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1

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil  

SciTech Connect

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil ...  

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing ...

3

Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

General model of oil shale pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ from char. Oil is treated in eleven boiling-point fractions in order to treat the competition between oil coking and evaporation, and to evaluate the effect of oil cracking on the boiling point distribution of the oil. The kinetics and product yields calculated by the model are compared to experimental results for pyrolysis conditions ranging from isothermal fluid-bed to high-pressure slow-heating-rate retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reviews the development of the field of chemical analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis oils. The techniques applied to pyrolysis oil analysis are reviewed including proximate and ultimate analysis, water (moisture) analysis, and chemical component analysis by various forms of chromatography, solvent separations, and spectrophotometric analyses, like infrared and ultraviolet. Advanced analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular beam -- mass spectrometry are also discussed. This paper reviews and compares the methods and the results of the analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the various methods applied are identified. Comparisons derived from the IEA Round Robin are incorporated.

Elliott, D.C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

7

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

8

General model of oil shale pyrolysis. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ from char. Oil is treated in eleven boiling point fractions in order to treat the competition between oil coking and evaporation, and to evalute the effect of oil cracking on the boiling point distribution of the oil. The kinetics and product yields calculated by the model are compared to experimental results for pyrolysis conditions ranging from isothermal fluid-bed to high-pressure slow-heating-rate retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Hydroprocessing of Biomass Derived Pyrolysis An introduction to the hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil is given and the outline of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

replacements for petroleum based fuels (Tang et al., 2009). Currently, bio-oil derived from biomass pyrolysis microwaves as heating re- source to prepare biomass pyrolysis oil (Huang et al., 2008; Lei et al., 2009 by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass under distinct reaction conditions, including the reaction

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

11

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO); Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

13

Utilization of pyrolysis oil in industrial scale boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The performance of pyrolysis oil in a large-scale combustion system is investigated to determine the feasibility of displacing fuel oil or natural gas in current… (more)

Redfern, Kyle D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading to Transportation Fuels by Catalytic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or methanol. ! While pyrolysis/gasification of coal and woody biomass are in commercial use, pyrolysis reforming of the aqueous phase derived from fast-pyrolysis of biomass. Renewable Energy 2009, 34, (12), 2872.; Lee, W.-J.; Wu, H.; Li, C.-Z., Fast pyrolysis of oil mallee woody biomass: Effect of temperature

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

15

Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading to Transportation Fuels by Catalytic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as fast- pyrolysis and catalytic fast-pyrolysis for producing liquid fuels from biomass feedstocks biomass to a fast-pyrolysis reactor (Table 3.4), the greatest mass yield of bio-oil can be attributed............................................................................................- 70 - TABLE 2.18. BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, REACTION CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTS................- 70

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

16

Catalytic Esterification of Model Compounds of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture containing a wide variety of oxygenated compounds, which results in difficulties in bio-oil upgrading. To gain a clearer understanding of the reaction pathways, seven compounds were chosen to represent biomass ... Keywords: pyrolysis oil, model compounds, catalytic esterification

Zuo-gang Guo; Shu-rong Wang; Ying-ying Zhu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Pyrolysis kinetics for western and eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil yield and kinetic results are reviewed for Western (Colorado Mahogany zone) and Eastern (Sunbury and Ohio (Cleveland member)) oil shales for conditions ranging from those encountered in in-situ processing to those in fluidized-bed retorting. The authors briefly summarize kinetic models for the pyrolysis reactions. Oil yields from Eastern shale are much more sensitive to pyrolysis conditions than Western shale.

Burnham, A.K.; Coburn, T.T.; Richardson, J.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Chapter 3: Insights in the Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil using a Ruthenium on Carbon Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pyrolysis oil and bio-liquids derived thereof. Fast pyrolysis oils can be obtained from biomass in yields up] Bridgwater, A.; Czernik, S.; Diebold, J.; Meier, D.; Oasmaa, A.; Peacocke, C,. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass, I.A. Production of a Bio-Gasoline by Ugrading Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Liquids via Hydrogen

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

22

Pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of JP-5, the Navy jet fuel, has been related to the n-alkane content, specifically n-hexadecane. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest n-alkanes. The formation of n-alkanes in the jet fuel distillation range can be explained if large n-alkanes are present in the crude oil source. Quantities of large n-alkanes are insufficient, however, to explain the amounts found - up to 37% n-alkanes in the jet fuel range. Other possible precursors to small straight chain molecules are substituted cyclic compounds. Attack in the side chain obviously afford a path to an n-alkane. Aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, acids, amines, and ethers also have the potential to form n-alkanes if an unbranched alkyl chain is present in the molecule. Investigations showed that the best yield of the JP-5 cut comes at different times for the various fractions, but a time in the 60 to 120 min range would appear to be the optimum time for good yield at 450/sup 0/C. The longer time would be preferred with respect to lower potential n-alkane yield. None of the fractions gave n-alkane yields approaching the 37% amount found in the Shale-I JP-5. A temperature different than the 450/sup 0/C used here might affect the conversion percentage. Further the combined saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions may interact under pyrolysis conditions to give higher potential n-alkane yields than the fractions stressed independently.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.; Vetter, T.; Sonntag, R.; Moniz, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by liquid-phase processing.3 Thermal depolymerization of biomass can be ach- ieved by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis hydrolysis and pyrolysis can be combined to decompose the maximum amount of biomass to reactive intermediates to pyrolysis alone, suggesting that the choice of technology for biomass deconstruction will likely depend

24

Flash pyrolysis of oil shale with various gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flash pyrolysis of Colorado Oil Shale with methane at a temperature of 800/sup 0/C and pressure of 500 psi appears to give the highest yield of hydrocarbon gas and liquid followed by hydrogen and lowest with helium. In the methane pyrolysis over 54.5% of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to ethylene and benzene. The flash pyrolysis with hydrogen (flash hydropyrolysis) of the oil shale at increasing temperatures showed a rapidly increasing amount of methane formed and a decrease in ethane formation, while the BTX (benzene mainly) yield remained at approximately 10%. At 950/sup 0/C and 500 psi almost all (97.0%) of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Experiments with a mixture of a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal and oil shale under flash hydropyrolysis and methane pyrolysis conditions indicated higher yields of methane and ethylene and slightly lower yields of benzene than predicted by partial additive calculations. These exploratory experiments appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant a fuller investigation of the interaction of the natural resources, oil shale, coal and natural gas under flash pyrolysis conditions.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Liquid-phase Processing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil using Pt/HZSM-5 Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent developments in converting biomass to bio-chemicals and liquid fuels provide a promising sight to an emerging biofuels industry. Biomass can be converted to energy via thermochemical and biochemical pathways. Thermal degradation processes include liquefaction, gasification, and pyrolysis. Among these biomass technologies, pyrolysis (i.e. a thermochemical conversion process of any organic material in the absence of oxygen) has gained more attention because of its simplicity in design, construction and operation. This research study focuses on comparative assessment of two types of pyrolysis processes and catalytic upgrading of bio-oil for production of transportation fuel intermediates. Slow and fast pyrolysis processes were compared for their respective product yields and properties. Slow pyrolysis bio-oil displayed fossil fuel-like properties, although low yields limit the process making it uneconomically feasible. Fast pyrolysis, on the other hand, show high yields but produces relatively less quality bio-oil. Catalytic transformation of the high-boiling fraction (HBF) of the crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was therefore evaluated by performing liquid-phase reactions at moderate temperatures using Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst. High yields of upgraded bio-oils along with improved heating values and reduced oxygen contents were obtained at a reaction temperature of 200°C and ethanol/HBF ratio of 3:1. Better quality, however, was observed at 240 °C even though reaction temperature has no significant effect on coke deposition. The addition of ethanol in the feed has greatly attenuated coke deposition in the catalyst. Major reactions observed are esterification, catalytic cracking, and reforming. Overall mass and energy balances in the conversion of energy sorghum biomass to produce a liquid fuel intermediate obtained sixteen percent (16 wt.%) of the biomass ending up as liquid fuel intermediate, while containing 26% of its initial energy.

Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

28

CORROSIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF RAW AND TREATED PYROLYSIS OILS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis offers a relatively low cost method of processing biomass to produce a liquid product that has the potential for conversion to several types of liquid fuels. The liquid product of fast pyrolysis, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, contains a high oxygen content primarily in the form of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. These oils are typically very acidic with a Total Acid Number that is often in the range of 50 to 100, and previous studies have shown this material to be quite corrosive to common structural materials. Removal of at least some of the oxygen and conversion of this oil to a more useful product that is considerably less corrosive can be accomplished through a hydrogenation process. The product of such a treatment is considered to have the potential for blending with crude oil for processing in petroleum refineries. Corrosion studies and chemical analyses have been conducted using as produced bio-oil samples as well as samples that have been subjected to different levels of oxygen removal. Chemical analyses show treatment affected the concentrations of carboxylic acids contained in the oil, and corrosion studies showed a positive benefit of the oxygen removal. Results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

Keiser, Jim; Howell, Michael; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Sam; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

29

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas (0.5% H 2 ) System Definition (1500 kgday station used for H2A analysis) Capital Costs Bio-Oil Reforming H2A Analysis Bio-Oil Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank...

30

Large-Scale Pyrolysis Oil Production: A Technology Assessment and Economic Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A broad perspective of pyrolysis technology as it relates to converting biomass substrates to a liquid bio-oil product and a detailed technical and economic assessment of a fast pyrolysis plant.

Ringer, M.; Putsche, V.; Scahill, J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

32

Oil production by entrained pyrolysis of biomass and processing of oil and char  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Entrained pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material proceeds from a controlled pyrolysis-initiating temperature to completion of an oxygen free environment at atmospheric pressure and controlled residence time to provide a high yield recovery of pyrolysis oil together with char and non-condensable, combustible gases. The residence time is a function of gas flow rate and the initiating temperature is likewise a function of the gas flow rate, varying therewith. A controlled initiating temperature range of about 400.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. with corresponding gas flow rates to maximize oil yield is disclosed.

Knight, James A. (Atlanta, GA); Gorton, Charles W. (Atlanta, GA)

1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

33

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Boyd, Alison C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Pyrolysis Kinetics and Chemical Structure Considerations of a Green River Oil Shale and Its Derivatives.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work had the objective of determining both the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of oil shale and kerogen as well as using analytical techniques… (more)

Hillier, James L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Recent advances in hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil and its oxygen-containing model compounds  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable world-wide interest in discovering renewable sources of energy that can substitute for fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, which is the most abundant and inexpensive renewable feedstock on the planet, has a great potential for sustainable production of fuels, chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Fast pyrolysis integrated with hydrotreating is one of the simplest, most cost-effective and most efficient processes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels for transportation, which has attracted significant attention in recent decades. However, effective hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil presents a daunting challenge to the commercialization of biomass conversion via pyrolysis-hydrotreating. Specifically, development of active, selective, and stable hydrotreating catalysts is the bottleneck due to the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil feedstock (high oxygen content, molecular complexity, coking propensity, and corrosiveness). Significant research has been conducted to address the practical issues and provide the fundamental understanding of the hydrotreating/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oils and their oxygen-containing model compounds, including phenolics, furans, and carboxylic acids. A wide range of catalysts have been studied, including conventional Mo-based sulfide catalysts and noble metal catalysts, with the latter being the primary focus of the recent research because of their excellent catalytic performances and no requirement of environmentally unfriendly sulfur. The reaction mechanisms of HDO of model compounds on noble metal catalysts as well as their efficacy for hydrotreating or stabilization of bio-oil have been recently reported. This review provides a survey of the relevant literatures of recent 10 years about the advances in the understanding of the HDO chemistry of bio-oils and their model compounds mainly on noble metal catalysts.

Wang, Huamin; Male, Jonathan L.; Wang, Yong

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

Moens, L.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH).sub.2 is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH).sub.2 is added in an excess amount needed.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

Moens, L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

40

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil or its fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming of the pyroligneous oils are being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The authors propose a regionalized system of hydrogen production, where small- and medium-sized pyrolysis units (catalytic reforming of model compounds to hydrogen using Ni-based catalysts have achieved essentially complete conversion to H{sub 2}. Existing data on the catalytic reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. A process diagram for the pyrolysis and reforming operations is discussed, as are initial production cost estimates. A window of opportunity clearly exists if the bio-oil is first refined to yield valuable oxygenates so that only a residual fraction is used for hydrogen production.

Wang, D.; Czernik, S.; Montane, D.; Mann, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Pyrolysis of secondary raw material from used frying oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A totally green chemistry alternative that would lead both to energy production from renewable feedstocks and to solutions of parts of ecological problems related to waste disposals would be very attractive. Pyrolysis of used frying oils seems to be one option for this attractive alternative as we propose to demonstrate in this study. Since 2002, the whole production of waste edible oils (around 100 000 tons per year in France) must be collected and transformed into secondary raw material by specific companies. The general aim of the present work is to produce one of the following target sources of energy: (i) H2 for fuel cells, (ii) H2/CO in satisfactory ratios to produce biodiesel by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction, or (iii) hydrocarbon mixtures with high added value. Therefore, in this work, the conversion of a crude used frying oil, named VEGETAMIXOIL^(r); from Ecogras Company (France), was investigated (weight composition: C 73.6%; O 9.7%; H 12.2%). In support of our knowledge related to fatty acids and me...

Billaud, Francis; Coniglio, Lucie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Characteristics of pyrobitumen and oil obtained from the pyrolysis of Tipton member Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The pyrobitumens and oils produced from the Green River oil shale at 375, 400 and 425{degree}C for various reaction times were characterized to obtain information for kerogen decomposition models. The atomic H/C ratio of pyrobitumen decreased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The average molecular weight of pyrobitumen increased with reaction temperature and time, reached a maximum at each temperature, and then decreased. The pyrobitumens contained an extremely high amount of polar materials; the variations of polar materials, nitrogen contents of pyrobitumen, and pyrobitumen amounts followed the same pattern, suggesting that the nitrogen functional groups play an important role during kerogen decomposition. In contrast, the oils contained much lower amounts of polars and had a constant atomic H/C ratio of 1.70 and an average molecular weight of about 270. Most of the aliphatic hydrocarbons occurred in the oil rather than pyrobitumen after the oil shale pyrolysis.

Chong, S.L.; Miknis, F.P. (Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (USA)); Zhao, X. (Daqing Petroleum Institute, Heilongjiang (China)); Holmes, S. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Baseline NO{sub x} emissions during combustion of wood-derived pyrolysis oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NO{sub x} emissions from two pyrolysis oils of similar origin and overall composition but differing nitrogen contents (0.12 and 0.32% of dry fuel) are determined in a pilot-scale combustor. No NO{sub x} reduction technology is employed in these tests, establishing the baseline or uncontrolled levels of NO{sub x}. Measured effluent oxygen concentrations range from near 0% to near 21%, with stoichiometric ratios ranging from 0 to 1. NO and NO{sub x} are measured separately and found to differ by insignificant ({approx}10--25 ppmv) amounts. Other relevant gas species (CO{sub 2}, CO, total hydrocarbons, and O{sub 2}) are also reported. Peak NO{sub x} emissions from these fuels vary from about 300 to around 650 ppmv, with lower levels associated with low nitrogen content fuels. Trends with stoichiometric ratio and fuel nitrogen content agree qualitatively with behavior from other nitrogen containing fuels, including biomass, coal, and petroleum oils. Nitrogen conversion efficiencies as a function of stoichiometric and fuel nitrogen content are observed to decrease with increasing fuel nitrogen content and increase with increasing oxygen content. Measurements of thermal, prompt, and fuel NO{sub x} contributes indicate that fuel NO{sub x} is the dominant formation mechanism for these fuels. These data suggest that NO{sub x} formed during combustion of pyrolysis oil lends itself to many of the same control technologies as are used in other nitrogen-containing fuel.

Baxter, L.; Jenkins, B.; Winter, F.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Experimental Study of the Effect of Spray Medium on the Collection of Bio-Oil Produced from Biomass Fast Pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The yield and properties of bio-oil are influenced by the species of spray medium used in the biomass fast pyrolysis. In this study, the GC-MS analysis of the whole bio-oil and of the mixture with isoparaffin and ethanol respectively gave information ... Keywords: biomass, pyrolysis, bio-oil, spray medium, isoparaffin

Xinbao Li; Shurong Wang; Qi Wang; Kaige Wang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

Coburn, T.T.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil from Pine Sawdust  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to the fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) from softwood biomass in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of operating parameters including temperature, and flow-rate were tested with bio-oil derived from pine wood as recovered and pyrolyzed in the pilot pyrolyzer of Metso Power in Tampere, Finland. Effects of time on stream and catalyst activity were assessed. Details of the process results were presented included product yields and hydrogen consumption. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an initial understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to the Finnish pine bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Solantausta, Yrjo

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Corrosion Studies Of Raw And Treated Biomass-Derived Pyrolysis Oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid pyrolysis of biomass generates a liquid with properties that are particularly attractive for production of hydrocarbons that could be substituted for liquid fuels derived from petroleum. However, the high oxygen content of the biomass derived liquids presents a number of problems because of the high water content and the considerable concentration of carboxylic acids. Measurements of total acid number (TAN) of pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) samples show that values in the 90-100 range are fairly common. This level of acidity has been shown to cause corrosion problems that have to be addressed in the selection of structural materials that are used in the production, subsequent processing, storage and transport of the pyrolysis oils. Chemical analyses have been performed and laboratory corrosion studies have been conducted in order to assess the aggressiveness of the raw pyrolysis oil from several sources as well as the corrosion caused by a bio-oil that has been treated to reduce the acid and oxygen content. Components of biomass pyrolyzers have also been fabricated from various candidate alloys, and these components have been exposed for extended periods during operation of the pyrolyzers. This paper will report on results of these analyses and corrosion studies.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Howell, Michael [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Connatser, Raynella M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust thermochemical technology for transforming biomass into bio-oil, biochar, and syngas. The robust nature of the pyrolysis technology, which allows considerable flexibility in both the type and quality of the biomass feedstock, combined with a distributed network of small pyrolysis plants, would be compatible with existing agriculture and forestry infrastructure. Bio-oil can be used as a fuel in existing industrial boilers. Biochar can be used with existing infrastructure as a replacement for pulverized coal; however, use of biochar as a soil amendment results in significant environmental and agronomic benefits. Soil application of biochar is a means of sequestering large amounts of C and may have other greenhouse gas benefits. Preliminary reports of the impact of soil biochar applications on crop yields indicate that biochar quality is very important. Biochar is an effective adsorbent for both nutrients and organic contaminants, hence the presence of biochar in soils has been shown to improve water quality in column leaching and field lysimeter studies and it is anticipated to do the same for agricultural watersheds. The pyrolysis platform for producing bio-oil and biochar from biomass appears to be a practical, effective, and environmentally sustainable means of producing large quantities of renewable bioenergy while simultaneously reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. At the present time, the pyrolysis platform is economically marginal because markets for bio-oil and biochar are highly competitive. However, if the USA adopts a program for controlling greenhouse gases, the pyrolysis platform would be highly competitive.

Laird, David A.; Brown, Robert C.; Amonette, James E.; Lehmann, Johannes C.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8 ���µm were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125���°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90���ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the bio-oils. The

George W. Huber, Aniruddha A Upadhye, David M. Ford, Surita R. Bhatia, Phillip C. Badger

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils  

SciTech Connect

This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8 ���µm were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments with model AFBO excluding guaiacol were also conducted. NF membranes showed retention factors of glucose greater than 80% and of acetic acid less than 15% when operated at transmembrane pressures near 60 bar. Task 3.0 Acid Removal by Catalytic Processing It was found that the TAN reduction in bio-oil was very difficult using low temperature hydrogenation in flow and batch reactors. Acetic acid is very resilient to hydrogenation and we could only achieve about 16% conversion for acetic acid. Although it was observed that acetic acid was not responsible for instability of aqueous fraction of bio-oil during ageing studies (described in task 5). The bimetallic catalyst PtRe/ceria-zirconia was found to be best catalyst because its ability to convert the acid functionality with low conversion to gas phase carbon. Hydrogenation of the whole bio-oil was carried out at 125���°C, 1450 psi over Ru/C catalyst in a flow reactor. Again, negligible acetic acid conversion was obtained in low temperature hydrogenation. Hydrogenation experiments with whole bio-oil were difficult to perform because of difficulty to pumping the high viscosity oil and reactor clogging. Task 4.0 Acid Removal using Ion Exchange Resins DOWEX M43 resin was used to carry out the neutralization of bio-oil using a packed bed column. The pH of the bio-oil increased from 2.43 to 3.7. The GC analysis of the samples showed that acetic acid was removed from the bio-oil during the neutralization and recovered in the methanol washing. But it was concluded that process would not be economical at large scale as it is extremely difficult to regenerate the resin once the bio-oil is passed over it. Task 5.0 Characterization of Upgraded Bio-oils We investigated the viscosity, microstructure, and chemical composition of bio-oils prepared by a fast pyrolysis approach, upon aging these fuels at 90���ºC for periods of several days. Our results suggest that the viscosity increase is not correlated with the acids or char present in the bio-oils. The

George W. Huber, Aniruddha A Upadhye, David M. Ford, Surita R. Bhatia, Phillip C. Badger

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Guam Refinery Thermal Cracking/Other (including Gas Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Thermal Cracking/Other (including Gas Oil) Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

62

Oil shale pyrolysis: benchscale experimental studies and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil shale is a complex material that is composed of organic matter, mineral matrix and trace amount of bound and/or unbound water. The endothermic decomposition… (more)

Tiwari, Pankaj

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

64

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Other (including Gas Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Thermal Cracking, Other (including Gas Oil) Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

65

Effects of low temperature preheating on the pyrolysis products from blocks of oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil shale is a sedimentary rock composed of inorganic and organic fractions. The inorganic minerals contained in oil shale include: dolomite, calcite, quartz, i1 lite,… (more)

Alston, David W.

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

1 Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Optimization of Jatropha Oil Extraction and Its By-Product Utilization by Pyrolysis Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the price of fossil fuel has increased, petroleum resources have been restricted and the environmental effects have been of great concern. Biofuel has been considered to be a good solution because it is a clean, non-pollutant and a renewable energy. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that plays a major role in the energy industry. So, the development of biofuel process is more interesting. Jatropha curcas L. is considered as an alternative energy source in order to help solve the energy crisis. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optimum condition of Jatropha seed extraction via a screw press and its by-product utilization by a pyrolysis method for achieving the maximum mass conversion and energy recovery. In this study, Jatropha seeds were first extracted by a screw press with different discharge aperture sizes, namely, number 4 (4.0 mm), 8 (7.0 mm), and 10 (10.5 mm). The by-product obtained from a screw press was then performed pyrolysis runs at the operating temperatures of 400, 500, and 600 degrees C. Results revealed that the optimum condition was achieved when using discharge aperture number 8 (7.0 mm) for a screw press and performing the pyrolysis of the by- product at 500 degrees C. The mass conversion efficiency of 35.8% refined oil, 21.8% bio-char, 14.6% bio-oil, and 11.7% syn-gas were obtained. Therefore, the utilization of by-product using a pyrolysis can enhance the effectiveness of Jatropha oil extraction with only 16% mass losses occurred. In addition, the gross heating values of the products were observed as 39.6 MJ/kg for the refined oil, 35.1 MJ/kg for the bio-oil, 27.5 MJ/kg for the bio-char, and 2.1 MJ/kg for the syn-gas. Due to a high mass conversion efficiency and energy content of Jatropha products, Jatropha has the potential to serve as an alternative energy source.

Kongkasawan, Jinjuta 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Pyrolysis of Wood and Bark in an Auger Reactor: Physical Properties and Chemical Analysis of the Produced Bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bio-oil was produced at 450C by fast pyrolysis in a continuous auger reactor. Four feed stocks were used: pine wood, pine bark, oak wood, and oak bark. After extensive characterization of the whole bio-oils and their pyrolytic lignin-rich ethyl acetate fractions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), calorific values, viscosity dependences on shear rates and temperatures, elemental analyses, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, water analyses, and ash content, these bio-oils were shown to be comparable to bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed and vacuum pyrolysis processes. This finding suggests that portable auger reactors might be used to produce bio-oil at locations in forests to generate bio-oil on-site for transport of the less bulky bio-oil (versus raw biomass) to biorefineries or power generation units. The pyrolysis reported herein had lower heat transfer rates than those achieved in fluidized bed reactors, suggesting significant further improvements are possible.

Ingram, L.; Mohan, D.; Bricka, M.; Steele, P.; Strobel, D.; Crocker, D.; Mitchell, B.; Mohammed, J.; Cantrell, K.; Pittman, C. U. Jr.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Chapter 2: Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis oil using Heterogeneous Noble Metal Fast pyrolysis oils from lignocellulosic biomass are promising second generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass, such as peanut shells, for urban transportation. The process involves pyrolysis of the biomass minorities. #12;APPROACH · Develop process based on biomass pyrolysis and steam reforming of pyrolysis vaporsHYDROGEN FROM BIOMASS FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION Collaborating Project Team Y. Yeboah (PI) and K

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

70

Study of gas evolution during oil shale pyrolysis by TQMS (triple quadrupole mass spectrometer)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Real-time gas evolution during pyrolysis of two Green River Formation (Colorado) oil shales, one eastern US Devonian shale, and two Chinese shales was monitored using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). We calculated kinetic parameters for hydrocarbon generation. For water, carbon oxides, and sulfur gases, we compared evolution profiles and identified the organicinorganic precursors of each species. We also monitored nitrogen- and sulfur-containing naphtha components. Hydrocarbon gas profiles, except for CH/sub 4/, are similar for all shales, and their rates of evolution reach a maximum at around the temperatures of maximum oil evolutions. The evolution profiles for H/sub 2/, CH/sub 2/, CO, and CO/sub 2/, at high temperatures are affected by the amount of char remaining in shale, carbonate minerals, and the water-gas shift reaction. The water profile, in general, consists of waters from surface dehydration, kerogen pyrolysis, and mineral dehydration. Mineral dehydration was the dominant water source for all shales, but the temperature ranges for the major water peak varied because of widely different mineral composition. Chinese shales evolved much more water than U.S. shales. Major differences between shales were seen in the sulfur gases. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Oh, M.S.; Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a �demonstration� size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point Hoboken NJ 07030

2012-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Study on the Maize Straw Process of Fast Pyrolysis in the Rotating Cone Reactor and Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With maize straw as raw material and quartz sand as heat medium, the system of rapid pyrolysis of biology materials using a rotating cone reactor was established. seven main factors during the pyrolysis process including temperature, rotating rate, degree ... Keywords: biomass, maize straw, bio-oil, fast pyrolysis, rotating cone reactor

Li Junsheng

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

74

Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

Agblevor, F.A., E-mail: Fagblevo@vt.ed [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: Hot-Gas Filtration; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-333  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hypothesis that was tested in this task was that separation of char, with its associated mineral matter from pyrolysis vapors before condensation, will lead to improved oil quality and stability with respect to storage and transportation. The metric used to evaluate stability in this case was a 10-fold reduction in the rate of increase of viscosity as determined by ASTM D445 (the accelerated aging test). The primary unit operation that was investigated for this purpose was hot-gas filtration. A custom-built heated candle filter system was fabricated by the Pall Corporation and furnished to NREL for this test campaign. This system consisted of a candle filter element in a containment vessel surrounded by heating elements on the external surface of the vessel. The filter element and housing were interfaced to NREL?s existing 0.5 MTD pyrolysis Process Development Unit (PDU). For these tests the pyrolysis reactor of the PDU was operated in the entrained-flow mode. The HGF test stand was installed on a slipstream from the PDU so that both hot-gas filtered oil and bio-oil that was not hot-gas filtered could be collected for purposes of comparison. Two filter elements from Pall were tested: (1) porous stainless steel (PSS) sintered metal powder; (2) sintered ceramic powder. An extremely sophisticated bio-oil condensation and collection system was designed and fabricated at NREL and interfaced to the filter unit.

Baldwin, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Pyrolysis of oil shale: the effects of thermal history on oil yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of thermal history on the oil yield of a powdered, 22-gallon-per-ton Colorado shale was studied by heating to test temperature at Fischer assay rate (12/sup 0/C/min), holding a test temperature for varying times up to 33 d, and finally heating to 500/sup 0/C at 12/sup 0/C/min. Test temperatures covered the range of 150 to 450/sup 0/C. Both autogenous (self-generated) and inert sweep gas atmospheres were used. Under autogenous atmospheres at test temperatures of 250/sup 0/C or below, yields obtained were 100 percent of Fischer assay. Heating at 300 to 425/sup 0/C resulted in yield losses, maximizing at 19 percent after a 33-d exposure at 350/sup 0/C. Yield losses are accompanied by increased char in the retorted shale and by production of oil that is lower in density and nitrogen content, and higher in hydrogen. In the inert gas sweep experiments, increasing flow rates gave increased oil yields, approaching 100 percent assay. This is attributed to reduced thermal degradation of oil in the retort. The total yield appears to be determined by the temperature-time exposure of the liberated oil and is not affected by the thermal history of the kerogen. The results indicate that the high gas sweep rates planned for in-situ retorting will be advantageous to oil yield. (auth)

Stout, N.D.; Koskinas, G.J.; Raley, J.H.; Santor, S.D.; Opila, R.J.; Rothman, A.J.

1976-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

77

Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and products derived therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.

Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

Sequeira, A. Jr.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to the large quantity of biomass that would be required. Even with several remote pyrolysis plantsDecember 2003 · NREL/MP-510-33112 Update of Hydrogen from Biomass -- Determination of Hydrogen from Biomass - Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Oil and gas field code master list, 1983. [Glossary included  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the United States with field information collected through November 1983. The purpose of the publication is to provide codes for easy identification of domestic fields. A standardization of these field codes will foster consistency in field identification by government and industry. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on the survey forms and reports regarding field-specific data for the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A glossary of the terms is provided to assist the readers in more fully understanding the information in this Field Code Master List. 8 figures, 4 tables.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Stocks of Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Including SPR)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

84

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450 to 700/sup 0/C over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C/sub 1/ to C/sub 8/ hydrocarbons and a reduction in H/sub 2/S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing coal without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M.R.

1986-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay of natural and synthetic crude oils including a Fischer-Retorted Estonian shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DMSO extracts of a variety of natural and synthetic crude oils were tested for genotoxic activity in the Ames/Salmonella bioassay. Both mutagenic and cytotoxic potentials are cited. Natural crude oils and their refined products and upgraded synfuels are less mutagenic than parent crude shale oils which in turn are less mutagenic than the coal derived distillate blend sample, SRC II. However, this order is not true for cytotoxicity induced by these oil samples; therefore, caution must be exercised in the assessment of their mutagenic potential without consideration of other influential factors including cytotoxicity.

Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Use of bark-derived pyrolysis oils ass a phenol substitute in structural panel adhesives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this program was to pilot the world's first commercial-scale production of an acceptable phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin containing natural resin (NR) ingredients, for use as an adhesive in Oriented-Strand Board (OSB) and plywood panel products. Natural Resin products, specifically MNRP are not lignin ''fillers''. They are chemically active, natural phenolics that effectively displace significant amounts of phenol in PF resins, and which are extracted from bark-derived and wood-derived bio-oils. Other objectives included the enhancement of the economics of NR (MNRP) production by optimizing the production of certain Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{trademark}) byproducts, particularly char and activated carbon. The options were to activate the char for use in waste-water and/or stack gas purification. The preliminary results indicate that RTP{trademark} carbon may ultimately serve as a feedstock for activated carbon synthesis, as a fuel to be used within the wood product mill, or a fuel for an electrical power generating facility. Incorporation of the char as an industrial heat source for use in mill operations was L-P's initial intention for the carbon, and was also of interest to Weyerhaeuser as they stepped into in the project.

Louisiana Pacific Corp

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

89

The effects of biomass pretreatments on the products of fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fast pyrolysis thermochemically degrades lignocellulosic material into solid char, organic liquids, and gaseous products. Using fast pyrolysis to produce renewable liquid bio-oil to replace crude… (more)

Kasparbauer, Randall Dennis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Production of phenols and biofuels by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-distance transportation advantages over raw biomass and wood pellets is BioOil from fast pyrolysis, or Pyrolysis Oil called fast pyrolysis, whereby biomass particles are heated in the absence of oxygen, vapourized to become manufacturing centers for Pyrolysis Oil, and those with extensive reserves of low-cost biomass can

Tang, Juming

91

The Optimal of Pyrolysis Process in the Rotating Cone Reactor and Pyrolysis Product Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With wood shatters as raw material and quartz sand as heat medium, the process of rapid pyrolysis of biology materials with a self-made rotating cone reactor was investigated. The optimal conditions by orthogonal test indicated the pyrolysis of biology ... Keywords: Bio-oil, Fast pyrolysis, Rotating Cone Reactor

Li Junsheng

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability  

SciTech Connect

An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

Transforming Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) into Fuel via the Gasification/Pyrolysis Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pyrolysis oil and bio-liquids derived thereof. Fast pyrolysis oils can be obtained from biomass in yields up] Bridgwater, A.; Czernik, S.; Diebold, J.; Meier, D.; Oasmaa, A.; Peacocke, C,. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass, I.A. Production of a Bio-Gasoline by Ugrading Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Liquids via Hydrogen

Columbia University

94

Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

Harris, Harry A. (Rifle, CO); Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

96

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

97

Understanding the product distribution from biomass fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for… (more)

Patwardhan, Pushkaraj Ramchandra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

PRODUCTION OF HIGHER QUALITY BIO-OILS BY IN-LINE ESTERIFICATION OF ...  

The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not ... Biomass and Biofuels;

99

Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

Diebold, J.P.

1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Studies of oil-shale reaction chemistry at LLL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is presented of recent studies on the chemistry of oil shale retorting. Kinetics are summarized for oil production and destruction mechanisms including kerogen-bitumen pyrolysis, oil coking and oil cracking. The effect of retorting conditions on shale oil quality is discussed along with the reverse process of inferring retorting conditions and yield loss mechanisms in modified in-situ retorts. Kinetic studies of carbonate mineral decomposition and related mineral reactions as well as residual carbon gasification are outlined.

Burnham, A.K.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Pyrolysis of hull-enriched byproducts from the scarification of hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Orlando, Florida, USA NAWTEC18-3521 STATUS OF EXISTING BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS FACILITIES trucking. The preferred development scenario for a biomass gasification or pyrolysis facility to serve for commercial applications [10]. A biomass pyrolysis system has tested firing syn-oil in a gas turbine [11

104

An investigation of the kinetics for the fast pyrolysis of loblolly pine woody biomass .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the search for fossil fuel alternatives the production of bio-oil through the pyrolysis of biomass is one method which has shown evidence of scalability,… (more)

Williams, Alexander W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Pyrolysis of biomass and biorefinery residual materials for production of advanced biofuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work carried out throughout this project has helped to further advance the area of biomass pyrolysis for the production of bio-oil. During the early… (more)

Melligan, Fergus J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Stocks of Crude Oil (Including SPR) - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

107

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol extraction. Sodium stearate contained in a stainless steel miniature reactor was heated at 450/sup 0/C in a fluidized sand bath. Pyrolysis times ranged from 15 to 120 minutes. The amounts of gas and liquid products were measured and composition determined by gas chromatography. Ethane, methane, propylene plus propane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide are the major gaseous products, in order of decreasing concentration. The predominant liquid product is a C/sub 17/ alkene with C/sub 12/-C/sub 21/ alkene/alkane pairs present. The first order decomposition rate constant for sodium stearate at 450/sup 0/C was calculated to be 6.4 x 10/sup -3/ min./sup -1/. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Chong, S.L.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

Kinetics of oil shale pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The potential energy supply that could be provided by-tapping the energy reserve found in the Green River Formation of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming has presented… (more)

Kowallis, Paul Clair

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

Zhang Xinghua [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 610540 (China); Wang Tiejun [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 610540 (China)], E-mail: wangtj@ms.giec.ac.cn; Ma Longlong; Chang Jie [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 610540 (China)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Controlling biomass properties for optimizing fast pyrolysis products.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The energy future of the United States is likely to include a large number of traditional and alternative energy sources and technologies. Fast pyrolysis has… (more)

Jeffrey, Brandon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fundamental Pyrolysis Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress on the direct mass spectrometric sampling of pyrolysis products from wood and its constituents is described for the period from June 1982 to February 1983. A brief summary and references to detailed reports, of the qualitative demonstration of our approach to the study of the separated processes of primary and secondary pyrolysis is presented. Improvements and additions to the pyrolysis and data acquisition systems are discussed and typical results shown. Chief of these are a heated-grid pyrolysis system for controlled primary pyrolysis and a sheathed flame arrangement for secondary cracking studies. Qualitative results of the secondary cracking of cellulose, lignin, and wood are shown as are comparisons with the literature for the pyrolysis spectra of cellulose, lignin, and levoglucosan. 'Fingerprints' for a number of materials are shown, with spectra taken under carefully controlled conditions so that sensitivity calibrations for different compounds, now being determined, can be applied.

Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J.; Soltys, M. N.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for… (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

Ted Oyama, Foster Agblevor, Francine Battaglia, Michael Klein

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

115

Coal pyrolysis for utility use: Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPRI undertook an extensive research effort to evaluate the viability of coal pyrolysis products for utility use. The objectives of the studies were to evaluate the combustion and storage characteristics of pyrolysis char and to evaluate the upgrading potential of pyrolysis liquid products (tar). To achieve these objectives, it was necessary to produce sufficient quantities of the char and tar in a process unit large enough to produce commercially representative products. For both technical and availability reasons, EPRI selected the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (L-R) process for the production run (under subcontract to Bechtel Group, Inc. RP2505-2). Several contractors were to do the liquid upgrading. Two contractors were selected to use alternative processes for upgrading the L-R heavy tar: Lummus-Crest, Inc. (RP2505-5), using its LC-fining technology, and Veba Oel (RP2505-6), using its Combi-Cracking process. (The Combi-Cracking process also simultaneously hydrotreats the coal-tar-derived distillates.) Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP) was selected to hydrotreat the light and middle oils from the L-R process (RP2505-7), as well as the distillable material produced by Lummus. Unfortunately, none of these contractors received the anticipated products. The light oil was in the form of a light oil-water emulsion and the middle oil had been blended with the solids-laden heavy oil during L-R operation. Combustion Engineering, Inc. carried out a two-phase program to evaluate the combustion characteristics of pyrolysis char (RP2505-4).

McKinsey, R.; Luebke, C.P.; Thelen, H.J.; ya Nsakala, N.; Riegel, H.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

117

Omega-3 Oils: Applications in Functional FoodsChapter 3 Fish Sources of Various Lipids Including n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Dietary Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Omega-3 Oils: Applications in Functional Foods Chapter 3 Fish Sources of Various Lipids Including n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Dietary Effects Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 448930

118

Oil from rock  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses first the Green River Formation oil shale projects in the western United States from which conservative estimates have suggested an output of 400,000 to 600,000 bbl/day of crude shale oil by 1990. The western reserves recoverable with present technology are said to exceed 600 billion (10/sup 9/) bbl. Three major considerations could limit the large-scale development of shale oil: availability of water, environmental factors, and socio-economic considerations. Water is used to obtain and process the crude shale oil, and additional water is needed to cool the spent shale and to establish new vegetation on top of it. Nitrogenous compounds and arsenic in crude shale oil are among potential pollutants. Spent shale contains salts that are potentially leachable, as well as organic pyrolytic products. Retorting oil shales may release more CO/sub 2/ through decomposition of carbonate minerals that will subsequently be generated by burning the oil produced. Topographic effects of oil shale mining may raise socio-economic problems. Next the article discusses the conversion of coal to liquid by pyrolysis or hydrogenation, including the Gulf solvent refined coal (SRC) and the Exxon (EDS) liquefaction processes. Also described in the South African SASOL process for producing synthetic fuel from coal. A parallel account is included on the estimated complete cycle of United States and of worldwide crude oil production, forecasting depletion within less than a century. 11 refs.

Walters, S.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis,” to appear ineffect during biomass pyrolysis,” Industrial & Engineeringprocesses during pyrolysis of a large biomass particle,”

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Status of Process Development for Pyrolysis of Biomass for Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is one of several thermochemical conversion strategies to produce useful fuels from biomass material . The goal of fast pyrolysis is to maximize liquid product yield. Fast pyrolysis is accomplished by the thermal treatment of the biomass in an air-free environment. Very short heat up and cool-down is a requirement for fast pyrolysis. The typical residence time in the pyrolysis reactor is 1 second. In order to accomplish the fast heatup, grinding the biomass to a small particle size in the range of 1 mm is typical and pre-drying of the biomass to less than 10 weight percent moisture is considered the standard. Recovery of the product liquid, called bio-oil, is accomplished by a variety of methods all of which require a quick quench of the product vapor. A definition of fast pyrolysis bio-oil is provided for the CAS # RN 1207435-39-9 recently issued by ChemAbstracts Services.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Utah Heavy Oil Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

122

Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

Santini, Alessandro [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Passarini, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.passarini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Vassura, Ivano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier [Department of Chemical and Energy Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Instituto IMDEA Energy, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Morselli, Luciano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Oil and natural gas reserve prices : addendum to CEEPR WP 03-016 ; including results for 2003 revisions to 2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction. A working paper entitled "Oil and Natural Gas Reserve Prices 1982-2002: Implications for Depletion and Investment Cost" was published in October 2003 (cited hereafter as Adelman & Watkins [2003]). Since then ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

comparison of bio-oil produced in a fractionated bio-oil collection system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from a 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection… (more)

Pollard, Anthony Joseph Sherwood

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio Committee Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported

Victoria, University of

127

"Optimization of Zero Length Chromatographic System and Measuring Properties of Model Compounds from Biomass Pyrolysis"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on alternatives for fossil derived liquid transportation fuels. Biomass is considered a promising alternative due to its abundance and renewability. Various products from different biomass sources have been proposed interesting, second generation transportation fuel is pyrolysis oil, obtained by flash pyrolysis

Mountziaris, T. J.

128

Review of Bio-oil Upgrading Technologies and Experimental Study on Emulsification of Bio-oil and Diesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis oil (also called bio-oils) produced from biomass is a promising substitute for fossil fuels. However, bio-oil has many shortcomings, such as high viscosity, high oxygenate content, low stability and low heating value. Therefore, it is hard ... Keywords: Biomass, Fast Pyrolysis, Bio-oil, Upgrading, Emulsification

Qianqian Yin; Shurong Wang; Xinbao Li; Zuogang Guo; Yueling Gu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Design, optimization and evaluation of a free-fall biomass fast pyrolysis reactor and its products.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this work is a radiatively heated, free-fall, fast pyrolysis reactor. The reactor was designed and constructed for the production of bio-oil from… (more)

Ellens, Cody James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Impact of thermal pretreatment on the fast pyrolysis conversion of Southern Pine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: Thermal pretreatment of biomass ranges from simple (nondestructive) drying to more severe treatments that cause devolatization, depolymerization and carbonization. These pretreatments have demonstrated promise for transforming raw biomass into feedstock material that has improved milling, handling, storage and conversion properties. In this work, southern pine material was pretreated at 120, 180, 230 and 270 degrees C, and then subjected to pyrolysis tests in a continuous-feed bubbling-fluid bed pyrolysis system. Results: High pretreatment temperatures were associated with lower specific grinding energies, higher grinding rates and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents. Higher pretreatment temperatures were also correlated with increased char production, decreased total acid number and slight decrease in the oxygen content of the pyrolysis liquid fraction. Conclusion: Thermal pretreatment has both beneficial and detrimental impacts on fast pyrolysis conversion of pine material to bio-oil, and the effect of thermal pretreatment on upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil requires further attention.

Tyler L. Westover; Manunya Phanphanich; Micael L. Clark; Sharna R. Rowe; Steven E. Egan; Christopher T Wright; Richard D. Boardman; Alan H. Zacher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Pyrolysis of the tetra pak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

Korkmaz, Ahmet [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Yanik, Jale [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: jale.yanik@ege.edu.tr; Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia ['Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Laboratory, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

SciTech Connect

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Oil shale retorting: Part 2, variation in product oil chemistry during retorting of an oil shale block  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the variation in composition of oil as it is evolved during the pyrolysis of oil shale. Thirteen shale oil fractions collected during pyrolysis of an 18- x 18-cm cylindrical shale block have been analyzed by measurements of density, viscosity, elemental composition, simulated distillation, GLC, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR, and infrared spectroscopy. The results show a striking change in the composition of oil collected early during retorting, as compared with that collected during the middle or latter part of retorting. In particular, the early oil fractions contain a predominance of naturally occurring isoprenoid compounds, whereas later fractions contain larger amounts of paraffin compounds. Less dramatic changes include variations in the amounts of olefins, aromatics, and degree of aromatic substitution, changes in amount of nitrogen-containing compounds, and variations in density and viscosity. The results of these analyses are used to form a picture of the changes in shale oil composition during retorting in the hope that a clearer understanding of the system's chemistry may eventually provide a way to optimize the shale oil retorting process.

Coburn, T.T.; Campbell, J.H.

1977-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

136

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils  

agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup.  The oils tested include canola oil, grapeseed oil, coconut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, ...

138

Reaction kinetics for remodeling oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from recent laboratory kinetic studies at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on gasification, pyrolysis, and mineral reactions in oil shale are presented. The specific pyrolysis reactions investigated include the decomposition of kerogen, the evolution of oil, hydrogen and C/sub 2/ plus C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons and the formation of a carbonaceous residue. Data describing the evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ during secondary pyrolysis of the carbonaceous residue are also presented. The mineral reaction kinetics discussed include the decomposition and/or reaction (with silica or silicates) of calcite, dolomite, dawsonite and nahcolite. Rate equations describing the effects of CO/sub 2/ and steam on the reactions of calcite and dolomite are presented. Finally, kinetics describing gasification of the carbonaceous residue by CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O are examined. The above kinetic data are summarized in a set of rate expressions that can be used in numerical modeling of oil shale retorting. The rate equations are general enough for modeling both in-situ and surface retorting processes.

Campbell, J.H.; Burnham, A.K.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

Islam, M.R., E-mail: mrislam1985@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Takai, K.; Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University Corporation Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Product characterization of fast pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pyrolysis is an important step in the thermal conversion of biomass. During this study, the influence of temperature, heating rate and holding time on fast… (more)

Gout, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Conceptual design study on incorporating a 25-ton/day pyrolysis unit into an operating total energy system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a conceptual design study on incorporating a pyrolysis unit into an existing total energy plant are presented. The objectives of this study were to examine the institutional, technical and economic factors affecting the incorporation of a 25-ton/day pyrolysis unit into the Indian Creek Total Energy Plant. The Indian Creek total energy plant is described. Results of the conceptual design are presented. A survey of the availability of waste materials and a review of health and safety ordinances are included. The technical aspects of the pyrolysis system are discussed, including the results of the review of facilities requirements for the pyrolysis unit, the analysis of necessary system modification, and an estimate of the useful energy contribution by the pyrolysis unit. Results of the life-cycle cost analysis of the pyrolysis unit are presented. The major conclusions are that: there appears to be no institutional or technical barriers to constructing a waste pyrolysis unit at the Indian Creek Total Energy Plant; pyrolysis gas can be consumed in the engines and the boilers by utilizing venturi mixing devices; the engines can consume only 5% of the output of the 25-ton/day pyrolysis unit; Therefore, consumption of pyrolysis gas will be controlled by boiler energy demand patterns; a waste pyrolysis unit is not cost effective at the current natural gas price of $0.90/10/sup 6/ Btu; and pyrolysis is economically attractive at natural gas prices above $3.00/10/sup 6/ Btu.

None

1976-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Direct observation of pyrolysis behavior of carbonaceous solids in a hot steam-argon environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique flame-pyrolysis, direct-sampling mass spectrometer system has been applied to the observation of the primary and secondary pyrolysis of wood and its constituents. The system consists of a flat-flame burner which generates a hot column of steam-argon, into which samples to be pyrolyzed are introduced or suspended. A free-jet, molecular-beam, mass spectrometric sampling system is positioned relative to the pyrolyzing surface so that primary products can be observed as well as their secondary cracking in hot gases. Typical primary pyrolysis product slates from cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, wood, oil shale and coal will be shown, as well as the secondary cracking of cellulose products to olefins. The effect of potassium ions and sample dimension on primary pyrolysis of cellulose will be shown to illustrate the kind of real-time pyrolysis behavior that can readily be observed with our techniques.

Milne, T.A.; Soltys, M.N.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Specialty Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Specialty Oils. Samples tested include Walnut Oil, Pecan Oil, Pistachio Oil, Sesame Seed Oil, Flax Seed Oil, Neem Oil, Safflower Oil, Sunflower Oil. Specialty Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Pro

145

Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

Reed, T.B.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town December 16, 2011 - 12:10pm Addthis Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? This ARPA-E awardee removes the oxygen and other contaminants in the biomass to be turned into fuel with a novel "catalytic biomass pyrolysis" approach. This substance is more carbon efficient, requires less hydrogen to

147

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town Move Over Flash Pyrolysis, There's a New Bioenergy Sheriff in Town December 16, 2011 - 12:10pm Addthis Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. Jonathan Peters, a researcher at RTI International (an ARPA-E awardee), characterizes the water content of a bio-oil sample. | Courtesy of RTI International. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? This ARPA-E awardee removes the oxygen and other contaminants in the biomass to be turned into fuel with a novel "catalytic biomass pyrolysis" approach. This substance is more carbon efficient, requires less hydrogen to

148

Evaluation of Catalysts from Different Origin for Vapor Phase Upgrading in Biomass Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass resources arouse much interests in research and development. Fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to effectively change solid biomass materials into liquid products. However, bio-oil from traditional pyrolysis processes is difficult to apply in industry, because of its complicated composition, high oxygen content, low stability, etc. Upgrading or refining of the bio-oil should be performed for industrial application of biomass pyrolysis. Often, the process would be done in a separate reactor downstream of the pyrolysis process. In this paper, a laboratory scale micro test facility was constructed, wherein the pyrolysis of pine and catalytic upgrading of the resulting vapors were closely coupled in one reactor. The composition of vapor effluent was monitored with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for the online evaluation of the catalyst performance. Catalysts from different origin were tested and compared for the effectiveness of pyrolysis vapor upgrading, namely commercial zeolites, Ni based steam reforming catalyst, CaO, MgO, and several laboratory-made catalysts. The reaction temperature for catalytic upgrading varied between 400 and 600 centigrade, and the gaseous residence time ranged from 0.1 second to above 2 second, to simulate the conditions in industrial application. It is revealed that some catalysts are active in transform most of primary biomass pyrolysis vapors into hydrocarbons, resulting in nonoxygenated products, which is beneficial for downstream utilization. Others are not as effective, results in minor improvement compared with blank test results.

Zhang, X.; Mukarakate, C.; Zheng, Z.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

"UPGRADING PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS" Donald K. Walter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption rate (kg/s) mv volatile matter in biomass (kg) t time (s) tpyr pyrolysis time (s) B transfer on the burner temperature prescribes the maximum allowable percentage of biomass in the blend. 3.1. Pyrolysis Pyrolysis of biomass is thermal decomposition of the fuel. As with coal, pyrolysis is a relatively slow

Columbia University

150

Mineral Nutrient Recovery from Pyrolysis Co-Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment to product liquid, gaseous, and solid co-products. The liquid co-product, known as bio-oil, can be used as a transportation fuel. The gaseous co-product, known as synthesis gas, can be used to power the pyrolysis reactor or other machinery. The solid co-product, known as bio-char, has been studied as an amendment to enhance soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status. Although previous publications have described the beneficial effects of pyrolysis bio-char on soil physical and chemical properties, relatively little has been published on the recovery of mineral nutrients from pyrolysis co-products. This work quantified the recovery of feedstock nutrients (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and micronutrients (Na, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) from pyrolysis co-products from various feedstocks using three distinct pyrolysis reactor designs. The reactors comprised a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor and two fluidized-bed reactors located in College Station, TX and Wyndmoor, PA. Nutrient recoveries, on a feedstock basis, were calculated for a comparison of reactor efficiencies. In addition to nutrient recoveries, physical and chemical properties of input biomass and of bio-char generated by each reactor were characterized through ultimate and proximate analyses. For the fixed-bed reactor, results revealed variation among feedstocks for the recoveries of feedstock sources of macronutrients and Na, Fe, and Cu in pyrolysis co-products. Variation among species was also detected for the recoveries of feedstock sources of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe in pyrolysis co-products for samples pyrolyzed using the Wyndmoor reactor. For the College Station reactor, recoveries of feedstock sources of P, K, Ca, and Mg in pyrolysis co-products did not vary among species, but Zn did vary. Ultimate and proximate analyses of biomass and bio-chars generated by the three reactors revealed variation among species. Additionally, the results showed that the recovery of feedstock nutrients varied by reactor design. Statistical analysis revealed high correlations and linear relationships between the recovery of nutrients and reactor mass and energy efficiency and feedstock fiber properties.

Wise, Jatara Rob

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Exploratory Studies on Fast Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Output Component Structure for Catalyst Regeneration Bed (Z­207 ...............................................................42 2.1.5 Solar Production of Carbon Nanotubes ............................................44 2 Balance Equations for Fluidized Bed Reactor (V­201

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

152

Consider upgrading pyrolysis oils into renewable fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New research is identifying processing routes to convert cellulosic biomass into transportation fuels

Elliott, Douglas C.; Holmgren, Jennifer; Marinangelli, Richard; nair, Prabhakar; Bain, Richard

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

155

www.mdpi.org/ijms Pyrolysis of Softwood Carbohydrates in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood), was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5 °C/min) was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 °C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levoglucosan was the dominant product in the cellulose pyrolysis oil. Acetic acid was found in the highest concentrations in both the galactoglucomannan and in the pine wood pyrolysis oils. Acetic acid is most likely formed by removal of O-acetyl groups from mannose units present in GGM structure.

Atte Aho; Narendra Kumar; Kari Eränen; Bjarne Holmbom; Mikko Hupa; Tapio Salmi; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

PEER-REVIEW Scrap tire pyrolysis: experiment and modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shell (biomass) cellulosa type of reaction flash pyrolysis pyrolysis flash pyrolysis slow pyrolysis. Scott, J. Piskorz, D. Radlein; Liquid Products from the Continuous Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass, Ind. Eng; The Continous Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 1984, 62, 404-412 #12

Columbia University

157

Entrained-Flow, Fast Ablative Pyrolysis of Biomass - Annual Report, 1 December 1984 - 31 December 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ablative, fast pyrolysis system was relocated to SERI's new, permanent Field Test Laboratory. Pyrolysis system modifications were made to increase the energy available to the vortex reactor and to enhance the collection efficiency of primary pyrolysis vapors. Mathematical modeling of the vapor cracker has resulted in the ability to accurately predict experimental results with respect to the thermal cracking of the primary vapors, the generation of noncondensible gases, and the gas composition. The computer algorithm of this model can be readily used to perform experimental simulation and/or reactor scale-up due to its fundamental nature. Preliminary screening tests with pure ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, supplied by Mobil Research and Development Corporation, have shown promise for the conversion of primary pyrolysis oil vapors to aromatic hydrocarbons; i.e., gasoline.

Diebold, J. P.; Scahill, J. W.; Evans, R. J.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Well-to-wheels analysis of fast pyrolysis pathways with the GREET model.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel natural gas and the amount of fossil natural gas used for hydrogen production is reduced; however, internal hydrogen production also reduces the potential petroleum energy savings (per unit of biomass input basis) because the fuel yield declines dramatically. Typically, a process that has a greater liquid fuel yield results in larger petroleum savings per unit of biomass input but a smaller reduction in life-cycle GHG emissions. Sequestration of the large amount of bio-char co-product (e.g., in soil applications) provides a significant carbon dioxide credit, while electricity generation from bio-char combustion provides a large energy credit. The WTW energy and GHG emissions benefits observed when a pyrolysis oil refinery was integrated with a pyrolysis reactor were small when compared with those that occur when pyrolysis oil is distributed to a distant refinery, since the activities associated with transporting the oil between the pyrolysis reactors and refineries have a smaller energy and emissions footprint than do other activities in the pyrolysis pathway.

Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. (Energy Systems)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

different stages of combustion,” Biomass and Bioenergy 23:biomass pyrolysis,” to appear in Progress in Energy and Combustion

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wood,” Transactions of the American Society of Heating andheating ways on pyrolysis and spontaneous ignition of some woods,”

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Molecular Analysis of Primary Vapor and Char Products during Stepwise Pyrolysis of Poplar Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of biomass produces both pyrolysis oil and solid char. In this study, poplar has been pyrolyzed in a stepwise fashion over a series of temperatures from 200 to 500°C, and both the primary products contributing to pyrolysis oil and the changes in the pyrolyzing poplar surface leading toward char have been characterized at each step. The primary products were identified by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry, and the changes in the poplar surface were monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) photoacoustic spectroscopy, with a sampling depth of a few micrometers. The primary products from pyrolyzing cellulose, xylan, and lignin under similar conditions were also characterized to identify the sources of the poplar products.

Jones, Roger W.; Reinot, Tonu; McClelland, John F.

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

162

Molecular Analysis of Primary Vapor and Char Products during Stepwise Pyrolysis of Poplar Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of biomass produces both pyrolysis oil and solid char. In this study, poplar has been pyrolyzed in a stepwise fashion over a series of temperatures from 200 to 500 C, and both the primary products contributing to pyrolysis oil and the changes in the pyrolyzing poplar surface leading toward char have been characterized at each step. The primary products were identified by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry, and the changes in the poplar surface were monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) photoacoustic spectroscopy, with a sampling depth of a few micrometers. The primary products from pyrolyzing cellulose, xylan, and lignin under similar conditions were also characterized to identify the sources of the poplar products.

Jones, Roger W.; Reinot, Tonu; McClelland, John F.

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

Diebold, J.P. [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

LLNL oil shale project review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

Cena, R.J. (ed.)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

decomposition fronts in wood,” Combustion and Flame 139: 16–dynamics modeling of wood combustion,” Fire Safety Journalduring the pyrolysis of wood,” Combustion and Flame 17: 79–

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The large volume of water produced during the extraction of oil presents a significant problem due to the high cost of disposal in an environmentally friendly manner. On average, an estimated seven barrels of water is produced per barrel of oil in the US alone and the associated treatment and disposal cost is an estimated $5-10 billion. Besides making oil-water separation more complex, produced water also causes problems such as corrosion in the wellbore, decline in production rate and ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons and premature well or field abandonment. Water production can be more problematic during waterflooding in a highly heterogeneous reservoir with vertical communication between layers leading to unevenness in the flood front, cross-flow between high and low permeability layers and early water breakthrough from high permeability layers. Some of the different technologies that can be used to counteract this involve reducing the mobility of water or using a permeability block in the higher permeability, swept zones. This research was initiated to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the latter method, known as deep diverting gels (DDG) to plug thief zones deep within the reservoir and far from the injection well. To evaluate the performance of DDG, its injection was modeled, sensitivities run for a range of reservoir characteristics and conditions and an economic analysis was also performed. The performance of the DDG was then compared to other recovery methods, specifically waterflooding and polymer flooding from a technical and economic perspective. A literature review was performed on the background of injection profile control methods, their respective designs and technical capabilities. For the methods selected, Schlumberger's Eclipse software was used to simulate their behavior in a reservoir using realistic and simplified assumptions of reservoir characteristics and fluid properties. The simulation results obtained were then used to carry out economic analyses upon which conclusions and recommendations are based. These results show that the factor with the largest impact on the economic success of this method versus a polymer flood was the amount of incremental oil produced. By comparing net present values of the different methods, it was found that the polymer flood was the most successful with the highest NPV for each configuration followed by DDG.

Okeke, Tobenna

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O'Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even selling price for the baseline assumption is about $11/GJ, however it may be possible to reduce this value by 20-30% depending on other factors evaluated in the non-baseline scenarios. Assuming a value for the char co-product improves the analysis. Significantly lower break-even costs are possible in an international setting, as labor is the dominant production cost.

Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro-cogeneration System based on a Modified Stirling Engine and Fuelled by a Wood Derived Fas Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A residential micro-cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine unit was modified to operate with wood derived fast pyrolysis liquid (bio-oil)-ethanol blend. A pilot stabilized… (more)

Khan, Umer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Pyrolysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

PYROLYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE M. IGARASHI Y. HAYAFUNE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modern biomass can produce a bio-char by-product through pyrolysis which results in 30.6 kg C, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass. In the context of bio-char sequestration, only pyrolysis yields in bio-char was the type of biomass used for pyrolysis. Greater concentrations of lignin increased

Columbia University

173

Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Reaction Mechanisms in Reaction Mechanisms in Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review. - - pacific N o r t h ~ ~ ~ , baboratwies I - - bCL-T-,,;, .,- , . . . I ' I . - " 1- jl,! # . .' , . - --h 1 , i b - . "I 1.- . . ., .. ' N O T - I C E , , If PACIF tC NORTHWLST U B O R A T ~ R Y .4peiild by B h m E far c h t ,EP4ERGY RESEARCH AN0 PEVELOPMEM ADMtNlSTRAnQN U m h Contract Z Y - ~ ~ - C ~ & I # D w n : m a , m & l 3 Q j l m OIdrfrn m y - !*? 1SI71Y9 1 - m-u3 2s-m .**-2?3 ,Sbca lcPa w m *a0 Iffy &a It- w-% w w @.a SlO.0 m u 6 REACTION MECHANISMS IN CELLULOSE PYROLYSIS A LITERATURE REVIEW by Peter M. Molton T.F. Demmitt Chemical Technology Department BATTELLE Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, Washington 99352 CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L I S T OF F I G U R E S iii L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . INTRODUCTION 1

174

Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

Walchuk, George P. (Queens, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Oil degradation during oil shale retorting. [Effects on oil yields from powdered shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent experimental data demonstrating the effects of varied thermal histories on oil yield from powdered Colorado shale are reviewed. Losses in overall yield resulting from interruption of a rapid heating schedule with an isothermal holding period are directly related to the amounts of oil that are produced during the holding period. These amounts are also correlated with the inert gas flow rates required to raise the yields to the assay value. The results show that degradation of oil outside the shale particles is the major determinant of oil yield from powdered shale. Maximum thermal degradation rates are calculated from these data and compared with pyrolysis rates for petroleum fractions.

Raley, J.H.; Braun, R.L.

1976-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

Marker, T.L.

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Valorisation of forestry waste by pyrolysis in an auger reactor  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis of forestry waste has been carried out in an auger reactor to study the influence of operational variables on the reactor performance and the properties of the related products. Pine woodchips were used for the first time as raw material and fed continuously into the reactor. Ten experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere at: (i) different reaction temperature (1073, 973, 873, 823 and 773 K); (ii) different solid residence time (5, 3, 2 and 1.5 min); and (iii) different biomass flow rate (3.9, 4.8 and 6.9 kg/h). Results show that the greatest yields for liquid production (59%) and optimum product characterisation were obtained at the lowest temperature studied (773 K) and applying solid residence times longer than 2 min. Regarding bio-oil properties, GC/MS qualitative identification show that the most abundant compounds are volatile polar compounds, phenols and benzenediols; and very few differences can be observed among the samples regardless of the pyrolysis operating conditions. On the whole, experimental results demonstrate that complete reaction of forest woodchips can be achieved in an auger reactor in most of the experimental conditions tested. Moreover, this study presents the initial steps for the future scaling up of the auger reactor with the aim of converting it into a mobile plant which will be able to remotely process biomass such as energy crops, forestry and agricultural wastes to obtain bio-oil that, in turn, can be used as energy vector to avoid high transport costs.

Puy, Neus, E-mail: neus.puy@uab.cat [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Murillo, Ramon; Navarro, Maria V.; Lopez, Jose M. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, M Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Fowler, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Aranguren, Ignacio; Garcia, Tomas [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, M Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartroli, Jordi [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Mastral, Ana M. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, M Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Thermochemical Conversion Research and Development: Gasification and Pyrolysis (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass gasification and pyrolysis research and development activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Not Available

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Hydrogen from Biomass Catalytic Reforming of Pyrolysis Vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surging, the use of biomass and www.elsevier.com/locate/jaap J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis xxx (2006) xxx of the virgin biomass and the development of the microstructure of the char. Structural changes during pyrolysis. Leppamaki, P. Koponen, J. Lavander, E. Tapola, Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids

184

Energy Optimization of Biomass Pyrolysis and Liquefaction System in CFB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis and liquefaction technology needs inert carrier gas and high energy consumption. On the basis of analyzing its energy consumption and the using way of char and off-gas, energy in the pyrolysis and liquefaction system in CFB is optimized ... Keywords: FB biomass pyrolysis energy consumption optimize

Zhang Jun; Teng Wenrui; Wei Xinli

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Western oil shale conversion using the ROPE copyright process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing to develop the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process to recover liquid hydrocarbon products from oil shale, tar sand, and other solid hydrocarbonaceous materials. The process consists of three major steps: (1) pyrolyzing the hydrocarbonaceous material at a low temperature (T {le} 400{degrees}C) with recycled product oil, (2) completing the pyrolysis of the residue at a higher temperature (T > 400{degrees}C) in the absence of product oil, and (3) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce process heat. Many conventional processes, such as the Paraho and Union processes, do not use oil shale fines (particles smaller than 1.27 cm in diameter). The amount of shale discarded as fines from these processes can be as high as 20% of the total oil shale mined. Research conducted to date suggests that the ROPE process can significantly improve the overall oil recovery from western oil shale by processing the oil shale fines typically discarded by conventional processes. Also, if the oil shale fines are co-processed with shale oil used as the heavy recycle oil, a better quality oil will be produced that can be blended with the original shale oil to make an overall produce that is more acceptable to the refineries and easier to pipeline. Results from tests conducted in a 2-inch process development unit (PDU) and a 6-inch bench-scale unit (BSU) with western oil shale demonstrated a maximum oil yield at temperatures between 700 and 750{degrees}F (371 and 399{degrees}C). Test results also suggest that the ROPE process has a strong potential for recovering oil from oil shale fines, upgrading shale oil, and separating high-nitrogen-content oil for use as an asphalt additive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Fahy, L.J.; Grimes, R.W.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine  

SciTech Connect

The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of (3H)cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time.

Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes are microporous carbon membranes formed by pyrolysis of polymers. CMS membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes are microporous carbon membranes formed by pyrolysis mixtures such as carbon dioxide / methane and ethane / ethylene separations. While there are many reports including carbon dioxide, methane, ethane and ethylene and also with selected two-component mixtures

McQuade, D. Tyler

190

Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative pyrolysis of n-heptane was investigated with metal oxides Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MnO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO, Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, and CuO supported on alumina. Metallic content of the catalyst weight varied from 0.1 to 2.0% with catalytic activity reaching a maximum when the metal content was 1%. The most active catalysts were Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/, and NiO. Pyrolysis of cyclohexane and toluene was also studied with Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst. Hydrocarbon stability and coke formation increase with increase of hydrocarbon condensation in the series paraffin < naphthalene < aromatic hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis of the various hydrocarbons at 800/sup 0/C yielded a gas that has an octane number of 90 to 93, and the process was shown to be adaptable to pyrolysis of various commercial fractions such as benzines A-72 and A-76, petroleum fractions, and liquid paraffins to produce gas of about the same octane. (BLM)

Antonova, V.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Paushkin, Ya.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds was studied under conditions optimized for the production of liquid products to provide mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways that lead to product formation. The major reaction products can be explained by cleavage of the C-O either linkage by a free radial or concerted 1,2-elimination.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Cooney, M.J.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Mathematical modeling of modified in situ and aboveground oil shale retorting: Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A one-dimensional mathematical model has been developed for simulating the chemicophysical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a rubblized bed of oil shale. Included are those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion mode. The physical processes are axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle shale thermal conductivity, water vaporization and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to the flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and O/sub 2/. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, CH/sub x/, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The governing equations for mass and energy balance are solved numerically by a semi-implicit, finite-difference method. The bulk-gas flow rate, as well as the composition and temperature of both the gas stream and the shale particles, are calculated as a function of time and location in the retort. 60 refs.

Braun, R.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Study of the Neutralization and Stabilization of a Mixed Hardwood Bio-Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast-pyrolysis bio-oil that is currently produced from lignocellulosic biomass in demonstration and semicommercial plants requires significant modification to become an acceptable transportation fuel. The high acidity and chemical instability of bio-oils render them incompatible with existing petroleum refinery processes that produce gasoline and diesel fuels. To facilitate the use of bio-oil as a feedstock in a traditional refinery infrastructure, there is considerable interest in upgrading bio-oils through chemical pathways that include converting the carboxylic acids and reactive carbonyl compounds into esters and acetals using low-cost alcohols. In this article, we discuss our observations with different approaches to esterification and etherification chemistry using a crude bio-oil derived from mixed hardwoods. The high water content in crude bio-oils (ca. 20?30%) creates equilibrium limitations in the condensation reactions that hamper the upgrading process in that the neutralization and stabilization steps cannot easily be driven to completion. The lowest acid number that we were able to obtain without causing serious degradation of the flow properties of the bio-oil had a total acid number of about 20, a value that is still too high for use in a traditional petroleum refinery.

Moens, L.; Black, S. K.; Myers, M. D.; Czernik, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A model for the oxidative pyrolysis of wood  

SciTech Connect

A generalized pyrolysis model (Gpyro) is applied to simulate the oxidative pyrolysis of white pine slabs irradiated under nonflaming conditions. Conservation equations for gaseous and solid mass, energy, species, and gaseous momentum (Darcy's law approximation) inside the decomposing solid are solved to calculate profiles of temperature, mass fractions, and pressure inside the decomposing wood. The condensed phase consists of four species, and the gas that fills the voids inside the decomposing solid consists of seven species. Four heterogeneous (gas/solid) reactions and two homogeneous (gas/gas) reactions are included. Diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the decomposing solid and its effect on local reactions occurring therein is explicitly modeled. A genetic algorithm is used to extract the required material properties from experimental data at 25 kW/m{sup 2} and 40 kW/m{sup 2} irradiance and ambient oxygen concentrations of 0%, 10.5% and 21% by volume. Optimized model calculations for mass loss rate, surface temperature, and in-depth temperatures reproduce well the experimental data, including the experimentally observed increase in temperature and mass loss rate with increasing oxygen concentration. (author)

Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

NIOP-AOCS Fats and Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for NIOP-AOCS Fats & Oils, samples in this series include crude coconut oil, RB Palm Oil, Crude Safflower Oil, Crude sunflower Oil. NIOP-AOCS Fats and Oils Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Progr

197

Process concept of retorting of Julia Creek oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process is proposed for the above ground retorting of the Julia Creek oil shale in Queensland. The oil shale characteristics, process description, chemical reactions of the oil shale components, and the effects of variable and operating conditions on process performance are discussed. The process contains a fluidized bed combustor which performs both as a combustor of the spent shales and as a heat carrier generator for the pyrolysis step. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Sitnai, O.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bibliographic review of 195 references is presented outlining the history of the research into the mechanisms of cellulose pyrolysis. Topics discussed are: initial product identification, mechanism of initial formation of levoglucosan, from cellulose and from related compounds, decomposition of cellulose to other compounds, formation of aromatics, pyrolysis of levoglucosan, crosslinking of cellulose, pyrolytic reactions of cellulose derivatives, and the effects of inorganic salts on the pyrolysis mechanism. (JSR)

Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Modelling and experimental studies of biomass and organic pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xii, 132 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis CBME 2012 Lam Pyrolysis is a thermal conversion process that decomposes… (more)

Lam, Ka Leung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Design and commissioning of a continuous isothermal fast pyrolysis reactor .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In order to meet growing demands for alternatives to fossil fuels, biomass pyrolysis is a method that has been explored in depth as a method… (more)

Glauber, Samuel Melville

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Coke resistant coating technology for applications in ethylene pyrolysis heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This dissertation begins with a description of the history of the events leading to ethylene pyrolysis tube failure. During service, hydrocarbons pass through the… (more)

Chauhan, Alok Pratap Singh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fast Pyrolysis of Poplar Using a Captive Sample Reactor: Effects of Inorganic Salts on Primary Pyrolysis Products  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a captive sample reactor (CSR) to study fast pyrolysis of biomass. The reactor uses a stainless steel wire mesh to surround biomass materials with an isothermal environment by independent controlling of heating rates and pyrolysis temperatures. The vapors produced during pyrolysis are immediately entrained and transported in He carrier gas to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Formation of secondary products is minimized by rapidly quenching the sample support with liquid nitrogen. A range of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and transition metal salts were tested to study their effect on composition of primary pyrolysis products. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis of the MBMS data shows that transition metal salts enhance pyrolysis of carbohydrates and AAEM salts enhances pyrolysis of lignin. This was supported by performing similar separate studies on cellulose, hemicellulose and extracted lignin. The effect of salts on char formation is also discussed.

Mukarakate, C.; Robichaud, D.; Donohoe, B.; Jarvis, M.; Mino, K.; Bahng, M. K.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Comparison of Biological and Thermal (Pyrolysis) Pathways for Conversion of Lignocellulose to Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of the limited supply of imported crude oil and environmental degradation, renewable energy is becoming commercially feasible and environmentally desirable. In this research, biological and thermal (pyrolysis) conversion pathways for biofuel production from lignocellulosic feedstocks were compared. For biological conversions of sorghum, ethanol yield was improved using M81-E variety (0.072 g/g juice) over Umbrella (0.065 g/g juice) for first-generation biomass (sorghum juice), and 0.042 g/g sorghum was obtained from the cellulosic portion of second-generation biomass. When ultrasonication was combined with hot water pretreatment, yields increased by 15% and 7% for cellulose to glucose, and hemicellulose to pentose, respectively. Ethanol yield was 10% higher when this pretreatment was combined with Accellerase 1500+XC for saccharification. Biological conversion yielded 1,600?2,300 L ethanol/ha for first-generation biomass, and 4,300?4,500 L ethanol/ha from lignocellulosic biomass. For thermal (pyrolysis) conversion of lignocellulosic switchgrass at 600 degrees C, product yield was 37% bio-oil, 26% syngas, and 25% bio-char. At 400 degrees C, product yield was 22% bio-oil, 8% syngas, and 56% bio-char. Bio-oil from pyrolysis was highly oxygenated (37 wt%). It required chemical transformation to increase its volatility and thermal stability, and to reduce its viscosity by removing objectionable oxygen, so the product could be used as transportation fuel (gasoline). As a consequence of upgrading bio-oil by catalytic hydrogenation, bio-oil oxygen decreased from 37?2 wt%, carbon increased from 50?83 wt%, hydrogen increased from 9?15 wt% and heating value increased from 36?46 MJ/kg, resulting in a fuel that was comparable to gasoline. The upgraded product passed the thermal stability test when kept under an oxygen-rich environment. The upgraded product consisted of 14.8% parrafins, 21.7% iso-parrafins, 3% napthene, 42.6% aromatics, 4.7% olefin, 4.7% DMF, 8% alcohol, and 0.6% ketone on a mass basis. Comparing the two pathways, biological conversion had 11 wt% ethanol yield from sorghum, and thermal conversion had 13 wt% gasoline yield from switchgrass. For process efficiency, thermal conversion had 35% energy loss versus 45% energy loss for biological conversions. For the biological pathway, ethanol cost was $2.5/gallon ($4/gallon, gasoline equivalent), whereas for the thermal pathway, switchgrass gasoline cost was $3.7/gallon, both with 15% before tax profit.

Imam, Tahmina 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Study of the mechanism of pyrolysis and gasification of Mallee biomass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mechanisms of pyrolysis/gasification (steam and carbon dioxide) of mallee biomass were investigated. Wood biochar obtained under slow pyrolysis kept botanical structure but lost its original… (more)

Yang, Yanwu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Experimental investigation and systems modeling of fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine was studied both experimentally and through models. A preliminary stage economic analysis was conducted for a wood chip pyrolysis… (more)

Goteti, Anil Chaitanya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Use of pyrolysis char as an amendment in soils of the Southeastern United States.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pyrolysis is an energy production process involving the thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Char, a byproduct of the pyrolysis process, has… (more)

Speir, Robert Adam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects: Shale Oil Upgrading Utilizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Companies providing oil samples of at least five (5) gallons include Chevron, Oil Shale Exploration Company (OSEC), and Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Background Work performed...

210

Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrocarbons is accomplished by pyrolysis of oil shale with controlled removal of the resulting layer of spent oil-shale residue. A procedure is described for the in situ thermal conversion of oil shale wherein fluidized abrasive particles are employed to foster improved hydrocarbon production, in amount and kind, by a controlled partial removal of the layer of spent oil shale which results from application of flowing fluids to heat exposed surfaces of the oil shale to release hydrocarbons. (5 claims)

Slusser, M.L.; Bramhall, W.E.

1969-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Combuston method of oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

Jones, Jr., John B. (300 Enterprise Building, Grand Junction, CO 81501); Reeves, Adam A. (P.O. Box 781, Anvil Points, Rifle, CO 81650)

1977-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Application of CHL model for estimating biomass pyrolysis yield  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pyrolysis of wood biomass represents a valid technique for recovering "green" fuel from residues of forestry and other activities, in agriculture as in industry, where wood and other plant residues are available. Wood biomass is essentially a composite ... Keywords: CHL model, biogas yield, biomass, numerical analysis, pyrolysis, rate estimation

Francesco Marra

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying: drying process and pyrolysis of coal. A heat and mass transfer model was developed to simulate the drying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

2001-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

219

DAG in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab proficiency testing for DAG in Oil to determine Total DAG.Samples include canola oil and soybean oil. DAG in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Testing Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certified chemist chemists Lab laboratories Laborato

220

Bio Diesel Oil of Mustard: Small Diesel a Renewable Alternative Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper represents the mustard oil is a kind of renewable energy and alternative fuel of the future. In order to cope with the current situation of load shedding, and reduce dependence on imported fuels, the Bangladesh government to encourage the ... Keywords: Calorific Value, Ester Exchange Reaction, Keywords: Biodiesel, Mustard Oil, Pyrolysis, Viscosity

Liu Hongcong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

Green, Norman W. (Upland, CA)

1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

222

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

223

Development of the Basis for an Analytical Protocol for Feeds and Products of Bio-oil Hydrotreatment  

SciTech Connect

Methods for easily following the main changes in the composition, stability, and acidity of bio-oil in hydrotreatment are presented. The correlation to more conventional methods is provided. Depending on the final use the upgrading requirement is different. This will create challenges also for the analytical protocol. Polar pyrolysis liquids and their products can be divided into five main groups with solvent fractionation the change in which is easy to follow. This method has over ten years been successfully used for comparison of fast pyrolysis bio-oil quality, and the changes during handling, and storage, provides the basis of the analytical protocol presented in this paper. The method has most recently been used also for characterisation of bio-oil hydrotreatment products. Discussion on the use of gas chromatographic and spectroscopic methods is provided. In addition, fuel oil analyses suitable for fast pyrolysis bio-oils and hydrotreatment products are discussed.

Oasmaa, Anja; Kuoppala, Eeva; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

224

Direct Detection of Products from the Pyrolysis of 2-Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Mark W. Jarvis,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Pyrolysis." In Biomass Handbook; C. W. Hall, ed. Gordon and Breach: New York, 1989; pp. 379-385. (with Pyrolysis of Biomass Derived Volatile Matter." In Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion; R. P. "Biomass Pyrolysis. A Review of the Literature - Part 1: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis." In Advances in Solar

Dean, Anthony M.

225

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

Pyrolysis Collaborations Webinar on International Collaboration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. spends more than $1,197M each day on crude oil imports* Cellulosic ethanol displaces light duty gasoline fraction only Only about 40 % of a barrel of crude oil is used to produce light duty petroleum gasoline Reducing dependence on oil requires replacing diesel, jet, heavy distillates, and a range of other chemicals and products Greater focus needed on RDD&D for a range of technologies to displace the entire barrel of petroleum crude

Jonathan L. Male; Zacher Kristiina Iisa; O Preto; Doug Elliott; Iva Tews; Yrjö Solantausta

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method for preventing plugging in the pyrolysis of agglomerative coals  

SciTech Connect

To prevent plugging in a pyrolysis operation where an agglomerative coal in a nondeleteriously reactive carrier gas is injected as a turbulent jet from an opening into an elongate pyrolysis reactor, the coal is comminuted to a size where the particles under operating conditions will detackify prior to contact with internal reactor surfaces while a secondary flow of fluid is introduced along the peripheral inner surface of the reactor to prevent backflow of the coal particles. The pyrolysis operation is depicted by two equations which enable preselection of conditions which insure prevention of reactor plugging.

Green, Norman W. (Upland, CA)

1979-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

229

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

231

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The effect of biofuel on the international oil market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hand, the literature on crude oil usually assumes a COFconsequence of extracting crude oil. User costs include thecountries, at times when crude oil prices surged during 2002

Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

PURADYN Oil Bypass Filtration System Evaluation Test Plan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

including: * Less dependency on foreign oil * Less oil disposed as waste products * Lower oil disposal costs * Less downtime of equipment * Reduced vehicle maintenance costs *...

235

Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atoms of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other...

237

OIL PRODUCTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OIL PRODUCTION Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a term applied to methods used for recovering oil from a petroleum reservoir beyond that recoverable by primary and secondary methods....

238

Table 4. Crude oil production and resources (million barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2013 EIA/ARI unproved shale oil technically recoverable resources (TRR) 2012 USGS conventional unproved oil TRR, including reserve growth

239

Does EIA have data on shale (or “tight oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

240

North American spot crude oil benchmarks likely diverging ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

What is the difference between crude oil, petroleum ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

242

Bakken crude oil price differential to WTI narrows over ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

243

Shale oil and shale gas resources are globally abundant  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

244

Table A14. Oil and gas supply - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery ... 3Tight oil represents resources in low-permeability reservoirs, including shale and chalk formations.

245

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

Assay products from Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data from 66 material-balanced assays conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and The Oil Shale Corporation were compiled and analyzed to determine the pyrolysis stoichiometry for Green River formation oil shales originating in and near the Mahogany zone. Shale samples came from four sites in Colorado and one in Utah, and ranged in oil content from 12 to 258 L/Mg (3 to 62 gal/ton). Average values and pairwise correlation coefficients are reported for all data (except sulfur analyses) available on the shales, e.g., elemental analyses of shales and oils, distribution of organic carbon in products, gas composition, and some ratios of elemental composition. The wide range of organic carbon contents made it possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of assay product distribution to oil shale grade. A linear correlation for shale grade as a function of weight percent organic carbon in raw shale is presented. An average stoichiometry for pyrolysis of the organic material is also calculated and compared with others available in the literature.

Singleton, M.F.; Koskinas, G.J.; Burnham, A.K.; Raley, J.H.

1982-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

247

Co-conversion of coal/waste plastic mixtures under various pyrolysis and liquefaction conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For strategic and economic reasons the conversion of coal to liquid fuels has been a constant goal of the coal science community. Although the economics of coal liquefaction are primarily governed by the price of crude oil, other factors such as the need for large quantities of hydrogen gas, play an important role. If methods could be found that reduce the amount of hydrogen gas required for liquefaction, considerable benefits would be realized. To explore this possibility the use of waste plastics as materials capable of upgrading coal into liquid fuel products has been investigated. The use of waste plastics for this purpose could become possible because over 30 million tons of synthetic polymer material is produced in the United States every year. In this study, several pyrolysis and liquefaction experiment were performed on an Illinois No. 6 coal and coal/plastic blends.

Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Oil shale as an energy source in Israel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Chemical Models for Bio-oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bio-oil (product liquids from fast pyrolysis of biomass) is a complex mixture of oxygenates derived from the thermal breakdown of the bio-polymers in biomass. In the case of lignocellulosic biomass, the structures of three major components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, are well represented by the bio-oil components. In order to study the chemical mechanisms of catalytic hydroprocessing of bio-oil, three model compounds were chosen to represent those components. Guaiacol represents the large number of mono- and di-methoxy phenols found in bio-oil derived from softwood or hardwood, respectively. Furfural represents a major pyrolysis product group from cellulosics. Acetic acid is a major product from biomass pyrolysis, derived from the hemicellulose, which has important impacts on the further processing of the bio-oil because of the acidic character. These three compounds were processed using palladium or ruthenium catalyst over a temperature range from 150?C to 300?C. The batch reactor was sampled during each test over a period of four hours. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with both a mass selective detector and a flame ionization detector. The products were determined and the reaction pathways for their formation are suggested based on these results. Both temperature and catalyst metal have significant effects on the product composition.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Analysis of photographic records of coal pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Bituminous coals upon heating undergo melting and pyrolytic decomposition with significant parts of the coal forming an unstable liquid that can escape from the coal by evaporation. The transient liquid within the pyrolyzing coal causes softening or plastic behavior that can influence the chemistry and physics of the process. Bubbles of volatiles can swell the softened coal mass in turn affecting the combustion behavior of the coal particles. The swelling behavior of individual coal particles has to be taken into account both as the layout as well as for the operation of pyrolysis, coking and performance of coal-fired boilers. Increased heating rates generally increase the amount of swelling although it is also known that in some cases, even highly swelling coals can be transformed into char with no swelling if they are heated slowly enough. The swelling characteristics of individual coal particles have been investigated by a number of workers employing various heating systems ranging from drop tube and shock tube furnaces, flow rate reactors and electrical heating coils. Different methods have also been employed to determine the swelling factors. The following sections summarize some of the published literature on the subject and outline the direction in which the method of analysis will be further extended in the study of the swelling characteristics of hvA bituminous coal particles that have been pyrolyzed with a laser beam.

Dodoo, J.N.D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~. ~. ~. ~. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Coal and Solventon Subbiturninous Coal Below Pyrolysis Temperatures, LBL-Treatment of Extract Solution Coal Residue Treatment. Yield

Lindsey, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Annual Energy Outlook 2012  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oil processed. 5 Includes ethanol (including imports), biodiesel (including imports), pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks for the...

256

Elucidating the solid, liquid and gaseous products from batch pyrolysis of cotton-gin trash.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cotton-gin trash (CGT) was pyrolyzed at different temperatures and reaction times using an externally-heated batch reactor. The average yields of output products (solid/char, liquid/bio-oil, and gaseous) were determined. The heating value (HV) of CGT was measured to be around 15-16 MJ kg- 1 (6500-7000 Btu lb-1). In the first set of tests, CGT was pyrolyzed at 600, 700, and 800°C and at 30, 45, and 60 min reaction period. The maximum char yield of 40% by weight (wt.%) was determined at 600°C and 30 min settings, however, the HV of char was low and almost similar to the HV of CGT. A maximum gas yield of 40 wt.% was measured at 800°C and 60 min and the highest liquid yield of 30 wt.% was determined at 800°C and 30 min. In the modified pyrolysis test, the effects of temperature (500, 600, 700, and 800°C) on the product yield and other properties were investigated. The experiment was performed using the same reactor purged with nitrogen at a rate of 1000 cm3 min-1. Gas yield increased as temperature was increased while the effect was opposite on char yield. The maximum char yield of 38 wt.% was determined at 500°C and 30 min. The char had the largest fraction in the energy output (70-83%) followed by gas (10-20%) and bio-oil (7- 9%). Maximum gas yield of 35 wt.% was determined at 800°C. The average yield of CO, H2 and total hydrocarbons (THC) generally increased with increased temperature but CO2 production decreased. Methane, ethane, and propane dominated the THC. The bio-oil yield at 600°C was the highest at about 30 wt.% among the temperature settings. The HV of bio-oil was low (2-5 MJ kg-1) due to minimal non-HC compounds and high moisture content (MC). A simple energy balance of the process was performed. The process was considered energy intensive due to the high amount of energy input (6100 kJ) while generating a maximum energy output of only 10%. After disregarding the energy used for preparation and pyrolysis, the energy losses ranged from 30-46% while the energy of the output represent between 55-70% of the input energy from CGT.

Aquino, Froilan Ludana

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Waste tyre pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor under vacuum conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of scrap tires has been studied at 425 and 500°C and three pressure levels, atmospheric one 0.5 and 0.25 atm. The experimental runs have been carried out in a pilot plant conical spouted bed reactor provided with a system for continuous ... Keywords: carbon black, conical spouted bed reactor, tire pyrolysis, vacuum pyrolysis

Gartzen Lopez; Maider Amutio; Gorka Elordi; Maite Artetxe; Aitziber Erkiaga; Astrid Barona; Martin Olazar

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Characterization, and Uses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book serves as a rich source of information on the production, processing, characterization and utilization of palm oil and its components. It also includes several topics related to oil palm genomics, tissue culture and genetic engineering of oil pal

259

Progress in the production of hot-gas filtered biocrude oil at NREL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the production of hot-gas filtered biocrude oils from a dry hybrid poplar feedstock in the NREL vortex ablative pyrolysis reactor is discussed. In particular, adjusting the pyrolysis severity in the vortex reactor and the cracking severity in the char baghouse resulted in increased oil yields of very low-ash and low-alkali biocrude oils. The viscosity of these oils meets the requirements for American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) No.4 fuel oils. Increasing the water content to 30% decreased the viscosity by half, but not enough to meet the viscosity requirement for ASTM No.2 fuel oil. Viscosity contours for water and methanol dilution are shown. The addition of water or methanol or both to make a more consistent product may be advantageous. Aging studies of this low-alkali oil showed a slower increase in viscosity with time equal to one-third the rate of a biocrude oil with higher alkali contents. It appears that removal of the char fines results in a more stable oil. In fact, after 24 hours at 90 C, the viscosity of this low-ash biocrude oil was lower than that seen previously for the unaged sample of higher ash oil. It is concluded that the removal of char fines to produce a premium biocrude oil will be even more important than was previously supposed.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Czernik, S.; Phillips, S.D.; Feik, C.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 2, final report. Preliminary design pyrolysis facility. [Andco-Torrax system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota is studying and planning a grid connected integrated community energy system to include disposal of wastes from health centers and utilizing the heat generated. The University of Minnesota has purchased the so called Southeast Generating Station from the Northern States Power Company. This plant contains two coal-fired boilers that will be retrofitted to burn low-sulfur Montana coal. Building modifications and additions will be made to support the components of the Andco-Torrax system and integrate the system with the rest of the plant. The Andco-Torrax system is a new high-temperature refuse-conversion process known technically as slagging pyrolysis. Although the pyrolysis of solid waste is a relatively new innovation, pyrolysis processes have been used for years by industry. This report covers the preliminary design and operation of the system. (MCW)

Not Available

1978-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Organosulphur compounds in coals as determined by reaction with Raney nickel and microscale pyrolysis techniques. First quarterly report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is designed to study the nature of sulphur-containing organic compounds and their respective linkages in coals and related materials using a variety of microscale pyrolysis techniques combined with gas chromatography, gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The majority of the work will be undertaken using a PYRAN pyrolysis system purchased with funds from the DOE University Instrumentation Program. Although significant studies in the past have examined hydrocarbons produced from the pyrolysis of coals, little attention has been directed at studying the heteroatomic components produced in this way. With the use of carefully controlled temperature-programmed pyrolysis reactions it should be possible to obtain information on the relative bond energies of the C-S and S-S bonds being cleaved during coal pyrolysis and to provide a better understanding on the nature of the sulphur bonding in coals. In the experiments performed with Raney nickel and coal, the results showed that while Raney nickel was indeed and excellent degrader of organic sulphur compounds in oils and coal extracts, the recovery from a high sulphur Oklahoman coal was negligible. Following the realization that Raney nickel is of little use in cleaving organosulphur compounds from coals, a new literature review was initiated to determine which possible sulphur chemical degradation method would be an appropriate replacement. After careful consideration of the various possible methods, it would appear that the procedure which will work on solid phases (i.e., coal), will give similar results to the Raney nickel method, and which we may be able to perform here with the least level of expenditure on new equipment, is the use of nickel(O)cene (bis[1,5-cyclopentadiene]nickel(O)) with lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}).

Philp, R.P.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Crude Oil Imports from Qatar  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PAD District Imports by Country of Origin ... Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Stategic Petroleum Reserve. The Persian Gulf includes Bahrain, ...

263

Crude Oil Imports from Sweden  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PAD District Imports by Country of Origin ... Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Stategic Petroleum Reserve. The Persian Gulf includes Bahrain, ...

264

Table 2. Principal tight oil plays: oil production and proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Other tight oil plays (e.g. Monterey, Woodford)",,,24,253 "All U.S. tight oil plays",,,228,3628 "Note: Includes lease condensate." "Source: U.S. Energy...

265

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Investor Flows and the 2008 Boom/Bust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research is the outgrowth of a survey paper I prepared for the Air Transport Association of America. I am grateful to Kristoffer Laursen for research assistance and to Kristoffer and Stefan Nagel for their comments. Abstract This paper explores the impact of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil futures markets. I begin by arguing that informational frictions and the associated speculative activity may induce prices to drift away from "fundamental" values and show increased volatility. This is followed by a discussion of the interplay between imperfect infor- mation about real economic activity, including supply, demand, and inventory accumulation, and speculative

266

Heating oil prices rise due to winter demand and crude oil prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

267

Table 5.2 Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

268

Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tire rubbers. 1: Using DTG and TGA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tire pyrolysis kinetics was investigated to explore an economically viable design for the pyrolysis process. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were found to provide valuable information on pyrolysis kinetics and mechanisms of a heterogeneous compound like scrap tire rubbers. Kinetic parameters of each compositional compound were obtained by analyzing DTG and TGA results with a series of mathematical methods proposed in this study. The pyrolysis kinetics of the scrap tire rubbers tested was well accounted for by the first-order irreversible independent reactions of three compositional compounds. The sidewall and tread rubber exhibited different thermal degradation patterns, suggesting a compositional difference between them. Isothermal pyrolysis results showed that the sidewall rubber would hardly be degraded at low temperature regions (=}746 K). Because of the shorter pyrolysis time, the higher isothermal pyrolysis temperature appeared to be more economically favorable.

Kim, S.; Park, J.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chun, H.D. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

PYROLYSIS OF METHANE IN A SUPERSONIC, ARC-HEATED FLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arc pyrolysis of methane at supersonic conditions, representative of conditions in the reformer is then reformed or cracked to produce hydrogen. The hy- drocarbon of choice is methane because of its highest material instead of as a fuel. Amongst various hydrogen production technologies,7 steam reformation

Texas at Arlington, University of

270

Ultimate Disposal of Wastes by Pyrolysis and Incineration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fan into the stack to atmosphere. The system incorporates the latest available designs in combustion This paper describes a new disposal facility designed to reduce thermally, without causing pollution, liq authorized the design and construction of a facility to reduce liquid/fluid industrial wastes by pyrolysis

Columbia University

271

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Catalytic pyrolysis of xylan-based hemicellulose over zeolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Xylan was selected as model compound of hemicellulose to investigate its thermal behavior over zeolites by using TG-FTIR. The chemical structure of xylan and characterization of catalysts were first studied. All the three catalysts, HZSM-5, H-? ... Keywords: TG-FTIR, acids, catalytic pyrolysis, furans, hemicellulose, xylan, zeolites

Xiujuan Guo; Shurong Wang; Yan Zhou; Zhongynag Luo

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Flash pyrolysis and gasification of coal through laser heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental results obtained from the rapid pyrolysis of finely powdered coal are presented. The experiments are designed to provide basic information on gas yield, gas composition, optimum fluxes, and temperature history of coal samples under high intensity laser radiation. The information obtained from these experiments will be used to test concepts for the use of concentrated sunlight to produce fuel gases from coal. Heating the coal at rates of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ C/s in an inert atmosphere of argon results in pyrolysis at temperatures between 400 and 800/sup 0/C. The gases evolved are primarily CO, H/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ with lesser amounts of CO/sub 2/ and other light hydrocarbons. Mass spectrometry is used to determine the composition of the evolved gases. The optimum flux for laser pyrolysis of coal was found to be 250 W/cm/sup 2/. Results from experiments wherein the char created by pyrolysis is gasified to CO in an atmosphere of CO/sub 2/ are also presented.

Beattie, W.H.; Sullivan, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PAD District level net receipts includes implied net ... Total stocks do not include distillate fuel oil stocks located in the Northeast Heating Oil ...

277

Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases and aqueous phases. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay and mouse skin tumorigenicity tests). These results are the first step of a longer term program to determine the properties, handling requirements, and utility of the condensates recovered from biomass gasification and pyrolysis. The analytical data demonstrates the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures. 56 refs., 25 figs., 21 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Shale oil cracking. 2. Effect on oil composition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from spectroscopic investigations are presented that demonstrate the effect of oil cracking on shale oil composition. Techniques used include infrared spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that cracking causes an increase in aromatic and alkene content of the oil. We compare our results for oils prepared in the laboratory with oils prepared in the TOSCO-II semi-works and in modified and true-in-situ combustion retorts. We demonstrate that the napthalene/2-methyl-naphthalene ratio is a good indicator of cracking conditions in an oil shale retort.

Burnham, A.K.; Sanborn, R.H.; Crawford, R.W.; Newton, J.C.; Happe, J.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Edible Oils Package  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contains four (4) titles regarding frying and edible oils. Edible Oils Package Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Value Packages 1766A8D5F05863694E128DE1C47D07C3 This Value Package includes: ...

280

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the fossil fuels such as crude oil. America uses a quarterimported 9.6 million barrels per day of crude oil. At thisin energy usage the crude oil is not projected to last long.

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters and CaCl2 Catalyzer on Pyrolysis of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elephant grass is a fast growing and low nutrient demand plant with significant potential as a renewable energy source. In this work, the influence of heating temperatures, N2sweeping gas flow rates and CaCl2 catalyzer weights on the yields of products ... Keywords: biomass, pyrolysis, catalytic, elephant grass, calcium chloride

Li Bosong; Jiang Enchen; Xu Xiwei; Zhang Qiang; Liu Min; Wang Mingfeng

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a mere 3% of the global oil reserves. The renewable and thein oil. They have, however, a wealth of coal reserves from

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Postgraduate Handbook Courses, programs and any arrangements for programs including staff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

corn oil; Camelina oil. One of the following: Trans-Esterification, Esterification, Hydrotreating-process renewable biomass and petroleum. 5 POTENTIALLY RELEVANT I Naphtha, LPG Camelina oil Hydrotreating 5 including peat, dung, plant-oils, bees wax, rendered animal fats, draft animals, natural derived sources

Benatallah, Boualem

285

Stocks of Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Including SPR)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

286

Real-Time and Post-Reaction Microscopic Structural Analysis of Biomass Undergoing Pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural complexity of unprocessed plant tissues used for thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and energy impedes heat and mass transfer and may increase the occurrence of tar-forming secondary chemical reactions. At industrial scales, gas and liquid products trapped within large biomass particles may reduce net fuel yields and increase tars, impacting industrial operations and increasing overall costs. Real-time microscopic analysis of poplar (Populus sp.) wood samples undergoing anoxic, pyrolytic heat treatment has revealed a pattern of tissue and macropore expansion and collapse. Post-reaction structural analyses of biomass char (biochar) by light and transmission electron microscopy have provided direct structural evidence of pyrolysis product mass-transfer issues, including trapped pyrolysis products and cell wall compression, and have demonstrated the impact of heat-transfer problems on biomass particles. Finally, microscopic imaging has revealed that pyrolyzed/gasified biochars recovered from a fluidized bed reactor retain a similar pre-reaction basic plant tissue structure as the samples used in this study, suggesting that the phenomena observed here are representative of those that occur in larger scale reactors.

Haas, T. J.; Nimlos, M. R.; Donohoe, B. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Oil and Oil Derivatives Compliance Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for international connection of oiled residues discharge ... C to + 163°C, fuels, lubricating oils and hydraulic ... fuel of gas turbine, crude oil, lubricating oil ...

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

Industrial Oil Products Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A forum for professionals involved in research, development, engineering, marketing, and testing of industrial products and co-products from fats and oils, including fuels, lubricants, coatings, polymers, paints, inks, cosmetics, dielectric fluids, and ad

292

Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Optimization of Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Differential Evolution Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Differential Evolution (DE) is an evolutionary optimization technique, which is exceptionally simple, significantly faster & robust at numerical optimization and is more likely to find a function’s true global optimum. Pyrolysis of biomass is an important and promising chemical process in the area of renewable energy sources. In the present study, the modeling and simulation of the above process is coupled with the optimization of a non-linear function using Differential Evolution. The objective in this problem is to estimate optimal time of pyrolysis and heating rate under the restriction on concentration of biomass. It serves as the input to the coupled ordinary differential equations to find the optimum values of volatiles and char using Runge-Kutta fourth order method. 1.

B. V. Babu; A. S. Chaurasia

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589 K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of biobased phenols for chemical industry.

Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zhang, Qin; Tang, Juming; Ruan, Roger

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

U.S. crude oil production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Production of Crude Oil including Lease Condensate (Thousand Barrels Per Day) Loading... Units Conversion Download Excel: 2012 2013 JAN ...

296

Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

Utah, University of

297

Residual Fuel Oil - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Other products includes pentanes plus, other hydrocarbons, oxygenates, hydrogen, unfinished oils, gasoline, special naphthas, jet fuel, lubricants, asphalt and road ...

298

Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Biofuels from Pyrolysis: Catalytic Biocrude Production in a Novel, Short-Contact Time Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: RTI is developing a new pyrolysis process to convert second-generation biomass into biofuels in one simple step. Pyrolysis is the decomposition of substances by heating—the same process used to render wood into charcoal, caramelize sugar, and dry roast coffee and beans. RTI’s catalytic biomass pyrolysis differs from conventional flash pyrolysis in that its end product contains less oxygen, metals, and nitrogen—all of which contribute to corrosion, instability, and inefficiency in the fuel-production process. This technology is expected to easily integrate into the existing domestic petroleum refining infrastructure, making it an economically attractive option for biofuels production.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The best use of biomass? Greenhouse gas lifecycle analysis of predicted pyrolysis biochar systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Life cycle analysis is carried out for 11 predicted configurations of pyrolysis biochar systems to determine greenhouse gas balance, using an original spreadsheet model. System… (more)

Hammond, James A R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Study of Pyrolysis of Charring Materials and its Application to Fire Safety and Biomass Utilization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A theoretical and experimental study of pyrolysis of charring material applicable to fire safety and biomass utilization is presented in this thesis. This work is… (more)

Park, Won Chan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Biomass pyrolysis processes: performance parameters and their influence on biochar system benefits.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on performance of biomass pyrolysis processes for use in biochar systems. Objectives are to understand the range of control of such processes… (more)

Brownsort, Peter A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development and Applications of a Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder for Pyrolysis Reactors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD research addresses the challenge of feeding biomass residues into fluidized bed reactors for pyrolysis, through the development of a novel intermittent solid slug… (more)

Berruti, Federico M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increases in demand, lower emission standards, and reduced fuel supplies have fueled the recent effort to find new and better fuels to power the necessary equipment for society’s needs. Often, the fuels chosen for research are renewable fuels derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis and ignition behavior characteristics, combustion modeling, emissions modeling, small scale combustion experiments, pilot scale commercial combustion experiments, and cost analysis of the fuel usage for both feedlot biomass and dairy biomass. This paper focuses on fuel property analysis and pyrolysis and ignition characteristics of feedlot biomass. Deliverables include a proximate and ultimate analysis, pyrolysis kinetics values, and ignition temperatures of four types of feedlot biomass (low ash raw manure [LARM], low ash partially composted manure [LAPC], high ash raw manure [HARM], and high ash partially composted manure [HAPC]) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation energy results for pure samples of each fuel using the single reaction model rigorous solution were as follows: 45 kJ/mol (LARM), 43 kJ/mol (LAPC), 38 kJ/mol (HARM), 36 kJ/mol (HAPC), and 22 kJ/mol (TXL). Using the distributed activation energy model the activation energies were 169 kJ/mol (LARM), 175 kJ/mol (LAPC), 172 kJ/mol (HARM), 173 kJ/mol (HAPC), and 225 kJ/mol (TXL). Ignition temperature results for pure samples of each of the fuels were as follows: 734 K (LARM), 745 K (LAPC), 727 (HARM), 744 K (HAPC), and 592 K (TXL). There was little difference observed between the ignition temperatures of the 50% blends of coal with biomass and the pure samples of coal as observed by the following results: 606 K (LARM), 571 K (LAPC), 595 K (HARM), and 582 K (HAPC).

Martin, Brandon Ray

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory oil shale: Quarterly report, October-December 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique mass spectrometry (MS) method for the study of water formation during oil shale batch pyrolysis was recently discussed. Water evolution observations differ from what others have reported, necessitating a detailed quality assurance study. That study is discussed in this report, along with the water calibration techniques that have been used to obtain quantitative data from our Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (TQMS) - which normally provides qualitative information. The rate of pyrolysis of raw shale and the rate of combustion of retorted shale in a new apparatus which allows C and H mass balances have been measured. Thus, the fraction of the raw shale organic C that is pyrolyzed and burned can be measured. The shale sample is fluidized with an inert gas which sweeps the pyrolysis gases out of the pyrolyzer and into a tube furnace where they are burned with oxygen. The concentrations of carbon dioxide and steam produced by this oxidation are measured on-line by means of a mass spectrometer. Following pyrolysis, the organic C and H which remain in the retorted shale are burned in the same fluidized bed by adding oxygen to the fluidizing gas. An experiment has also been conducted to find out if indeed Green River shale can be retorted in half the time generally used. The LLNL pilot retort was used, and the pyrolysis appears to have been completed when pyrolysis time at 500/sup 0/ was reduced from 3 m to 1.5 m. The evidence is the fact that the combustor temperature, which is sensitive to the carbon content of the retorted shale, did not increase when pyrolysis time was reduced.

Lewis, A.E. (ed.)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Crude oil distillation and the definition of refinery capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

308

Rail traffic reflects more oil production, less coal-fired ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

309

Hurricane effects on oil and natural gas production depend on ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

310

International Petroleum (Oil) Prices webpage provided by EIA  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

311

Energy Security - Oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

312

tight oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

313

Crude oils have different quality characteristics - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

314

State Ranking - Crude Oil Production - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

315

oil reserves - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

316

Bakken formation oil and gas drilling activity mirrors development ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

317

Price difference between Brent and WTI crude oil narrowing - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

318

oil prices - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

319

Performance Profiles Table Browser: T-19. Oil and Natural Gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

320

Performance Profiles Table Browser: T-20. Oil and Natural Gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Performance Profiles Table Browser: T-22. Oil and Natural Gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

322

Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

323

State heating oil and propane program season begins - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

324

Tenth oil recovery conference  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Sleeper, R. (ed.)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Oil reserves  

SciTech Connect

As of March 1988, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory totaled 544.9 million barrels of oil. During the past 6 months the Department of Energy added 11.0 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR. During this period, DOE distributed $208 million from the SPR Petroleum Account. All of the oil was purchased from PEMEX--the Mexican national oil company. In FY 1988, $164 million was appropriated for facilities development and management and $439 million for oil purchases. For FY 1989, DOE proposes to obligate $173 million for facilities development and management and $236 million for oil purchases. DOE plans to postpone all further drawdown exercises involving crude oil movements until their effects on cavern integrity are evaluated. DOE and the Military Sealift Command have made progress in resolving the questions surrounding nearly $500,000 in payments for demurrage charges.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

none

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Multiphase flow analysis of oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several multiphase phenomena occur during oil shale retorting. An analysis is presented of two of these processes including condensation of oil shale vapor and oscillations of pressure in oil shale blocks through cracked bedding planes. Energy conservation equations for oil shale retorting, which include the effects associated with condensation of oil, are derived on the basis of two phase flow theory. It is suggested that an effective heat capacity associated with the latent heat of condensation should be included in the modeling of simulated modified in-situ oil shale retorting. A pressure propagation equation for fast transients in oil shale cracks has been derived and examined in view of existing experimental data. For slow processes, a limiting solution for maximum pressure in oil shale rocks has been obtained. Generation of high pressures in rocks by thermal or other means may lead to rock fracture which may be taken advantage of in modified in-situ oil shale processing.

Gidaspow, D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

1978-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

328

TG-FTIR Analysis on Sawdust Catalytic Pyrolysis with CaO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the global warming and energy crisis, the utilization of biomass in zero emission system has aroused more attention. In this study, the effect of catalyst CaO on sawdust pyrolysis was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with ... Keywords: CaO, biomass, pyrolysis, TG-FTIR, zero emission

Qiang Ma; Qinhui Wang; Long Han; Chunjiang Yu; Zhongyang Luo

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Characteristics of Porosity in Biomass Chars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the influence of pyrolysis temperature (T) in the range of 200-900oC on the characteristics of porosity in biomass chars was investigated. The samples were characterized by N2 isothermal adsorption/desorption method and scanning electron ... Keywords: biomass, pyrolysis, porosity

Peng Fu; Song Hu; Jun Xinag; Lushi Sun; Tao Yang; Anchao Zhang; Yi Wang; Gang Chen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for analytical pyrolysis. Biomass Analysis. All biomass samples were Technol 42: 649­661. 44. Evans RJ, Milne TA (1987) Molecular characterization of the pyrolysis of biomass fuels from lignocel- lulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell

331

Study on Pyrolysis of Used Tyre in Subcritical and Supercritical Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis efficiency of used tyres and effect of temperature and pressure in subcritical/supercritical water were studied. Products were analyzed by GS-Mass, FTIR and elementary analyzer. Process of pyrolysis in supercritical /subcritical water was described ... Keywords: pyrogenation-SCW, subcritical, waste rubber

Bao-kui Yi; Chun-yuan Ma; Gui-fang Chen; Shou-yan Chen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Oil shale: The environmental challenges III  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

Petersen, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Vegetable Oil for Color Only Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Vegetable Oil for Color Only. Sample Includes soybean oil. Vegetable Oil for Color Only Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certified chemist chemists Lab laborat

334

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #456: February 12, 2007 Oil...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12, 2007 Oil Imports, Today and Tomorrow U.S. oil imports, which include both crude oil and petroleum products, are predicted to rise to 16.4 million barrels per day by the...

335

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

playing key role in peak-oil debate, future energy supply.of di?ering views of peak oil, including Yergin’s, isHubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

337

Crude Oil Imports from Persian Gulf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Imports by Country of Origin ... Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Stategic Petroleum Reserve. The Persian Gulf includes Bahrain, ...

338

Experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes during wood pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of 25.4 mm diameter dry wood spheres is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Wood spheres were pyrolyzed in a vertical tube furnace at temperatures ranging from 638 K to 879 K. Mass loss and temperatures of the sample were measured during pyrolysis. Center temperature measurements showed two distinct thermal events consisting of sequential endothermic and exothermic reactions. A numerical investigation of these endo/exothermic reactions using various pyrolysis kinetics models was conducted to determine the pyrolysis mechanism and the heats of the pyrolysis reactions. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed that (i) Contrary to the suggestions in the literature, the contributions of the secondary tar decomposition and lignin decomposition to the center temperature exothermic peak are small. (ii) Exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid is responsible for the center temperature peak. (iii) The center temperature plateau is caused by the endothermic decomposition of cellulose. (iv) Internal pressure generation was found to be quite important because it controls the pyrolyzate mass transfer and thus affects both the heat transfer and the residence time of the pyrolysis gases for secondary decomposition. Based on the experimental and numerical results, a new wood pyrolysis model is proposed. The model consists of three endothermic parallel reactions producing tar, gas and intermediate solid and subsequent exothermic decomposition of the intermediate solid to char and exothermic decomposition of tar to char and gas. The proposed pyrolysis model shows good agreement with the experiments. Pressure calculations based on the new pyrolysis model revealed that high pressure is generated inside the biomass particle during pyrolysis and sample splitting was observed during the experiments. The splitting is due to both weakening of the structure and internal pressure generation during pyrolysis. At low heating rates, structural weakness is the primary factor, whereas at high heating rates, internal pressure is the determining factor. It is expected that moisture, while not considered in this work will have a similar effect, but at lower temperatures. (author)

Park, Won Chan; Atreya, Arvind [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2158 GGBL 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Baum, Howard R. [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland, 3106-D J.M. Patterson Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Oil shale data book  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Shale Data Book has been prepared as a part of its work under DOE Management Support and Systems Engineering for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves Predevelopment Plan. The contract calls for the preparation of a Master Development Plan for the Reserves which comprise some 145,000 acres of oil shale lands in Colorado and Utah. The task of defining the development potential of the Reserves required that the resources of the Reserves be well defined, and the shale oil recovery technologies that are potentially compatible with this resource be cataloged. Additionally, processes associated with shale oil recovery like mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading and spent shale disposal have also been cataloged. This book, therefore, provides a ready reference for evaluation of appropriate recovery technologies and associated processes, and should prove to be valuable for many oil shale activities. Technologies that are still in the process of development, like retorting, have been treated in greater detail than those that are commercially mature. Examples of the latter are ore crushing, certain gas clean-up systems, and pipeline transportation. Emphasis has been on documenting available design information such as, maximum module size, operation conditions, yields, utility requirements, outlet gas compositions, shale oil characteristics, etc. Cost information has also been included where available.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Water issues associated with heavy oil production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary recovery, the natural pressure of the reservoir or gravity drive oil into the wellbore, combined with artificial lift techniques (such as pumps) which bring the oil to the surface. But only about 10 percent of a reservoir's original oil in place is typically produced during primary recovery. Secondary recovery techniques extend a

342

Gasification of woody biomass Tessa Jansen (s0140600)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on biomass fast pyrolysis followed by #12;-3- hydroprocessing.11-14 A number of pre-conversion technologies;-9- Fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing Fast pyrolysis is a process of heating biomass without include biomass pretreatment, fast pyrolysis, solids removal, oil recovery, char combustion

Luding, Stefan

343

Modelling of Particle Pyrolysis in a Packed Bed Combustor A.R.C. Tuck and W.L.H. Hallett ,1 2*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Pyrolysis." In Biomass Handbook; C. W. Hall, ed. Gordon and Breach: New York, 1989; pp. 379-385. (with Pyrolysis of Biomass Derived Volatile Matter." In Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion; R. P. "Biomass Pyrolysis. A Review of the Literature - Part 1: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis." In Advances in Solar

Hallett, William L.H.

344

Winter Crude Oil and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: While the relatively low stock forecast (although not as low as last winter) adds some extra pressure to prices, the price of crude oil could be the major factor affecting heating oil prices this winter. The current EIA forecast shows residential prices averaging $1.29 this winter, assuming no volatility. The average retail price is about 7 cents less than last winter, but last winter included the price spike in November 2000, December 2000, and January 2001. Underlying crude oil prices are currently expected to be at or below those seen last winter. WTI averaged over $30 per barrel last winter, and is currently forecast to average about $27.50 per barrel this winter. As those of you who watch the markets know, there is tremendous uncertainty in the amount of crude oil supply that will be available this winter. Less

345

Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill 1, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intent and scope of the work plan are to assemble all data necessary to facilitate selection of remediation alternatives for the sites in Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (BCV OU 1) such that the risk to human health and the environment is reduced to acceptable levels based on agreements with regulators. The ultimate goal is to develop a final Record Of Decision (ROD) for all of the OUs in BCV, including the integrator OU. However, the initial aim of the source OUs is to develop a ROD for interim measures. For source OUs such as BCV OU 1, data acquisition will not be carried out in a single event, but will be carried out in three stages that accommodate the schedule for developing a ROD for interim measures and the final site-wide ROD. The three stages are as follows: Stage 1, Assemble sufficient data to support decisions such as the need for removal actions, whether to continue with the remedial investigation (RI) process, or whether no further action is required. If the decision is made to continue the RI/FS process, then: Stage 2, Assemble sufficient data to allow for a ROD for interim measures that reduce risks to the human health and the environment. Stage 3, Provide input from the source OU that allows a final ROD to be issued for all OUs in the BCV hydrologic regime. One goal of the RI work plan will be to ensure that sampling operations required for the initial stage are not repeated at later stages. The overall goals of this RI are to define the nature and extent of contamination so that the impact of leachate, surface water runoff, and sediment from the OU I sites on the integrator OU can be evaluated, the risk to human health and the environment can be defined, and the general physical characteristics of the subsurface can be determined such that remedial alternatives can be screened.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Conversion of atactic polypropylene waste to fuel oil. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A stable, convenient thermal pyrolysis process was demonstrated on a large scale pilot plant. The process successfully converted high viscosity copolymer atactic polypropylene to predominantly liquid fuels which could be burned in commercial burners. Energy yield of the process was very high - in excess of 93% including gas phase heating value. Design and operating data were obtained to permit design of a commercial size atactic conversion plant. Atactic polypropylene can be cracked at temperatures around 850/sup 0/F and residence time of 5 minutes. The viscosity of the cracked product increases with decrease in time/temperature. A majority of the pyrolysis was carried out at a pressure of 50 psig. Thermal cracking of atactic polypropylene is seen to result in sigificant coke formation (0.4% to 0.8% on a weight of feed basis) although the coke levels were of an order of magnitude lower than those obtained during catalytic cracking. The discrepancy between batch and continuous test data can be atrributed to lowered heat transfer and diffusion rates. Oxidative pyrolysis is not seen as a viable commercial alternative due to a significant amount of water formation. However, introduction of controlled quantities of oxygen at lower temperatures to affect change in feedstock viscosity could be considered. It is essential to have a complete characterization of the polymer composition and structure in order to obtain useful and duplicable data because the pyrolysis products and probably the pyrolysis kinetics are affected by introduction of abnormalities into the polymer structure during polymerization. The polymer products from continuous testing contained an olefinic content of 80% or higher. This suggests that the pyrolysis products be investigated for use as olefinic raw materials. Catalytic cracking does not seem to result in any advantage over the Thermal Cracking process in terms of reaction rates or temperature of operation.

Bhatia, J.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Fuels and Lubricants Research Division of Southwest Research includes extensive engines, fuels and lubricants research,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Caterpillar 1K Lubricant Test This test evaluates the piston deposits, liner wear, and oil consumption and oil consumption. The test is proposed for inclusion in the PC-10 category. Mack T8/T8A/T8E Lubricant of Mack engine oil specification EON+ 03, CI-4+ and will be included in PC-10. Mack T12 Lubricant Test

Chapman, Clark R.

348

Analysis and Control of Light Hydrocarbon Gases in the Pyrolysis ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing a Collaborative System for Socio-Environmental Management of ... Oils Post-Consumption Residential and Commercial Clay with Two Brazilian.

349

Pyrolysis Pathways of Sulfonated Polyethylene, an Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursor  

SciTech Connect

Sulfonated polyethylene is an emerging precursor for the production of carbon fibers. Pyrolysis of sulfonated polyethylene was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) was selected as a model compound for the study of sulfonated polyethylene. Density functional theory and conventional transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300-1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: 1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei 5) and 2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain TGA plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at tem- peratures < 550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial OH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440-460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene ( 31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSO2 became competitive to H abstraction by HOSO2, making OH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures > 600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures < 620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. Ei5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids. Nonlinear Arrhenius plots were found for all bimolecular reactions. The most significant nonlinear behavior was observed for reactions where the barrier was small. For reactions with low activation barriers, nonlinearity was traced to conflicting trends between the exponential temperature dependence of the energetic term and the temperature dependence of the vibrational partition function of the transitional modes.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

352

International Energy Outlook 2006 - World Oil Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil Markets Oil Markets International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 3: World Oil Markets In the IEO2006 reference case, world oil demand increases by 47 percent from 2003 to 2030. Non-OECD Asia, including China and India, accounts for 43 percent of the increase. In the IEO2006 reference case, world oil demand grows from 80 million barrels per day in 2003 to 98 million barrels per day in 2015 and 118 million barrels per day in 2030. Demand increases strongly despite world oil prices that are 35 percent higher in 2025 than in last yearÂ’s outlook. Much of the growth in oil consumption is projected for the nations of non-OECD Asia, where strong economic growth is expected. Non-OECD Asia (including China and India) accounts for 43 percent of the total increase in world oil use over the projection period.

353

Knowledge exchange Research grant proposals now include  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Edinburgh. Traditionally, geophysicists use seismic exploration to find new oil and gas fields. But MTEM a new method to prospect for oil and gas deep beneath the ground. NERC-funded PhD student David Wright-out sells for $275 million In June 2007, Norwegian oil giant Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS) bought Scotland

Brierley, Andrew

354

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating...

355

Numerical model for the vacuum pyrolysis of scrap tires in batch reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quantitative model for scrap tire pyrolysis in a batch scale reactor developed comprises the following basic phenomena: conduction inside tire particles; conduction, convection, and radiation between the feedstock particles or between the fluids and the particles; tire pyrolysis reaction; exothermicity and endothermicity caused by tire decomposition and volatilization; and the variation of the composition and the thermal properties of tire particles. This model was used to predict the transient temperature and density distributions in the bed of particles, the volatile product evolution rate, the mass change, the energy consumption during the pyrolysis process, and the pressure history in a tire pyrolysis reactor with a load of 1 kg. The model predictions agree well with independent experimental data.

Yang, J.; Tanguy, P.A.; Roy, C. [Univ. Laval, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Soybean Oil Derivatives for Fuel and Chemical Feedstocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plant based sources of hydrocarbons are being considered as alternatives to petrochemicals because of the need to conserve petroleum resources for reasons of national security and climate change. Changes in fuel formulations to include ethanol from corn sugar and methyl esters from soybean oil are examples of this policy in the United States and elsewhere. Replacements for commodity chemicals are also being considered, as this value stream represents much of the profit for the oil industry and one that would be affected by shortages in oil or other fossil fuels. While the discovery of large amounts of natural gas associated with oil shale deposits has abated this concern, research into bio-based feedstock materials continues. In particular, this chapter reviews a literature on the conversion of bio-based extracts to hydrocarbons for fuels and for building block commodity chemicals, with a focus on soybean derived products. Conversion of methyl esters from soybean triglycerides for replacement of diesel fuel is an active area of research; however, the focus of this chapter will not reside with esterification or transesterification, except has a means to provide materials for the production of hydrocarbons for fuels or chemical feedstocks. Methyl ester content in vehicle fuel is limited by a number of factors, including the performance in cold weather, the effect of oxygen content on engine components particularly in the case of older engines, shelf-life, and higher NOx emissions from engines that are not tuned to handle the handle the enhanced pre-ignition conditions of methyl ester combustion [1]. These factors have led to interest in synthesizing a hydrocarbon fuel from methyl esters, one that will maintain the cetane number but will achieve better performance in an automobile: enhanced mixing, injection, and combustion, and reduce downstream issues such as emissions and upstream issues such as fuel preparation and transportation. Various catalytic pathways from oxygenated precursor to hydrocarbon will be considered in the review: pyrolysis [2], deoxygenation and hydrogenation [3, 4], and hydrotreatment [5]. The focus of many of these studies has been production of fuels that are miscible or fungible with petroleum products, e.g., the work published by the group of Daniel Resasco at U. Oklahoma [6]. Much of the published literature focuses on simpler chemical representatives of the methyl esters form soybean oil; but these results are directly applicable to the production of chemical feedstocks, such as ethylbenzene that can be used for a variety of products: polymers, solvent, and reagent [3]. Although many chemical pathways have been demonstrated in the laboratory, the scale-up to handle quantities of bio-derived material presents a number of challenges in comparison with petroleum refining. These range from additional transportation costs because of distributed feedstock production to catalyst cost and regeneration. Other chapters in the book appear to address the cultivation and harvesting of soybeans and production of oil, so these areas will not be dealt with directly in this chapter except as they may relate to chemical changes in the feedstock material. However, the feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from soybean triglycerides or methyl esters derived from these triglycerides will be considered, along with remaining technical hurdles before soybeans can make a significant contribution to the hydrocarbon economy.

McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Flows and the 2008 BoomBust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research...

358

Analysis and comparison of biomass pyrolysis/gasification condensates: an interim report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides results of chemical and physical analysis of condensates from eleven biomass gasification and pyrolysis systems. The analyses were performed in order to provide more detailed data concerning these condensates for the different process research groups and to allow a determination of the differences in properties of the condensates as a function of reactor environment. The samples were representative of the various reactor configurations being researched within the Department of Energy, Biomass Thermochemical Conversion program. The condensates included tar phases, aqueous phases and, in some cases, both phases depending on the output of the particular reactor system. The analyses included gross compositional analysis (elemental analysis, ash, moisture), physical characterization (pour point, viscosity, density, heat of combustion, distillation), specific chemical analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and biological activity (Ames assay). The analytical data demonstrate the wide range of chemical composition of the organics recovered in the condensates and suggests a direct relationship between operating temperature and chemical composition of the condensates. A continuous pathway of thermal degradation of the tar components as a function of temperature is proposed. Variations in the chemical composition of the organic components in the tars are reflected in the physical properties of tars and phase stability in relation to water in the condensate. The biological activity appears to be limited to the tars produced at high temperatures as a result of formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high concentrations. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Crude Oil Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: Crude oil exports are restricted to: (1) crude oil derived from fields under the State waters of Alaska's Cook Inlet; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) ...

360

Heavy Oil Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Select Reports from Heavy Oil Projects Project Number Performer Title Heavy Oil Recovery US (NIPERBDM-0225) BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Feasibility Study of Heavy Oil Recovery in the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

3. Crude Oil Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

3. Crude Oil Statistics The United States had 21,371 million barrels of crude oil proved reserves as of December 31, 2004. Crude oil proved reserves ...

362

Materials for Oil and Gas Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 18, 2008 ... The demand on materials for transporting oil, natural gas, and other fluids, including hydrogen, ethanol, etc. is severe in terms of material ...

363

Palm oil - towards a sustainable future?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and… (more)

Nilsson, Sara

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

V. Shifts in Governance: Oil Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the American Oil Pollution Act these costs are included in the term ..... The background of this second objective is that from 1969 to 1972 the proportion.

365

5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

366

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sources account for a very small percentage of energy usage.The energy usage is projected to increase to 632 quadrillionthis rate of increase in energy usage the crude oil is not

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent. 11 figs.

Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

Development of a lab-scale auger reactor for biomass fast pyrolysis and process optimization using response surface methodology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A lab-scale biomass fast pyrolysis system was designed and constructed based on an auger reactor concept. The design features two intermeshing augers that mix biomass… (more)

Brown, Jared Nathaniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

A component based model for the prediction of the product yields of the pyrolysis of a biomass particle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pyrolysis of biomass can produce several useful, renewable products: biochar for soil amendment and long-term carbon sequestration; tars for chemicals and biofuels; and syngas as… (more)

Eberly, Brian C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Oil shale and tar sands technology: recent developments  

SciTech Connect

The detailed, descriptive information in this book is based on US patents, issued since March 1975, that deal with the technology of oil shale and tar sands. The book contains an introductory overview of the subject. Topics included are oil shale retorting, in situ processing of oil shale, shale oil refining and purification processes, in situ processing of tar sands, tar sands separation processes.

Ranney, M.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

Oil | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. |...

373

of oil yields from enhanced oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO 2 storage capacity in depleted oil reservoirs. The primary goal of the project is to demonstrate that remaining oil can be economically produced using CO 2 -EOR technology in untested areas of the United States. The Citronelle Field appears to be an ideal site for concurrent CO 2 storage and EOR because the field is composed of sandstone reservoirs

374

Deactivation and regeneration of ZSM-5 zeolite in catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: > Pyrolysis transforms plastic wastes in valuable liquids and gases useful as fuels or source of chemicals. > The use of ZSM-5 zeolite in pyrolysis favours the production of gases and of lighter and more aromatic liquids. > ZSM-5 zeolite is almost completely deactivated after one plastics pyrolysis experiment. > ZSM-5 zeolite used in plastic wastes pyrolysis can be regenerated by burning the deposited coke in an air stream. > Regenerated ZSM-5 recovers its activity and produces liquids and gases equivalent to those obtained with fresh catalyst. - Abstract: In this work, a study of the regeneration and reuse of ZSM-5 zeolite in the pyrolysis of a plastic mixture has been carried out in a semi-batch reactor at 440 deg. C. The results have been compared with those obtained with fresh-catalyst and in non-catalytic experiments with the same conditions. The use of fresh catalyst produces a significant change in both the pyrolysis yields and the properties of the liquids and gases obtained. Gases more rich in C3-C4 and H{sub 2} are produced, as well as lower quantities of aromatic liquids if compared with those obtained in thermal decomposition. The authors have proved that after one pyrolysis experiment the zeolite loses quite a lot of its activity, which is reflected in both the yields and the products quality; however, this deactivation was found to be reversible since after regeneration heating at 550 deg. C in oxygen atmosphere, this catalyst recovered its initial activity, generating similar products and in equivalent proportions as those obtained with fresh catalyst.

Lopez, A., E-mail: alex.lopez@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Marco, I. de; Caballero, B.M.; Adrados, A.; Laresgoiti, M.F. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

EIA Oil price timeline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, ... Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions.

376

Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Analysis of photographic records of coal pyrolysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Bituminous coals upon heating undergo melting and pyrolytic decomposition with significant parts of the coal forming an unstable liquid that can escape from the coal by evaporation. The transient liquid within the pyrolyzing coal causes softening or plastic behavior that can influence the chemistry and physics of the process. Bubbles of volatiles can swell the softened coal mass in turn affecting the combustion behavior of the coal particles. The swelling behavior of individual coal particles has to be taken into account both as the layout as well as for the operation of pyrolysis, coking and performance of coal-fired boilers. Increased heating rates generally increase the amount of swelling although it is also known that in some cases, even highly swelling coals can be transformed into char with no swelling if they are heated slowly enough. The swelling characteristics of individual coal particles have been investigated by a number of workers employing various heating systems ranging from drop tube and shock tube furnaces, flow rate reactors and electrical heating coils. Different methods have also been employed to determine the swelling factors. The following sections summarize some of the published literature on the subject and outline the direction in which the method of analysis will be further extended in the study of the swelling characteristics of hvA bituminous coal particles that have been pyrolyzed with a laser beam.

Dodoo, J.N.D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Price ratio of crude oil to natural gas continues to increase ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

How many gallons of gasoline does one barrel of oil make? - FAQ ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

382

Does EIA have data on U.S. oil refineries and their locations ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

383

Attributes of crude oil at U.S. refineries vary by region - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

384

Refinery receipts of crude oil by rail, truck, and barge continue ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

385

Drop in U.S. gasoline prices reflects decline in crude oil costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

386

Gasoline prices rise due to increased crude oil costs - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

387

Rail deliveries of oil and petroleum products up 38% in first half ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

388

Heating oil futures contract now uses ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

389

Oil and natural gas production is growing in Caspian Sea region ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

390

Table 2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures in U.S. Households ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 A small amount of fuel oil used for appliances is included in "Fuel Oil" under "All Uses." NF = No applicable RSE row factor.

391

Price ratio of crude oil to natural gas increasing - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

392

U.S. oil rig count overtakes natural gas rig count - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

393

WTI-Brent crude oil price spread has reached unseen levels - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

394

New data show record growth in U.S. crude oil reserves and strong ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

395

Table 4.7 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Development Wells, 1949-2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

396

Table 4.6 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory Wells, 1949-2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

397

System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

Busche, Frederick D. (Highland Village, TX); Rollins, John B. (Southlake, TX); Noyes, Harold J. (Golden, CO); Bush, James G. (West Richland, WA)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

398

Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

Hsu, D. D.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Solar coal-gasification reactor with pyrolysis-gas recycle. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor, and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam, injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone, reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases flow from the gasification zone to the pyrolysis zone to generate hot char. Gases are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone. This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone and the pyrolysis zone. The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, W.R.; Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Revitalizing an old oil field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Redevelopment of the Olney oil field in Illinois is described. First discovered in 1936, production peaked in 1941 when over 30,000 bopd were produced. In 1970, 600 wells in the Olney field pumped only 4000 bpd. Since the decontrol of crude oil prices, a redevelopment project has begun in the field. The project includes well stimulation techniques plus newly drilled or deepened wells. Present production in the Olney field has reached 5000 bopd.

Ortiz, S.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

403

Vsd Oil Free Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Compressor Products, Vsd ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Compressor Suppliers and Vsd Oil ...

404

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology to appropriateseven oil shale process waters including retort water, gas1d1i lc the gas condensate is condensed develop oil shale

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels Mark M. Wright, Justinus A. Satrio, and Robert C. Brown Iowa State University Daren E. Daugaard ConocoPhillips Company David D. Hsu National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-46586 November 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels Mark M. Wright, Justinus A. Satrio, and Robert C. Brown Iowa State University

408

A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

Reaven, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf January - June 2013 | Release Date: August 29, 2013 | Next Release Date: February 27, 2014 2013 Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf Highlights It should be noted that several factors influence the source of a company's crude oil imports. For example, a company like Motiva, which is partly owned by Saudi Refining Inc., would be expected to import a large percentage from the Persian Gulf, while Citgo Petroleum Corporation, which is owned by the Venezuelan state oil company, would not be expected to import a large percentage from the Persian Gulf, since most of their imports likely come from Venezuela. In addition, other factors that influence a specific company's sources of crude oil imports would include the characteristics of various crude oils as well as a company's economic

410

Impacts of PSC Elements on Contract Economics under Oil Price Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production sharing contract (PSC) is one of the most common types of cooperation modes in international petroleum contracts. The elements that affect PSC economics mainly include royalty, cost oil, profit oil as well as income tax. Assuming that oil ... Keywords: Production Sharing, Oil Price, Oil Contract, International Petroleum Cooperation

Wang Zhen; Zhao Lin; Liu Mingming

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5/ Includes pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks used for the on-site production of diesel and gasoline.

412

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5/ Includes pyrolysis oils, biomass-derived Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and renewable feedstocks used for the production of green diesel and gasoline.

413

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

414

Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Lignin Model Compounds: Reaction Pathways of Aromatic Methoxy Groups  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently, there is interest in utilizing lignin, a major constituent of biomass, as a renewable source of chemicals and fuels. High yields of liquid products can be obtained from the flash or fast pyrolysis of biomass, but the reaction pathways that lead to product formation are not understood. To provide insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds at 500 C. This presentation will focus on the FVP of {beta}-ether linkages containing aromatic methoxy groups and the reaction pathways of methoxy-substituted phenoxy radicals.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C., III; Martineau, D.R.

1999-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

416

New Zealand Energy Data: Oil Consumption by Fuel and Sector ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oil Consumption by Fuel and Sector The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes energy data including many datasets related to oil and other...

417

A number of western states increased oil production since 2010 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Onshore oil production, including crude oil and lease condensate, rose more than 2 million barrels per day (bbl/d), or 64%, in the Lower 48 states from February 2010 ...

418

PADD 2 Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

History; Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Incl. SPR) 279,627: 277,974: 280,607: 273,702: 274,961: 280,571: 1981-2013: Crude Oil (Including SPR) 117,512:

419

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Category:Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Gas Jump to: navigation, search This category includes companies and information related to oil (petroleum) or natural gas. Pages in category "Oil and Gas" The following 114 pages are in this category, out of 114 total. A Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Al Furat Petroleum Company Alabama Oil and Gas Board Alaska Division of Oil and Gas Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Algeria Ministry of Energy and Mining Archaeological Resource Protection Act Archaeological Resources Protection Act Arizona Oil and Gas Commission Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission B Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act C California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources California Environmental Quality Act

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in which a combustion zone is advanced therethrough by a method which includes the steps of establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone in the direction the combustion zone is to be advanced through the in situ oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture comprises an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and sufficient to advance the combustion zone through the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion products gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which comprises gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. 47 claims, 1 figure.

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

422

Oil price; oil demand shocks; oil supply shocks; dynamic effects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Using a newly developed measure of global real economic activity, a structural decomposition of the real price of crude oil in four components is proposed: oil supply shocks driven by political events in OPEC countries; other oil supply shocks; aggregate shocks to the demand for industrial commodities; and demand shocks that are specific to the crude oil market. The latter shock is designed to capture shifts in the price of oil driven by higher precautionary demand associated with fears about future oil supplies. The paper quantifies the magnitude and timing of these shocks, their dynamic effects on the real price of oil and their relative importance in determining the real price of oil during 1975-2005. The analysis sheds light on the origin of the observed fluctuations in oil prices, in particular during oil price shocks. For example, it helps gauge the relative importance of these shocks in the build-up of the real price of crude oil since the late 1990s. Distinguishing between the sources of higher oil prices is shown to be crucial in assessing the effect of higher oil prices on U.S. real GDP and CPI inflation, suggesting that policies aimed at dealing with higher oil prices must take careful account of the origins of higher oil prices. The paper also quantifies the extent to which the macroeconomic performance of the U.S. since the mid-1970s has been driven by the external economic shocks driving the real price of oil as opposed to domestic economic factors and policies. Key words: JEL:

Lutz Kilian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

RMOTC - Testing - Enhanced Oil Recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. RMOTC will play a significant role in continued enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology development and field demonstration. A scoping engineering study on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3's (NPR-3) enhanced oil recovery

424

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, andWorld Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, andProduction of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other Liquids, and Re?

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),Figure 3. Price of crude oil contract maturing December ofbarrels per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

429

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interpretations of China’s foreign oil strategy. Argumentsof aspects of China’s foreign oil activities, they do notits largest directly-run foreign oil project. Supplying 10

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Oil Spills and Wildlife  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Spills and Wildlife Name: jess Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: what are some effects of oil spills on plants? Replies: The effects of oil spills over the last...

432

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the residual quantity of oil that never gets produced.order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil at a price P tD t Q t Q t+1 Quantity Figure 5. Monthly oil production for

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is an important oil source for China, yet unlike itsthe United States as a major oil source outside the volatileto be a critical source of oil, and one that is almost

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Design of experiments: production of CO2from aquilariella malaccensis woods via pyrolysis-combustion process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CO2 is the main source used in conventional radiocarbon dating to estimate the age of the archaeological wood. However, the production of CO2 by combustion for conventional radiocarbon dating normally produces minimal amounts of ... Keywords: CO2 production, design of experiment, pyrolysis-combustion

A. Othman; S. K. Kamarudin; Z. Yaakob; S. R. S. Abdullah; A. Zaharim

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait, inday. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.Arabia PRODUCTION QUOTA Iran PRODUCTION QUOTA Venezuela

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices. WTI Crude Oil Price. Retail Gasoline Price. Source: Energy Information Administration

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

443

H/sub 2/S evolution from Colorado oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of the sulfur in oil shale occurs in pyrite and a smaller amount is contained in the kerogen. It is demonstrated that the major source of H/sub 2/S during oil shale pyrolysis is from the reaction of pyrite with organic matter. Results are presented for the evolution of H/sub 2/S from Colorado oil shale heated at 5/sup 0/C/min under autogenous (self-generated), argon, steam, and hydrogen atmospheres at atmospheric pressure. In an autogenous atmosphere, most of the H/sub 2/S is evolved between 400 and 500/sup 0/C. Addition of finely ground pyrite increases the amount but does not change the evolution profile of H/sub 2/S. In an argon atmosphere, however, added pyrite causes a substantial increase in H/sub 2/S evolution only between 475 and 525/sup 0/C. Similar reaction characteristics were observed with large-grained natural pyrite in a Tract C-a oil shale. These results also demonstrate the importance of intimate contact between the pyrite and organic material. In a steam atmosphere, pyrite is oxidized to iron oxides and the H/sub 2/S evolution increases substantially. In some samples, essentially all the initial sulfur is evolved as H/sub 2/S at temperatures below 800/sup 0/C. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamic limitations on the observed reactions under retort conditions.

Burnham, A.K.; Bey, N.K.; Koskinas, G.J.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Production of Shale Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan provides a blueprint for the development of a 28,000 acre holding on Clear Creek in Garfield County, Colorado on property acquired by Standard Oil of California in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The paper describes these planning activities and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits, plans for development of required retorting and mining technology and a preliminary description of the commercial project which will ultimately emerge from these activities. General financial impact of the project and the case for additional tax incentives to encourage it will be described.

Loper, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy & Financial Markets: What Drives Crude Oil Prices?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

An assessment of the various factors that may influence oil prices - physical market factors as well as those related to trading and financial markets. The analysis describes 7 key factors that could influence oil markets and explores possible linkages between each factor and oil prices, and includes regularly-updated graphs that depict aspects of those relationships.

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Proceedings of the 7th Middle East oil show  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains the November, 1991 proceedings of the 7th Middle East Oil Show. It includes the following topics: Horizontal drilling; Emergency pipeline repair; Geologic interpretation and digital processing of satellite images; Fracturing patterns; Oil and gas saturation monitoring; and The environmental impact of oil spills.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Eco Oil 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

449

Subject is oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The article reviews the current financial, legislative and regulatory problems of oil shale development. 2 refs.

Due, M.J.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Oil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Oil is used for heating and transportation -- most notably, as fuel for gas-powered vehicles. America's dependence on foreign oil has declined in recent years, but oil prices have increased. The Energy Department supports research and policy options to increase our domestic supply of oil while ensuring environmentally sustainable supplies domestically and abroad, and is investing in research, technology and

451

Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

quickly to approve requests of loans from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to oil refineries. Within 48 hours of receiving requests, oil was on its way to requesting refineries....

452

Oil Dependencies and Peak Oil's Effects on Oil Consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? During the year of 2007, the world has experienced historically high oil prices both in nominal and in real terms, which has reopened discussions… (more)

Tekin, Josef

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

U.S. Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian-Gulf Oil For Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of crude oil includes all transportation costs and fees updid not produce or consume oil); the cost of defending theDivision, The External Costs of Oil Used in Transportation,

Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produce oil, in various gas, bitumen, and C quantities andquantity of each element distributed among the products and Elements in the oilOil shales contain organic material in a mineral matrix which includes significant environmentally As, quantities

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Lube Oil System Leakage Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lube Oil System Leakage Mitigation is the second in a series of training modules addressing leakage in nuclear power plants. The first planned modules in the leakage reduction series include leakage reduction program management, bolted joints with flat gaskets, valve packing, threaded joints, compression fittings, mechanical seals, and miscellaneous bolting issues.

1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

456

Colorado oil shale: the current status, October 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general background to oil shale and the potential impacts of its development is given. A map containing the names and locations of current oil shale holdings is included. The history, geography, archaeology, ecology, water resources, air quality, energy resources, land use, sociology, transportation, and electric power for the state of Colorado are discussed. The Colorado Joint Review Process Stages I, II, and III-oil shale are explained. Projected shale oil production capacity to 1990 is presented. (DC)

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Outlook Briefing for the State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference Asheville, NC Mike Burdette Petroleum Division, Energy ...

458

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook. Short-Term World Oil Price Forecast . Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance

459

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Briefing for the State Heating Oil and Propane Program Conference Wilmington, DE by Douglas MacIntyre

460

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes pyrolysis oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

462

Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Includes volumes uses as ...

463

Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different samples: real waste, simulated and real waste + catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the effects of inorganic components in the pyrolysis products. - Abstract: Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or