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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

2

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

3

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," ","RSE" " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)","Row"

4

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Factors"

5

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," " " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)"

6

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","RSE" " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Row"

7

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

8

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Factors"

9

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)"," " " ","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","Other(e)"

10

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487 32 345 -- Process Cooling and Refrigeration -- 206 * 1 32 * * -- Machine Drive

11

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- -- 62 6 838 1 417 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487

12

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

13

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process

14

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process 773,574 10 9 2,709 10 19 Process Heating

15

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process

16

23rd steam-station cost survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of the 23rd Steam Station Cost Survey covering the year 1982 are summarized. The major categories of the survey are as follows: general data; output data, 1982; fuel consumption, 1982; operation 1982 (mills/net kWh); investment ($/net kWh); energy cost, 1982 (mills/net kWh); and station performance, 1982. Thirty-one fossil-fuel steam plants and four nuclear stations were included in the survey. Fuel and operating cost increases are felt to be responsible for the moderate rise in total busbar-enery costs. 11 figures, 1 table.

Friedlander, G.D.; Going, M.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Parametric study of an efficient renewable power-to-substitute-natural-gas process including high-temperature steam electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Power-to-Substitute Natural Gas processes are investigated to offer solutions for renewable energy storing or transportation. In the present study, an original Power-to-SNG process combining high-temperature steam electrolysis and CO2 methanation is implemented and simulated. A reference process is firstly defined, including a specific modelling approach of the electrolysis and a methanation modelling including a kinetic law. The process also integrates a unit to clean the gas from residual CO2, H2 and H2O for gas network injection. Having set all the units, simulations are performed with ProsimPlus 3™ software for a reference case where the electrolyser and the methanation reactors are designed. The reference case allows to produce 67.5 Nm3/h of SNG with an electrical energy consumption of 14.4 kW h/Nm3. The produced SNG satisfies specifications required for network injection. From this reference process, two sensitivity analyses on electrolysis and methanation working points and on external parameters and constraints are considered. As a main result, we observe that the reference case maximises both process efficiency and SNG production when compared with other studied cases.

Myriam De Saint Jean; Pierre Baurens; Chakib Bouallou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

19

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Code(a) End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3

20

UNL POLICY FOR DIVISION OF NET ROYALTY AND PROCEEDS Section 5 of the RP-4.4.2 Regents' Patent and Technology Transfer Policy includes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNL POLICY FOR DIVISION OF NET ROYALTY AND PROCEEDS Section 5 of the RP-4.4.2 Regents' Patent and Technology Transfer Policy includes information on the division of net royalties and proceeds: "With respect by the University associated with such action. After such expenses are reimbursed, royalties and other proceeds from

Logan, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to support the steam efficiency program. Today, the Steam Team includes, the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA), the American Gas Association (AGA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (ClBO), Armstrong International... pinch technology, and high performance steam. ? Armstrong International - Three worldwide factory seminar facilities, 13 North American sales representative facilities, 4 international sales representative facilities, 8 co-sponsored facilities, 2...

Jones, T.

23

Steam Champions in Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into equivalent corporate rewards, such as increased profitability, reliability, workplace safety, and other benefits. The prerequisites for becoming a true steam champion will include engineering, business, and management skills....

Russell, C.

24

Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

Silvestri, G.J.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

25

Refurbishing steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power-plant operators are reducing maintenance costs of their aging steam turbines by using wire-arc spray coating and shot peening to prolong the service life of components, and by replacing outmoded bearings and seals with newer designs. Steam-turbine operators are pressed with the challenge of keeping their aging machines functioning in the face of wear problems that are exacerbated by the demand for higher efficiencies. These problems include intense thermal cycling during both start-up and shutdown, water particles in steam and solid particles in the air that pit smooth surfaces, and load changes that cause metal fatigue.

Valenti, M.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Proceedings of design, repair, and refurbishment of steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book reports on the proceedings of design, repair and refurbishment of steam engines. Topics covered include: Advisor/Expert Systems for Steam Turbines; Moisture Effects on the Operating and Performance of Steam Turbines; Turbine Steam Path Development; Repair and Refurbishment of the Electric Generator Components; and Advanced Steam Turbine Designs.

Warnock, A.S. (Lehigh Univ., PA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Channel, ~ 25 mi. east of Houston ? Includes 4 manufacturing sites, 2 technology/engineering offices ?Significant community involvement Baytown Refinery Page 4 Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Process 60+ years old; ExxonMobil one of pioneers... Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview...

Gandler, T.

28

Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Achieve Steam System Excellence- Steam Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently.

31

HP Steam Trap Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consumption Peak Demand Mgt Peak Demand Mgt Similar Weather Day Analysis Metering and Verafication Steam Meter Monitoring ? Peak Demand Management ? Steam Consumption Management ? Steam Bill Verification ? Measurement and Verification ... Consumption Peak Demand Mgt Peak Demand Mgt Similar Weather Day Analysis Metering and Verafication Steam Meter Monitoring ? Peak Demand Management ? Steam Consumption Management ? Steam Bill Verification ? Measurement and Verification ...

Pascone, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Steam System Survey Guide  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam system, and (5) investigating energy losses in the steam distribution system.

33

Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits... not extend the turbine outage. To assure that all of the turbine audit data are available, the audit engineer must be at the turbine site the day the steam path is first exposed. A report of the opening audit findings is generated to describe the as...

Mitchell, D. R.

34

The 700°C steam turbine power plant â?? status of development and outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper appraises the current development status of the 700°C steam power plant under consideration of process optimisation as well as design aspects of the steam turbine and steam generator. The results for a compact arrangement of the steam turbine and steam generator are also presented. Based on a cycle analysis, a net efficiency between 49.3% and 51.4% can be achieved with the 700°C steam power plant â?? depending on the implementation and based on an inland plant site. No competing development activities for the 700°C steam power plant are known from the USA or Japan.

Heiner Edelmann; Martin Effert; Kai Wieghardt; Holger Kirchner

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Including fuel price elasticity of demand in net present value and payback time calculations of thermal retrofits: Case study of German dwellings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the domestic heating sector a number of different mathematical models are used to evaluate the economic viability of thermal retrofit measures. Currently, however, none of these models incorporate the effect of fuel price elasticity of demand. This paper offers a method for incorporating a factor for fuel price elasticity into models for assessing the net present value and payback time of thermal retrofits of existing homes. A set of working equations is developed, and empirically tested in a case study, a housing estate retrofit project in Ludwigshafen, Germany. The value used in these equations for year-on-year price elasticity, ?0.476, is derived from further empirical studies. The inclusion of price elasticity is found to lower the net present value by 14–24% and lengthen the payback time by 5 years in some cases, and hundreds of years in others. It also shows CO2 saved over the technical lifetime of the retrofit measures to be 15–24% lower than anticipated. These findings have implications for government policy and investment decisions of businesses, private households and housing providers.

Ray Galvin; Minna Sunikka-Blank

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

McConnell, Terry

37

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms. The condensing mechanisms including: a plurality of finned tubes through which the expanded exhaust steam flows and is condensed; a plurality of bundle from headers at the lower ends of the condensing tubes for receiving exhaust steam from the turbine; a plurality of bundle divided rear headers, one for each tube row in the bundle, at the higher ends of the condensing tubes for receiving non-condensible gases; and means in the rear and last headers to remove non-condensible gasses from the rear headers along their full length.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STEAMMASTER: STEAM SYSTEM ANALYSIS SOFTW ARE Greg Wheeler Associate Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 9733 I ABSTRACT As director of Oregon's ]ndustrial Assessment Center, [ have encountered many industrial steam systems during... plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. [n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a...

Wheeler, G.

39

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A discussion covers steam reforming developments to the 1950's; the kinetics of methane-steam reforming, of the water-gas shift during methane-steam reforming, and of the carbon formation during methane-steam reforming, as approached by Akers and Camp.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and implement small scale cogeneration. These recommendations included reducing the medium pressure steam distribution to low pressure, eliminating the medium pressure to low pressure reducing stations, installing a back pressure steam turbine generator...

Larkin, A.

42

Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reduction: Opportunities and Issues How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions...

43

Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Steam engines on a microscopic scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the operation of a miniature steam engine that can develop 100 times more power than existing microsystems actuated by electrostatic forces. The topics of the article include current uses for electrostatic actuators and possible applications of the miniature steam engine, the design and operation of the engine, and problems associated with increasing the operating frequency of the engine.

O'Connor, L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

46

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Fed. Government Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Net Metering Provider Washington State University Washington's net-metering law applies to systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydro, biogas from animal waste, or combined heat and power technologies (including fuel cells). All customer classes are eligible, and all utilities -- including municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- must offer net metering.

47

Quantitative description of steam channels after steam flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam channeling is one of the main barriers for EOR after steam flooding. In order to enhance the oil recovery in steam flooded reservoirs, steam channel volumes should be precisely known. In ... methods has bee...

Qiang Zheng; HuiQing Liu; Fang Li; Qing Wang…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Industrial Steam Power Cycles Final End-Use Classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Final end uses of steam include two major classifications: those uses that condense the steam against heat transfer surfaces to provide heat to an item of process or service equipment; and those that require a mass flow of steam for stripping...

Waterland, A. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Waste Steam Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally...

Kleinfeld, J. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Downhole steam quality measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

51

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sequential steam; An engineered cyclic steaming method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclic steam injection has been the most widely used EOR method in areas of the Potter sand in the Midway-Sunset field, Kern County, CA. This paper discusses the field pilot and the statistical and theoretical studies leading to the design of a sequential steaming process,plus the implementation of this process on three leases.

Jones, J. (Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., Bakersfield, CA (US)); Cawthon, J. (Groundwater Resources Inc. (US))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Hydrocarbon steam reforming using series steam superheaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for steam reforming of a hydrocarbon gas feedstream wherein: the hydrocarbon gas feedstream is partially reformed at elevated temperatures in indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in a direct fired primary reforming furnace provided with a convection section for recovery of excess heat from said combustion gases; and the partially reformed feedstream is then further reformed in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and steam in a secondary reformer to form a secondary reformer gaseous effluent; the improvement which comprises recovering waste heat from said secondary reformer effluent gas and from said primary reforming combustion products by heating a high pressure saturated steam in a first steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said secondary reformer effluent gas to form a first superheated steam stream; and further heating said first superheated steam in a second steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said primary reformer hot combustion gases for form a second superheated steam stream.

Osman, R. M.

1985-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Ashland Electric- Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 1996, Ashland adopted a net-metering program that includes simple interconnection guidelines. The program encourages the adoption of renewable-energy systems by committing the city to purchase,...

55

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

56

DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that includes a 4 cylinder steam engine coupled with a 3 phase generator. This paper describes ongoing research cavity receiver [2] mounted to the 500 m2 dish receiver supports, a modified steam engine coupled transports superheated steam via rotary joints to the ground and then to a 4 cylinder steam engine

57

Geothermal steam quality testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal steam quality and purity have a significant effect on the operational efficiency and life of geothermal steam turbines and accessory equipment. Poor steam processing can result in scaled nozzles/blades, erosion, corrosion, reduced utilization efficiency, and early fatigue failures accelerated by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Upsets formed by undetected slugs of liquid entering the turbine can cause catastrophic failure. The accurate monitoring and determination of geothermal steam quality/purity is intrinsically complex which often results in substantial errors. This paper will review steam quality and purity relationships, address some of the errors, complexities, calibration and focus on: thermodynamic techniques for evaluating and monitoring steam quality by use of the modified throttling calorimeters.

Jung, D.B. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Improving steam turbine efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the condition of a significant number of fossil steam turbines operating in the United States and the maintenance practices used to improve their performance. Through the use of steam path audits conducted by the authors` company and by several utilities, a large data base of information on turbine heat rate, casing efficiency, and maintenance practices is available to help the power generation industry understand how different maintenance practices and steam path damage impact turbine performance. The data base reveals that turbine cycle heat rate is typically 5.23% poorer than design just prior to major outages. The degraded condition of steam turbines presents an opportunity for utilities to improve heat rate and reduce emissions without increasing fuel costs. The paper describes what losses typically contribute to the 5.23% heat rate degradation and how utilities can recover steam turbine performance through maintenance actions aimed at improving steam path efficiency.

Cioffi, D.H.; Mitchell, D.R.; Whitecar, S.C. [Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

Moldenhauer, J.E.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The Invisibility of Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Almost everyone “knows” that steam is visible. After all one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Steam reforming analyzed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In October 2009, the Regulatory Commission of Alaska (RCA) approved net metering regulations. These rules were finalized and approved by the lieutenant governor in January 2010 and became...

64

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Options for Generating Steam Efficiently  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

Ganapathy, V.

66

Steam turbine upgrades: A utility based approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the increasingly competitive power generation markets utilities must strive towards lower electricity generation costs, whilst relying on an aging steam turbine fleet. By the year 2000 more than 25% of the global steam turbine capacity will be older than 30 years. The heat rate of such units is generally considerably higher than that of equivalent new plant, and such equipment can be further disadvantaged by increased maintenance costs and forced outage rates. Over the past decade steam turbine conversion, modification, and upgrade packages have become an increasingly important part of the European steam turbine market. Furthermore, many utilities now realize that enhanced cost-effectiveness can often be obtained by moving away from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and the upgrading of other manufacturers' plant is now routine within the steam turbine industry. By working closely with customers, GE has developed a comprehensive range of steam turbine upgrade packages, including advanced design steampaths which can increase the performance of existing turbine installations to levels comparable with new plant. Such packages are tailor-made to the requirements of each customer, to ensure that the most cost-effective engineering solution is identified. This paper presents an overview of GE's state-of-the-art steam turbine technology, and continues to describe typical economic models for turbine upgrades.

Wakeley, G.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Solar Steam Nanobubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar Steam Nanobubbles ... The generated steam may also be used to drive a turbine directly for electricity generation. ... Furthermore, sputtering at gas–solid and gas–liquid interfaces may occur, and thermal desorption at the metal–water interface may affect the heat transfer as well. ...

Albert Polman

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

70

Inspect and Repair Steam Traps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

71

NetCDF at NERSC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NetCDF NetCDF NetCDF Description and Overview NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a set of software libraries and machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data. This includes the libnetcdf.a library as well as the NetCDF Operators (NCO), Climate Data Operators (CDO), NCCMP, and NCVIEW packages. Files written with previous versions can be read or written with the current version. Using NetCDF on Cray System There are separate NetCDF installations provided by Cray and by NERSC. On Hopper and Edison, Cray installations are recommended because they are simpler to use. To see the available Cray installations and versions use the following command: module avail cray-netcdf To see the NERSC installations and versions use the following command:

72

Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

73

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Agricultural Agricultural Commercial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Net Metering Provider Kentucky Public Service Commission In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation that expanded its net metering law by requiring utilities to offer net metering to customers that generate electricity with photovoltaic (PV), wind, biomass, biogas or hydroelectric systems up to 30 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. The Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) issued rules on January 8, 2009. Utilities had 90 days from that date to file tariffs that include all terms and conditions of their net metering programs, including interconnection.

74

Evaluating Steam Trap Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~LmT " TRIf' 1 TRIf' 2 Figure 2 It has become common practice for engineers to oversize steam traps and place more emphasis on first cost than on maintenance cost and operating 766 3 4 ESL-IE-86-06-126 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data...

Fuller, N. Y.

75

Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

No limit specified (Board of Public Utilities may limit to 2.5% of peak demand) 9 * California o Net Excess Generation (NEG): Credited to customer's next bill at retail rate. - At...

76

Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

North Dakota's net-metering policy, adopted in 1991 by the state Public Service Commission (PSC), applies to renewable-energy systems and combined heat and power (CHP) systems up to 100 kilowatts ...

77

Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

[http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf LB 436], signed in May 2009, established statewide net metering rules for all electric utilities in Nebraska. The rules apply to...

78

Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Nevada's original net-metering law for renewable-energy systems was enacted in 1997 and amended in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. Systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity that generate electricity...

79

Steam Trap Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics. 2. Understand advantages and limitations of various checking methods. 3. Use more than one checking method. 4. Understand flash condensate. 5. Condensate makes more noise than steam. 6. Trouble shoot the system. 7. Review trap... or failed steam and condensate flow~' H closed to be undetected -Not always insensitive to back ground or ambient noise -Noise in electrical system if volume too high -Head set quality important -Location of probe on trap, contact force, pressure drop...

Murphy, J. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Net Metering Provider Public Utilities Regulatory Authority Connecticut's two investor-owned utilities -- Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) and United Illuminating Company (UI) -- are required to provide net metering to customers that generate electricity using "Class I" renewable-energy resources, which include solar, wind, landfill gas, fuel

82

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Net Metering Provider Minnesota Department of Commerce '''''Note: H.F. 729, enacted in May 2013, includes many changes to Minnesota's net metering law. These changes are described above, but most will not take effect until rules are implemented at the PUC. The below summary reflects the current rules.''''' Minnesota's net-metering law, enacted in 1983, applies to all investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. All "qualifying facilities" less than 40 kilowatts (kW) in capacity are

83

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

84

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature relating to the kinetics of methane-steam reforming involving integral and differential reactor data, porous nickel catalysts and nickel foil, and data over large ranges of temperature (500 to 1700/sup 0/F), pressure (0.01 to 50 atm), and intrinsic catalyst activities (200,000-fold) was reviewed. A simple reversible first-order kinetic expression for the steam-methane reaction appears to be applicable throughout the operable region of steam-to-carbon ratios. Internal pore diffusion limitation on the conversion rate, due to catalyst size and/or intrinsic catalyst activity and total operating pressure was underlined. S-shaped Arrhenium plots (changing activation energy) are obtained when steam reforming is conducted over a temperature range sufficient to produce intrinsic kinetics (low temperature, inactive catalyst, or small catalyst size), pore diffusional limitations, and reaction on the outside surface. Homogeneous gas-phase kinetics appear to contribute only at relatively high temperature (1400/sup 0/F). In steam reforming, the water-gas shift reaction departs from its equilibrium position, especially at low methane conversion level. A general correlation of approach to water-gas shift equilibration as a function of conversion level only was indicated. (DP) 18 figures, 6 tables.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality...

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Steam turbine materials and corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type Net Metering Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission [http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2009a/csl.nsf/fsbillcont3/571064D8... Senate Bill 51] of April 2009 made several changes, effective September 1, 2009, to the state's net metering rules for investor-owned utilities, as they apply to solar-electric systems. These changes include converting the maximum system size for solar-electric systems from two megawatts (MW) to 120% of the annual consumption of the site; redefining a site to include

88

Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

89

Reduction in Unit Steam Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

Gombos, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

Thomas, Andrew

91

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs...

Ganapathy, V.

92

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems.

93

Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

Hutton, D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Watt steam governor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physics of the fly-ball governor, introduced to regulate the speed of steam engines, is here analysed anew. The original analysis is generalized to arbitrary governor geometry. The well-known stability criterion for the linearized system breaks down for large excursions from equilibrium; we show approximately how this criterion changes.

Mark Denny

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Steamed dinosaur eggs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a Cretaceous hatchery shows that some dinosaurs liked their nesting sites steam-heated — by geothermal vents. A paper in Nature Communications today says that certain dinosaurs regularly returned to ... vents. A paper in Nature Communications today says that certain dinosaurs regularly returned to geothermal fields to shape nests and deposit eggs more than 100 million years ago. ...

Rex Dalton

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

97

Steam management in composite mature steam floods, Midway Sunset field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vogel noted that oil production rates in many steam floods are not predictable from steam injection rates and must be estimated on some other basis. He presented a conservative method, based on simple models assuming instantaneous steam overlay, to calculate heat requirements once the oil rate is known. By more accurately describing the reservoir being flooded and the steam flood process, Vogel`s method was refined resulting in significant steam savings for SWEPI`s leasehold in the northern part of the Midway Sunset field. Analytical expressions are presented for (1) the heat required to support a steam chest descending into an oil column, (2) the heating of a cap or base rock already partially heated by an adjacent steam flood and (3) the heating of a cap or base rock which is exposed to a uniformly growing steam zone. A method is also described to operate a mature steam flood at a constant oil steam ratio while scavenging some heat stored in the steam zone.

Dorp, J.J. van; Roach, R.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Wind Program Info State New Jersey Program Type Net Metering Provider New Jersey Board of Public Utilities New Jersey's net-metering rules apply to all residential, commercial and industrial customers of the state's investor-owned utilities and energy suppliers (and certain competitive municipal utilities and electric cooperatives). Systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, geothermal, wave, tidal, landfill gas or sustainable biomass resources, including fuel cells (all "Class I" technologies under the state RPS), are

99

Steam System Balancing and Tuning  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Balancing and Steam System Balancing and Tuning Building America Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX Jayne Choi, Energy Analyst, CNT Energy March 2, 2012 PARR Current collaboration with GTI as a part of the PARR Building America team - Steam Systems Balancing and Tuning Study - Heating season 2011-2012 Background In Chicago, heating is the focus of residential energy use Of the 470,000 multifamily units in the Chicago region, at least 70,000 of those are steam heated Old steam systems invariably suffer from imbalance - Tenants must use supplemental heat or open their windows to cool their apartments during the heating season Buildings are often overheated Problem Statement (CNT Energy) Steam Heating Steam heat was the best option for buildings constructed between 1900 and 1930

100

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Dry Steam) (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

dist_steam.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Steam Usage Form District Steam Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company. a. You may submit a single report for the entire building, or if it i s easier, a separate report for each of several accounts in the building. These will then be aggregated by the survey contractor. b. If you are concerned about your individual account information, you may c

102

Net Energy Billing | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Billing Energy Billing Net Energy Billing < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Maine Program Type Net Metering Provider Maine Public Utilities Commission All of Maine's electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities (IOUs), consumer-owned utilities (COUs), which include municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- must offer net energy billing for individual customers. Furthermore IOUs are required to offer net metering for shared ownership customers, while COUs may offer net metering to shared ownership

103

Second law analysis of a natural gas-fired steam boiler and cogeneration plant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A second law thermodynamic analysis of a natural gas-fired steam boiler and cogeneration plant at Rice University was conducted. The analysis included many components of… (more)

Conklin, Eric D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

105

Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

Not Available

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Steam System Forecasting and Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by manipulation of operating schedules to avoid steam balances that result in steam venting, off gas-flaring, excessive condensing on extraction/condensing turbines, and ineffective use of extraction turbines. For example, during the fourth quarter of 1981... minimum turndown levels. Several boilers would have oeen shut down; by-product fuel gas would have been flared; and surplus low level steam would have been vented to the atmosphere. Several scenarios were studied with SFC and evaluated based...

Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on deaerators provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

108

Progress Energy - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Progress Energy - Net Metering Progress Energy - Net Metering Progress Energy - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Net Metering Provider Progress Energy Carolinas In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulated electric utilities; the order incorporates a net metering settlement signed by the individual interveners, the Office of Regulatory Staff and the three investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The order detailed the terms of net metering, including ownership of RECs, in South Carolina and standardized

109

Duke Energy - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duke Energy - Net Metering Duke Energy - Net Metering Duke Energy - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Net Metering In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an [http://dms.psc.sc.gov/pdf/matters/F05030FC-E19A-9225-B838F72EDF4557DC.pdf] order mandating net metering be made available by the regulating utilities; the order incorporates a net metering settlement signed by the individual interveners, the Office of Regulatory Staff and the three investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The order detailed the terms of net metering, including

110

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

111

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

112

System to inject steam and produce oil from the same wellbore through downhole valve switching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various Downhole Equipment systems have been designed for typical applications in three California Oilfields,based on well data gathered from three different Operating Companies. The first system, applicable to a 2,000 ft deep reservoir (Monarch) a highly underpressured, unconsolidated sand of 200 ft net pay, located in the Midway-Sunset field, is based on the use of a new well. The second well configuration considered was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with a 7 inches casing and penetrating into two separate sandstone reservoirs, at normal pressures in the North Antelope Hills field. Only the bottom layer is presently in production through a gravel-packed 5.5 inch linear, while the upper zone is behind the cemented casing. The third case studied was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with an 8 5/8 inch casing, presently unperforated, into a thin under-pressured sand reservoir (Weber) in the Midway-Sunset field. All three California fields contain Heavy Oils of different but relatively high viscosities. A new class of potential applications of our new technology has also been considered: the recovery of Light Oil (> 20 API) by steam injection in under-pressured Carbonate reservoirs which lay at depths beyond the economic limit for conventional steam injection technology. The possibility of including this application in a Field Test proposal to the DOE, under the Class II Oil Program, is now under review by various Operators. A drilling contractor experienced in drilling multiple horizontal wells in Carbonate reservoirs and a team of reservoir engineers experienced in the recovery of Light Oil by steam in fractured reservoirs have expressed their interest in participating in such a joint Field Project. Laboratory tests on specific prototypes of Downhole Sealing Elements are underway.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL; Muley, Nishant [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Economics of Steam Electric Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by manufacturers, data available from past installations and recent installations. 7) Labor costs were based on labor rates in ~he Lansing, Michigan area. 8) Power plant labor and supervision costs were based on manning data supplied by the Board of Water...-service. No other figures, including labor, fuel cost, outside services and other costs have been escalated. 12) Operating costs were established, based on steam generation. Credit has been allotted to any program for the electric power generated during...

Ophaug, R. A.; Birget, C. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

required to register. Steam End User - 1 day workshop Availability: Onsite instructor-led and online self-paced workshop This course covers the operation of typical steam...

117

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

118

Steam System Modeler | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency (%) Isentropic Efficiency (%) Blowdown Rate (%) Deaerator Vent Rate (%) Heat Loss (%) Condensate Return (%) Steam Mass Flow Feedwater Mass Flow Initial HP Steam...

119

NREL: News - NREL and Army Validate Energy Savings for Net Zero...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a net zero energy initiative that includes all of its installations across the state. Fort Bliss (Texas) and Fort Carson (Colo.) are piloting integrated net zero energy, water,...

120

Steam turbine restart temperature maintenance system and method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A restart temperature maintenance system is described for a steam turbine system; the steam turbine system comprising a steam turbine, the turbine including a rotation shaft, an outer metal shell means. The restart temperature maintenance system consists of: (a) fastener means affixed to the outer surface of the shell means at predetermined positions; (b) air gap spacer means affixed to the outer surface of the shell means, the air gap spacer means substantially covering the shell means; (c) a plurality of electric heating blanket means of predetermined size and shape positioned in insulative relationship over the air gap spacer means and the heating blanket means maintained in predetermined position by the fastener means; (d) heat sensor means affixed to the outer metal shell means of the steam turbine in predetermined position; (e) power supply means for supplying power to the heating blanket means; (f) heat sensor monitor and controller means connected in circuit between the power supply means and the heat sensor means.

McClelland, T.R.

1986-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam Cookers Steam Cookers Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including commercial steam cookers, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the Energy Efficiency Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for the ENERGY STAR label or visit the ENERGY STAR Product Specifications

122

ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

GCFR steam generator conceptual design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

Rose, Michael R.

126

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT Tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, and the 3E Plus Insulation Tool. Each one of these trainings.S.DOE Steam Tools are designed to aid in assessing steam systems by identifying areas to investigate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

127

Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry. PWR-Volume 26  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a collection of the papers on advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry presented at the 1994 International Joint Power Generation Conference. The topics include advances in steam turbine design, application of computational fluid dynamics to turbine aerodynamic design, life extension of fossil and nuclear powered steam turbine generators, solid particle erosion control technologies, and artificial intelligence, monitoring and diagnostics.

Moore, W.G. [ed.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

130

The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System...

Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

131

Steam Field | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Field Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Steam field reservoirs are special cases where the fluid is predominantly found in a gas phase between 230°C to 240°C. "This special class of resource needs to be recognized, its uniqueness being the remarkably consistent initial temperature and pressure

132

Steam in the Ring Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The behaviour of steam and its decomposition products in the ring discharge has been examined. Dry hydrogen is not dissociated. The production of atomic hydrogen is dependent upon the presence of steam which dissociates into hydroxyl and atomic hydrogen. A secondary source of atomic hydrogen is then afforded by the interaction of hydroxyl with molecular hydrogen. The escape from the discharge of atomic hydrogen, a long-lived species, favours the dissociation of steam. Mercury vapour, on the other hand, inhibits the formation of atomic hydrogen and thus leads to a high equilibrium steam concentration. Unlike dry hydrogen, dry oxygen is dissociated into atoms, but these have a short life as such and recombine in the discharge to form molecular oxygen and ozone. The reaction mechanisms occurring in the discharge are discussed in the light of spectrographic results.

G I Finch

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Managing the Steam Trap Population  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hundred steam traps installed only 58 were working effectively -- 42% needed attention! These programs had associated cost benefits of at least 100% return on investment, a maximum six month breakeven on cash flow, and an energy cost reduction amounting...

Atlas, R. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

135

The steam engine and industrialization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simon Schaffer in York Rail Museum talks to the camera about the relationship between the steam engine and industrialization and whatsteam meant; a regular supply of moving power for workshops and factories....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

136

NPO Turboatom steam turbine design features and modifications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since its foundation in 1934, the Kharkov Turbine Works, parent of Turboatom has developed, manufactured, adjusted and operated steam turbine plants for thermal and nuclear power stations. More than 300 steam turbines for thermal power stations with a total capacity over 100,000 MW have been manufactured. Steam turbines rated 25 to 500 MW for pressures of 2.9 to 23.5 MPa for stations operating on fossil fuel and turbines rated 30 to 1100 MW for nuclear power stations (NPS) have been produced. unique experience was gained during building and operation of the SKR-100 turbine rated 100 MW for initial steam conditions of 29.4 MPa, 650{sup o}C with steam cooling and minimum use of high-temperature materials. In addition to the turbine plants made for the power stations of the former USSR, Turboatom has manufactured 95 steam turbines for export. These are installed at 7 nuclear and 16 thermal power stations throughout the world, including Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Korea and Rumania. Turboatom produces turbines operating at 25; 50 or 60 l/s speed of rotation.

Levchenko, E.V. [NPO Turboatom, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps Richard C; Bockwinkel General Manager Armstrong Service? A Division of Armstrong International, Inc. Orlando, Florida ABSTRACT This paper will discuss the energy savings potential of steam... Engineer Steam Traps Armstrong International, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan basis. Finally, it's important to recognize that a steam trap program will reduce steam waste> which will reduce the amount of fuel burned> which will reduce pollutants...

Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

138

Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

139

The Elimination of Steam Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

claims and misinformation gener ated by over thirty-six steam trap manufacturers in the United States alone. A PARTIAL LIST OF STEAM TRAP MANUFACTURERS AAF GESTRA ANDERSON HIROSS ARMSTRONG HOFFMAN BARNES &JONES HONEYWELL BRAUKMANN BESTOBELL... removal had been devised and these same methods, with minor variations, are employed today. The inverted bucket trap was in vented in 1910 by Otto Arner, a friend of Adam Armstrong. Armstrong began his business career by making bicycle spokes...

Dickman, F.

140

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to make additional steam for the steam turbine cycle. Thein multi-pressure-level steam turbines to produce additionalthe superheated steam to the steam turbine cycle. The most

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Industrial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Net Metering Provider Public Service Commission of Wisconsin The Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSC) issued an order on January 26, 1982 requiring all regulated utilities to file tariffs allowing net metering to customers that generate electricity with systems up to 20 kilowatts (kW)* in capacity. The order applies to investor-owned utilities and municipal utilities, but not to electric cooperatives. All distributed-generation (DG) systems, including renewables and combined heat and power (CHP), are eligible. There is no limit on total enrollment.

142

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Agricultural Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Wind Program Info State Indiana Program Type Net Metering Provider Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission The Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) adopted rules for net metering in September 2004, requiring the state's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) to offer net metering to all electric customers. The rules, which apply to renewable energy resource projects [defined by IC 8-1-37-4(a)(1) - (8)] with a maximum capacity of 1 megawatt (MW), include the following

143

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Wyoming Program Type Net Metering Provider Wyoming Public Service Commission Wyoming enacted legislation in February 2001 that established statewide net metering. The law applies to investor-owned utilities, electric cooperatives and irrigation districts. Eligible technologies include solar, wind, biomass and hydropower systems up to 25 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. Systems must be intended primarily to offset part or all of the customer-generator's requirements for electricity. Net excess generation (NEG) is treated as a kilowatt-hour (kWh) credit or other compensation on the customer's following bill.* When an annual period ends, a utility will purchase unused credits at the utility's avoided-cost

144

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 187 90s-AN ACT T O P R O H I B I T PIRHZS\\'61 BY STEAM VESSELS WIT'R  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BY STEAM VESSELS WIT'R WEIRRED O R PURSE CJEINES IN ANY O F THE WAWERS WITHIN THE JURISDICTION O F TRE, That it shall not be lawfuI for any person with steam ves- sels to take with purse or shirred nets any menhaden directed by scction four of this act j and the said steam vessel used and employed in the conmission

145

Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop...

146

City of St. George - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

City of St. George - Net Metering City of St. George - Net Metering City of St. George - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial General Public/Consumer Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Utah Program Type Net Metering Provider City of St. George The St. George City Council adopted a [http://www.sgcity.org/wp/power/NetMeteringPolicy.pdf net-metering program for area utilities], including interconnection procedures, in October 2005.* The interconnection procedures include different requirements, based on system size, for systems up to 10 megawatts (MW). Net metering is available to residential and commercial customers that generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV) systems. The net metering agreements currently available on the utility's web site only pertain to

147

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

148

Systematic Errors in Measuring the Energy of Wet Steam with Dry-Steam Meters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Systematic errors are considered in measuring mass flow rate, specific enthalpy, thermal power, and energy for wet steam by means of meters intended for dry saturated steam.

E. G. Abarinov; K. S. Sarelo

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Some Comments on James Watt's Published Account of His Work on Steam and Steam Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 June 1971 research-article Some Comments on James Watt's Published Account of His Work on Steam and Steam Engines W. A. Smeaton

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

heavy-snowfall area. The annual NEP (net ecosystem productiv-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net includes temperate deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. #12;FFPRI...FluxNet sites, Japan radiation radiation and air temperature was an important factor. In contrast, at the decidu- ous broad-leaved forests, Japan by Yoshikazu Ohtani Figure 1: Flux towers and forests in FFPRI FluxNet, Japan. The FFPRI Flux

152

Catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of a major portion of a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream in the reformer tubes of a primary reformer, or said effluent after secondary reforming thereof, is mixed with the hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of the remaining portion of the feed discharged from the reformer tubes of a primary reformer-exchanger. The combined gas steam is passed on the shell side of the reformer-exchanger countercurrently to the passage of feed in the reformer tubes thereof, thus supplying the heat for the reforming of the portion of the feed passed through the reformer tubes of the reformerexchanger. At least about 2/3 of the hydrocarbon feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said primary reformer, heated by radiant heat transfer and/or by contact with combustion gases, at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 2-4/1. The remainder of said feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said reformer -exchanger at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 3-6/1. The reformer shell of the reformer-exchanger is internally insulated by a refractory lining or by use of a double shell with passage of water or a portion of the feed material between the inner and outer shells. There is no significant difference between the pressure inside and outside of the reformer tubes of said primary reformer-exchanger.

Fuderer, A.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

153

System to inject steam and produce oil from the same wellbore through downhole valve switching. First quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various Downhole Equipment systems have been designed for typical applications in three California Oilfields,based on well data gathered from three different Operating Companies. The first system, applicable to a 2,000 ft deep reservoir (Monarch) a highly underpressured, unconsolidated sand of 200 ft net pay, located in the Midway-Sunset field, is based on the use of a new well. The second well configuration considered was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with a 7 inches casing and penetrating into two separate sandstone reservoirs, at normal pressures in the North Antelope Hills field. Only the bottom layer is presently in production through a gravel-packed 5.5 inch linear, while the upper zone is behind the cemented casing. The third case studied was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with an 8 5/8 inch casing, presently unperforated, into a thin under-pressured sand reservoir (Weber) in the Midway-Sunset field. All three California fields contain Heavy Oils of different but relatively high viscosities. A new class of potential applications of our new technology has also been considered: the recovery of Light Oil (> 20 API) by steam injection in under-pressured Carbonate reservoirs which lay at depths beyond the economic limit for conventional steam injection technology. The possibility of including this application in a Field Test proposal to the DOE, under the Class II Oil Program, is now under review by various Operators. A drilling contractor experienced in drilling multiple horizontal wells in Carbonate reservoirs and a team of reservoir engineers experienced in the recovery of Light Oil by steam in fractured reservoirs have expressed their interest in participating in such a joint Field Project. Laboratory tests on specific prototypes of Downhole Sealing Elements are underway.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Evaluation of steam path audits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tri-State Generation and Transmission association is the operating agent for the 1350 megawatt Craig Generating Station, located in northwestern Colorado. Tri-State has recently incorporated turbine steam path audits into their aggressive performance improvement program. The intent of the audits are to quantify and attain the most cost effective increase in turbine performance as a result of a major outage. Valuable information about performance losses in the turbine has been obtained from steam path audits conducted on the three Craig Units. However, accurate audit results often depend on the quality of measurements and the experience of the auditor. Without a second method to verify the results of a steam path audit, repairs might be performed on a non-cost effective basis, or significant performance degradations might be overlooked. In addition, an inaccurate audit may lead to erroneous expectations for performance improvements resulting from the maintenance performed during the outage.

Caudill, M.B. [Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Montrose, CO (United States); Griebenow, R.D. [SAIC, Huntersville, NC (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

Vallery, S. J.

158

The steam engine and what it needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simon Schaffer explains that to produce an effective steam engine you do not just need specific inventions, such as the separate condenser of James Watt, but also skills from clockworking, distillation, metal working and so on. Then the steam power...

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

159

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

160

The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam production represents a significant proportion of today's industrial energy demand. But the evolution of process technologies, as well as turbulence in energy markets, suggests that steam's role may be subject to change in the next decade...

Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Steam System Assessment Tool (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tool will help users determine the potential energy cost and emission savings of key steam-system improvements. The tool is designed for energy operations, production, project managers, and engineers who are responsible for steam systems.

Not Available

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

FEMP-FTA--Steam Trap Performance Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam Trap Function Steam Trap Function Steam traps are automatic valves used in every steam system to remove conden- sate, air, and other non-condensable gases while preventing or minimizing the passing of steam. If condensate is allowed to collect, it reduces the flow capacity of steam lines and the thermal capacity of heat transfer equipment. In addition, excess condensate can lead to "water hammer," with potentially destructive and dangerous results. Air that remains after system startup reduces steam pressure and temperature and may also reduce the thermal capacity of heat transfer equipment. Non-condensable gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, cause corrosion. Steam that passes through the trap provides no heating ser- vice. This effectively reduces the heating capacity

165

Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm or Steaming Ground Warm or Steaming Ground Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Warm or Steaming Ground Dictionary.png Warm or Steaming Ground: An area where geothermal heat is conducted to the earth's surface, warming the ground and sometimes causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles Warm or Steaming Ground Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes Geysers Blind Geothermal System Steam rising from the ground at Eldvorp, a 10 km row of craters, in Southwestern Iceland. http://www.visiticeland.com/SearchResults/Attraction/eldvorp Warm or steaming ground is often an indicator of a geothermal system beneath the surface. In some cases a geothermal system may not show any

166

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Advanced Manufacturing Home Key Activities Research & Development Projects Facilities...

167

"Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boiler technology currently in service in the U.S., it is critical to raise awareness and examine the role of emerging new technologies to address the energy and environmental challenges inherent with steam generation. In the same way that tank...

Smith, J. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Increased Expansion of Steam Attainable in Steam Trubines1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of steam discovered by James Watt, and to endeavour to trace their application in the engines constructed by him and by the firm of Bolton and Watt, then in the ... and Watt, then in the more highly developed forms of compound, triple, and quadruple reciprocating ...

1909-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

169

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial Module Slide 1 ­ Introduction Hello, and welcome to the Steam End User Training. I would like to take a few minutes to show you how to navigate through

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

170

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome to the Steam System End User training. In this training, we will investigate how to assess, evaluate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

171

Low pressure combustor for generating steam downhole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact catalytic combustor for generating steam downhole in an oil reservoir has steam generating tubes that are attached to a metal catalyst support. The metal support comprises sheets of metal that are spaced apart and transverse to the tubes. Heat from combustion is generated on the metal sheets and is conducted to the steam generating tubes. The steam is injected into the oil reservoir. The combustion gas is vented to ground level.

Retallick, W.B.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief outlines typical ways to increase steam system efficiency through changes in distribution, generation, and recovery.

173

Plant View On Reducing Steam Trap Energy Loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the steam traps are passing excess steam. This is caused by neglect of aged steam traps which have worn out and misapplication of steam traps by oversizing or using the 'wrong' type trap. Elimination of steam wastes by an effective well engineered steam trap...

Vallery, S. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle ... At a meeting held at Battelle's Columbus, Ohio, laboratories, D. B. Roach told representatives of 24 firms involved in various aspects of steam reforming that, though production of hydrogen through steam reforming has been a highly successful process, "increased plant size and more severe operating conditions have given rise to serious problems." ...

1969-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

175

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper...

Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

176

EA-1178: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

78: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, 78: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-1178: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for a proposed energy conservation measure for a number of buildings in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The proposed action includes replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing new natural gas pipelines to provide a source for many of these units and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD March 12, 1997 EA-1178: Finding of No Significant Impact

177

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Recover heat from steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam reforming is one of the most important chemical processes--it is used in the manufacture of ammonia, hydrogen, methanol, and many chemicals made from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Furthermore, many current trends will increase its importance. For example, methanol for addition to gasoline is likely to be produced by steam reforming. Because steam reforming occurs at high temperatures--typically 750 C--900 C--it generates a large amount of waste heat. Clearly, heat recovery is crucial to process economics. A typical 50,000 Nm[sup 3]/h hydrogen plant using natural gas feed has a radiant heat duty of about 50 MW. At a radiant efficiency of 50% and fuel cost of $3/GJ, this means that the reformer fires $9 million worth of fuel per year. Obviously, this amount of fuel justifies a close loot at ways to reduce costs. This article first provides a brief overview of steam reforming. It then outlines the available heat-recovery options and explains how to select the best method.

Fleshman, J.D. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Generating Steam by Waste Incineration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

Holcomb, G.R.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Using RBF-Nets in Rubber Industry Process Control U. Pietruschka, R. Brause  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a rubber profile used in tyre production. After introducing the problem, we describe the RBF net algorithm dull and dusty rubber and tyre production rooms where the products are ,,baked" by heat and steam for our ex- ample of tyre profile production. Fig. 1 The tire rubber profile extrusion The task of process

Brause, R.

182

Flash Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flash Steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Flash Steam Power Plants) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Flash Steam Power Plants General List of Flash Steam Plants Flash Steam power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.[1] Facility Name Owner Capacity (MW) Facility

183

Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Net Metering Provider Department of Public Utilities In Massachusetts, the state's investor-owned utilities must offer net metering. Municipal utilities are not obligated to offer net metering, but they may do so voluntarily. (There are no electric cooperatives in Massachusetts.) Class I, Class II, Class III net metering facilities In Massachusetts, there are several categories of net-metering facilities.

186

Steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane-containing gases are produced by the catalytic-stream reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks using a catalyst which includes a group VIII metal such as nickel and alumina, and which in its calcined but unreduced precursor form has a pore size distribution defined as follows: (I) at least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a pore radius between 12 and 120 angstrom units is in the range of 12-30 angstrom units, and (II) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 a to the pore volume contained in pores 50-300 a is at least 5:1.

Banks, R.G.; Williams, A.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

187

SCE&G - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCE&G - Net Metering SCE&G - Net Metering SCE&G - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Net Metering In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulated electric utilities; the order incorporates a net metering settlement signed by the individual interveners, the Office of Regulatory Staff and the three investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The order detailed the terms of net metering, including ownership of RECs, in South Carolina and standardized

188

Permanent magnet steam generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a system for magnetic heating of a fluid by motor rotation of a permanent magnet rotor adjacent an assembly of ferro-magnetic condensing plate and of copper heat absorber plate with protrusions through the ferro-magnetic condensing plate into an enclosure with the fluid therein and having fluid inlet and fluid outlet. The assembly has a first shaft and a second shaft coaxially spaced therefrom, a respective the motor connected to the outer end of each shaft, and a respective the permanent magnet rotor connected to the inner end of each shaft, adjacent a the heat absorber plate. The improvement described here comprises: the enclosure including a steel boiler with a first the ferro-magnetic condensing plate closing off a first end thereof and a second the ferro-magnetic condensing plate closing off a second end thereof, a the copper heat absorbing plate affixed on each ferro-magnetic plate; means, free of pockets, for promoting turbulent flow of the fluid with uniformly good heat transfer including the protrusion being a plurality of heat sinks, each heat sink of the plurality of heat sinks comprising an integral elongate member with an alternately large diameter and smaller diameter portions regularly spaced therealong. The elongate members through the first the ferro-magnetic condensing plate are coaxially aligned with the elongate members through the second the ferro-magnetic condensing plate.

Gerard, F.; Gerard, F.J.

1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity With Data for September 2013 | Release Date: November 27, 2013 | Next Release Date: May 29, 2013 Previous Issues Year: September 2013 March 2013 September 2012 March 2012 September 2011 March 2011 September 2010 Go Containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an

190

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Balancing Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Location: Chicago, IL Partners: Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Steam heating distribution system and controls Application: Retrofit; Multifamily Year Tested: 2011-2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold humid continental PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including labor): $9,000 on average Projected Energy Savings: 10.2% heating savings Chicago's older multifamily housing stock is primarily heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. Often, significant temperature differentials

191

Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Flash Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flash Steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Flash Steam Power Plants General List of Flash Steam Plants Flash Steam power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.[1] Facility Name Owner Capacity (MW) Facility Type Commercial Online Date Geothermal Area

193

The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

194

Numerical study of primary steam superheating effects on steam ejector flow and its pumping performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of primary steam superheating on steam condensation in nozzle and the performance of steam ejector were investigated using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) method. Using a wet steam model being proposed in our previous study, simulations based on the primary steam with five superheated levels were performed, and the results demonstrate the superheating operation of the primary steam weakens the spontaneous condensation intensity and postpones its occurrence within the nozzle vicinity. Due to the droplets nucleation refinement for the condensation of superheated steam, the mixing process between the primary and the secondary fluids is improved. Consequently, a higher entrainment ratio is achieved. However, the superheating operation may not exceed 20 K, as its contribution on entrainment ratio improvement is not as significant as 0 K–20 K superheating, and too much superheating will requires more energy as input, which is not a practical solution to further improve the steam ejector pumping performance.

Xiaodong Wang; Jingliang Dong; Ao Li; Hongjian Lei; Jiyuan Tu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Savings through Steam Trap Management Chris Gibbs, Account Manager, Armstrong International, Inc., Three Rivers, MI ESL-IE-08-05-08 Proceedings from theThirtieth Industrial Energy Technology Conference...-based steam trap management application developed by Armstrong International. The application calculates steam loss, fuel loss, dollar loss and CO 2 emission generation. The database allows for trend analysis, automatic energy report generation...

Gibbs, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

Setzer, H. J.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... mature technology. Steam turbines and engines have been used by industry to cogen erate power since before there were electric utilities. While the technology for turbines, generators and controls has continued to develop there is very little about...

Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

199

Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrasonic Inspection At least 2 times per year Steam Trap Surveyor Submit reports to area management, energy team, and reliability engineers for each area every month Steam Trap Team Leader Control Plan ? Process Owner agrees...Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central...

Kouba, C.

200

Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leakage is controlled by daily monitoring of make-up water volume. All recent heating water distribution projects have utilized above-ground, fiberglass insulated piping on elevated pipe support structures in order to avoid the potential corrosion...-insulated piping on elevated pipe support structures in order to avoid the potential corrosion and leakage issues associated with underground steam distribution. STEAM COST The remaining challenge was to minimize annual steam costs in order to enhance...

Fiorino, D. P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Timeline for Net Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

17.5 7302010 Yes Biennially x By July 31 of each Forecast Year, BPA publishes all Load Following customers' Net Requirements data for the two years of the upcoming Rate...

202

Net Metering Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

State net metering policies allow customers to produce onsite electricity and sell excess generation to the utility at a set price, which creates an incentive for private investment in distributed...

203

American Samoa- Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA), a government-owned electric utility, is the only power provider in this U.S. territory of almost 70,000 people. ASPA's "Interconnection and Net Energy...

204

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hydrodynamic analysis of direct steam generation solar collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct steam generation collectors are considered with the aim to improve the performance of a parabolic trough collector leading to a reduction of operating costs of solar electric generation systems. In this study a hydrodynamic steady state model is developed and linked with a thermal model to optimize the performance of once-through direct steam generation solar collectors. The hydrodynamic model includes flow pattern classification and a pressure drop model. Flow pattern maps for typical DSG collectors with horizontal and inclined absorber tubes are generated to investigate the variation of flow conditions with radiation level, tube diameter, tube length and flow rate. Two-phase flow frictional pressure drop correlations for the range of operating conditions in a DSG collector are selected from the wide range of published correlations by comparison with experimental data for typical steam-water flow conditions in a DSG collector. Pressure drop is calculated for different operating conditions for both horizontal and inclined solar absorber tubes. Alternative operational strategies are evaluated to achieve optimum performance of a direct steam generation collector at different radiation levels.

Odeh, S.D.; Behnia, M.; Morrison, G.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extenstion Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

93 93 Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration August 2007 Final Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject - August 2007 i TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Acronyms and Abbreviations............................................................................................. vi Chemicals and Units of Measure ................................................................................................. ix Conversion Chart ......................................................................................................................... xi Metric Prefixes .............................................................................................................................xii

208

Efficiently generate steam from cogeneration plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As cogeneration gets more popular, some plants have two choices of equipment for generating steam. Plant engineers need to have a decision chart to split the duty efficiently between (oil-fired or gas-fired) steam generators (SGs) and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) using the exhaust from gas turbines. Underlying the dilemma is that the load-versus-efficiency characteristics of both types of equipment are different. When the limitations of each type of equipment and its capability are considered, analysis can come up with several selection possibilities. It is almost always more efficient to generate steam in an HRSG (designed for firing) as compared with conventional steam generators. However, other aspects, such as maintenance, availability of personnel, equipment limitations and operating costs, should also be considered before making a final decision. Loading each type of equipment differently also affects the overall efficiency or the fuel consumption. This article describes the performance aspects of representative steam generators and gas turbine HRSGs and suggests how plant engineers can generate steam efficiently. It also illustrates how to construct a decision chart for a typical installation. The equipment was picked arbitrarily to show the method. The natural gas fired steam generator has a maximum capacity of 100,000 lb/h, 400-psig saturated steam, and the gas-turbine-exhaust HRSG has the same capacity. It is designed for supplementary firing with natural gas.

Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Coreflood experimental study of steam displacement.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The main objective of this study was to verify experimentally whether or not a Buckley-Leverett shock front exists when steam displaces oil in a porous… (more)

Cerutti, Andres Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

energy cost with an average commercial electric steam cooker life of 12 years. Future electricity price trends and a 3% discount rate are based on Federal guidelines (NISTIR...

212

Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

213

Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer equipment for various steam systems and applications.

214

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Conclusion Module 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Conclusion Module Slide 1 Conclusions Let's briefly examine the major items we have covered in this training. [Slide Visual ­ Contents of Module Sections

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

215

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Net Metering Provider Arkansas Economic Development Commission In April 2001, Arkansas enacted legislation (HB 2325) directing the Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish net-metering rules for certain renewable-energy systems.* The PSC approved final rules for net metering in July 2002. Subsequent legislation enacted in April 2007 (HB 2334) expanded the availability of net metering; increased the capacity

216

Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BASF North America 7 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF?s strategic principles A conscientious commitment to our investors, customers, employees...Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization May 23rd, 2013 IET Conference Meredith Bailey, PDP Engineer BASF Corporation (734) 324-5047 meredith.bailey@basf.com ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

Baily, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The...

218

Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing...

Garcia, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

Jantzen, C

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

220

Oxidation of alloys targeted for advanced steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, D.E.

2006-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Steam Turbine Control Valve Noise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although noise problems with steam turbine control valves have existed before they have become more prominent with nuclear turbines whose valves range to 20 in. in diameter. Our first?generation nuclear control valves were unacceptably noisy when operating under chocked conditions. These noise levels have been ameliorated by incorporation of a valve cage with numerous small holes. Rational design rules for this “dispersive muffler” have been developed from published multiple?jet noise data and improved through our own tests. However we are also evaluating other low?noise valve configurations which are consistent with turbine requirements. The approach we are developing is to investigate the internal aerodynamic noisegeneration in small air model tests and to combine this with measurements of pipe?wall transmission characteristics (being reported separately) to predict externally radiated noise. These predictions will be checked in a new steam test facility for complete scale?model valves. The small air tests show that acoustic efficiencies of throttling valve flows tend to vary with third power of Mach number when exhausting into space and with a lesser power when enclosed in a downstream pipe. At some pressure ratios narrow?band spikes appear in the spectrum and for some configurations step changes in sound power are associated with transitions in flow regimes.

Frank J. Heymann; Michael A. Staiano

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high-efficiency NG/fuel oil boilers · Slight reduction in steam production capacity · Requires: Building heating Domestic hot water Lab sterilization UT's Steam Plant #12;· Powered by 5 boilers: 2 emissions standard (Boiler MACT): · For existing boilers w/ heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater

Dai, Pengcheng

223

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Steam System Optimization: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper highlights the study findings in a steam system in a plant from a multinational Petrochemical giant in an European country. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $8.9 million (local currency was converted to US Dollars...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

225

The Progress of the Steam Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in pressure, and the steam expands gradually by small increments. In a moderate-sized turbo-motor there may be from thirty to eighty successive rings, and when the steam ... and relieve end pressure on the thrust bearing. Fig. 3 shows a 350 kilowatt turbo-alternator, thirteen of which size are now at work in the London stations.

1897-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

Program assists steam drive design project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new program for the HP-41CV programmable calculator will compute all parameters required for a steam drive project design. The Marx and Langenheim model assumptions are used to solve a more advanced version of the Myhill and Stegemeier model. Also, the Mandl and Volek model assuptions are used to compute the size of the steam zone.

Mendez, A.A.

1984-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

227

Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

228

An in-line microwave steam quality sensor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Saturated steam is a widely used industrial medium for the efficient transfer of energy. The proportion of saturated vapor steam to saturated condensate of the… (more)

Faulkner, Christopher D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy In order to meet the...

230

Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

231

Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Process-Control Schemes (July 2003) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems CIBO Energy Efficiency...

232

Experimental study on steam plume and temperature distribution for sonic steam jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sonic steam jet in subcooled water was investigated experimentally over a wide range of steam mass flux and water temperature conditions. Four different steam plume shapes were observed in present test conditions, and the condensation form was mainly controlled by the steam mass flux and water temperature. Moreover, the unstable jet was observed on the condition of low steam mass flux and high water temperature. The transition criterion of unstable-stable jet was also given. The temperature fields in the steam plume and in the surrounding water were measured. Axial temperature distributions represented the four typical steam plumes, and the fluctuation of axial temperature confirmed the existence of expansion and compression waves. Additionally, the radial temperature distributions were independent of water temperature for small radial distance at nozzle exit, and further the axial location was apart from the nozzle exit, longer the radial distance affected by the momentum diffusion.

Xinzhuang Wu; Junjie Yan; Wenjun Li; Dongdong Pan; Ying Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effect of steam injection location on syngas obtained from an air–steam gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For a fluidized-bed gasifier, reaction conditions vary along the height of the reactor. Hence, the steam injection location may have a considerable effect on the syngas quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of steam injection location and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR) on the syngas quality generated from an air–steam gasification of switchgrass in a 2–5 kg/h autothermal fluidized-bed gasifier. Steam injection locations of 51, 152, and 254 mm above the distributor plate and \\{SBRs\\} of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 were selected. Results showed that the syngas H2 and CO yields were significantly influenced by the steam injection location (p gasifier efficiencies (cold gas efficiency of 67%, hot gas efficiency of 72%, and carbon conversion efficiency of 96%) were at the steam injection location of 254 mm and SBR of 0.2.

Ashokkumar M. Sharma; Ajay Kumar; Raymond L. Huhnke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Technology Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology Overview Technology Overview Parabolic trough solar power technology offers an environmentally sound and increasingly cost-effective energy source. Here you'll find overviews about the following parabolic trough power plant technologies: Solar Field Collector balance of system Concentrator structure Mirrors Receivers Thermal Energy Storage Molten-salt heat transfer fluid Storage media Storage systems Power Plant Systems Direct steam generation Fossil-fired hybrid backup Power cycles Wet and dry cooling Operation and maintenance For more detailed, technical information, see our publications on parabolic trough power plant technology. Printable Version TroughNet Home Technologies Solar Field Thermal Energy Storage Power Plant Systems Market & Economic Assessment Research & Development

235

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State New Mexico Program Type Net Metering Provider New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Net metering is available to all "qualifying facilities" (QFs), as defined by the federal Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)*, which pertains to systems up to 80 megawatts (MW) in capacity. Previously, net metering in New Mexico was limited to systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. Net-metered customers are credited or paid for any monthly net excess generation (NEG) at the utility's avoided-cost rate. If a customer has net

236

Washington City Power - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Washington City Power - Net Metering Washington City Power - Net Metering Washington City Power - Net Metering < Back Eligibility General Public/Consumer Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info State Utah Program Type Net Metering Provider Washington City Washington City adopted a net-metering program, including interconnection procedures, in January 2008.* Net metering is available to residential and commercial customers that generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV) systems or wind-energy systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. At the customer's expense, the municipal utility will provide a single, bidirectional meter to measure the in-flow and out-flow of electricity at the customer's home. Systems are restricted to being sized to provide no more than 120% of the historic maximum monthly energy consumption of the

237

U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Institutional Local Government Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info Program Type Net Metering In February 2007, the U.S. Virgin Islands Public Services Commission approved a limited net-metering program for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV), wind-energy or other renewable energy system up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. In July 2009, the legislature passed Act 7075 that raised the capacity limits to 20 kW for residential systems, 100 kW for commercial systems, and 500 kW for public (which includes government, schools, hospitals). The aggregate capacity limit of all net-metered systems is five megawatts

238

HYPER-I-NET: European Research Network on Hyperspectral Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sensor design and cal- ibration/validation [3], [4] to advanced data processing [5]­ [8], and science-I-NET), a recently started Marie Curie Research Training Network. The project is designed to build-I-NET is at the confluence of heterogeneous disciplines, such as sensor design including optics and electronics, aerospace

Plaza, Antonio J.

239

,"U.S. Blender Net Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Blender Net Input of Residuum (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Blender Net Input of Gasoline Blending Components (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Blender Net Input of Reformulated...

240

Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high temperature process heat. The overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. An overview of high temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic thermodynamics, experimental methods, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and computational fluid dynamics modeling.

James E. O'Brien

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Brady Power Plant steam quality and purity enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brine carry-over from the high pressure and low pressure separators was causing heavy scale build-up on the turbine nozzles and components. This resulted in higher maintenance, reduced power generation and contributed to premature failures of a turbine rotor. Several options to mitigate the impurity laden steam problem, including conventional and experimental methods, were investigated. ESI, seeking cost-effective technology to improve the bottom line, chose a promising but unconventional low-cost, fast track alternative to revamp the facility. This commitment resulted in up to a 25 fold improvement in steam quality and purity; and was engineered and installed in one half (50%) the time, for one third (33%) the cost of a conventional geothermal design.

Hoffman, A. [ESI Energy, West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Jung, D. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34 39.76 66.29 70.83 70.95 82.81 150.58 NA Denmark 40.78 31.65 50.27 56.29 61.84 59.15 75.20 113.34 NA Finland 40.83 37.08 39.99 58.45 62.80 67.65 72.64 134.21 NA France 45.36 42.59 42.63 64.08 75.23 72.92 84.49 135.53 NA Germany 41.46 36.80 39.00 61.22 72.48 70.12 81.49 138.84 NA Ireland3 45.25 47.88 50.08 80.90 74.91 101.78 125.15 143.08 NA Italy 44.83 41.25 42.45 63.54 73.20 69.16 86.00 143.68 NA Japan 37.95 36.95 34.93 51.48 62.73 63.33 70.92 125.42 NA Netherlands 40.09 35.81 37.27 55.09 68.86 68.57 79.12 133.50 NA

243

NETL: Gasification- Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Tests to Reduce Steam Use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Syngas Processing Systems Syngas Processing Systems Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Tests to Reduce Steam Use National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Southern Company Services, Inc. Project Number: NT0000749 Project Description The National Carbon Capture Center is testing commercial water-gas shift (WGS) catalysts from multiple vendors in support of developing WGS reactor systems which will reduce the cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from the production of syngas using coal. These tests have revealed that steam-to-carbon monoxide (CO) ratios can be reduced, resulting in a substantial increase in the net power output and significantly reducing the cost of electricity from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture. Several commercially available WGS catalysts have been tested, and the results are being provided to the manufacturers to aid them in specifying future WGS systems for IGCC plants incorporating CO2 capture.

244

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Vermont Program Type Net Metering Provider Vermont Department of Public Service NOTE: Legislation enacted in May 2012 (HB475) further amends Vermont's net metering policy. Vermont's original net-metering legislation was enacted in 1998, and the law has been expanded several times subsequently. Any electric customer in Vermont may net meter after obtaining a Certificate of Public Good from the Vermont Public Service Board (PSB). Solar net metered systems 10 kilowatts

245

Austin Energy - Net Metering (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Austin Energy - Net Metering (Texas) Austin Energy - Net Metering (Texas) Austin Energy - Net Metering (Texas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Water Wind Program Info State Texas Program Type Net Metering Provider Austin Energy Austin Energy, the municipal utility of Austin Texas, offers net metering for renewable energy systems up to 20 kilowatts (kW) to its non-residential retail electricity customers. The definition of renewable includes solar*, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave and tidal energy, biomass, and biomass-based waste products, including landfill gas. Systems must be used primarily to offset a portion or all of a customer's on-site electric load. Metering is accomplished using a single meter capable of registering the

246

ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

247

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...-23, 2014 Proprietary 2 Agenda • Baton Rouge Complex • Steam System Overview • Energy Efficiency Improvement Strategy • Site-Wide Steam System Optimization • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy...

Iyun, T.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Economic Analysis of "Steam-Shock" and "Pasteurization"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Analysis of "Steam-Shock" and "Pasteurization" Processes for Oyster Shucking JOHN W. BROWN Introduction "Steam-shock" is an oyster shucking process that uses steam to relax the oyster's adductor muscle of the shucking process as in integral part of the operation of an existing oyster-shucking house. The term "steam

250

Conceptual design of syngas production systems with almost net-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work describes three different configurations of syngas production processes using a combination of SMR (steam methane reforming) and DRM (dry reforming of methane). The ideal SMR + DRM process ensures the maximum product yield, the heat-integrated SMR + DRM process fulfills the maximum heat recovery, and the stand-alone SMR + DRM process effectively suppress net CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. Through specific optimization algorithms, the syngas production systems subject to almost net-zero CO2 emissions are successfully verified by simulations in Aspen Plus environment.

Wei Wu; Hsiao-Tung Yang; Jenn-Jiang Hwang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

Hoffman, S. (Hoffman (S.), Santa Clara, CA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Synthesis and Optimization of Steam System Networks. 2. Multiple Steam Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tim Price † and Thokozani Majozi *†‡ ... (6) In its simplest form, it represents the ratio of the energy content of the steam to the energy content of the fuel. ...

Tim Price; Thokozani Majozi

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Trust LLC Steam Trust LLC (Redirected from Standard Steam Trust) Jump to: navigation, search Name Standard Steam Trust LLC Place Denver, Colorado Sector Geothermal energy Product Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra Caliente. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

254

LNG Vaporizer Utilizing Vacuum Steam Condensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the field test results of a new type of peak-shaving LNG vaporizer (VSV) whose heat source is ... heat of vacuum steam to vaporize and superheat LNG within heat transfer tubes. Prior to the.....

Y. Miyata; M. Hanamure; H. Kujirai; Y. Sato…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam efficiency is a major opportunity for manufacturers to boost financial performance in an increasingly competitive environment. An immediate policy challenge is to raise manufacturers' awareness of these opportunities. A major barrier...

Russell, C.

256

Energy & Environmental Benefits from Steam & Electricity Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the electricity required by TEX and sells excess power to wholesale customers in the region. It provides a large portion of TEX steam requirements, with sufficient reliability such that TEX decommissioned its coal-fired powerhouse and reduced operations...

Ratheal, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

Brinker, J. L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A Multistage Steam Reformer Utilizing Solar Heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today a large amount of the required hydrogen or synthesis gas (mixture of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide) is won by steam reforming of low hydrocarbons, especially methane. Hereby the mixture of hydrocarbons and...

W. Jäger; U. Leuchs; W. Siebert

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The revolutionary impact of the steam engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sitting with a model of Stephenson’s Rocket, Simon Schaffer reflects on the steam revolution and how it changed the world in the nineteenth century in so many different ways....

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

260

How did the Rocket steam engine work?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simon Schaffer talks to a museum curator at the York railway museum about the way in which steam engines worked and the imagination and technical ability of George Stephenson....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

263

Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

Peltier, R.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Facility Greenville Steam Sector Biomass Location Piscataquis County, Maine Coordinates 45.7049857°, -69.3375071° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.7049857,"lon":-69.3375071,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

265

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Net Metering Provider North Carolina Utilities Commission The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) requires the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Duke Energy, Progress Energy and Dominion North Carolina Power -- to make net metering available to customers that own and operate systems that generate electricity using solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, ocean or wave energy, biomass resources, combined heat and

266

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Net Metering Provider Missouri Public Service Commission Missouri enacted legislation in June 2007 (S.B. 54)* requiring all electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- to offer net metering to customers with systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using wind energy, solar-thermal energy, hydroelectric energy, photovoltaics (PV), fuel cells

267

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Solar Home Weatherization Water Wind Program Info State Maryland Program Type Net Metering Provider Maryland Public Service Commission Note: The program web site listed above links to the Maryland Public Service Commission's Net Metering Working Group page, which contains a variety of information resources related to the ongoing implementation of net metering in Maryland, such as meeting agendas, minutes, and draft utility tariffs.

268

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Net Metering Provider DC Public Service Commission In the District of Columbia (DC), net metering is currently available to residential and commercial customer-generators with systems powered by renewable-energy sources, combined heat and power (CHP), fuel cells and microturbines, with a maximum capacity of 1 megawatt (MW). The term "renewable energy sources" is defined as solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric power and digester gas. In October 2008, the Clean

269

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Net Metering Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission New Hampshire requires all utilities selling electricity in the state to offer net metering to customers who own or operate systems up to one megawatt (1 MW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, tidal, wave, biomass, landfill gas, bio-oil or

270

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Virginia Program Type Net Metering Provider Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy '''''Note: In March 2011, Virginia enacted HB 1983, which increased the residential net-metering limit to 20 kW. However, residential facilities with a capacity of greater than 10 kW must pay a monthly standby charge. The Virginia State Corporation Commission approved standby charges for transmissions and distribution components as proposed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Dominion Virginia Power) on November 3, 2011.'''''

271

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Net Metering Provider West Virginia Public Service Commission Net metering in West Virginia is available to all retail electricity customers. System capacity limits vary depending on the customer type and electric utility type, according to the following table. Customer Type IOUs with 30,000 customers or more IOUs with fewer than 30,000 customers, municipal utilities, electric cooperatives

272

Issues in heat recovery steam generator system noise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a fundamental component of all combustion turbine?based combined cycle power plants. While it’s primary purpose is to convert exhaust gas heat to steam an important secondary function is to reduce noise emissions from the combustion turbine exhaust. This source at about 155 dB (overall) re: 1 pW for a 100?MW turbine is the highest noise emission source in any combustion turbine plant. Therefore the residual exhaust noise emissions leaving the HRSG walls and stack exit must be predicted with acceptable accuracy to determine the total plant noise level. The sources involved in this prediction methodology will be discussed. The issues include source power levels wall and duct transmission loss and the noise reduction characteristics through the HRSG flow path. Special measurement techniques required to quantify HRSG noise emissions are described. Whereas the HRSG is mainly a passive device that attenuates combustion turbine exhaust noise two HRSG generated sources steam venting and supplemental duct firing will also be discussed. [See NOISE?CON Proceedings for full paper.

George F. Hessler Jr.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study) Rich DeBat Steam Systems Engineer Armstrong Service, Inc. Three Rivers, MI ABSTRACT Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during... existing burner system after refractory repair and continue with normal operation of the existing boiler. Annstrong Service cannot guarantee any aspect of this option. Option 2. Armstrong Service, Inc. proposes to evaluate, select and install a...

DeBat, R.

275

World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WORLD CLASS BOILERS AND STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vernon P. Portell, Ph.D. Manager Armstrong Service, Inc. ABSTRACT categorizing, measuring, and comparing subjects which are of interest to us is the way we identify the "World class" is a... of information can also be obtained through an independent firm that provides third-party assessment of steam systems. One of these third parties, Armstrong Energy Certification, Inc., has used data gleaned from decades of industrial experience...

Portell, V. P.

276

Cheng Cycle Brings Flexibility to Steam Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Based upon an estimated steam load between 5,000 and 50,000 Ibjhr and an electrical load of approximately 1500 KW, the Engineering Department examined several energy optimization systems for this site. It was determined that a modified gas turbine... within the borders allows exact tracking of desired electrical and thermal outputs. The Allison engine used in the Cheng Cycle system was selected for its proved performance and its ample surge margin which permits stable steam injection...

Keller, D. C.; Bynum, D.; Kosla, L.

277

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

278

Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

QuarkNet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

QuarkNet: The science connection you've been waiting for! QuarkNet: The science connection you've been waiting for! The Opportunity: "Your program rejuvenates my soul. It connects me with a cadre of intelligent and excited educators. It reinvigorates my teaching and provides me avenues to extend and enliven the projects that I can offer my students. Without the Quarknet program I am sure that I would have left teaching years ago." The Players: High school students, teachers and physicsts working together on physics research projects exploring the hidden nature of matter, energy, space and time. The Questions: What are the origins of mass? Can the basic forces of nature be unified? How did the universe begin? How will it evolve? LHC & Fermilab Links For Teachers For Students CERN Homepage ATLAS Experiment

280

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Solar Home Weatherization Water Program Info State New York Program Type Net Metering Provider New York State Department of Public Service Note: In October 2012 the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) issued an order directing Central Hudson Gas and Electric to file net metering tariff revisions tripling the aggregate net metering cap for most systems from 1% of 2005 peak demand (12 MW) to 3% of 2005 peak demand (36 MW). The PSC issued another order in June 2013 to raise the aggregate net metering cap

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial General Public/Consumer Industrial Residential Fed. Government Local Government State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Net Metering Provider Oklahoma Corporation Commission Net metering has been available in Oklahoma since 1988 under Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) Order 326195. The OCC's rules require investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives under the commission's jurisdiction* to file net-metering tariffs for customer-owned renewable-energy systems and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) facilities up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. Net metering is available to all customer

282

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Wind Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Ohio Program Type Net Metering Provider Ohio Public Utilities Commission '''''Note: In July 2012, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket ([http://dis.puc.state.oh.us/CaseRecord.aspx?CaseNo=12-2050-EL-ORD Case 12-0250-EL-RDR]) to review the net metering rules for investor-owned utilities. Details will be posted as more information is available.''''' Ohio's net-metering law requires electric distribution utilities to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using wind energy, solar energy, biomass, landfill gas, hydropower, fuel cells or microturbines.

283

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Residential State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Net Metering Provider Hawaii Public Utilities Commission NOTE: Kauai Island Electric Cooperative's (KIUC) net metering program has reached its capacity and has implemented a Net Energy Metering Pilot Program. Hawaii's original net-metering law was enacted in 2001 and expanded in 2004 by HB 2048, which increased the eligible capacity limit of net-metered systems from 10 kilowatts (kW) to 50 kW. In 2005, the law was further amended by SB 1003, which authorized the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission

284

Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ H 2 -41 MJ/kmol Steam methane reforming reaction CH 4 + Htechnologies such as steam methane reforming, gas shiftingand preparation, steam methane reforming and FT synthesis,

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters… (more)

Sors, Felix

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributedprovided for a steam Rankine cycle heat engine achieving 50%

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustical steam silencers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

seasonal steam demand loads... convective steam gen erating tubes, then through an economizer, and finally through a two field electrostatic... psi, 520F. superheated steam at...

289

Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

Hahn, G.

290

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems October 7, 2013 - 3:17pm Addthis Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned. Operation and Maintenance Options To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, Federal agencies should: Develop and implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop and implement a boiler tuning program to be completed a minimum of

291

US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOW RESTRICTED For internal DOW RESTRICTED For internal use only US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools Riyaz Papar, PE, CEM Hudson Technologies Company Phone: (281) 298 0975 Email: rpapar@hudsontech.com - Agenda * Introduction * Steam System BP Tools Suite - SSST - SSAT - 3EPlus * Q & A 1 Steam System Management Objective: Minimize Steam Use, Energy Losses And Most Importantly STEAM COST!! Steam Market Assessment Takeaways * Fuel savings estimates - individual projects - ranged from 0.6 percent to 5.2 percent * Estimated payback periods generally very attractive - Ranged from 2 to 34 months - Most less than 2 years * Potential steam savings in target industries - over 12 percent of fuel use 2 Promising Areas To Achieve Steam Energy and Cost Savings? Use Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST) For

292

Solving chemical and mechanical problems of PWR steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam generators in power plants, based on pressurized water reactors (PWRs), transfer heat from a primary coolant system (pressurized water) to a secondary coolant system. Primary coolant water is heated in the core and passes through the steam generator that transfers heat to the secondary coolant water to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that turns an electric generator. Steam is condensed and returned to the steam generator as feedwater. Two types of PWR steam generators are in use: recirculating steam generators (RSGs) and once-through steam generators (OTSGs). Since most of the units are vertical, only vertical units are discussed in this article. Some vertical units have operated with a minimum of problems, while others have experienced a variety of corrosion and mechanically-induced problems that have caused unscheduled outages and expensive repairs.

Green, S.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7  Defining a Net?Zero Energy Net Zero Energy .A.     Defining a Net­Zero Energy Building  Due to the 

Al-Beaini, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Net Metering Provider Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Note: In March 2012 the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission (PUC) issued a Final Order (Docket M-2011-2249441) approving the use of third-party ownership models (i.e., system leases or retail power purchase agreements) in conjunction with net metering. The Order allows these types of arrangements for net metered systems, subject to a restriction that the

295

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Wind Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Illinois Program Type Net Metering Provider Illinois Commerce Commission '''''NOTE: Legislation enacted in 2011 and 2012 (S.B. 1652, H.B. 3036, and S.B. 3811) has changed several aspects of net metering in Illinois. For customers in competitive classes as of July 1, 2011, the law prescribes a dual metering and bill crediting system which does not meet the definition of net metering as the term is generally defined. Click here for information regarding competitive classes, and

296

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Net Metering Provider Iowa Utilities Board Iowa's statutes do not explicitly authorize the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) to mandate net metering, but this authority is implicit through the board's enforcement of PURPA and Iowa Code § 476.41 ''et seq.'' Iowa's net-metering subrule, adopted by the IUB in July 1984, applies to customers that generate electricity using alternate energy production facilities (AEPs). Net metering is available to all customer classes of Iowa's two investor-owned utilities -- MidAmerican Energy and Interstate Power and

297

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

298

Energy Savings with Computerized Steam Trap Maintenance Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Armstrong International, Inc. Five other manufacturers each have about a 5% share of the tmp population, and about 5 more account for the remaining steam traps. 6,430 STEAM TRAPS COLl3Il~) FIGURE 3 - Steam trap population by application. 8,430 STEAM... standardized using the inverted bucket steam trap made by Armstrong International, Inc. "or equal", with approval, wherever applicable and sensible. I believe the inverted bucket steam trap is the best one for this. The selection of a good manufacturer...

Klidzejs, A. M.

299

Fluidized bed steam reactor including two horizontal cyclone separators and an integral recycle heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reactor is described comprising: a vessel; a first furnace section disposed in said vessel; a second furnace section disposed in said vessel; means in each of said furnace sections for receiving a combustible fuel for generating heat and combustion gases; a first heat recovery area located adjacent said furnace sections; a second heat recovery area located adjacent said furnace sections; means for passing said combustion gases from said first furnace section to said first heat recovery area; and means for passing said combustion gases from said second furnace section to said second heat recovery area.

Gorzegno, W.P.

1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Net Metering Provider Louisiana Public Service Commission '''''Note: Ongoing proceedings related to net metering can be found in Docket R-31417.''''' Louisiana enacted legislation in June 2003 establishing net metering. Modeled on Arkansas's law, Louisiana's law requires investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and electric cooperatives to offer net metering to customers that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal or biomass resources. Fuel cells and microturbines that generate electricity entirely derived from renewable resources are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Weekly Refiner Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Net Production Refiner Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 11/08/13 11/15/13 11/22/13 11/29/13 12/06/13 12/13/13 View History Finished Motor Gasoline 2,168 2,300 2,336 2,359 2,462 2,368 2010-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 54 53 52 67 71 67 2010-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 696 745 722 711 798 790 2010-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 891 916 1,010 1,053 1,011 1,021 2010-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 260 248 245 232 279 235 2010-2013 West Coast (PADD 5) 268 338 308 296 302 255 2010-2013 Reformulated 50 49 49 49 48 49 2010-2013 Blended with Ethanol 50 49 49 49 48 49 2010-2013 Other

302

Simulation of Steam Reformers for Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed. Keywords: Steam Reforming, Reactor modeling, Digital Simulation, effectiveness factor

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and is followed by steam methane reforming ( SMR). The finalReaction: Steam Methane Reforming: Fischer–Tropsch Reaction:methane and steam in steam methane reforming generates the

Suemanotham, Amornrat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced steam generators Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

THEORY AND IN PRACTICE. BY R... OF A HISTORY OF THE STEAM-EN- GINE, A MANUAL OF THE STEAM-ENGINE, A MANUAL OF STEAM-BOILERS, ETC., ETC., ETC... treatise on Steam-Boiler Explosions...

305

Retrofit of existing 400 horsepower air compressor motor with steam turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is on the completion of a retrofit project to replace an existing 400 Horsepower air compressor motor with a steam turbine. The discussion includes visuals to show the process involved in carrying out this project. There will be in three parts. The first part of the presentation will cover the planning and construction. Planning included defining a scope, collecting data to support this scope, determining engineering feasibility, and calculating an economic payback. Construction will include the preparations for the retrofit including details of upgrades to existing systems and components, and installation of new systems and components. This will be followed by details on the actual removal of the motor, installation of the turbine, and the revision of the controls. Startup of the air compressor on steam is then discussed including necessary preparation of steam systems. Next to be presented will be some of the problems and their solutions experienced during this project. Specifically discussed will be regulatory concerns, noise of operation, insurance, and fluctuations in plant process steam demand. The conclusion of the presentation will focus on present operating status, savings demonstrated, and maintenance required.

Sanders, S.F.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

On water, steam, and string theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At a pressure of 220 atm and a temperature of 374?°C there is a second-order phase transition between water and steam. Understanding it requires a key concept of both condensed matter and elementary particle physics: the renormalization group. Its basic ideas are explained with images from computer simulations of the lattice gas model. Then I briefly review how the renormalization group is used to compute critical coefficients for the water–steam phase transition. The results of this calculation are in good agreement with experiment. Finally some applications in particle physics and string theory are mentioned.

Christof Schmidhuber

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 EXCUSES Everybody thinks his or her steam trap maintenance is good. Surveysl have shown the following are the most popular excuses encountered when managers are confronted... for steam traps. 192 ESL-IE-96-04-28 Proceedings from the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 5. Set up a trap maintenance program C. Prepare and present a report to that will: management on the results...

Bouchillon, J. L.

308

Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual MESA) was implemented at the INEOS Chocolate Bayou site. This program optimizes steam production, compressor turbine extraction, pump operation (turbine/motor) operation, as well...

Jones, B.; Nelson, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CIBO's Energy Efficiency Handbook for Steam Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) has developed a handbook to help boiler operators get the best performance from their industrial steam systems. This energy efficiency handbook takes a comprehensive look at the boiler and steam system...

Bessette, R. D.

310

Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY CONSERVATION THRU STEAM TRAP SURVEYS AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS Terry Boynton, Armstrong, Three Rivers, Mich. Bob Dewhirst, Armstrong, New Braunfels, Texas. This paper will deal with steam trap surveys and preventive maintenance...

Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on using vent condensers to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

312

Pafnuty Chebyshev, Steam Engines, and Polynomials by John Albert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pafnuty Chebyshev, Steam Engines, and Polynomials by John Albert OU Mathfest, January 2009 1 professorship at age 61, but continued to work on mathematics right up to his death at age 73. 2. Steam Engines

Albert, John

313

Following Where the Steam Goes: Industry's Business Opportunity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many associated benefits accrue from plant projects which comprehensively address steam systems. The DOE-Alliance to Save Energy Steam Challenge program was initiated shortly after last year's IETC on April 30, 1998 to promote awareness...

Jaber, D.; Jones, T.

314

Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

case study and its steam network is analyzed. At the first step, using STAR software, the steam network is simulated and then optimized, which determines the optimum conditions. In this regard, energy saving potential was identified and total operating...

Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Materials for Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power Plants Background The first ultra-supercritical (USC) steam plants in the U.S. were designed, constructed, and operated in the late 1950s. The higher operating temperatures and pressures in USC plants were designed to increase the efficiency of steam plants. However, materials performance problems forced the reduction of steam temperatures in these plants, and discouraged further developmental efforts on low heat-rate units.

318

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

net generation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

net generation net generation Dataset Summary Description Provides annual net electricity generation (thousand kilowatt-hours) from renewable energy in the United States by energy use sector (commercial, industrial, electric power) and by energy source (e.g. biomas, solar thermal/pv). Source EIA Date Released August 01st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2004 2008 Electricity net generation renewable energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2008_RE.net_.generation_EIA.Aug_.2010.xls (xls, 16.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2004 - 2008 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset

320

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Michigan Program Type Net Metering Provider Michigan Public Service Commission '''''The MPSC is reviewing state interconnection and net metering policies in [http://efile.mpsc.state.mi.us/efile/viewcase.php?casenum=15919&submit.x=... Case U-15919].''''' In October 2008, Michigan enacted legislation (P.A. 295) requiring the Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish a statewide net metering program for renewable-energy systems within 180 days. On May 26, 2009 the Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) issued an order formally

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State California Program Type Net Metering Provider California Public Utilities Commission California's net-metering law originally took effect in 1996 and applies to all utilities with one exception*. The law has been amended numerous times since its enactment, most recently by AB 327 of 2013. '''Eligible Technologies''' The original law applied to wind-energy systems, solar-electric systems and hybrid (wind/solar) systems. In September 2002, legislation (AB 2228)

322

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

323

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

324

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le�ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

Merz, Stephan

325

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

326

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

327

Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator W. Linzer \\Lambda , K. Ponweiser circulation steam generator. We focus on a model with a simple geometry consisting of two vertical pipes properties of water and steam. We present a numerical algorithm based on an explicit upwind discretization

Weinmüller, Ewa B.

328

The Catalysis of the Carbon Monoxide-Steam Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Catalysis of the Carbon Monoxide-Steam Reaction F. J. Long K. W. Sykes The kinetics of the carbon monoxide-steam reaction occurring heterogeneously at...nearly unity, while that with respect to steam is correspondingly lowered; a slight...

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR USING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION AND LOCAL ZOOM METHODS Abstract We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator, Zoom, Domain Decomposition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

GLC Analysis of Organic Chelating Agents in Steam Propulsion Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Chelating Agents in Steam Propulsion Systems by Paul J. Sniegoski...iminodi- acetic acid) in steam propulsion systems. For chromatogra...as an addi- tive to steam propulsion systems to prevent build-up...Fourth Internaval Conference on Marine Cor- rosion, Naval Research......

Paul J. Sniegoski; David L. Venezky

1974-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

332

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

Demirel, Melik C.

333

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

334

Experience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of two interactive stations (figure 2) where visitors can add coal and water to the steam engine at station 1 and regulate the steam pressure in the engine at station 2, as well as a number of visualExperience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive Multimodal Interactive Museum

Hornecker, Eva

335

Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In these days of high technology, the steam trap is often treated as a commodity item, forgotten by many and respected by a relative few. Yet, in many facilities, widespread undetected failure of steam traps has wasted 5-15% of a plant's total steam...

Pychewicz, F. S.

336

Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

337

Latest advances in steam turbine design, blading, repairs, condition assessment, and condenser interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book contains papers presented at a conference on power generation. Topics covered include: a life extension approach for steam turbine blading in Electricite de France fossil plants, and on site 430 MW high pressure reheat turbine shell cracking and distortion repairs.

Rasmussen, D.M. (Turbine Consultants, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

Gabitto, Jorge; Barufet, Maria

2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

339

Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Data (EIA-767 data file)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity data files > Form EIA-767 Electricity data files > Form EIA-767 Form EIA-767 historical data files Data Released: November 02, 2006 Next Release: None(discontinued) Annual steam-electric plant operation and design data Historical data files contain annual data from organic-fueled or combustible renewable steam-electric plants with a generator nameplate rating of 10 or more megawatts. The data are derived from the Form EIA-767 "Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report." The files contains data on plant operations and equipment design (including boilers, generators, cooling systems, flue gas desulfurizations, flue gas particulate collectors, and stacks). Beginning in the data year 2001, nuclear plant data were no longer collected by the survey.

340

Steam reforming on transition-metal carbides from density-functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A screening study of the steam reforming reaction (CH_4 + H_2O -> CO + 3H_2) on early transition-metal carbides (TMC's) is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. The set of considered surfaces includes the alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, the low-index (111) and (100) surfaces of TiC, VC, and delta-MoC, and the oxygenated alpha-Mo_2C(100) and TMC(111) surfaces. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities towards the steam reforming reaction, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. The reactivity is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the clean surfaces. Two surfaces, the delta-MoC(100) and the oxygen passivated alpha-Mo_2C(100) surfaces, are identified as promising steam reforming catalysts. These findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Some problems of steam turbine lifetime assessment and extension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problems of lifetime assessment and extension in reference to power equipment (including high-temperature rotors and casings of power steam turbines) and theoretical and normative grounds for these procedures, as well as some specific measures to prolong the turbine service time and diagnose the turbine components` conditions in the operation process, were covered in many published works, including the authors` ones. The present paper is to consider in more details some aspects of these problems that have not been sufficiently considered in known publications. In particular, it seems important to dwell on experimental verification of some mathematical models for calculating temperatures, stresses, and strains in the turbine casings on the basis of direct measurements at turbines in service. Another item to be discussed ia an approach to choosing the system of interrelated criteria and safety factors referring to the upper admissible values of stresses, strains, cycles, and accumulated damage, as well as crack resistance, as applied to an adopted conception of the limiting states for the rotors and casings with taking into consideration their loads and resulted stress-strain states. In this connection, it is important to arrange and use properly the continuous monitoring of temperatures, stresses, and accumulated metal damage to assess the residual lifetime of the rotors and casings more accurately. Certain design, technology, and repair measures are briefly described. They have successfully been employed at fossil power plants of the former Soviet Union to raise the steam turbine reliability and durability.

Berlyand, V.; Pozhidaev, A.; Glyadya, A. [Kharkov Central Designers Bureau (Ukraine); Plotkin, E.; Avrutsky, G. [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Leyzerovich, A. [Actinium Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Optimization of industrial steam supply and steam-and-condensate farming of machine building enterprise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article studies efficient control methods of steam condensing economy of the machine building enterprise. There are recommendations about development of complex decisions based on indicators of energy, technical and economic efficiency.

I A Konahina; N F Kashapov; I R Gil'manshin; R R Ganiev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical...

Jones, T.; Hart, F.

344

The Utilisation of Volcanic Steam in Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... exploitation of natural resources; and the welkin is still ringing with cries of “increase production,”“back to the land,” and “keep the home-fires burning.” Examples ... definite and successful effort been made in this direction, namely, by utilising the natural steam which emerges from the earth in volcanic districts. The jets of ...

1924-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

G. R. Holcomb

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Reducing emissions by addressing steam turbine inefficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that inefficient steam turbines increase fossil plant emissions because additional fuel must be burned to meet the power output requirements. During a turbine outage, plant performance and maintenance staff make and prioritize repair decisions within tight time and budget constraints. This paper describes how Georgia Power identifies performance losses of degraded components in the steam path and determines their impact on heat rate. Turbine performance is assessed by a steam path audit program that Encotech has developed and make available to utilities. Georgia Power has conducted several operating tests that give good correlation with audit results. Georgia Power uses the audit information to make the most cost-effective repairs to maintain a low heat rate and to reduce emissions. The Clean Air Act presents electric utilities with the challenge of reducing emissions from fossil plants in the most cost-effective way possible. Meeting the stack emissions limitations often translates to large capital expenditures and increased cycle heat rate. One resource the electric utilities have to reduce the costly impact of compliance with the Clean Air Act is control over the efficiency of their steam turbines.

Harris, J.C. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cioffi, D.H. (Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Natural Steam Power Developments at Larderello  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... utilised since 1818 for the extraction of boric acid, the presence FIG. 2.-The turbine room at Larderello; three turbo-alternators of 2500 kw. each. The ... room at Larderello; three turbo-alternators of 2500 kw. each. The turbines are fed with volcanic steam which has been stripped of about 90 per cent, ...

1928-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon deposition in steam reforming and methanation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this review is to survey recent studies of carbon deposition on metals used as catalysts in steam reforming and methanation, emphasizing research where significant progress has been made. Where possible, an attempt is made to treat the fundamental nature of carbon formation and deactivation by carbon and the relationships between these two phenomena. Steam reforming and methanation are emphasized in this review because (1) deactivation of catalysts by carbon deposits is a serious concern in both processes, (2) much of the previous research with carbon formation on metals involved one or the other of these two reactions, and (3) there are interesting differences and similarities between these two reactions; for example, methanation is typically carried out at moderate reaction temperatures (200-450/sup 0/C) while steam reforming is typically carried out at significantly higher reaction temperatures (600-900/sup 0/C). Yet the two reactions are very closely related, since methane steam reforming is the reverse of methanation of CO. Moreover, there is evidence that some of the carbons formed in these two different processes are similar in their morphology.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Maximum Hydrogen Production by Autothermal Steam Reforming of Bio-oil With NiCuZnAl Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Autothermal steam reforming (ATR) of bio-oil, which couples the endothermic steam reforming reaction with the exothermic partial oxidation, offers many advantages from a technical and economic point of view. Effective production of hydrogen through ATR of bio-oil was performed at lower temperature with NiCuZnAl catalyst. The highest hydrogen yield from bio-oil reached 64.3% with a nearly complete bio-oil conversion at 600 °C, the ratio of steam to carbon fed (S/C) of 3 and the oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) of 0.34. The reaction conditions in ATR including temperature, O/C, S/C and weight hourly space velocity can be used to control both hydrogen yield and products distribution. The comparison between the ATR and common steam reforming of bio-oil was studied. The mechanism of the ATR of bio-oil was also discussed.

Shi-zhi Yan; Qi Zhai; Quan-xin Li

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Analysis and decision document in support of acquisition of steam supply for the Hanford 200 Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now evaluating its facility requirements in support of its cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the early findings is that the 200-Area steam plants, constructed in 1943, will not meet future space heating and process needs. Because the 200 Area will serve as the primary area for waste treatment and long-term storage, a reliable steam supply is a critical element of Hanford operations. This Analysis and Decision Document (ADD) is a preliminary review of the steam supply options available to the DOE. The ADD contains a comprehensive evaluation of the two major acquisition options: line-term versus privatization. It addresses the life-cycle costs associated with each alternative, as well as factors such as contracting requirements and the impact of market, safety, security, and regulatory issues. Specifically, this ADD documents current and future steam requirements for the 200 Area, describes alternatives available to DOE for meeting these requirements, and compares the alternatives across a number of decision criteria, including life-cycle cost. DOE has currently limited the ADD evaluation alternatives to replacing central steam plants rather than expanding the study to include alternative heat sources, such as a distributed network of boilers or heat pumps. Thirteen project alternatives were analyzed in the ADD. One of the alternatives was the rehabilitation of the existing 200-East coal-fired facility. The other twelve alternatives are combinations of (1) coal- or gas-fueled plants, (2) steam-only or cogeneration facilities, (3) primary or secondary cogeneration of electricity, and (4) public or private ownership.

Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Reilly, R.W.; Shankle, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Weakley, S.A.; Williams, T.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, T.F. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL reduce its overall utility costs by decreasing the amount of fuel used to generate steam. Reduced fuel consumption also decreased air emissions. These improvements also helped lower the risk of burn injuries to workers and helped prevent shrapnel injuries resulting from missiles produced by pressurized component failures. In most cases, the economic benefit and cost effectiveness of the SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project is reflected in payback periods of 1 year or less.

Lower, Mark D [ORNL; Christopher, Timothy W [ORNL; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A parametric study of steam injected gas turbine with steam injector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interest in the STIG concept has arisen from the fact that the application shows high flexibility in power output, and therefore can serve well as a peak load unit. A new addition to the STIG-cycle is proposed and investigated in this paper. The introduction of steam injectors at the injection point of the steam is proposed to lightly raise the pressure of the gas flow entering the expander. The injector reduces the thermodynamic irreversibilities associated with the throttling nature of injecting a high pressure steam into a lower pressure region. A thermodynamic study has been conducted on the STIG with steam injectors for power generation. Steam pressure and superheating temperature are the main parameters for the system. The impact and usefulness of supplementary firing before the HRSG has also been investigated. The results are compared with a STIG with throttling valves instead of injectors. The efficiency and power output proves to increase somewhat upon introducing the steam injectors. This modification can be of commercial interest since the injectors are of low installation cost and need virtually no maintenance.

Aagren, N.D.; Svedberg, G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Frutschi, H.U. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through a venturi for subczitical flow of steam-water 45 13 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for subczitical flow of steam-water 46 14 Steam quality as a function of Collins and Gacesa parameter for subcritical flow of steam... high degree of accuracy. He suggested that the following correlation may be used to calculate two-phase flow rates through orifices to within an error of 1. 5 percent 339 K 3 9 9' J 9 v v a v w f + [ 1. 26 (1-f ) K Y /K ] ~p p where V and L...

Sinclair, John William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County These data represent the estimated net change (Megagram per year) in soil carbon due to changes in the crop type and tillage intensity. Estimated accumulation of soil carbon under Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)lands is included in these estimates. Negative values represent a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil; positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere. As such, soil carbon sequestration is represented here as a negative value. The method of analysis is based on empirical relationshipsbetween land management and soil carbon. The method for modeling land management and estimating soil carbonchange, used to generate these data, is described in the following publication:

359

Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

360

Active QuarkNet Centers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Active QuarkNet Centers Active QuarkNet Centers       QuarkNet Home - Information - Calendar - Contacts - Projects - Forms: EoI - Teachers Centers on a Google Map @ the PTEC website Mentor List Sorted by: Last Name Institution Name First Year in Program Argonne National Laboratory - On sabbatical Black Hills State University Brown, Northeastern & Brandeis Universities Brookhaven National Laboratory, Columbia & Stony Brook Universities Chicago State University Colorado State University Fermilab & University of Chicago Florida Institute of Technology Florida International University Florida State University Hampton, George Mason, William & Mary Universities Idaho State University Indiana University - On sabbatical Johns Hopkins University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements. [Comparing steam injection and steam foam injection with nitrogen and without nitrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Development of knowledge bases for large steam turbine transients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At this time, a number of high-qualified expert teams in different countries have accumulated significant experience in working up and introducing proficient algorithms of automated control, diagnostics, monitoring, on-line informative support, and off-line analysis for large steam turbines of fossil-fired and nuclear power plant units at their transients. In particular, such works were carried out at All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Moscow. When put into effect, these developments do improve plant unit operation and maintenance. The creation of these algorithms is based on deep technological research of turbine transients with the use of their mathematical modeling. Currently, the central problem becomes a reiteration and adaptation of these developments to other objects which differ in design, scheme, and operation features. This problem is to be solved at the least cost. For certain complex tasks, it seems to be expedient to use expert system methodology with special knowledge bases. Along with the selection of such tasks, the creation of more or less general knowledge bases requires us to stratify the potential objects according to their principle features. The proposed forms of a knowledge presentation, including the mathematical models and logical rules, should correspond to the considered tasks and objects, as well as to the program tools to be applied. Such developments have been carried out for some tasks of the operating informative support and post-operating analysis of large steam turbine transients as well as their mathematical modeling.

Leyzerovich, A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

Douglas Arrell

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Steam reforming of carbo-metallic oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to liquid fuel products by bringing a converter feed containing 650/sup 0/ F. + material characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and by containing at least about 4 ppm of nickel equivalents of heavy metals, including nickel, into contact with a particulate cracking catalyst in a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated conversion zone. The suspension of catalyst and feed in the reactor has a vapor residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, a temperature of about 900/sup 0/ F. to about 1400/sup 0/ F. and a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 50 to about 90 percent while depositing nickel on the catalyst and coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.3 to about 3 percent by weight. The coke-laden catalyst is separated from the resulting stream of hydrocarbons and regenerated by combustion of the coke with oxygen, the regenerated catalyst being characterized by deposited nickel in at least a partially oxidized state and a level of carbon on catalyst of about 0.25 percent by weight or less. The regenerated catalyst is contacted with a reducing gas under reducing conditions sufficient to reduce at least a portion of the oxidized nickel deposits to a reduced state and the regenerated catalyst with reduced nickel deposits is recycled to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed. Water is also introduced into the reactor conversion zone and the amount of water and the amount of reduced nickel on the recycled catalyst are sufficient to provide a steam reforming reaction so that hydrogen deficient components of the feed are converted to products having higher hydrogen to carbon ratios and the amount of feed converted to coke is reduced. The amount of deposited nickel on catalyst is preferably in the range from about 2,000 to about 20,000 ppm.

Myers, G.D.; Hettinger, W.P. Jr.; Kovach, S.M.; Zandona, O.J.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

367

Net Metering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metering Metering Jump to: navigation, search For electric customers who generate their own electricity, net metering allows for the flow of electricity both to and from the customer,– typically through a single, bi-directional meter. With net metering, when a customer’'s generation exceeds the customer’'s use, the customer's electricity flows back to the grid, offsetting electricity consumed by the customer at a different time. In effect, the customer uses excess generation to offset electricity that the customer otherwise would have to purchase at the utility’'s full retail rate. Net metering is required by law in most states, but some of these laws only apply to investor-owned utilities,– not to municipal utilities or electric cooperatives. [1] Net Metering Incentives

368

Grid Net | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Net Net Jump to: navigation, search Name Grid Net Address 340 Brannan St Place San Francisco, California Zip 94107 Sector Efficiency Product Sells open, interoperable, policy-based network management software Website http://www.grid-net.com/ Coordinates 37.781265°, -122.393229° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.781265,"lon":-122.393229,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

369

From DSM to DSM Net  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The following sections describe the integration of the DSM planning model with process modeling approaches of Petri nets . First, the process correctness criteria for the Dynamic new-Product Design Process (D...

Arie Karniel; Yoram Reich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Net Metering Provider Delaware Public Service Commission In Delaware, net metering is available to any customer that generates electricity using solar, wind or hydro resources, anaerobic digesters, or fuel cells capable of being powered by renewable fuels. Grid-interactive electric vehicles are also eligible for net metering treatment for electricity that they put on the grid, although these vehicles do not themselves generate electricity. The maximum capacity of a net-metered system is 25 kilowatts (kW) for residential customers; 100 kW for farm customers on residential rates; two megawatts (MW) per meter for

371

Valley Electric Association- Net Metering  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Board of Directors for Valley Electric Association (VEA) approved net metering in April 2008. The rules apply to systems up to 30 kW, though owners of larger systems may be able to negotiate...

372

2002CALIFORNIAPOWERMIX 2002 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Mix Fuel Type Net System Power Coal 15% Large Hydroelectric 23% Natural Gas 42% Nuclear 11CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION APRIL 2003 300-03-002 2002CALIFORNIAPOWERMIX 2002 NET SYSTEM POWER and report net system power, annually (Senate Bill 1305, Sher, Chapter 796, statue of 1997)1 . Net system

373

Large steam turbine repair: A survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers a survey taken to document the current state-of-the-art in repairs to large steam turbines. One objective was to provide information to assist utilities in making repair or replacement decisions. The survey revealed that a large number of repairs have been successfully repaired involving both mechanical and welding repair techniques. Repair techniques have been improving in recent years and are being used more frequently. No guidelines or codes exist for the repair of steam turbine components so each repair is primarily controlled by agreement between the utility, contractor and insurer. Types of repairs are reviewed in this report and in addition, the capabilities of various contractors who are currently active in providing repair service. 40 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Findlan, S.J.; Lube, B. (EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation Center, Charlotte, NC (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Steam turbine/generator NDE workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On September 12--15, 1989, EPRI sponsored a workshop in Charlotte, North Carolina on steam turbine/generator rotating components. The approximate 185 attendees represented a broad spectrum of utilities, equipment manufactures, forging suppliers, service organizations, universities, insurance carriers, and consultants from the United States and abroad. Canada, England, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Italy, Spain, and Sweden were represented at the workshop, and 81 of the attendees represented 44 domestic utilities. Nondestructive examination equipment demonstrations by 16 vendors and 2 utilities at the EPRI NDE Center complemented the technical presentation. In addition to 23 formal, technical presentations of prepared papers of specific topics, 8 tutorial presentations, plus various opening and closing remarks and addresses, were given at the workshop. Presentations were organized under the following general topics: bucket blades and/or attachment regions; retaining rings; wheels/disks; steam turbine/generator testing and evaluation; and tutorials. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

Nottingham, L.D.; Sabourin, P.F. (Jones (J.A.) Applied Research Co., Charlotte, NC (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Simulation of steam reformers for methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed.

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Effect of steam on supported metal catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to examine the effect of steam on supported metal catalysts, model supported metal catalysts of Ni, Co, or Fe on alumina have been heated in steam at 700/sup 0/C. The transmission electron micrographs show that for all these metals, patches of film extend from the crystallites. Prolonged heating results in the disappearance of the patches which probably spread as a contiguous film over the entire surface of the substrate. The degree of spreading is in the order: C0 > Ni > Fe. On subsequent heating in H/sub 2/, small crystallites were generated, probably via the rupture of the contiguous film. The contraction of the patches of film bridging two or several particles caused the coalescence of the latter. This subsequent heating in H/sub 2/ favors redispersion only when the heating time is sufficiently short. Prolonged heating in H/sub 2/ leads to the disappearance of the small particles.

Ruckenstein, E.; Hu, X.D.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Laser removal of sludge from steam generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Type (sales unit) Type (sales unit) Energy Content Combustion (Btu/sales unit) Efficiency (%) Natural Gas (therm) 100,000 81.7 Natural Gas (cubic foot) 1,030 81.7 Distillate/No. 2 Oil (gallon) 138,700 84.6 Residual/No. 6 Oil (gallon) 149,700 86.1 Coal (ton) 27,000,000 87.6 Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmarking the fuel cost of steam generation ($/1000 lbs of steam) is an effective way to assess the efficiency of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a good first approximation for the cost of generating steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. Table 1 shows the heat input required to produce one pound of saturated

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

Simmons, W.R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.80 is used. POWER PRODUCED: :13.000 KW STEAM PRODUCED: 250,000 Ib/hr 250 psig steam :100,000 Ib/hr 30 psig steam :33,000 KW U.0) = 33,000 KW 41 '70 250.000 Ib/hr 10.1325 KWH/lbHO.80) = 26,500 KW :33'70 I 300.000 Ib/hr 10.0888 KWH/lbHO.80) = 21,300 KW....80 is used. POWER PRODUCED: :13.000 KW STEAM PRODUCED: 250,000 Ib/hr 250 psig steam :100,000 Ib/hr 30 psig steam :33,000 KW U.0) = 33,000 KW 41 '70 250.000 Ib/hr 10.1325 KWH/lbHO.80) = 26,500 KW :33'70 I 300.000 Ib/hr 10.0888 KWH/lbHO.80) = 21,300 KW...

Nelson, K. E.

383

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam methane reforming .H 2 O ? CO 2 + H 2 Steam methane reforming reaction: CH 4 +by the SMR (Steam Methane Reforming) step and a final step

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Steam generator design considerations for modular HTGR plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies are in progress to develop a standard High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant design that is amenable to serial production and is licensable. Based on the results of trade studies performed in the DOE-funded HTGR program, activities are being focused to emphasize a modular concept based on a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Utilization of a multiplicity of the standard module affords flexibility in power rating for utility electricity generation. The selected modular HTGR concept has the reactor core and heat transport systems housed in separate steel vessels. This paper highlights the steam generator design considerations for the reference plant, and includes a discussion of the major features of the heat exchanger concept and the technology base existing in the US.

McDonald, C.F.; DeFur, D.D.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Water chemistry of breeder reactor steam generators. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water quality requirements will be described for breeder reactor steam generators, as well as specifications for balance of plant protection. Water chemistry details will be discussed for the following power plant conditions: feedwater and recirculation water at above and below 5% plant power, refueling or standby, makeup water, and wet layup. Experimental data will be presented from tests which included a departure from nucleate boiling experiment, the Few Tube Test, with a seven tube evaporator and three tube superheater, and a verification of control and on-line measurement of sodium ion in the ppB range. Sampling and instrumentation requirements to insure adherence to the specified water quality will be described. Evaporator cleaning criteria and data from laboratory testing of chemical cleaning solutions with emphasis on flow, chemical composition, and temperature will be discussed.

Simpson, J.L.; Robles, M.N.; Spalaris, C.N.; Moss, S.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" 4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

387

Table A39. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" 9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.3,2,1.6,1.2

388

The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Chemical Engineering 9/1/75. 4. Maintenance Engineering, May 1976. 5. "How Much Does Lost Steam Cost",Armstrong Machine works, Hydrocarbon Processing, p.129, Jan. 1976. 6. "Setter Steam Trapping Cuts Energy Waste", wesley Yates, Yarway Corp..., Georgia Tech Industrial Energy Extension Service, Chemical Engineering, 2/11/80. 10. ''Basic Facts & Enerqv Saving Tips" ,Lawrence R. O'Dell, Armstrong Machine Works, Heating/Piping/ Air Conditioning, May 1977. 11. Steam Trap Report - Energy Loss...

Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Garner, Daniel C. (Murrysville, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA); Robey, Robert M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Gasification kinetics of six eastern shales in steam and synthesis gas atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification reactivities have been determined for six Eastern shales with conversions described by a model incorporating fast and slow gasification reactions. A simple model, based on Indiana New Albany shale, was developed to describe the fast and slow weight loss as well as the slow sulfur and organic carbon gasification rates. The slow sulfur and organic carbon reactions are described by rate equations that are first order in sulfur and organic carbon and include the steam pressure. Terms in the organic carbon rate expression account for hydrogen and carbon monoxide inhibition of the steam-carbon reaction. The fraction of shale species lost by fast and slow gasification and the rate of slow sulfur gasification are similar (and assumed to be equal) for the six Eastern shales studied. Eastern shale organic carbon reactivities are different and have been described with different kinetic parameters in the slow organic carbon gasification rate equation. The kinetic expressions developed for Eastern shale gasification are valid in steam and steam; synthesis gas mixtures and for residence times of more than 3 minutes. Gasification is described for temperature and pressure ranges of 1144 to 1311 K and 0.20 to 3.55 MPa, respectively.

Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design considerations for a steam-injection pilot with in-situ foaming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews the necessary aspects of the planning, operation, evaluation, environmental impact and cost to implement a field pilot of steam injection with in-situ foaming. The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI) is planning to implement such a pilot in Kern County, California. The cost of the pilot will be shared by the US Department of Energy and an oil company. Some important aspects of drilling and completion programs and their specifications, permits from regulatory bodies, and downhole tools to improve steam stimulation are discussed. The essential surface facilities which include water treatment plant, steam generator, demulsifier and dehydrator are considered. The necessary laboratory research in support of the pilot has been recommended. The formation evaluation and reservoir engineering effort for the pilot has been divided into three phases: reservoir definition, reservoir monitoring and post-pilot study. Appropriate techniques applicable to each phase of the test have been discussed. The environmental impact regulations as related to the steam injection process have been considered. In particular, the environmental problems associated with the burning of crude oil and desulfurization of flue gas have been discussed. Other environmental considerations such as solid and liquid waste disposal, health and safety are also discussed. An estimate of the cost of this field test is presented. Three scenarii (for pilots with high, medium, and low investment potentials, respectively) are presented. Since this report was prepared, a specific site for the supri pilot has been chosen. Appendices G and H present the details on this site.

Siddiqui, M.H.; Sanyal, S.K.; Horn, A.J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity as of March 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity Archives With Data for March 2011 | Release Date: May 31, 2011 Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data

393

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

394

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JL, Kinetics of Coal Gasification, New York, John Wiley &applications to technical gasification processes- A review.kinetics of steam gasification for a transport gasifier.

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation" Int. J. Chem.and Hydro- gasification of Ethanol Surinder P. Singh*, Chanand steam) steps to convert ethanol to methane. Ethanol was

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Solar Steam Reforming of Methane (SSRM) Program Proposals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the intended development work to supply solar HT process heat to industrial processes, especially chemical processes, the steam reforming process is considered suitable in particular.

A. Kalt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Droplet Characterization in the Wake of Steam Turbine Cascades.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In low-pressure steam turbines, water droplet formation on the surfaces of stationary stator blades can lead to erosion on downstream turbine blades and other… (more)

Plondke, Adam Charles

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Energy Savings By Recovery of Condensate From Steam Heating System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and reduces steam supply, saving 4061 tons of industrial water per year. The total saved steam amounts to 25.~ of the total amount of steM supply. The total saved cost is 39616 yuan per year; the total saved amount of coal is 329.9 tons per year... and reduces steam supply, saving 4061 tons of industrial water per year. The total saved steam amounts to 25.~ of the total amount of steM supply. The total saved cost is 39616 yuan per year; the total saved amount of coal is 329.9 tons per year...

Cheng, W. S.; Zhi, C. S.

399

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Agricultural Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Oregon Program Type Net Metering Oregon has established separate net-metering programs for the state's primary investor-owned utilities (PGE and PacifiCorp), and for its municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. '''PGE and PacifiCorp Customers''' The Oregon Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted new rules for net metering for PGE and PacifiCorp customers in July 2007, raising the individual system limit from 25 kilowatts (kW) to two megawatts (MW) for non-residential applications. (The rules do not apply to customers of Idaho

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Power Plant System Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Parabolic Trough Power Plant System Technology Parabolic Trough Power Plant System Technology A parabolic trough solar power plant uses a large field of collectors to supply thermal energy to a conventional power plant. Because they use conventional power cycles, parabolic trough power plants can be hybridized-other fuels can be used to back up the solar power. Like all power cycles, trough power plants also need a cooling system to transfer waste heat to the environment. Parabolic trough power plant technologies include: Direct steam generation Fossil-fired (hybrid) backup Operation and maintenance Power cycles Steam Rankine Organic Rankine Combined Wet and dry cooling Power Cycles A photo of an aerial view of a power plant in the middle of a solar field with rows and rows of parabolic troughs tracking. The cooling towers can be seen with the water plume rising into the air. The white water tanks can be seen in the background.

402

Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Institutional Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Arizona Program Type Net Metering Provider Arizona Corporation Commission Net metering is available to customers who generate electricity using solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass, biogas, combined heat and power (CHP) or fuel cell technologies. The ACC has not set a firm kilowatt-based limit on system size capacity; instead, systems must be sized to not exceed 125% of the customer's total connected load. If there is no available load data for the customer, the generating system may not

403

QuarkNet at Work  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

QuarkNet at Work Information for Active Mentors & Teachers     QuarkNet Home - Information - Calendar - Contacts - Projects - Forms: EoI - Teachers Information Active Centers Calendar Contacts Expectations: for Teachers, for Mentors Information on Other Funding Sources Program Overview Support: for Teachers, for Centers Staff Job Description Activities Essential Practices - Teaching with Inquiry (word.doc) Classroom Activities e-Labs: CMS - Cosmic Ray Boot Camp Project Activities Databases: Data Entry (password only) 2012 Center Reporting Resources Important Findings from Previous Years Mentor Tips Associate Teacher Institute Toolkit Print Bibliography - Online Resources Imaging Detector Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators - NSTA position

404

World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 - Datasets...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Energy Information ... World Net Nuclear Electric ... Dataset Activity Stream World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 International data showing world net...

405

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation efficiency and the primary factors that affect it. . The general concepts of boiler efficiency. As a result, water-tube boilers were developed. These boilers contain hundreds of tubes that hold the high the exhaust gases. The pressure vessel holds all of the stress of the high-pressure steam. Water-tube boilers

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

406

Influence of steam on the flammability limits of premixed natural gas/oxygen/steam mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis gas (Syngas) is an intermediate in a variety of industrial processes. Its production is energy and capital intensive and any improvement of existing technologies allowing simpler and economic production is of great interest. Recently, a new method known as short contact time-catalytic partial oxidation (SCT-CPO) has been developed into a commercial technology [1–4]. SCT-CPO is an entirely heterogeneous catalytic process converting premixed flammable feedstocks inside a very small reactor. In order to ensure safety and a high selectivity towards CO and H2 it has been important to determine and understand flammability properties of the gaseous reactant mixtures. Here we report on the results obtained within a windowed tube reactor equipped with multiple photodetectors and pressure transducers that has allowed the study of ignition, flame propagation, and explosion characteristics of gas mixtures similar to those used as reactants in the SCT-CPO reactor. The tests were conducted at various pressures with different amounts of steam and two different compositions of natural gas (NG). A flammability boundary for each mixture, based on normalized pressure and mole fraction of steam, was determined. The results conclude that these mixtures’ flammability could be suppressed in two very different ways. Depending on the adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture, suppression could be caused by steam's chemical influence increasing chain-termination or by a large amount of steam decreasing the reaction zone temperature.

Matthew J. Degges; J. Eric Boyer; Kenneth K. Kuo; Luca Basini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Steam Oxidation of Fossil Power Plant Materials: Collaborative Research to Enable Advanced Steam Power Cycles  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Research into improved materials systems and associated manufacturing and reliability issues is a major part of initiatives to produce cleaner and cheaper energy systems in the UK and the USA. Under the auspices of a Memorandum of Understanding on Energy R&D, a work programme concerned with steam oxidation has been conducted. The focus was on the generation of definitive information regarding the oxidation behaviour in steam of current and developmental ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickelbased alloys required to enable advanced steam power cycles. The results were intended to provide a basis for quantifying the rate of metal loss expected under advanced steam cycle conditions, as well as understanding of the evolution of oxide scale morphologies with time and temperature to identify features that could influence scale exfoliation characteristics. This understanding and acquired data were used to develop and validate models of oxide growth and loss by exfoliation. This paper provides an overview of the activity and highlights a selection of the results coming from the programme.

A. T. Fry; I. G Wright; N. J Simms; B. McGhee; G. R. Holcomb

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

408

The value of steam turbine upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IOUT *MEBP *STC(QAAN. R )-STEAM TURBINE CALC. ~ETFQMIN~5 ST~KJ/S) 1JC. /(GROSS STEAM TURBINE POWER PRODUCTION) STEA~ GENprogram then prints the steam turbine results. All flows in

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Effect of Steam Sterilization and Gamma Irradiation of Peat on Quality of Rhizobium Inoculants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Industrial Microbiology Effect of Steam Sterilization and Gamma Irradiation of...Inoculants for M. sativa manufactured with steam-sterilized peat were similar in quality...higher gamma irradiation dosage. Effect of steam sterilization and gamma irradiation of...

Barend W. Strijdom; Henri Jansen van Rensburg

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

COAGULATION AND STERILIZATION OF LOEFFLER'S BLOOD SERUM MEDIA UNDER STEAM PRESSURE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...OF LOEFFLER'S BLOOD SERUM MEDIA UNDER STEAM PRESSURE A. J. Hinkleman Oklahoma City...of Loeffler's Blood Serum Media under Steam Pressure. | Journal Article COAGULATION...OF LOEFFLER'S BLOOD SERUM MEDIA UNDER STEAM PRESSURE A. J. HINKLENIAN Oklahoma City...

A. J. Hinkleman

1923-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Statewide Benefits Of Net-Metering In California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the costs and benefits of NEM to the Governor and Legislature. 4 Id. 5 California Solar Future: Growing to the total, "bundled" energy rate, which includes not only the cost of generation, but transmission of 2013 3 See Net Energy Metering Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation, Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc

Kammen, Daniel M.

413

Table N11.4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 19  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" 4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

414

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

415

Table 7.10 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

416

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

417

Idaho Power - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Net Metering Idaho Power - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Idaho Program Type Net Metering Provider Idaho Power Company Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net-metering tariff that has been approved by the Idaho Public Utilities Commission (PUC). The framework of the utilities' net-metering programs is similar, in that each utility: (1) offers net metering to customers that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower, biomass or fuel cells; (2) limits residential systems to

418

Avista Utilities - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Avista Utilities - Net Metering Avista Utilities - Net Metering Avista Utilities - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Idaho Program Type Net Metering Provider Avista Utilities Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net-metering tariff that has been approved by the Idaho Public Utilities Commission (PUC). The framework of the utilities' net-metering programs is similar, in that each utility: (1) offers net metering to customers that generate electricity using solar,

419

SRP - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SRP - Net Metering SRP - Net Metering SRP - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Arizona Program Type Net Metering Provider SRP Salt River Project (SRP) modified an existing net-metering program for residential and commercial customers in November 2013. Net metering is now available to customers who generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV), geothermal, or wind systems up to 300 kilowatts (kW) in AC peak capacity. The kilowatt-hours (kWh) delivered to SRP are subtracted from the kWh delivered from SRP for each billing cycle. If the kWh calculation is net positive for the billing cycle, SRP will bill the net kWh to the customer under the applicable price plan, Standard Price Plan E-21, E-23, E-26,

420

New two element steam turbine for 150 to 27 MW applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modern high efficiency two element steam turbine for application in the 150 MW to 270 MW range is discussed. Innovations utilized and the experience base from which they are derived are presented. Benefits to the power producer resulting from this innovative approach are highlighted.They include reliability and efficiency improvement, delivery time reduction, and the application of design features, microprocessor control systems, and A. I. diagnostic techniques to reduce maintenance requirements, increase life, and enhance overall power plant productivity.

Martin, H.F.; Vaccarro, F.R.; Conrad, J.D. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Boiler and steam generator corrosion. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers and nuclear powered steam generators. Corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Water treatment, chemical cleaning, and descaling methods are considered. Although emphasis is placed on large-scale power generation systems, residential and commercial heating systems are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Boiler and steam generator corrosion. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers and nuclear powered steam generators. Corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Water treatment, chemical cleaning, and descaling methods are considered. Although emphasis is placed on large-scale power generation systems, residential and commercial heating systems are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Proceedings: 20th Steam Generator NDE Workshop: Orlando, Florida, July 9-11, 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2001 workshop took place in Orlando, Florida, from July 9 to 11, 2001. It covered one full day and two half-days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and overseas nuclear utilities, NSSS vendors, NDE service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE issues and means for their resolution.

None

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Low severity hydrocarbon steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ammonia which comprises: (a) primary catalytically reforming at super atmospheric pressure in a direct-fired primary reforming zone, a hydrocarbon feedstock with steam to produce a gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen and methane; (b) secondary catalytically reforming the gas from step (a) by introducing air and bringing the mixture towards equilibrium thereby producing a secondary reformer effluent gas containing nitrogen, carbon oxides, hydrogen and a decreased quantity of methane; (c) converting carbon monoxide catalytically with steam to carbon dioxide and hydrogen; (d) removing carbon oxides to give an ammonia synthesis gas comprising nitrogen and hydrogen and compressing the gas to ammonia synthesis pressure; (e) reacting the synthesis gas in an ammonia synthesis zone to produce ammonia and recovering ammonia from the reacted gas to produce an ammonia-depleted gas stream; (f) recycling at least a portion of the ammonia-depleted gas stream to the ammonia synthesis zone; and (g) treating a sidestream of the ammonia-depleted gas to separate a stream enriched in hydrogen and an inerts-enriched gas stream, and returning the enriched hydrogen stream to the ammonia synthesis zone.

Osman, R.M.; Byington, R.G.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

426

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be­ havior of the boiler. For each model, we define and verify a controller that maintains

Henzinger, Thomas A.

427

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be- havior of the boiler. For each model, we de ne and verify a controller that maintains the safe

Henzinger, Thomas A.

428

Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual Mesa) was implemented at the Bayou Cogen plant in Bayport, Texas in 1997 and has been in use continuously since that time. This program optimizes steam production among four cogen units...

Harper, C.; Nelson, D. A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

ExxonMobile Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and petrochemical manufacturing facility. ? Energy optimization across the Complex requires flexibility to accommodate variations in operations, seasonality, maintenance outages, etc. ? The steam system spans the Complex and is generated from various sources... and petrochemical manufacturing facility. ? Energy optimization across the Complex requires flexibility to accommodate variations in operations, seasonality, maintenance outages, etc. ? The steam system spans the Complex and is generated from various sources...

Long, T.

430

How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief details how to calculate the true cost of steam, which is important for monitoring and managing energy use in a plant, evaluating proposed design changes to the generation or distribution infrastructure and the process itself, and for continuing to identify competitive advantages through steam system and plant efficiency improvements.

431

STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study ......................................................................................12 Stationary engines for decentralised CHP or industrial CHP

432

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HHV) Capital Costs Feed Handling & Preparation Gasification Warm Gas Cleanup Steam MethaneHHV) Capital Costs Feed Handling & Preperation Gasification Warm Gas Cleanup Steam Methane

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

434

Bullet trains and steam engines: Exogenous attention zips but endogenous attention chugs along  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bullet trains and steam engines: Exogenous attention zips but endogenous attention chugs along: Chakravarthi, R., & VanRullen, R. (2011). Bullet trains and steam engines: Exogenous attention zips

VanRullen, Rufin

435

Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 2.2. Biomass Air Steam Oxygen Hydrogen Gasifier typeAir GasifierSteam Gasifier Oxygen Gasifier Hydrogen Gasifier

Suemanotham, Amornrat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Feasibility of Achieving Net-Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Feasibility of Achieving Net- Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost Homes I.S. Walker, Al-Beaini, SSimjanovic,JohnStanley,BretStrogen,IainWalker FeasibilityofAchieving ZeroNetEnergy,Zero NetCostHomes #12;4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

438

Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes 1 fey, 1David Feasibility of Achieving a ZeroNetEnergy, ZeroNetCost Homes 1 #12;2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The material building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened

439

Hyperbolic Dirac Nets for medical decision support. Theory, methods, and comparison with Bayes Nets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We recently introduced the concept of a Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) for medical inference on the grounds that, while the traditional Bayes Net (BN) is popular in medicine, it is not suited to that domain: there are many interdependencies such that any ... Keywords: Bayes Net, Complex, Decision support system, Dirac, Expert system, Hyperbolic, Hyperbolic Dirac Net, Medical inference

Barry Robson

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Constrained CP-nets Steve Prestwich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constrained CP-nets Steve Prestwich , Francesca Rossi � , Kristen Brent Venable �, Toby Walsh 1, soft constraints, and CP-nets. We construct a set of hard constraints whose solutions are the optimal to represent preferences, we will consider CP-nets [6, 3], which is a quali- tative approach where preferences

Walsh, Toby

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Constrained CP-nets Steve Prestwich1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constrained CP-nets Steve Prestwich1 , Francesca Rossi2 , Kristen Brent Venable2 , Toby Walsh1 1, soft constraints, and CP nets. We construct a set of hard constraints whose solutions are the optimal. Among the many existing approaches to represent preferencess, we will consider CP nets [5,3], which

Rossi, Francesca

442

2007 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT STAFFREPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-2007.......................................................................5 Figure 3: Natural Gas and Coal Shares of Net System Power Mix Become Larger 1999-2007.....7 ListCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2007 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT STAFFREPORT April 2008 CEC-200 .................................................................................................................. 1 Net System Power Findings

443

The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nets Network Virtualization Architecture Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de 05. Februar, 2014 Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12;..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12

Schmid, Stefan

444

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

445

Issues in the selection of the LMFBR steam cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike the light-water reactor, the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) allows the designer considerable latitude in the selection of the steam cycle. This latitude in selection has been exercised by both foreign and domestic designers, and thus, despite the fact that over 25 LMFBR's have been built or are under construction, a consensus steam cycle has not yet evolved. This paper discusses the LMFBR steam cycles of interest to the LMFBR designer, reviews which of these cycles have been employed to date, discusses steam-cycle selection factors, discusses why a consensus has not evolved, and finally, concludes that the LMFBR steam-cycle selection is primarily one of technical philosophy with several options available.

Buschman, H.W.; McConnell, R.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Issues in the selection of the LMFBR steam cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike the light water reactor, the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) allows the designer considerable latitude in the selection of the steam cycle. This latitude in selection has been exercised by both foreign and domestic designers, and thus, despite the fact that over 25 LMFBR's have been built or are under construction, a consensus steam cycle has not yet evolved. This paper discusses the LMFBR steam cycles of interest to the LMFBR designer, reviews which of these cycles have been employed to date, discusses steam-cycle selection factors, discusses why a consensus has not evolved, and finally, concludes that the LMFBR steam-cycle selection is primarily one of technical philosophy with several options available.

Buschchman, H.W.; McConnell, R.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Experience in the repair of steam generator auxiliary feedwater nozzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The auxiliary feedwater nozzle is quite often subjected to more thermal stress cycles and other loading mechanisms during their service life than the material was designed and fabricated for at the nozzle of the earlier steam generators in many nuclear plants. During plant operation, the auxiliary feedwater nozzle outlet is exposed to the hot steam from the generator side, while the auxiliary feedwater piping which contains subcooled water from the inlet often induces water hammer as a result of the steam-water mixing phenomena. The thermal cycles and the steam bubble collapse at the nozzle may cause cracking in the nozzle liner and interior surface of the nozzle, and subsequently results in structural damage to the steam generator. This presentation is intended to share the lessons learned from the evaluation of the nozzle condition and the subsequent modification and repair made to the auxiliary feedwater nozzle at the Palisades Nuclear Plant. Other nuclear plant owners may benefit from this experience.

Chao, K.K.N. [Consumers Power Co., Jackson, MI (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Flammability Limits of Binary Mixtures of 1,2-Ethanediol + Steam and 1,2-Propanediol + Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flammability Limits of Binary Mixtures of 1,2-Ethanediol + Steam and 1,2-Propanediol + Steam ... In addition, the experimental results were compared with the estimated values based on the adiabatic flame temperature method. ... Shortly before ignition, the stirrer was turned off, and the mixture was left for 1 min to eliminate turbulence. ...

Ke Zhang; Xianyang Meng; Jiangtao Wu

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

449

Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings- Steam Systems, Retrofit Measure Packages, Hydronic Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation is included in the July 16, 2014, Building America webinar, and provides information about best practices, costs, and savings associated with optimizing steam and hydronic systems through increased main line air venting, replacing radiator vents, improving circulation pump efficiency, and upgrading boiler control systems.

450

An attempt to minimize the temperature gradient along a plug-flow methane/steam reforming reactor by adopting locally controlled heating zones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plug flow reactors are very common in the chemical process industry, including methane/steam reforming applications. Their operation presents many challenges, such as a strong dependence of temperature and composition distribution on the inlet conditions. The strongly endothermic methane/steam reforming reaction might result in a temperature drop at the inlet of the reactor and consequently the occurrence of large temperature gradients. The strongly non-uniform temperature distribution due to endothermic chemical reaction can have tremendous consequences on the operation of the reactor, such as catalyst degradation, undesired side reactions and thermal stresses. To avoid such unfavorable conditions, thermal management of the reactor becomes an important issue. To carry out thermal management properly, detailed modeling and corresponding numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the reforming system is required. This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the methane/steam reforming process inside a plug-flow reactor. To optimize the reforming reactors, detailed data about the entire reforming process is required. In this study the kinetics of methane/steam reforming on the Ni/YSZ catalyst was experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, the fuel flow rate and the steam- to-methane ratios were performed. The reforming rate equation derived from experimental data was used in the numerical model to predict gas composition and temperature distribution along the steam-reforming reactor. Finally, an attempt was made to control the temperature distribution by adopting locally controlled heating zones.

M Mozdzierz; G Brus; A Sciazko; Y Komatsu; S Kimijima; J S Szmyd

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Kansas - Net Metering | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kansas - Net Metering Kansas - Net Metering Kansas - Net Metering < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Kansas Program Type Net Metering Provider Kansas Corporation Commission Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities in Kansas. Net metering applies to systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, methane, biomass or hydro resources, and to fuel cells using hydrogen produced by an eligible

452

Net Metering Webinar | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Net Metering Webinar Net Metering Webinar Net Metering Webinar June 25, 2014 11:00AM MDT Attendees will become familiar with the services provided by utility net metering and their importance in making projects cost-effective. The speakers will provide information based on case histories of how facilities that generate their own electricity from renewable energy sources can feed electricity they do not use back into the grid. Many states have net-metering laws with which utilities must comply. In states without such legislation, utilities may offer net-metering programs voluntarily or as a result of regulatory decisions. The webinar will cover the general differences between states' legislation and implementation and how the net-metering benefits can vary widely for facilities in different areas of

453

Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trust LLC Trust LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Standard Steam Trust LLC Place Denver, Colorado Sector Geothermal energy Product Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra Caliente. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

454

Microsoft Word - Steam System Energy.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LBNL---6288E LBNL---6288E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Implementation a nd Rejection o f I ndustrial Steam S ystem E nergy Efficiency M easures Peter T herkelsen a nd A imee M cKane Environmental E nergy T echnologies D ivision Lawrence B erkeley N ational L aboratory Reprint version of journal article published in " Energy P olicy", p lease c ite a s: Peter T herkelsen, A imee M cKane, Implementation a nd r ejection o f i ndustrial s team system e nergy e fficiency m easures, E nergy Policy, V olume 5 7, J une 2 013, P ages 3 18---328 May 2 013 2 Disclaimer This d ocument w as p repared a s a n a ccount o f w ork s ponsored b y t he U nited States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof,

455

SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CYCLE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revolutionary improvement of the nuclear plant safety and economy with light water reactors can be reached with the application of micro-fuel elements (MFE) directly cooled by a supercritical pressure light-water coolant-moderator. There are considerable advantages of the MFE as compared with the traditional fuel rods, such as: Using supercritical and superheated steam considerably increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle up to 44-45%. Strong negative coolant and void reactivity coefficients with a very short thermal delay time allow the reactor to shutdown quickly in the event of a reactivity or power excursion. Core melting and the creation of corium during severe accidents are impossible. The heat transfer surface area is larger by several orders of magnitude due to the small spherical dimensions of the MFE. The larger heat exchange surface significantly simplifies residual heat removal by natural convection and radiation from the core to a subsequent passive system of heat removal.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Talbert, Robert J.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Filippov, Gennady A.; Bogojavlensky, Roald G.; Grishanin, Evgeny I.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A catalyst's resistance to deactivation by polymer formation is vital to the successful gasification of heavy feedstocks such as kerosene and gas oil. The improved polymer-resistance performance of this steam-reforming catalyst is directly relate to the distribution of the pore sizes in its calcined (but unreduced) precursor form and to a certain pore-size ratio: 1) At least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a radius of between 12 and 120 A(2000A) is in the range of 12-30 A(2000A) and 2) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 A(2000A) to the volume contained in pores of 50-300 A(2000A) is at least 5:1. The catalyst-preparation method involves coprecipitation with a minimum of heat treatment (at temperatures not greater than 140/sup 0/F or 60/sup 0/C).

Banks, R.G.S.; Williams, A.

1980-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

457

Performance tests for steam methane reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Process for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is provided for the steam reforming of normally liquid hydrocarbons to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which does not promote the deposition of carbonacious materials upon catalytic surfaces. The catalyst consists of nickel promoted with the oxides of iron and manganese within a specific manganese to iron ratio, said metal and metal oxides being supported upon a refractory support. The support is preferably aluminum oxide in its alpha phase having a surface area of more than 0.5 m2/gm but no more than 10 m2/gm. The metallic constituents are impregnated onto said refractory low surface area support as salts and are calcined at sufficiently high temperature to convert the salts to the oxide but at a sufficiently low temperature that they do not chemically react with the support.

Broughton, D.R.; Russ, K.J.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

459

Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

R and D for improved efficiency, small steam turbines: Phase I. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of an investigation of the development of a class of highly efficient steam turbines in the 500 to 5000 horsepower range are presented; these new machines are expected to have efficiences between 70 and 85%. The turbines are based on the concept of one or more high-speed radial inflow turbine modules driving a low-speed bull gear. Each module operates then at optimal specific speed, which yields high efficiency compared to the partial admission Curtiss stages currently used. The project has two phases. Phase 1 includes investigation and interpretation of the market for small steam turbines and definition of the radial inflow turbine (RIT) configurations best suited to penetrate a significant portion of this market. Phase 1 concludes with a recommended configuration. (MCW)

None

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Steam turbine path evaluation during maintenance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deterioration of a turbine (Steam & Gas) flow path affects the efficiency of the turbine. The most critical factors which affect the efficiency of turbines are: wearing out of the trailing edges of the blades by solid particle erosion, deposits, material loss due to corrosion (also sand blast) which increases the flow area, increases in blade surface roughness, etc. Wearing out of the seals caused by shaft vibrations or rapid start-up leads to significant leakage losses. Some of these effects can be estimated with some precision during operation of the turbine, but an exact evaluation can be carried out during a maintenance applying a special fluid flow analysis program. Such a program has been developed and then adapted to achieve this goal. During maintenance the complete geometry of the steam path is measured (blades lengths, widths, angles, clearances, etc.) in the condition encountered before any corrections. Then the similar measurement is undertaken after, for example, clearance corrections, blade replacements, cleaning of the blades, etc. Using the program first of all the design data is calculated. Then the actual data is fed into the program and compared to the design data. Thus the effect of the blade surface roughness, increased seal clearances, flow area increase, solid particle damage to the trailing edge and so on for each particular stage is calculated. The effect is expressed in [kW] as a deviation from the design points. This data can be helpful during online evaluation of the turbine performance. This evaluation helps the management of the plant in undertaking the correct decision concerning the date of the next major maintenance and replacement part procurement. Many turbines in the Mexican utility have been evaluated in such a manner. Some examples are presented.

Kubiak, J.; Angel, F. del; Carnero, A.; Campos, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixo, Morelos (Mexico)] [and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Field measurement of solid particle erosion in utility steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the first time, extensive field testing has characterized solid particle erosion (SPE) in terms of size and frequency. This is particularly important because SPE damage to large steam turbine components can degrade plant efficiency, increasing operating costs by up to $3 million/yr per unit for a total of $150 million nationwide. The objective was to characterize under various operating conditions the level and distribution of magnetite particles in turbine steam and the resulting SPE. The project team developed a field test program to characterize the solid particles in turbine steam and measure the erosion resistance of various coatings. At Dayton Power Light, a 600-MW turbine generator unit with a coal-fired once-through supercritical boiler was fitted with two steam sampling systems, the first for isokinetic sampling and the second for erosion evaluation. The team took roughly 300 isokinetic steam samples from the main steam line during both startup and full-load operation. They condensed and filtered each steam sample, then determined the level and distribution of magnetite particles.

Duncan, D.; Vohr, J.H.; Shalvoy, R.S. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Turbine Technology Dept.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

NREL: TroughNet - Data and Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data and Resources Data and Resources This site features data and resources about parabolic trough power plant technology, including: Industry partners U.S. power plant data Solar data Models and tools System and component testing Also see our publications on parabolic trough power plants. Printable Version TroughNet Home Technologies Market & Economic Assessment Research & Development Data & Resources Industry Partners Power Plant Data Solar Data Models & Tools System & Component Testing FAQs Workshops Publications Email Updates Did you find what you needed? Yes 1 No 0 Thank you for your feedback. Would you like to take a moment to tell us how we can improve this page? Submit We value your feedback. Thanks! We've received your feedback. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

464

NREL: TroughNet - Email Updates - Subscribe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Email Updates - Subscribe Email Updates - Subscribe Subscribe to receive email updates about parabolic trough technology, including: Status on R&D and deployment projects Workshops and other events New publications New data and resources. Please provide and submit the following information. Name (first & last): Organization/Affiliation: Email Address: Submit Clear Form Unsubscribe Printable Version TroughNet Home Technologies Market & Economic Assessment Research & Development Data & Resources FAQs Workshops Publications Email Updates Did you find what you needed? Yes 1 No 0 Thank you for your feedback. Would you like to take a moment to tell us how we can improve this page? Submit We value your feedback. Thanks! We've received your feedback. Something went wrong. Please try again later.

465

NOx formation by steam injection using detailed chemical kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve thermal efficiency of gas turbine system and better control NOx emission, the injection of steam into a gas turbine combustor has been employed. This study has used both chemical equilibrium calculations and the counterflow diffusion flame calculations of methane-air flame aiming at the elucidation of the NOx reduction mechanism due to the steam injection. The influence of the equivalence ratios, the amount of steam and method of injection, the influence of the temperature of the preheated air and fuel has been also investigated. In this study, the GRI-Mech was employed for modelling the chemical reactions.

H. Yamashita; D. Zhao; S.N. Danov; T. Furuhata; N. Arai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Extending the useful life of industrial steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that technology, uprating, and steam-path degradation reversal can extend the life and boost the efficiency of aging turbines. With the advent of modern machine tool technology, plus extensive R and D efforts, designers could apply improved bucket designs like the laminar flow design. Today's technology is represented by the Schlict design, which minimizes flow separations and boundary layer losses. Schlict buckets can be retrofitted in most designs as long as the diaphragm is also replaced. Adoption of steam-path design advance developed for new units and degradation reversal are the two areas of greatest opportunity in efficiency improvement of aging steam turbine-generators.

O'Connor, M.F.; Timmerman, D.C. (GE Power Generation, Schenectady, NY (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H 2 Equation (1.8) Steam methane reforming CH 4 + H 2 O ? 3HH 2 +CO) by the Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). The steam2 Equation (1.10) Steam Methane Reforming: CH 4 + H 2 O ? 3H

FAN, XIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The economics of the use of cermet seals in steam turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of cermet sealing materials in steam turbines improves their reliability and produces considerable savings...

Z. P. Dorf; É. T. Denisenko

1965-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Graphical Procedure for Comparing Thermal Death of Bacillus stearothermophilus Spores in Saturated and Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stearothermophilus Spores in Saturated and Superheated Steam James J. Shull 1 Robert R. Ernst Wilmot...Bacillus stearothermophilus in saturated steam was characterized by three phases: (i...death curve of the spores in saturated steam. A jacketed steam sterilizer, equipped...

James J. Shull; Robert R. Ernst

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

1 6/11/2003 Progress in Microchannel SteamProgress in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 6/11/2003 Progress in Microchannel SteamProgress in Reformation of Hydrocarbon Fuels Progress in MicrochannelMicrochannel SteamSteam Reformation of HydrocarbonReformation of Hydrocarbon FuelsFuels 2003 steam reformer at higher temperature. Productivity for benchmark fuel increased 3X between 650°C and 850

472

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming Abdul of certain metals with steam, called metal- steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not gen- erate any: hydrogen generation; metal-steam reform- ing; mill-scale; nanoscale iron; electron microscopy Hydrogen

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

473

SSST Module Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool Suite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Steam System Scoping Tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, and the 3E Plus Insulation Tool: When assessing the condition of your steam system the first tool you should use is the scoping toolSSST Module 9/30/2009 Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

474

Evaluation of potential and consequences of steam bump in high heat waste tanks and assessment and validation of GOTH computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the thermal hydraulic analysis performed using the GOTH computer code to evaluate the potential and consequences of steam bumps in high heat waste tanks. The analysis was performed for three different sludge volumes that correspond to the current sludge volume in tank AZ-101, combined sludge volumes of tank AZ-101 and tank AZ-102 and the projected consolidated sludge volume of tank C-106 and tank AY-102. For each case, the steam bump potential was evaluated starting the simulation with a realistic best estimate initial temperature distribution as well as with a conservative potentially possible axial temperature distribution in the sludge. To include further conservatism in estimating the consequent release of radioactive material, steam bump analyses were also performed suppressing steam condensation with subcooled liquid in waste. In addition,calculations were performed with in leakage flow paths corresponding to open risers and pump and sluice pit cover blocks as well as with normal in leakage flow paths due to drain pipes and infiltration paths. Therefore, the report presents the steam bump evaluations encompassing from an extremely conservative case of initiating a steam bump with local saturation temperature throughout the sludge with condensation suppressed and open risers to a realistic potential case with loss of cooling of initiating at steam bump with only the bottom layer with local saturation temperature with condensation included considering only the normal in leakage flow paths. The results show that in all cases the consequences from an energetic bump may not be acceptable, and the safe operation should include keeping peak sludge temperatures below local saturation values. The report also includes a brief description of the capability and validation of models used in the GOTH computer code.

Sathyanarayana, K., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Plant Biomass Facility Steam Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility Facility Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Orange County, California Coordinates 33.7174708°, -117.8311428° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.7174708,"lon":-117.8311428,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

476

Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program [Corrosion and Mechanics of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Steam Generator Tube Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share

477

A Compact and Efficient Steam Methane Reformer for Hydrogen Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A small-scale steam-methane reforming system for localized, distributed production of hydrogen offers improved performance and lower cost by integrating the following technologies developed at the… (more)

Quon, Willard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Selectivity of the steam reforming of methane over metallic catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The activity and selectivity of the methane-steam reaction has been studied in a gradientless reactor at atmospheric pressure and 700–850 °C. Differences were found in the course of the reaction on Pd relative...

T. Borowiecki; J. Barcicki

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the leaching of salts and minerals through the highly porous volcanic rock, creating a chemically complex differentials to condense steam into gamma-irradiated polypropylene centrifuge tubes (Fig. 1B), collected up

Kelley, Scott

480

Motive Power. Steam Turbines. High Speed Navigation1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... ancient Egyptian civilisation that we find the first records of the early history of the steam-engine. In Alexandria, the home of Euclid, and possibly contemporary with Archimedes, Hero ... contrivances.

1900-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "includes net steam" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Efficient steam turbines produced by the “Ural Turbine Plant” company  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design features and efficiency of some steam turbines produced at present by a plant formed as a result of division of the “Turbine Motor Plant” Company into several enterprises are...

G. D. Barinberg; A. E. Valamin

482

Calculation of the Limiting CESSAR Steam Line Break Transients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under contract to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, performed audit calculations of the limiting and Steam Line Break (SLB) [1] transient presented in the CESSAR FSAR. The r...

G. B. Peeler; D. L. Caraher; J. Guttmann

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Thermohydraulic analysis of U-tube steam generators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent trends in plant safety analysis reveal a need for benchmark analytical representations of the steam generators to aid in the improvement of system codes and of fast codes for operator assistance. A model for such ...

da Silva, Hugo Cardoso

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Suez SNC-Lavalin Nuclear to replace US steam generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (USA) has signed a contract with Xcel Energy to replace the Unit #2 steam generators at the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant (PINGP) in Welch, Minnesota.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of steam-methane reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model to calculate temperature, conversion and pressure profiles for static operations in steam-methane reformers was simulated. A rigorous kinetic model describing steam-methane reactions was compared to a first order one and an empirical heat distribution model was fitted to describe heat absorbed along the reactor length. A control interface was simulated to allow sensitivity analysis with different control schemes. The kinetic models were tested with data from industrial steam-gas reformers. Simulation results agreed with actual plant data for conversion, temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, the first order kinetic model gave unrealistic sensitivity results to pressure and steam-to-carbon ratio variations. The rigorous model could confidently be used for design analysis, control, and economic evaluation purposes.

I.M. Alatiqi; A.M. Meziou; G.A. Gasmelseed

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Experiences of niobium-containing alloys for steam reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Destructive testing of niobium alloys was made in steam reformer as well as the study of the effects of the chemical compositions on the creep rupture and tensile properties.

Shibasaki, T.; Takemura, K.; Kawai, T.; Mohri, T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Process for generating steam in a fuel cell powerplant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steam for a steam reforming reactor of a fuel cell powerplant is generated by humidifying the reactor feed gas in a saturator by evaporating a small portion of a mass of liquid water which circulates in a loop passing through the saturator. The water is reheated in each pass through the loop by waste heat from the fuel cell, but is not boiled. In the saturator the relatively dry feed gas passes in direct contact with the liquid water over and through a bed a high surface area material to cause evaporation of some of the water in the loop. All the steam requirements for the reactor can be generated in this manner without the need for a boiler; and steam can be raised at a higher total pressure than in a boiler heated by the same source.

Sederquist, R. A.

1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

488

Steam Turbines for Critical Applications and Emergency or Standby Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam turbines are frequently preferred over electric motors where operational continuity is important. This often imposes extreme premiums in operating cost. The parameters affecting relative economics are explored and a range of alternatives...

Waterland, A. F.

489

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for initial identification and evaluation of the opportunities being provided.

490

Clock mechanisms and their effects, leads into steam engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a clock-maker’s shop, Simon Schaffer explains the great precision needed to make clocks, and the development of standardized parts. The feed-back mechanisms or governors are absolutely essential in the first stationary steam engines....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

491

An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

Risko, J. R.

492

Optimizing Steam and Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction in purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Merritt, B.; Tully, R. C.

493

Steam Efficiency: Impacts from Boilers to the Boardroom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the corporate bottom-line. The challenge is to present efficiency investments in the financial "language" that permits comparison to other corporate investment opportunities. This paper presents a framework for linking steam efficiency to financial goals. A...

Russell, C.

494

Highly Active Steam Reforming Catalyst for Hydrogen and Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toyo Engineering Corporation developed a steam reforming catalyst, which is four times as active as conventional catalysts, for hydrogen and syngas production from light natural gas. The catalyst has...3 plant. B...

Toru Numaguchi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

The Global Steam Coal Market and Supply Curve  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modern steam coal trade is only about three decades old. ... market difficulties. In order to understand the coal market one needs to understand the global ... . In the chapter the author considers the economic

Dr. Lars Schernikau

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW Jump to: navigation, search Name Dongfang Steam Turbine Works (DFSTW) Place Deyang, Sichuan Province, China Zip 618000 Sector Wind energy Product Manufacturer of several kinds of steam turbines and accessory equipment. Manufactures wind turbines under licence from REpower. Coordinates 31.147209°, 104.375023° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.147209,"lon":104.375023,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

499

The Use of Electrochemical Techniques to Characterize Wet Steam Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of a steam phase in equilibrium with a water phase at high temperature is remarkably affected by the varying capabilities of the water phase constituents to partition into the steam. Ionic impurities (sodium, chloride, sulfate, etc.) tend to remain in the water phase, while weakly ionic or gaseous species (oxygen) partition into the steam. Analysis of the water phase can provide misleading results concerning the steam phase composition or environment. This paper describes efforts that were made to use novel electrochemical probes and sampling techniques to directly characterize a wet steam phase environment in equilibrium with high temperature water. Probes were designed to make electrochemical measurements in the thin film of water existing on exposed surfaces in steam over a water phase. Some of these probes were referenced against a conventional high temperature electrode located in the water phase. Others used two different materials (typically tungsten and platinum) to make measurements without a true reference electrode. The novel probes were also deployed in a steam space removed from the water phase. It was necessary to construct a reservoir and an external, air-cooled condenser to automatically keep the reservoir full of condensed steam. Conventional reference and working electrodes were placed in the water phase of the reservoir and the novel probes protruded into the vapor space above it. Finally, water phase probes (both reference and working electrodes) were added to the hot condensed steam in the external condenser. Since the condensing action collapsed the volatiles back into the water phase, these electrodes proved to be extremely sensitive at detecting oxygen, which is one of the species of highest concern in high temperature power systems. Although the novel steam phase probes provided encouraging initial results, the tendency for tungsten to completely corrode away in the steam phase limited their usefulness. However, the conventional water phase electrodes, installed both in the reservoir and in the external condensing coil, provided useful data showing the adverse impact of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the REDOX potential and high temperature pH, respectively.

Bruce W. Bussert; John A. Crowley; Kenneth J. Kimball; Brian J. Lashway

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

500

Studies of potassium-promoted nickel catalysts for methane steam reforming: Effect of surface potassium location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of potassium addition to the Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst has been investigated on several model systems, including K/Al2O3 with various amounts of alkali promoters (1–4 wt% of K2O), a model catalyst 90%NiO-10%Al2O3 promoted with potassium and a commercial catalyst. The potassium surface state and stability were investigated by means of the Species Resolved Thermal Alkali Desorption method (SR-TAD). The activity of the catalysts in the steam reforming of methane and their coking-resistance were also evaluated. The results reveal that the beneficial effect of potassium addition is strongly related to its location in the catalysts. The catalyst surface should be promoted with potassium in order to obtain high coking-resistant catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst preparation procedure should ensure a direct interaction of potassium with the Al2O3 support surface. Due to the low stability of potassium on ?-Al2O3 this phase is undesirable during the preparation of a stable steam reforming catalyst.

Tadeusz Borowiecki; Andrzej Denis; Micha? Rawski; Andrzej Go??biowski; Kazimierz Sto?ecki; Jaromir Dmytrzyk; Andrzej Kotarba

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z