+ Because our focus is on the evaluation of the asymptotic power curves and envelopes, we take the asymptotic...

  7. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Leopold [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Giang, Erick [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Nieusma, Travis [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Kadam, Rameshwar U. [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Cogburn, Kristin E. [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Hua, Yuanzi [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Dai, Xiaoping [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Stanfield, Robyn L. [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Burton, Dennis R. [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Ward, Andrew B. [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Wilson, Ian A. [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Law, Mansun [The Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold ? sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  8. Buildings Interoperability Planning: Connected Buildings Interoperabil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vision Context Steve Widergren PNNL 11 March 2015 Topics Purpose of meeting Buildings automation in the transformative time of connectivity Interoperability - a connected buildings...

  9. The Economics of Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichholtz, Piet; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Rental Sample Control Buildings PSM Controls Rated BuildingsSample Control Buildings PSM Controls Appendix Table A2 (Sample Control Buildings PSM Controls Rated Buildings Sales

  10. Enveloping of Charged Proteins by Lipid Bilayers Daniel Harries,*, Avinoam Ben-Shaul,*, and Igal Szleifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    Enveloping of Charged Proteins by Lipid Bilayers Daniel Harries,*, Avinoam Ben-Shaul,*, and Igal an oppositely charged protein is studied with use of a simple theoretical model. The free energy of the bilayer-enveloped protein complex is expressed as a sum of electrostatic and curvature elasticity contributions

  11. Web-based Simulation for Contrast Transfer Function and Envelope Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wen

    Web-based Simulation for Contrast Transfer Function and Envelope Functions Wen Jiang1 and Wah Chiu1 implemented a Web-based simulation program for the contrast transfer function and envelope functions in Java accessibility through Web browsers on any computer platform that supports Java, such as Netscape and Internet

  12. Nuclear envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS) and heterochromatin higher order structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    REVIEW Nuclear envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS) and heterochromatin higher order structure /Published online: 12 June 2009 # Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract The interphase nucleus and nuclear envelope of these nuclear shapes and, consequently, a barrier to understanding the biochemical and biophysical causes

  13. MAGNETIC INFLUENCE ON THE STABILITY OF LUMINOUS STELLAR ENVELOPES Richard B. Stothers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAGNETIC INFLUENCE ON THE STABILITY OF LUMINOUS STELLAR ENVELOPES Richard B. Stothers NASA Goddard February 11 ABSTRACT Turbulence in the convective outer envelope of a luminous post­main-sequence star, but could at most attain a steady state strength based on a near equipartition of their mean energy

  14. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  15. Envelope inflation in Wolf-Rayet stars and extended supernova shock breakout signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanyal, Debashis; Langer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Massive, luminous stars reaching the Eddington limit in their interiors develop very dilute, extended envelopes. This effect is called envelope inflation. If the progenitors of Type Ib/c supernovae, which are believed to be Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, have inflated envelopes then the shock breakout signals diffuse in them and can extend their rise times significantly. We show that our inflated, hydrogen-free, WR stellar models with a radius of ~Rsun can have shock breakout signals longer than ~60 s. The puzzlingly long shock breakout signal observed in the Type Ib SN 2008D can be explained by an inflated progenitor envelope, and more such events might argue in favour of existence of inflated envelopes in general.

  16. Hood River Middle School Music and Science Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Hood River, Oregon The Hood River Middle School Music and Science Building is includes music and science classroom, music practice rooms, teacher offices, a greenhouse, an adjacent recycling and storage building, and outdoor spaces including an amphitheater and garden. The building is integrated with the school's progressive sustainability and permaculture curriculum. Students can track and create experiments using data from the buildings net zero energy system and rainwater harvesting system, and learn about the building's innovative and integrated use of materials and systems.

  17. Sound temporal envelope and time-patterns of activity in the human auditory pathway : an fMRI study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Michael Patrick, 1972-

    2002-01-01

    The temporal envelope of sound strongly influences the intelligibility of speech, pattern analysis, and the grouping of sequential stimuli. This thesis examined the coding of sound temporal envelope in the time-patterns ...

  18. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  19. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Full service restaurant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  20. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  1. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Quick service restaurant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  2. 1 Zoology Building 2 Cruickshank Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neri, Peter

    1 Zoology Building 2 Cruickshank Building 3 23 St Machar Drive 4 King's Museum (Old Town House) 5 The Hub 6 St Mary's 7 Fraser Noble Building 8 Elphinstone Road Halls 9 The Sir Duncan Rice Library 10 Meston Building 11 Chaplaincy Centre 12 Confucius Institute 13 Security Office/Mailroom 14 Counselling

  3. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  4. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. BuildingB7.

  5. Building America Building Science Translator

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De pEnergy IndustrialofofBuilding Science Translator February

  6. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  7. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar focused on improving the performance of central space conditioning systems in multifamily buildings, including hydronic heating strategies and the evaluation of thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs).

  8. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those found in for the pressure station approach. Walker and Dickerhoff also included estimates of DeltaQ test repeatability based on the results of field tests where two houses were tested multiple times. The two houses were quite leaky (20-25 Air Changes per Hour at 50Pa (0.2 in. water) (ACH50)) and were located in the San Francisco Bay area. One house was tested on a calm day and the other on a very windy day. Results were also presented for two additional houses that were tested by other researchers in Minneapolis, MN and Madison, WI, that had very tight envelopes (1.8 and 2.5 ACH50). These tight houses had internal duct systems and were tested without operating the central blower--sometimes referred to as control tests. The standard deviations between the multiple tests for all four houses were found to be about 1% of the envelope air flow at 50 Pa (0.2 in. water) (Q50) that led to the suggestion of this as a rule of thumb for estimating DeltaQ uncertainty. Because DeltaQ is based on measuring envelope air flows it makes sense for uncertainty to scale with envelope leakage. However, these tests were on a limited data set and one of the objectives of the current study is to increase the number of tested houses. This study focuses on answering two questions: (1) What is the uncertainty associated with changes in weather (primarily wind) conditions during DeltaQ testing? (2) How can these uncertainties be reduced? The first question is addressing issues of repeatability. To study this five houses were tested as many times as possible over a day. Weather data was recorded on-site--including the local windspeed. The result from these five houses were combined with the two Bay Area homes from the previous studies. The variability of the tests (represented by the standard deviation) is the repeatability of the test method for that house under the prevailing weather conditions. Because the testing was performed over a day a wide range of wind speeds was achieved following typical diurnal variations of low wind in the early morning and greatest winds in the late afternoon/early

  9. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  10. Episodic Mass Loss and Pre-SN Circumstellar Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2008-02-13

    I discuss observational clues concerning episodic mass-loss properties of massive stars in the time before the final supernova explosion. In particular, I will focus on the mounting evidence that LBVs and related stars are candidates for supernova progenitors, even though current paradigms place them at the end of core-H burning. Namely, conditions in the immediate circumstellar environment within a few 10$^2$ AU of Type IIn supernovae require very high progenitor mass-loss rates. Those rates are so high that the only known stars that come close are LBVs during rare giant eruptions. I will highlight evidence from observations of some recent extraordinary supernovae suggesting that explosive or episodic mass loss (a.k.a. LBV eruptions like the 19th century eruption of Eta Car) occur in the 5-10 years immediately preceding the SN. Finally, I will discuss some implications for stellar evolution from these SNe, the most important of which is the observational fact that the most massive stars can indeed make it to the ends of their lives with substantial H envelopes intact, even at Solar metallicity.

  11. Structural Insight into the Mechanisms of Enveloped Virus Tethering by Tetherin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H Yang; J Wang; X Jia; M McNatt; T Zang; B Pan; W Meng; H Wang; P Bieniasz; Y Xiong

    2011-12-31

    Tetherin/BST2 is a type-II membrane protein that inhibits the release of a range of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Here we report three crystal structures of human tetherin, including the full-length ectodomain, a triple cysteine mutant and an ectodomain truncation. These structures show that tetherin forms a continuous alpha helix encompassing almost the entire ectodomain. Tetherin helices dimerize into parallel coiled coils via interactions throughout the C-terminal portion of the ectodomain. A comparison of the multiple structures of the tetherin dimer reveals inherent constrained flexibility at two hinges positioned at residues A88 and G109. In the crystals, two tetherin ectodomain dimers associate into a tetramer by forming an antiparallel four-helix bundle at their N termini. However, mutagenesis studies suggest that the tetrametric form of tetherin, although potentially contributing to, is not essential for its antiviral activity. Nonetheless, the structural and chemical properties of the N terminus of the ectodomain are important for optimal tethering function. This study provides detailed insight into the mechanisms by which this broad-spectrum antiviral restriction factor can function.

  12. Structural insight into the mechanisms of enveloped virus tethering by tetherin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Haitao; Wang, Jimin; Jia, Xiaofei; McNatt, Matthew W.; Zang, Trinity; Pan, Baocheng; Meng, Wuyi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Bieniasz, Paul D.; Xiong, Yong (Yale); (Rockefeller)

    2010-11-10

    Tetherin/BST2 is a type-II membrane protein that inhibits the release of a range of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Here we report three crystal structures of human tetherin, including the full-length ectodomain, a triple cysteine mutant and an ectodomain truncation. These structures show that tetherin forms a continuous alpha helix encompassing almost the entire ectodomain. Tetherin helices dimerize into parallel coiled coils via interactions throughout the C-terminal portion of the ectodomain. A comparison of the multiple structures of the tetherin dimer reveals inherent constrained flexibility at two hinges positioned at residues A88 and G109. In the crystals, two tetherin ectodomain dimers associate into a tetramer by forming an antiparallel four-helix bundle at their N termini. However, mutagenesis studies suggest that the tetrametric form of tetherin, although potentially contributing to, is not essential for its antiviral activity. Nonetheless, the structural and chemical properties of the N terminus of the ectodomain are important for optimal tethering function. This study provides detailed insight into the mechanisms by which this broad-spectrum antiviral restriction factor can function.

  13. 1. Large Scale Climate Simulator (Building 3144) The LSCS tests roof and/or attic assemblies weighing up to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Envelope 1. Large Scale Climate Simulator (Building 3144) The LSCS tests roof and/or attic accommodates specimens of up to 606020 cm 24248 in.). 5. Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (Apparatus 3138) #12;RTRA measures effects of long-term natural weather exposure on small, low-slope roof specimens

  14. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building America's Top Innovations Propel the Home Building Industry toward Higher Performance Building America Top...

  15. Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Photo showing climate zone maps based on...

  16. Better Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings, Saves 730 Million on Energy Bills Better Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings, Saves...

  17. Building America Case Study: Cost Analysis of Roof-Only Air Sealing and Insulation Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates, Minneapolis, MN (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The External Thermal and Moisture Management System (ETMMS), typically seen in deep energy retrofits, is a valuable approach for the roof-only portions of existing homes, particularly the 1 1/2-story home. It is effective in reducing energy loss through the building envelope, improving building durability, reducing ice dams, and providing opportunities to improve occupant comfort and health.

  18. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Paladino, Monica G.; Affranchino, Jose L.

    2012-06-20

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  19. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computervoluntary building-energy-performance guidelines. Recentlyrelated to building-energy-performance standards, guidelines

  20. LETTER Climate envelope modelling reveals intraspecific relationships among flowering phenology, niche breadth and potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purugganan, Michael D.

    LETTER Climate envelope modelling reveals intraspecific relationships among flowering phenology structured can help to understand species' ecological tolerances and range limits. We modelled the climate climatic vari- ables. We found that genotypes with contrasting alleles at individual flowering time loci

  1. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

  2. Wide Binary Effects on Asymmetries in Asymptotic Giant Branch Circumstellar Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyosun

    2012-01-01

    Observations of increasingly higher spatial resolution reveal the existence of asymmetries in the circumstellar envelopes of a small fraction of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Although there is no general consensus for their origin, a binary companion star may be responsible. Within this framework, we investigate the gravitational effects associated with a sufficiently wide binary system, where Roche lobe overflow is unimportant, on the outflowing envelopes of AGB stars using three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The effects due to individual binary components are separately studied, enabling investigation of the stellar and circumstellar characteristics in detail. The reflex motion of the AGB star alters the wind velocity distribution, thereby, determining the overall shape of the outflowing envelope. On the other hand, the interaction of the companion with the envelope produces a gravitational wake, which exhibits a vertically thinner shape. The two patterns overlap and form clumpy structures. T...

  3. Influence of a coronal envelope as a free boundary to global convective dynamo simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warnecke, Jörn; Käpylä, Maarit J; Brandenburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    We explore the effects of an outer stably stratified coronal envelope on rotating turbulent convection, differential rotation, and large-scale dynamo action in spherical wedge models of the Sun. We solve the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in a two-layer model with unstable stratification below the surface, representing the convection zone, and a stably stratified outer layer, the coronal envelope. The interface emulates essentially a free surface. We compare with models that have no coronal envelope. The presence of a coronal envelope is found to modify the Reynolds stress and the $\\Lambda$-effect resulting in a weaker and non-cylindrical differential rotation. This is related to the reduced latitudinal temperature variations, which are caused by and dependent on the Coriolis force. Some simulations develop a rudimentary near-surface shear layer, which we can relate to a sign change of the meridional Reynolds stress term in the thermal wind balance equation. Furthermore, the presence of a free sur...

  4. Minimum pressure envelope cavitation analysis using two-dimensional panel method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Christopher J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    An analysis tool for calculating minimum pressure envelopes was developed using XFOIL. This thesis presents MATLAB® executables that interface with a modified version of XFOIL for determining the minimum pressure of a foil ...

  5. Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  6. Office Buildings: Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Type of Office Building Total (trillion Btu) per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) Dollars per Million Btu All Office Buildings 1,089 1,475 90.5 16.32...

  7. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2006 Iowa enacted H.F. 2361, requiring the State Building Commissioner to adopt energy conservation requirements based on a nationally recognized building energy code. The State Building Code...

  8. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    United States and China, Energy and Buildings, 2013. Underin Singapore. Energy and Buildings, 37, 167-174. Eom, J. ,building operations. Energy and Buildings, 33, 783–791.

  9. Health Care Buildings: Equipment Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment Table Buildings, Size and Age Data by Equipment Types for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet)...

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2014-01-01

    for Conservation and Solar Energy, Office of Build- ings andsolar, and wind options for a given house, These algorithms include recent advances in build-

  11. From Tragedy to Triumph - Rebuilding Green Buildings after Disaster, EERE (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Fact sheet offering practical information about building energy efficient buildings and using renewable energy. Includes a checklist and resources. Highlights successful projects in Greensburg, Kansas.

  12. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energyDepartment ofofWednesday, AprilPre-Screening for

  13. Kinetochores associated with the nuclear envelope in the mitosis of a dinoflagellate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Berl R.; Dodge, J.D.

    1974-10-01

    KINETOCHORES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE IN THE MITOSIS OF A D INOFLAGELLATE B. R. OAKLEY and J. D. DODGE. From the Department ofBotany, Birkbeck College, London, W.C. !, England Mitosis in free-living dinoflagellates i unusual...KINETOCHORES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE IN THE MITOSIS OF A D INOFLAGELLATE B. R. OAKLEY and J. D. DODGE. From the Department ofBotany, Birkbeck College, London, W.C. !, England Mitosis in free-living dinoflagellates i unusual...

  14. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  15. Building Energy Asset Score: Building Owners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use.

  16. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

  17. Dissection of the protostellar envelope surrounding IRAS 05173-0555 in L1634

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. T. Beltran; J. Wiseman; P. T. P. Ho; R. Estalella; G. Fuller; A. Wootten

    2008-03-25

    Context. The youngest protostars that power energetic outflows are surrounded by infalling and rotating envelopes that contain most of the mass of the system. Aims. To study the properties and kinematics of the protostellar envelope surrounding the embedded source IRAS 05173-0555 in L1634. Methods. We carried out VLA ammonia observations at 1.3 cm with the VLA in the D configuration to map the gas towards the core of L1634. Results. The NH3 emission towards IRAS 05173-0555 is resolved and shows two components clearly distinguishable morphologically: a cross-like structure, roughly elongated in the direction of the HH 240/241 outflow and associated with IRAS 05173-0555, plus an arc-like stream elongated towards the north. The properties and kinematics of the gas suggest that the origin of the cross-like morphology could be the interaction between the outflow and the envelope. A more compact and flattened structure, which could be undergoing rotation about the axis of the outflow, has been detected towards the center of the cross-like envelope. The northern stream, which has properties and velocity different from those of the cross-like envelope, is likely part of the original cloud envelope, and could be either a quiescent core that would never form stars, or be in a prestellar phase.

  18. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  19. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    ABORATORY Building Scale DC Microgrids Chris Marnay, Stevenemployer. Building Scale DC Microgrids Chris Marnay, IEEEgenerally known as microgrids (or µgrids). The dominance of

  20. Building Energy Codes Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office Jeremy Williams, Project Manager Building Technologies Peer Review April 2014 Presentation Overview: * Introduction *...

  1. Building Energy Modeling Library

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    303-567-8609 April 2, 2013 Photo by : Dennis Schroeder, NREL 23250 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Project Overview Building Energy Modeling (BEM)...

  2. Hyperaccretion during tidal disruption events: Weakly bound debris envelopes and jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: eric.coughlin@colorado.edu, E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu [Also at Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. (United States)

    2014-02-01

    After the destruction of the star during a tidal disruption event (TDE), the cataclysmic encounter between a star and the supermassive black hole (SMBH) of a galaxy, approximately half of the original stellar debris falls back onto the hole at a rate that can initially exceed the Eddington limit by orders of magnitude. We argue that the angular momentum of this matter is too low to allow it to attain a disk-like configuration with accretion proceeding at a mildly super-Eddington rate, the excess energy being carried away by a combination of radiative losses and radially distributed winds. Instead, we propose that the infalling gas traps accretion energy until it inflates into a weakly bound, quasi-spherical structure with gas extending nearly to the poles. We study the structure and evolution of such 'zero-Bernoulli accretion' flows as a model for the super-Eddington phase of TDEs. We argue that such flows cannot stop extremely super-Eddington accretion from occurring, and that once the envelope is maximally inflated, any excess accretion energy escapes through the poles in the form of powerful jets. We compare the predictions of our model to Swift J1644+57, the putative super-Eddington TDE, and show that it can qualitatively reproduce some of its observed features. Similar models, including self-gravity, could be applicable to gamma-ray bursts from collapsars and the growth of SMBH seeds inside quasi-stars.

  3. Building America Research-to-Market Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werling, Eric

    2015-11-01

    This report presents the Building America Research-to-Market Plan (Plan), including the integrated Building America Technology-to-Market Roadmaps (Roadmaps) that will guide Building America’s research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities over the coming years. The Plan and Roadmaps will be updated as necessary to adapt to research findings and evolving stakeholder needs, and they will reflect input from DOE and stakeholders.

  4. Building Blocks for Mobile Games : A multiplayer framework for App Inventor for Android

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnuson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Building Blocks for Mobile Games is a client-server multiplayer game-building-framework for the App Inventor for Android platform. The Building Blocks for Mobile Games multiplayer framework includes an App Inventor component ...

  5. Impacts of lateral code changes associated with the 2006 International Building Code and the 2008 California Building Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratley, Desirée Page

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 California Building Code (CBC) will adopt the structural section of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), which includes alterations to the procedure to determine earthquake design loading, and a drastic ...

  6. Neutralino relic density including coannihilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Gondolo; Joakim Edsjo

    1997-11-25

    We give an overview of our precise calculation of the relic density of the lightest neutralino, in which we included relativistic Boltzmann averaging, subthreshold and resonant annihilations, and coannihilation processes with charginos and neutralinos.

  7. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  8. Warehouse and Service Building Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many Federal facilities include warehouses or other buildings used for storage service such as motor pools or groundskeeping, hangars, or other spaces that are frequently open to the outside and have only semi-conditioned spaces. Use of daylighting and solar ventilation preheat are prime technologies for these type of spaces, but other technologies may also warrant consideration.

  9. BUILDING STRONG Flood Protection Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ® Logistics Global Mute to improve sound quality Questions welcome via chat function or email to hq for accreditation decisions. 3 #12;BUILDING STRONG® Outline Logistics Agency overview Task Force scope) Interior Drainage Systems ­ Operation Plans and Criteria (includes sub-items) Maintenance Plans

  10. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buildings Greening Transportation Green Purchasing & Green Technology Pollution Prevention Science Serving Sustainability ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at...

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Business Models Guide, October 27, 2011.

  12. GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC BUILDINGS SERVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Wax, cleansers, cloths, etc.) 7. CONTRACT SERVICES (Window washing, waste and snow removal) B. HEATING a share of building support/common areas such as elevator lobbies, building corridors, and floor service areas. Floor service areas typically include restrooms, janitor rooms, telephone closets, electrical

  13. Building America Update - July 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBioPredicting EnvelopeSidingFurringJuly 2013 Building

  14. Building America Update - July 9, 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBioPredicting EnvelopeSidingFurringJuly 2013 BuildingJuly

  15. Lessons Learned from Continuous Commissioning® of a LEED Gold Building in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, J.; Claridge, D. E.

    2008-09-22

    The subject building is a relatively new building with 120,000 square feet located in Texas and was the first LEED® Gold building in the area. To earn the title of a green building, the designers of this high performance building included many...

  16. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

  17. Characteristics of an envelope model for laser-plasma accelerator simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, Benjamin M., E-mail: benc@txcorp.co [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L., E-mail: bruhwile@txcorp.co [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Cormier-Michel, Estelle, E-mail: ecormier@txcorp.co [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); LOASIS Program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Esarey, Eric, E-mail: EHEsarey@lbl.go [LOASIS Program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Geddes, Cameron G.R., E-mail: CGRGeddes@lbl.go [LOASIS Program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Messmer, Peter, E-mail: messmer@txcorp.co [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Paul, Kevin M., E-mail: kpaul@txcorp.co [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Simulation of laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) experiments is computationally intensive due to the disparate length scales involved. Current experiments extend hundreds of laser wavelengths transversely and many thousands in the propagation direction, making explicit PIC simulations enormously expensive and requiring massively parallel execution in 3D. Simulating the next generation of LPA experiments is expected to increase the computational requirements yet further, by a factor of 1000. We can substantially improve the performance of LPA simulations by modeling the envelope evolution of the laser field rather than the field itself. This allows for much coarser grids, since we need only resolve the plasma wavelength and not the laser wavelength, and therefore larger timesteps can be used. Thus an envelope model can result in savings of several orders of magnitude in computational resources. By propagating the laser envelope in a Galilean frame moving at the speed of light, dispersive errors can be avoided and simulations over long distances become possible. The primary limitation to this envelope model is when the laser pulse develops large frequency shifts, and thus the slowly-varying envelope assumption is no longer valid. Here we describe the model and its implementation, and show rigorous benchmarks for the algorithm, establishing second-order convergence and correct laser group velocity. We also demonstrate simulations of LPA phenomena such as self-focusing and meter-scale acceleration stages using the model.

  18. Water abundances in high-mass protostellar envelopes: Herschel observations with HIFI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marseille, M; Herpin, F; Wyrowski, F; Chavarria, L; Pietropaoli, B

    2015-01-01

    We derive the dense core structure and the water abundance in four massive star-forming regions which may help understand the earliest stages of massive star formation. We present Herschel-HIFI observations of the para-H2O 1_11-0_00 and 2_02-1_11 and the para-H2-18O 1_11-0_00 transitions. The envelope contribution to the line profiles is separated from contributions by outflows and foreground clouds. The envelope contribution is modelled using Monte-Carlo radiative transfer codes for dust and molecular lines (MC3D and RATRAN), with the water abundance and the turbulent velocity width as free parameters. While the outflows are mostly seen in emission in high-J lines, envelopes are seen in absorption in ground-state lines, which are almost saturated. The derived water abundances range from 5E-10 to 4E-8 in the outer envelopes. We detect cold clouds surrounding the protostar envelope, thanks to the very high quality of the Herschel-HIFI data and the unique ability of water to probe them. Several foreground cloud...

  19. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  20. Building Green in Greensburg: Business Incubator Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing SunChips Business Incubator building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  1. Building Green in Greensburg: City Hall Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing City Hall building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  2. Final deactivation project report on the Source Development Laboratory, building 3029, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Building 3029 after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the EM-60 turnover package are discussed. Building 3029 will require access to facilitate required S&M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. building 3029 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S&M activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S&M. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Healthcare Energy: Massachusetts General Hospital Gray Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Floor Space: 332,664 ft2 The Gray Building is an inpatient care facility, and its space types include exam rooms; treatment rooms; procedure rooms; operating rooms; research...

  4. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  5. Spitzer IRS Spectra and Envelope Models of Class I Protostars in Taurus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Furlan; M. McClure; N. Calvet; L. Hartmann; P. D'Alessio; W. J. Forrest; D. M. Watson; K. I. Uchida; B. Sargent; J. D. Green; T. L. Herter

    2007-11-26

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 28 Class I protostars in the Taurus star-forming region. The 5 to 36 micron spectra reveal excess emission from the inner regions of the envelope and accretion disk surrounding these predecessors of low-mass stars, as well as absorption features due to silicates and ices. Together with shorter- and longer-wavelength data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions and fit envelope models to 22 protostars of our sample, most of which are well-constrained due to the availability of the IRS spectra. We infer that the envelopes of the Class I objects in our sample cover a wide range in parameter space, particularly in density and centrifugal radius, implying different initial conditions for the collapse of protostellar cores.

  6. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN THE FLATTENED ENVELOPE AND JET IN THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM HH 211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Rao, Ramprasad; Hirano, Naomi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hwang, Hsiang-Chih; Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2014-12-10

    HH 211 is a young Class 0 protostellar system with a flattened envelope, a possible rotating disk, and a collimated jet. We have mapped it with the Submillimeter Array in the 341.6 GHz continuum and SiO J = 8-7 at ?0.''6 resolution. The continuum traces the thermal dust emission in the flattened envelope and the possible disk. Linear polarization is detected in the continuum in the flattened envelope. The field lines implied from the polarization have different orientations, but they are not incompatible with current gravitational collapse models, which predict a different orientation depending on the region/distance. Also, we might have detected for the first time polarized SiO line emission in the jet due to the Goldreich-Kylafis effect. Observations at higher sensitivity are needed to determine the field morphology in the jet.

  7. Joseph Vance Building, The

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Seattle, WA In 2006, the Rose Smart Growth Investment Fund acquired the historic Joseph Vance Building with the purpose of transforming it into "the leading green and historic class B" building in the marketplace. The terra cotta Vance Building was constructed in 1929 and has 14 floors - 13 floors of offices over ground-floor retail with a basement for mechanical equipment and storage. In 2009 the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) awarded the Vance Building LEED for Existing Buildings (EB) Gold certification.

  8. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building Energy Optimization...

  9. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building America's Top Innovations Propel the Home Building Industry toward Higher Performance Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame...

  10. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Shell and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Practices > Building Shell & Lighting Conservation Features Building Shell and Lighting Conservation Features The 1999 CBECS collected information on two types of building shell...

  11. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the...

  12. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    communities: strategies for heat island mitigation and smogand Ronnen Levinson* Heat Island Group Environmental Energymitigate the urban heat island effect, and potentially slow

  13. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J. M.; Turner, W. J.N.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector’s energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level.

  14. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Resubmitted to Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Shingle2011 (g) Resubmitted to Solar Energy Materials & Solar CellsResubmitted to Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Table 4.

  15. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    solar heat gain. Solar Energy. 84: 1717-1744. Levinson, R. ,of practical methods. Solar Energy. 84: 1745-1759. Zielecka,2011 (e) Resubmitted to Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells

  16. Complete solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the envelope method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Castillo, G F Torres

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the parameters contained in any two complete solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, corresponding to a given Hamiltonian, are related by means of a time-independent canonical transformation and that, in some cases, a generating function of this transformation is given by the envelope of a family of surfaces defined by the difference of the two complete solutions. Conversely, in those cases, one of the complete solutions is given by the envelope of a family of surfaces defined by the sum of the other complete solution and the generating function of the canonical transformation. Some applications of these results to geometrical optics are also given.

  17. Solar Applications to Multiple County Buildings Feasibility Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study was requested by Salt Lake County in an effort to obtain a cursory overview of solar electric and solar thermal application possibilities on the rooftops of existing county buildings. The subject buildings represent various County Divisions: Aging Services, Community Services, County Health, County Library, Parks & Recreation, Public Works, County Sheriff and Youth Services. There are fifty two buildings included in the study.

  18. The Building (First Amendment) Regulations 1965 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pannell, Charles

    1965-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1965 No. 2184 BUILDING AND BUILDINGS The Building (First Amendment) Regulations 1965

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more deta...

  20. Change in historic buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chien-Ni

    1992-01-01

    Change in historic buildings is inevitable. If these changes are not well-managed, the cityscape will be threatened because a city is composed of buildings. A good city should combine both growth and preservation. Controlling ...

  1. 2015 Better Buildings Summit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Summit is a national meeting where leading organizations across key sectors showcase solutions to cut energy intensity in their buildings portfolio...

  2. Building America Report Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Renewable Energy Prepared by Sam Rashkin Building Technologies Office 950 L'Enfant Building, 6 th floor Washington, DC 20024 May 2014 iii iv Table of Contents List of...

  3. Special Building Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A number of building types have specific energy uses and needs, and as such the renewable opportunities may be different from a typical office building. This section briefly discusses the following...

  4. Guam- Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  5. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri does not have a statewide building or energy code for private residential and commercial buildings, and there currently is no state regulatory agency authorized to promulgate, adopt, or...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009 S.B. 1182 created the Oklahoma Uniform Building Code Commission. The 11-member Commission was given the power to conduct rulemaking processes to adopt new building codes. The codes adopted...

  7. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  8. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  9. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prior to 1997, South Carolina's local governments adopted and enforced the building codes. In 1997, the law required statewide use of the most up-to-date building codes, which then required the...

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Building Code (KBC) is updated every three years on a cycle one year behind the publication year for the International Building Code. Any changes to the code by the state of Kentucky...

  11. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2012 IECC is in effect for all residential and commercial buildings, Idaho schools, and Idaho jurisdictions that adopt and enforce building codes, unless a local code exists that is more...

  12. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Building Commission (FBC) is directed to adopt, revise, update, and maintain the Florida Building Code in accordance with Chapter 120 of the state statutes. The code is mandatory...

  13. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Act 093-0936 (Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings) was signed into law in August, 2004. The Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings became effective...

  14. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Massachusetts Board of Building Regulations and Standards has authority to promulgate the Massachusetts State Building Code (MSBC). The energy provisions in the MSBC were developed by the Boa...

  15. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (USBC) is a statewide minimum requirement that local jurisdictions cannot amend. The code is applicable to all new buildings in the commonwealth. The...

  16. Building condition monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samouhos, Stephen V. (Stephen Vincent), 1982-

    2010-01-01

    The building sector of the United States currently consumes over 40% of the United States primary energy supply. Estimates suggest that between 5 and 30% of any building's annual energy consumption is unknowingly wasted ...

  17. Financing green buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Christopher John, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    An emerging trend in real estate is the development of sustainable buildings, partially due to the huge environmental impact of the design, construction and operation of commercial buildings. This thesis provides a brief ...

  18. Building America System Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America System Research Eric Werling, DOE Ren Anderson, NREL eric.werling@ee.doe.gov, 202-586-0410 ren.anderson@nrel.gov, 303-384-7443 April 2, 2013 Building America...

  19. The Economics of Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichholtz, Piet; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    cost savings in energy efficient buildings. To test for thisrisk inherent in energy efficient buildings. Importantly,of energy-efficient and sustainable buildings through

  20. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    methodology for building energy data definition, collection,analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and9  A Standard Building Energy Data 

  1. The Economics of Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichholtz, Piet; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Benjamin. "Do LEED-Certified Buildings Save Energy? Yes,But,." Energy and Buildings, 2009, 41, pp. 897-905. Royalrating, and publicizing buildings along these dimensions (

  2. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Energy Conservation Features in FBSS Building in Federal Region 3, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1993 Total Floorspace Number of Buildings (thousand square feet) Any Any...

  3. Principal Building Activities--1995 CBECS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Detailed Tables > Principal Building Activities Table Number of Buildings, Total Floorspace, and Total Site and Primary Energy Consumption for All Principal Building Activities,...

  4. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. LBNL (2012).Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. UNEP (2009).Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. Energy

  5. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressedimprovement of energy efficiency in buildings are brieflyimproving the energy efficiency of buildings in the U.S. New

  6. Advanced Building Systems & Architectural Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    primary research interests are whole building performance analysis, passive Advanced Building Systems & Architectural Design University with a Ph.D. in Building Performance and Diagnostics. Currently he

  7. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    exchange of building energy performance data difficult.  understand  building  energy  performance  and  improve to understanding building energy performance and supporting 

  8. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    exchange of building energy performance data difficult.  understand  building  energy  performance  and  improve Reliable  Building  Energy  Performance Characterization 

  9. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    I Figure 21. Sample building energy use label expressed inanalyses of actual buildings energy consumption data confirm1983. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Leonard W. Wall

  10. Health Care Buildings: Subcategories Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Subcategories Table Selected Data by Type of Health Care Building Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet) Percent of Floorspace Square...

  11. Building America Webinar: A National Summary of Deep Energy Retrofits...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: A National Summary of Deep Energy Retrofits Building America Webinar: A National Summary of Deep Energy Retrofits This presentation by Brennan Less is included in the...

  12. Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions Kosny, J.; Fallahi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that could be used in triple-deckers and colonial houses, common house types in New England. Several emerging building enclosure technologies were integrated, including...

  13. Use of advanced composite materials for innovative building design solutions/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Tak-bun, Denvid

    2009-01-01

    Advanced composite materials become popular in construction industry for the innovative building design solutions including strengthening and retrofitting of existing structures. The interface between different materials ...

  14. Milwaukee Showcases Leadership in Energy Efficiency, Better Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Better Buildings Challenge, Milwaukee has retrofitted the Milwaukee Central Library, including surveying and repairing dozens of steam traps in the basement to help cut...

  15. Building Technologies Program: Planned Program Activities for 2008-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Complete Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 includes all sections - overview, research and development, standards, technology validation, portfolio management, appendices.

  16. 42484 secretarys achievement award - 5 x 6 - Building 51

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the removal of 171 surplus facilities, including various reactors, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and other nuclear process buildings and structures. Throughout the...

  17. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  18. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  19. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  20. Kiowa County Commons Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This poster describes the energy efficiency features and sustainable materials used in the Kiowa County Commons Building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  1. Building Abbreviations Alumni Hall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    20A/B 44 20A/B 44 20A/B 44 58 17 17 88 34 25 Building Abbreviations Alumni Hall Campbell Dome Colden FitzGerald Gym Frese Hall G Building Gertz Center Goldstein Theatre Honors Hall GC GB GT HH MU KY KG KS KP PH I Building Jefferson Hall Kiely Hall King Hall Kissena Hall Klapper Hall Music Building

  2. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2013-01-01

    CHP, which can improve overall efficiency significantly. In many climates, using the waste heat to cool buildings

  3. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2006, SB 459 was enacted to promote renewable energy and update the state's building energy codes.

  4. Building Operator Certification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilley, D.

    2013-01-01

    Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training CATEE December 18, 2013 – San Antonio, TX Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP ESL-KT-13-12-49 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Building Operator Certification... Energy Efficiency through Operator Training What is Building Operator Certification? Industry-recognized credential in energy efficient building operation practices Created with 100 industry experts Launched in 1996 9,000 building engineers...

  5. Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Bonar, Jacob [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100), which qualifies it for federal energy efficiency and solar incentives. The house is leading to the planned construction of a similar home in Greensburg, Kansas, and 21 staff houses in the Walden Reserve, a 7000-unit "deep green" community in Cookville, Tennessee. Discussions are underway for construction of similar houses in Charleston, South Carolina, Seattle, Washington, Knoxville and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and upstate New York. This house should lead to a 40% and 50% Gate-3, Mixed-Humid-Climate Joule for the DOE Building America Program. The house is constructed with structurally-insulated-panel walls and roof, raised metal-seam roof with infrared reflective coating, airtight envelope (1.65 air changes per hour at 50 Pascal), supply mechanical ventilation, ducts inside the conditioned space, extensive moisture control package, foundation geothermal space heating and cooling system, ZEHcor wall, solar water heater, and a 2.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. The detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 compared to all the houses in this series are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Based on a validated computer simulation of ZEH5 with typical occupancy patterns and energy services for four occupants, energy for this all-electric house is predicted to cost only $0.66/day ($0.86/day counting the hookup charges). By contrast, the benchmark house would require $3.56/day, including hookup charges (these costs are based on a 2006 residential rates of $0.07/kWh and solar buyback at $0.15/kWh). The solar fraction for this home located in Lenoir City, Tennessee, is predicted to be as high as 41%(accounting for both solar PV and the solar water heater). This all-electric home is predicted to use 25 kWh/day based on the one year of measured data used to calibrate a whole-building simulation model. Based on two years of measured data, the roof-mounted 2.2 kWp PV system is predicted to generate 7.5 kWh/day. The 2005 cost to commercially construct ZEH5, including builder profit and overhead, is estimated at about $150,000. This cost - for ZEH5's panelized construction, premanufactured utility wall (ZEHcor), foundation geothermal system, and the addition of the walkout lower level, and considering the falling cost for PV - suggests that the construction cost per ft2 for a ZEH5 two-story will be even more cost-competitive. The 2005 construction cost estimate for a finished-out ZEH5 with 2632 ft2 is $222,000 or $85/ft2. The intention of this report is to help builders and homeowners make the decision to build zero-energy-ready homes. Detailed drawings, specifications, and lessons learned in the construction and analysis of data from about 100 sensors monitoring thermal performance for a one-year period are presented. This information should be specifically useful to those considering structural insulated panel walls and roof, foundation geothermal space heating and cooling, solar water heater and roof-mounted, photovoltaic, grid-tied systems.

  6. Instrumenting Buildings to Determine Retrofit Savings: Murphy's Law Revisited 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boecker, C. L.; Bohmer, C.; O'Neal, D. L.; Bryant, J.

    1993-01-01

    BUILDINGS TO DETERMINE RETROFIT SAVINGS: MURPHY'S LAW REVISITED Dennis L. O'Neal, John Bryant, Curtis Boecker, and Chuck Bohmer Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX ABSTRACT Experiences with instrumentation..., installation and maintenance of building energy metering systems are presented. The building energy metering is installed to support the Texas LoanSTAR program in sites throughout the State of Texas. Metering typically includes monitoring the whole building...

  7. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  8. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  9. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  10. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  11. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  12. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  13. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  14. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  15. WUFIINSTRUCTORS Andr Desjarlais is the Group Leader for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    have been concentrated in energy efficiency, healthy, durable and sustainable building designs, housing Envelope Council. Areas of expertise include building envelope and material energy efficiency, moisture and air conditioning of buildings and hygrothermal performance of envelopes. He is the US representative

  16. Modification of the Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein Glycosylation Pattern Interferes with Secretion of Viral Particles, Infectivity, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Modification of the Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein Glycosylation Pattern Interferes Transfusion Sanguine (INTS), Paris, France ABSTRACT The envelope proteins of hepatitis B virus (HBV) bear an N protein synthesis and stability and to secretion of subviral particles (SVPs) and hepatitis delta virus

  17. Generation of Dark and Bright Spin Wave Envelope Soliton Trains through Self-Modulational Instability in Magnetic Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patton, Carl

    Generation of Dark and Bright Spin Wave Envelope Soliton Trains through Self-Modulational spin wave envelope soliton trains from a continuous wave input signal due to spontaneous modulational instability has been observed for the first time. The dark soliton trains were formed from high dispersion

  18. Mass-radius relations and core-envelope decompositions of super-Earths and sub-Neptunes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam; Verne, Wesley E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-06-01

    Many exoplanets have been discovered with radii of 1-4 R {sub ?}, between that of Earth and Neptune. A number of these are known to have densities consistent with solid compositions, while others are 'sub-Neptunes' likely to have significant H{sub 2}-He envelopes. Future surveys will no doubt significantly expand these populations. In order to understand how the measured masses and radii of such planets can inform their structures and compositions, we construct models both for solid layered planets and for planets with solid cores and gaseous envelopes, exploring a range of core masses, H{sub 2}-He envelope masses, and associated envelope entropies. For planets in the super-Earth/sub-Neptune regime for which both radius and mass are measured, we estimate how each is partitioned into a solid core and gaseous envelope, associating a specific core mass and envelope mass with a given exoplanet. We perform this decomposition for both ''Earth-like'' rock-iron cores and pure ice cores, and find that the necessary gaseous envelope masses for this important sub-class of exoplanets must range very widely from zero to many Earth masses, even for a given core mass. This result bears importantly on exoplanet formation and envelope evaporation processes.

  19. BEYOND IRC+10216: NEW TRENDS IN THE DETECTION OF METAL MOLECULES TOWARDS CIRCUMSTEL-LAR ENVELOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    BEYOND IRC+10216: NEW TRENDS IN THE DETECTION OF METAL MOLECULES TOWARDS CIRCUMSTEL- LAR ENVELOPES in the detection of various metal-bearing species which, until now, have only been seen in IRC +10216. Measurements chemistry" could be creating metal cyanides in IRC+10216 as well, although radiative association reactions

  20. Waterfalls around protostars: Infall motions towards Class 0/I envelopes as probed by water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, J C; Schmalzl, M; Kristensen, L E; Visser, R; Hogerheijde, M R; Bruderer, S

    2013-01-01

    Abridged abstract: For stars to form, material must fall inwards from core scales through the envelope towards the central protostar. The velocity profile around protostars is poorly constrained. 6 Class 0 protostars and one Class I protostars observed with HIFI on board Herschel as part of the "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) survey show infall signatures in water line observations. We use 1-D non-LTE RATRAN radiative transfer models of the observed water lines to constrain the infall velocity and chemistry in the protostellar envelopes of these sources. We assume a free-fall velocity profile and, having found the best fit, vary the radii over which infall takes place. In the well-studied Class 0 protostar NGC1333-IRAS4A we find that infall takes place over the whole envelope to which our observations are sensitive (r>~1000 AU). For 4 sources infall takes place on core to envelope scales (i.e. ~10000-3000 AU). In 2 sources the inverse P-Cygni profiles seen in the ground-state lines are mo...

  1. Hydroxyl as a Tracer of H2 in the Envelope of MBM40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotten, David L; Wennerstrom, Elizabeth A; Douglas, Kevin A; Onello, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    We observed 51 positions in the OH 1667 MHz main line transitions in the translucent, high latitude cloud MBM40. We detected OH in 8 out of 8 positions in the molecular core of the cloud and 24 out of 43 in the surrounding, lower extinction envelope and periphery of the cloud. Using a linear relationship between the integrated OH line intensity and E(B-V), we estimate the mass in the core, the envelope, and the periphery of the cloud to be 9.1, 13.7, and 1.5 solar masses. As much as 60% of the total cloud mass may be found in the envelope (0.12 \\leq E(B-V) \\leq 0.17 mag) and some molecular mass (6%) in the periphery (E(B-V) < 0.12 mag). The OH 1667 MHz line is an excellent tracers of gas in very low extinction regions and high-sensitivity mapping of the envelopes of molecular clouds may reveal the presence of significant quantities of molecular mass.

  2. A ligand-binding pocket in the dengue virus envelope glycoprotein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    A ligand-binding pocket in the dengue virus envelope glycoprotein Yorgo Modis*, Steven Ogata Heights Drive, Suite 200, Aiea, HI 96701 Contributed by Stephen C. Harrison, April 14, 2003 Dengue virus by membrane fusion. A crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of E from dengue virus type 2 reveals

  3. TURBULENT PRESSURE IN THE ENVELOPES OF YELLOW HYPERGIANTS AND LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TURBULENT PRESSURE IN THE ENVELOPES OF YELLOW HYPERGIANTS AND LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLES Richard B turbulent pressure) affects the structure and stability of luminous post­red-supergiant stars is critically radiative, making both the turbulent pressure and the turbulent kinetic energy flux structurally unimportant

  4. Generation and Applications of Structure Envelopes for Metal-Organic Frameworks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovenko, Andrey A.

    2013-04-18

    results have been found by using Difference Envelope Density (DED) analysis. DED plots are made by taking the difference between observed and calculated SE densities. This allows us to study guest related issues of MOFs such as, location of guest molecules...

  5. Planning for Climate Change in South Florida: Climate Envelope Modeling for Threatened and Endangered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    resolution (e.g., National Climatic Data Center, Worldclim database). In addition to using data obtained fromWEC 282 Planning for Climate Change in South Florida: Climate Envelope Modeling for Threatened and tools that will allow natural resource managers to examine potential effects of climate change

  6. Pathway of Incorporation of Microinjected Lamin A into the Nuclear Envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Robert D.

    Pathway of Incorporation of Microinjected Lamin A into the Nuclear Envelope Anne E. Goldman, Robert incorporated into the nuclear lamina region as determined by immuno- fluorescence. The incorporation and number as the biotinylated lamin A becomes associated with the en- dogenous nuclear lamina. Eventually

  7. Mapping the Energy Envelope of Multicore ARM Chips June 06, 2013 | Alex Woodie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Yong-Meng

    the execution time and energy usage of an application for different number of cores and clock frequenciesMapping the Energy Envelope of Multicore ARM Chips June 06, 2013 | Alex Woodie Bigger is not always and cooling issues. Several HPC companies and supercomputer projects have started migrating to the ARM

  8. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  9. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  10. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL.buildings by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL,results from our buildings energy data bases. Actual energy

  11. Abstract We present a 30 GHz s platform that includes low-loss passi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    are from cross-wafer testing. A. Passive Devices High performance passive essential for building large in recent y integrated photonics on a silicon platfo the investments made in CMOS fa possible to build low of passive elements su grating couplers and waveguides as elements including 58 GHz ga photodetectors, 45 GHz

  12. Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Fallahi, Ali; Shukla, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the energy performance and cost effectiveness of several state-of-the-art retrofit strategies that could be used in triple-deckers and colonial houses, common house types in New England. Several emerging building enclosure technologies were integrated, including high R-value aerogel and vacuum insulations, in forms that would be energy efficient, flexible for different retrofit scenarios, durable, and potentially cost-competitive for deep energy retrofits.

  13. Transition from the infalling envelope to the Keplerian disk around L1551 IRS 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Ti-Lin [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Ho, Paul T. P., E-mail: tlchou@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-20

    We present combined Submillimeter Array (SMA) +Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) images of the Class I protobinary L1551 IRS 5 in the CS (J = 7-6) line, the submillimeter images of L1551 IRS 5 with the most complete spatial sampling ever achieved (0.''9-36''). The SMA image of L1551 IRS 5 in the 343 GHz dust-continuum emission is also presented, which shows an elongated feature along the northwest to southeast direction (?160 AU × 80 AU), perpendicular to the associated radio jets. The combined SMA+ASTE images show that the high-velocity (?1.5 km s{sup –1}) CS emission traces the structure of the dust component and shows a velocity gradient along the major axis, which is reproduced by a geometrically thin Keplerian-disk model with a central stellar mass of ?0.5 M {sub ?}. The low-velocity (?1.3 km s{sup –1}) CS emission shows an extended (?1000 AU) feature that exhibits slight south (blueshifted) to north (redshifted) emission offsets, which is modeled with a rotating and infalling envelope with a conserved angular momentum. The rotational motion of the envelope connects smoothly to the inner Keplerian rotation at a radius of ?64 AU. The infalling velocity of the envelope is ?three times lower than the free-fall velocity toward the central stellar mass of 0.5 M {sub ?}. These results demonstrate transition from the infalling envelope to the Keplerian disk, consistent with the latest theoretical studies of disk formation. We suggest that sizable (r ? 50-200 AU) Keplerian disks are already formed when the protostars are still deeply embedded in the envelopes.

  14. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  15. Building Technologies | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Biology Transportation Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Buildings SHARE Building Technologies Reducing the energy...

  16. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    In Building Simulation2004 BREEAM 2003, Building Researchhttp://products.bre.co.uk/breeam/index.html SimBuild 2004,including ICC (ICC 2000) and BREEAM (BREEAM 2003). However,

  17. About Singapore Green Building Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - friendly, energy efficiency building materials, design and architecture ­ reaching out to Green buildingAbout Singapore Green Building Council About SGBC Green Building Conference Conference Programme Green Building Conference In line with the mission of the Singapore Green Building Council (SGBC

  18. Nuclear reactor building

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  19. Nuclear reactor building

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  20. 309 Building transition plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-08-31

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  1. Visualizing Energy Information in Commercial Buildings: A Study of Tools, Expert Users, and Building Occupants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehrer, David; Vasudev, Janani

    2011-01-01

    BIBLIOGRAPHY —“Breaking the Net Zero Energy Barrier: The ‘31carbon neutrality and net-zero energy for all new commercialBenchmarking for Net-Zero Energy Buildings. ” 12 Included in

  2. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Christoph

    ] (where a[n] = +infty). C's * bsearch() can't be used, it requires a[j]==key. */ int findloc( void *key Combine­CRCW BSP­Quicksort * variant by Gerbessiotis/Valiant JPDC 22(1994) * implemented in NestStep­C. */ int N=10; // default value /** findloc(): find largest index j in [0..n­1] with * a[j

  3. Re-Assessing Green Building Performance: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of 22 GSA Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Kora, Angela R.

    2010-06-01

    2nd report on the performance of GSA's sustainably designed buildings. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of measured whole building performance as it compares to GSA and industry baselines. The PNNL research team found the data analysis illuminated strengths and weaknesses of individual buildings as well as the portfolio of buildings. This section includes summary data, observations that cross multiple performance metrics, discussion of lessons learned from this research, and opportunities for future research. The summary of annual data for each of the performance metrics is provided in Table 25. The data represent 1 year of measurements and are not associated with any specific design features or strategies. Where available, multiple years of data were examined and there were minimal significant differences between the years. Individually focused post occupancy evaluation (POEs) would allow for more detailed analysis of the buildings. Examining building performance over multiple years could potentially offer a useful diagnostic tool for identifying building operations that are in need of operational changes. Investigating what the connection is between the building performance and the design intent would offer potential design guidance and possible insight into building operation strategies. The 'aggregate operating cost' metric used in this study represents the costs that were available for developing a comparative industry baseline for office buildings. The costs include water utilities, energy utilities, general maintenance, grounds maintenance, waste and recycling, and janitorial costs. Three of the buildings that cost more than the baseline in Figure 45 have higher maintenance costs than the baseline, and one has higher energy costs. Given the volume of data collected and analyzed for this study, the inevitable request is for a simple answer with respect to sustainably designed building performance. As previously stated, compiling the individual building values into single metrics is not statistically valid given the small number of buildings, but it has been done to provide a cursory view of this portfolio of sustainably designed buildings. For all metrics except recycling cost per rentable square foot and CBE survey response rate, the averaged building performance was better than the baseline for the GSA buildings in this study.

  4. As a certified LEED Gold building, Kelley Engineering has many features common to green buildings. Features include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is piped directly into the server room for natural cooling in the warmer months - a solar system trainers that are connected to new inverter technology that harnesses power humans generate during products, minimal water usage, and the use of super concentrated chemicals for shipping and mixing on site

  5. The Lovejoy Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Portland, Oregon Originally built in 1910 as the stables for the Marshall-Wells Hardware Company, the Lovejoy Building is the home of Opsis Architects. The owner/architects purchased and renovated the historic building to house their growing business and to provide ground-floor office lease space and second-floor offices for their firm. Opsis wanted to use the building to experience and demonstrate the technologies and practices it promotes with clients.

  6. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  7. Transamerica Pyramid Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 1 MW CCHP system at the Transamerica Pyramid Building in San Francisco, California.

  8. Residential Buildings Integration (RBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 RBI Priorities for FY15 and Beyond Integrating Advanced Technologies for Homes: * Building integrated renewables * IAQVentilation solutions * Integrated high performance...

  9. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motivation and Computation of Lighting Measures Floorspace by Lighting Equipment Configuration As described in Appendix A, for each building b, the CBECS data set has the total...

  10. Buildings Performance Database

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distinguish between expected returns and performance risk Conduct performance risk analysis * Diversify risk by investing in a range of buildings and measures Support...

  11. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more comprehensive understanding of commercial lighting and the potential for lighting energy savings. Steps to build on this analysis can be taken in many directions. One...

  12. Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the sponsor the government, utility or sponsored in-house. Energy Management and Control System Heating or cooling system monitored or controlled by a computerized building...

  13. Buildings Interoperability Proceedings

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for t he integration of intelligent, connected buildings equipment and automation s ystems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product...

  14. Building bridges for fish

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building-bridges-for-fish Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives...

  15. What is Building America?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22

    DOE's Building America program is helping to bridge the gap between homes with high energy costs and homes that are healthy, durable, and energy efficient.

  16. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illuminance Assignments for CBECS Building Activity Categories Illuminance ranges were adopted from the 1987 Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) Lighting Handbook. The IES...

  17. building.ppt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarence Wilkerson

    Building Parenting Skills and Interactions with Kangaroo Care. Sharon A. Wilkerson, PhD, RN. Associate Professor of Nursing. Purdue University. West Lafayette ...

  18. ORISE: Capacity Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute...

  19. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from the engineering literature, based on CBECS building activity.) 4. Efficacy: an energy efficiency measure. Technically, the amount of light produced per unit of energy...

  20. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (CEC), March 1990. Advanced Lighting Technologies Application Guidelines (ALTAG), Building and Appliance Efficiency Office. 3. Dubin, F.S., Mindell, H.L., and Bloome, S., 1976....