National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for includes methane propane

  1. Hydrate decomposition conditions in the system hydrogen sulfide-methane, and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeter, J.P.; Kobayashi, R.; Hildebrand, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental hydrate decomposition conditions are presented for 3 different H/sub 2/S-containing mixtures in the temperature region 0 C to 30 C. The 3 mixtures investigated were 4% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 89% methane; 12% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 81% methane; and 30% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 63% methane. Hydrate decomposition pressures and temperatures were obtained for each of these mixtures by observation of the pressure-temperature hysteresis curves associated with formation and decomposition of the hydrate crystals. A repeatable decomposition point was observed in every case, and this was identified as the hydrate point. The results for the 4% H/sub 2/S mixture were used to adjust parameters in a computer model based on the Parrish and Prausnitz statistical thermodynamics method, coupled with the BWRS equation of state. After the parameter adjustment, the computer model predicted the behavior of the 12% H/sub 2/S and the 30% H/sub 2/S mixtures to within 2 C. Experimental data for the 3 mixtures are given.

  2. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (Ω pilot ∼ 0.2-0.6 and Ω overall ∼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant Ω pilot (> 0.5), increasing Ω overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing Ω overall (at constant Ω pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  3. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  4. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  5. Propane Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    2010-03-01

    Propane powers about 190,000 vehicles in the U.S. and more than 14 million worldwide. Propane vehicles are a good choice for many fleet applications including school buses, shuttle buses, taxies and light-duty trucks.

  6. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  7. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  8. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane andmore » at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.« less

  9. Auto propane -- Some technical considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This booklet reviews some of the facts about propane as a vehicle fuel. It describes propane fuel properties, propane vehicle fuel systems and their components, propane vehicles and engines obtainable as original equipment from the vehicle manufacturer, after-market propane fuel system installations, propane vehicle operational characteristics, propane-fueled vehicle maintenance, government regulations and safety measures related to propane vehicles, and the environmental benefits of propane and propane-fueled vehicles. The final sections discuss the economics of propane vehicle ownership and the factors to be considered when estimating annual or lifetime savings or payback periods. Appendices include a directory of information sources, a sample worksheet for calculating payback, and examples of success stories relating the positive experiences of vehicle fleets with propane fueling.

  10. Propane Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are more than 147,000 on-road propane vehicles in the United States. Many are used in fleets, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, taxicabs, police cars, and rental and delivery vehicles. Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce fewer harmful emissions.

  11. Propane update

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    update March 30,2016 | Washington, DC (Inventory data as of 3/25/16; residential heating fuel prices as of 3/28/16) By U.S. Energy Information Administration 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 5-year range Inventories rolling 5-year Avg PADD 2 (Midwest) propane inventories near top of 5-year range U.S. Energy Information Administration 2 PADD 2 propane* inventories million barrels Source: EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report, data through March 25, 2016

  12. Residential propane prices surges

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Midwest and Northeast propane prices much higher this winter than last year Households that heat with propane will pay for that propane at prices averaging 39 percent higher in the ...

  13. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic propane prices will not fully delink from oil prices, and competition against electricity and natural gas in traditional propane markets will remain very challenging....

  14. Propane Fuel Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or autogas, is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles.

  15. Residential propane price decreases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.32 per gallon, down 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.98 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  17. Residential propane price decreases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    05, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 2.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  18. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.9 cents from a week ago to 2.80 per gallon. That's up 53.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  19. Residential propane prices stable

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices stable The average retail price for propane is 2.37 per gallon. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information ...

  20. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.39 per gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  1. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.38 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  2. Residential propane price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 3.48 per gallon, down 15.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  3. Residential propane price decreases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8, 2015 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.34 per gallon, down 1.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by ...

  4. Residential propane prices stable

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.40 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  5. Residential propane prices available

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.92 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by ...

  6. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.03 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  7. Residential propane price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.29 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  8. Residential propane prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.91 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by ...

  9. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices surges The average retail price for propane rose to an all-time high of 4.01 a gallon, that's up 1.05 from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  10. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.96 per gallon, up 1.8 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  11. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 3.30 per gallon, down 17.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  12. Residential propane price decreases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.36 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  13. Residential propane price

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.35 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  14. Residential propane price decreases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.39 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  15. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.02 per gallon, down 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  16. Residential propane prices decreases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2014 Residential propane prices decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 3.89 per gallon, that's down 11.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating ...

  17. Residential propane prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 1.91 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the ...

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.03 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  19. Residential propane prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose to 2.40 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  20. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 3.17 per gallon, down 13.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  1. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.36 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  2. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.36 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  3. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.41 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  4. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.96 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  5. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Residential propane virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is 2.02 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  6. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is 2.30 per gallon, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. ...

  7. Residential propane prices increase

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 4.8 cents from a week ago to 2.76 per gallon. That's up 51.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  8. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.94 per gallon, up 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the ...

  9. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.01 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  10. Residential propane prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 1.92 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  11. Residential propane prices available

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.90 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  12. Residential propane prices increase

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 5.5 cents per gallon from last week to 2.62 per gallon; up 37.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  13. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.00 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  14. Residential propane prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to 2.96 per gallon. That's up 68.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  15. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.2 cents from a week ago to 2.86 per gallon. That's up 59.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.01 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  17. Residential propane price decreases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.35 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  18. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 9.1 cents from a week ago to 2.71 per gallon. That's up 46.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  19. Residential propane prices increase

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.3 cents per gallon from last week to 2.57 per gallon; up 32.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  20. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.02 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  1. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is 1.94 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. ...

  2. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.5 cents from a week ago to 2.83 per gallon. That's up 56 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  3. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.98 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  4. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.99 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  5. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.01 per gallon, up 1.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  6. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  7. Residential propane prices surges

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 3.08 per gallon, down 8.6 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  8. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.03 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  9. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.36 per gallon, down 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  10. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is 2.37 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  11. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.97 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  12. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.36 per gallon, up half of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  13. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential propane price virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is 2.03 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  14. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decrease The average retail price for propane is 2.37 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles » Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on

  16. Propane Bakery Delivery Step Vans

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Case Study - Propane Bakery Delivery Step Vans April 2016 1 Contents Background .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Motivation for Adopting Propane ................................................................................................................................... 3 Financial Benefits

  17. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 43

  18. Liquefied propane carburetor modification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, D.R.; Batchelor, W.H.

    1983-01-25

    A system which can be retrofit into an existing conventional gasoline powered vehicle for enabling the vehicle to operate on either gasoline or liquefied propane fuel. The system includes a mixer in the form of an adapter to fit on the top of an existing carburetor. The mixer has a unique spring balanced metering device which controls flow of gaseous propane to the carburetor in proportion to airflow through the carburetor. The mixer is connected to a regulator assembly which receives liquid propane in a first chamber, heats the liquid propane to form a vapor, and feeds the vapor through an idle valve to control idling of the engine. The vapor is also passed to a second chamber of the regulator assembly in response to demand from the metering device which is sensed by a diaphragm actuated gas flow valve. From the second chamber, the gaseous propane is fed to a high speed inlet of the mixer. Engine manifold vacuum is also used to provide additional control for the gas flow valve to increase efficiency of the system. Other features include a special purpose fuel tank and an optional exhaust system oxygen sensor for further regulating gas flow to the engine.

  19. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle

  20. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  1. Diffusion of methane and other alkanes in metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borah, B; Zhang, HD; Snurr, RQ

    2015-03-03

    Diffusion of methane, ethane, propane and n-butane was studied within the micropores of several metal organic frameworks (MOFs) of varying topologies, including the MOFs PCN-14, NU-125, NU-1100 and DUT-49. Diffusion coefficients of the pure components, as well as methane/ethane, methane/ propane and methane/butane binary mixtures, were calculated using molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of the longer alkanes on uptake of natural gas in MOB. The calculated self diffusion coefficients of all four components are on the order of 10(-8) m(2)/s. The diffusion coefficients of the pure components decrease as a function of chain length in all of the MOFs studied and show different behaviour as a function of loading in different MOB. The self-diffusivities follow the trend DPCN-14 < DNU-125 approximate to DNU-1100 < DDUT-49, which is exactly the reverse order of the densities of the MOFs: PCN-14 > NU-125 approximate to NU-1100 > DUT-49. By comparing the diffusion of pure methane and methane mixtures vvith the higher alkancs, it is observed that the diffusivity of methane is unaffected by the presence of the higher alkanes in the MOFs considered, indicating that the diffusion path of methane is not blocked by the higher alkanes present in natural gas. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is 2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by ...

  3. Residential propane price is unchanged

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13, 2014 Residential propane price is unchanged The average retail price for propane is 2.40 per gallon, down one-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating ...

  4. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production &

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Digg Find

  9. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  11. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The Federal forms below are required for State Energy Officials participating in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) to execute their cooperative agreements with the ...

  12. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on ...

  17. This Week In Petroleum Propane Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) more price data Note: The heating season is over. Data for residential and wholesale prices for heating oil and propane will ...

  18. Case Study … Propane School Bus Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane ................................................................................................................................... 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 6 Project-Specific

  19. Propane Market Assessment for Winter

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    1997-1998 Final issue of this report. This article reviews the major components of propane supply and demand in the United States and their status entering the 1997-1998 heating season.

  20. Propane Supply & Infrastructure Suggested Slides

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Winter 2014-15: Propane Supply & Infrastructure For State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Workshop October 8, 2014 | Washington, DC By T. Mason Hamilton, Petroleum Markets Analyst U.S. Energy Information Administration Winter 2014-15 takeaways and potential issues- propane * Primary propane stocks in the Gulf Coast and Midwest are currently 10 million barrels (17%) above this time last year * Propane production from natural gas plants is up and is projected to average 970,000 bbl/d

  1. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Propane Industries Goal: Ensure Propane Consumers are Served The winter of 2013-2014 proved a challenge for propane consumers in acquiring adequate supply at affordable prices. ...

  2. Propane-air peakshaving impact on natural gas vehicles. Topical report, August 1993-January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Shikari, Y.; Blazek, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Propane-air peakshaving activities can lead to higher-than-normal propane levels in natural gas. Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling station operation and NGV performance can be affected by the presence of excess propane in natural gas. To assess the impact on NGV markets due to propane-air peakshaving, a comprehensive survey of gas utilities nationwide was undertaken to compile statistics on current practices. The survey revealed that about half of the responders continue to propane-air peakshave and that nearly two-thirds of these companies serve markets that include NGV fueling stations. Based on the survey results, it is estimated that nearly 13,000 NGVs could be affected by propane-air peakshaving activities by the year 2000.

  3. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Respondents Q1: What is the purpose of this survey? The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-877, "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey," is designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No. 2 heating oil during the heating season, and to report to the Congress and others when requested. Q2: How does the survey work? The EIA-877

  4. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  5. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  6. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  7. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price continues to decrease The average retail price for propane fell to 3.76 per gallon, down 13.4 cents from a week ago, based on the residential ...

  8. Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Residential propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is 2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential ...

  9. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to 3.64 per gallon, down 12.7 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel ...

  10. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection ...

  11. State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection Marcela Rourk April 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 2 * Overview and history of State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) * Expansion of propane data collection * What is expected of SEOs that participate? * Benefits of participation What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data

  12. Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.

  13. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure

  15. State heating oil and propane program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The following is a report of New Hampshire's participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

  16. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W.; Skinner, Dewey F.; Thorsness, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  17. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  18. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  19. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140312.pptx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Midwest West U.S. total 116 million homes natural gas propane heating oil electricity wood keroseneotherno heating propane 4.5% 7% Of all homes heated by propane, 36% are in the ...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Boston Public Schools Moves to Propane on

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Digg

  4. GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE:...

  5. Project identification for methane reduction options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  6. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  7. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  8. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  9. Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart. deer10_arnold.pdf (2.29

  10. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  11. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Schools Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Company Rolling Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vans Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  19. State Heating Oil and Propane Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Program Marcela Rourk 2014 SHOPP Workshop October 8, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 2 * Expansion of propane data collection * EIA resources available to States * Improvements to SHOPP What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data collection effort between EIA and State Energy Offices (SEOs) - data used by policymakers, industry analysts, and consumers - collects

  20. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    all Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Note: The heating season is over. Data for residential and wholesale prices for heating oil and propane will return in October 2016. Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March. Propane Heating oil Residential propane graphs Residential Propane (dollars per gallon)more price data › change from 03/28/16 week ago year ago U.S. Average 2.008 -0.006 -0.284 East

  1. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.; Lu, F.K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  2. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30

    process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date

  3. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  4. Bakery Switches to Propane Vans | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bakery Switches to Propane Vans By Jo Napolitano * April 21, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint A switch to propane from diesel by a major Midwest bakery fleet showed promising results, ...

  5. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than 1.50 per gallon on ... Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane Green Means Go for Hybrid and ...

  6. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Evaluates Propane-to-Electricity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shuttle Bus Conversion at Zion National Park Evaluates Propane-to-Electricity Shuttle Bus Conversion at Zion National Park July 14, 2016 Photo of shuttle buses in mountain setting. NREL is evaluating the drive-cycle characteristics of a fleet of propane-powered shuttle buses operating at Zion National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) originally deployed the propane buses in 2000 to reduce congestion along the park's main traffic corridor. As the propane-powered fleet ages and associated

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Prisons Adopt Propane, Establish

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Savings for Years to Come Alabama Prisons Adopt Propane, Establish Fuel Savings for Years to Come to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Prisons Adopt Propane, Establish Fuel Savings for Years to Come on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Prisons Adopt Propane, Establish Fuel Savings for Years to Come on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Prisons Adopt Propane, Establish Fuel Savings for Years to Come on Google

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Buses to Its Fleet Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit

  9. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil

  10. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  11. Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt058_ti_ball_2012_o.pdf (1.29 MB) More Documents & Publications Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program

  12. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  13. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  14. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Methane concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane concentration The amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  16. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane flux Vertical flux of methane near the surface due to turbulent transport. Categories Surface Properties, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  17. Enzymatic Oxidation of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirajuddin, S; Rosenzweig, AC

    2015-04-14

    Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As potential targets for new gas-to-liquid methane bioconversion processes, MMOs have attracted intense attention in recent years. There are two distinct types of MMO, a soluble, cytoplasmic MMO (sMMO) and a membrane-bound, particulate MMO (pMMO). Both oxidize methane at metal centers within a complex, multisubunit scaffold, but the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms are completely different. This Current Topic review article focuses on the overall architectures, active site structures, substrate reactivities, proteinprotein interactions, and chemical mechanisms of both MMOs, with an emphasis on fundamental aspects. In addition, recent advances, including new details of interactions between the sMMO components, characterization of sMMO intermediates, and progress toward understanding the pMMO metal centers are highlighted. The work summarized here provides a guide for those interested in exploiting MMOs for biotechnological applications.

  18. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid ElectricTrolleys; Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service, Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    website and in print publications. TESTING ADVANCED VEHICLES KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT ◆ PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS Knoxville Area Transit PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS NREL/PIX 13795 KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT (KAT) is recognized nationally for its exceptional service to the City of Knoxville, Tennessee. KAT received the American Public Transportation Associa- tion's prestigious Outstanding Achievement Award in 2004. Award-winning accomplishments included KAT's increase in annual ridership

  19. ARM - Methane Background Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Background Information What is Methane? Why Do We Use Methane? How is Methane Made? Where Do We Find Methane? Can Methane Be Dangerous? Does Methane Contribute to Climate Change? What is Methane?

  20. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  1. Methane Hydrates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrates 2016 Methane Hydrates Funding Opportunity Announcement The objective of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to select projects in FY16 that will further ongoing programmatic efforts to characterize naturally occurring gas hydrate deposits as well as their role in the natural environment and that will: Support fundamental laboratory and numerical simulation studies of gas hydrate reservoir response to potential production activities Support fundamental field, laboratory and

  2. Method and apparatus for recovering hydrogen from a feed comprising methane, ethylene, hydrogen and acetylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Reilly, R.

    1985-01-08

    Hydrogen is recovered from a feed comprising methane, ethylene, hydrogen and acetylene by first cooling the feed and then scrubbing the cooled feed with a scrubbing liquid selected from the group consisting of liquid ethylene, liquid propane, liquid ethane and mixtures thereof to remove substantially all the acetylene. The scrubbed gas is then further cooled to condense the methane and ethylene leaving gaseous hydrogen as product.

  3. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State Energy Offices Q1: What price should be reported to EIA when submitting weekly data? EIA requests that you collect / report the residential credit price (keep-full prices being preferred) and that all prices exclude taxes for the Monday of each survey week, even if that Monday falls on a holiday. Prices should not include discounts for payment of cash or for payment made within a short period of time. However, if a company deals exclusively in cash, then this price should be reported and

  4. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  5. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  6. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  7. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota Sept. 14, 2013 Photo ... Fuels Dec. 25, 2010 Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys Dec. 11, ...

  9. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet

  11. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  12. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  13. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt065_ti_jenkins_2011_p.pdf (1.23 MB) More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan

  14. Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt058_ti_kelly_2011_p.pdf (429.22 KB) More Documents & Publications Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program Progress Report Template

  15. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastruct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane Supply & Infrastructure Prepared for Quadrennial Energy Review Home Heating Panel ... between October 2013 and March 2014, propane demand came in about 570 million gallons ...

  17. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  18. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  19. A theoretical study of the reaction paths for cobalt cation + propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, D.G.; Gordon, M.S.

    2000-03-23

    The triplet potential energy surface for the reaction of cobalt cation with propane has been studied along the two main reaction pathways leading to the formation of (1) hydrogen and propene and (2) methane and ethene. Effective core potentials for all elements have been used for all calculations. The geometries have been optimized at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory, and the final energetics have been refined at the multireference second-order perturbation theory (MRMP2) level with polarization function augmented basis sets. Reasonable agreement with the experimental energetics has been obtained, and the predicted mechanism is consistent with the experimentally determined mechanism of Haynes, Fisher, and Armentrout (J.Phys.Chem. 1996, 100, 18300).

  20. Soot formation in methane/air nonpremixed flames doped with small quantities of C3 hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEnally, C.S.; Pfefferle, L.D.

    1998-03-01

    Gas temperature, C1 to C12 stable hydrocarbon concentrations, and soot volume fractions were measured in an axisymmetry methane/air coflowing nonpremixed flame whose fuel was doped with one mole per cent allene, propene, and propane. The additives did not significantly alter the temperature field, methane mole fractions, or chain-carrying radical concentrations. However, soot volume fractions were increased, in the order allene > propene > propane. The hydrocarbon species measurements indicated that soot formation increases because the additives undergo reaction sequences that raise the concentrations of the benzene and phenyl radical precursors C{sub 3}H{sub 3}, C{sub 4}H{sub 3}, and C{sub 4}H{sub 5}, and consequently enhance the benzene/phenyl formation rate. Therefore, creation of these precursors and of the first aromatic ring are crucial rate-limiting soot formation steps in methane flames.

  1. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A ...

  2. Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6/7/13

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6713 Release Date: June 19, 2013 Following the release of the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) for the week ended June 7, 2013, EIA...

  3. Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks for PADDs 4 and 5 Release Date: June 12, 2013 The U.S. Energy Information Administration issued the following...

  4. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

  5. Propane Basics (Fact Sheet), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    As of 2014, more than 99% of the U.S. propane supply was produced in North America. 3 ... The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), U.S. Department of Transportation, and ...

  6. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  7. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  8. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    saving on fuel costs," he said. "If these law enforcement vehicles were running great on propane autogas in such a demanding environment, then this was the fuel for my fleet."...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Columbus, Ohio Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

  10. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  11. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  12. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  13. Methane Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Credit Jump to: navigation, search Name: Methane Credit Place: Charlotte, North Carolina Zip: 28273 Product: Specialises in utilising methane produced on municipal landfill...

  14. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  15. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main ...

  16. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

  17. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  18. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  19. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress July 2012 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | July 2012 FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report entitled U.S. Department of Energy FY 2011 Methane

  20. Heat pipe methanator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  1. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  2. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  3. Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer Propane Industry Through 2025 Prepared for the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) by: ICF International, Inc. 9300 Lee Highway Fairfax, VA 22031 Tel (703) 218-2758 www.icfi.com Principal Author: Mr. Michael Sloan msloan@icfi.com P R E S E N T E D B Y : Propane Market Outlook at a Glance ¡ ICF projects consumer propane sales to grow by about 800 million gallons (9 percent) between 2014 and

  4. Methane Hydrate | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  5. Methane production by attached film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jewell, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  6. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  7. Methane Hydrate Field Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2001, DOE has conducted field trials of exploration and production technology in the Alaska North Slope. Although Alaska methane hydrate resources are smaller than marine deposits and...

  8. The Methane to Markets Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: a report from the Administrative Support Group; strategy updates from Australia, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland and the USA; coal mine methane update and IEA's strategy and activities; the power of VAM - technology application update; the emissions trading market; the voluntary emissions reduction market - creating profitable CMM projects in the USA; an Italian perspective towards a zero emission strategies; and the wrap-up and summary.

  9. The future of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce ca. 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions steming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. Until all these aspects of methane are better understood, its future role in the world`s energy mix will remain uncertain. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity and importance of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  10. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  11. Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and continued ural gas liquids and crude oil, which have a higher value in energy ... Submersible pump Coal Methane released from coal Methane to pipeline Water (discharged) ...

  12. Measurement of the soot concentration and soot particle sizes in propane oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorn, H.; Fetting, F.; Meyer, U.; Reck, R.; Wannemacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    Soot concentrations and particle sizes were measured by light scattering and probe measurements in the burnt gas region of atmospheric pressure propane-oxygen flames and propane-oxygen flames to which hydrogen or ammonia were added. The results show that the soot concentrations in propane-oxygen flames, to which hydrogen is added are lower compared to propane-oxygen flames. The decrease of soot concentration is much stronger when ammonia is added. Associated with the reduction of soot concentration is a reduction of mean particle size of the soot particles and a lower breadth of the particle size distributions. Electron micrographs of soot particles from the probe measurements showed that soot particles from flames with high soot concentrations (propane oxygen flames) are aggregates with chain or cluster structure while the structure of the particles from flames with lower soot concentration (propane oxygen flames with hydrogen or ammonia added) is more compact. 24 refs.

  13. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The following is a report of New Hampshire`s participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

  14. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  15. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  17. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane May 15, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000 a year. | Photo courtesy of Community Counseling Services. Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000 a year. |

  18. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy gains, and overall energy savings with propane injection in a diesel engine.

  19. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Litt, Robert D.; Dongming, Qiu; Silva, Laura J.; Lamont, Micheal Jay; Fanelli, Maddalena; Simmons, Wayne W.; Perry, Steven

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  20. PACKAGE INCLUDES:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PACKAGE INCLUDES: Airfare from Seattle, 4 & 5 Star Hotels, Transfers, Select Meals, Guided Tours and Excursions DAY 01: BANGKOK - ARRIVAL DAY 02: BANGKOK - SIGHTSEEING DAY 03: BANGKOK - FLOATING MARKET DAY 04: BANGKOK - AT LEISURE DAY 05: BANGKOK - CHIANG MAI BY AIR DAY 06: CHIANG MAI - SIGHTSEEING DAY 07: CHIANG MAI - ELEPHANT CAMP DAY 08: CHIANG MAI - PHUKET BY AIR DAY 09: PHUKET - PHI PHI ISLAND BY FERRY DAY 10: PHUKET - AT LEISURE DAY 11: PHUKET - CORAL ISLAND BY SPEEDBOAT DAY 12: PHUKET

  1. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP). Final report, August 9, 1991--August 8, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  2. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  3. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  4. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes May 15, 2014 Washington, DC...

  5. Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane cloud hunting Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting Los Alamos researchers go ... Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting When our team from Los Alamos National ...

  6. Methane Hydrate Program Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Reports Methane Hydrate Program Reports PDF icon Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force Report on Methane Hydrate PDF icon FY14 Methane Hydrate Report to Congress ...

  7. Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koert, D.N.; Pitz, W.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1995-11-08

    A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. The experiment conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and were performed at a residence time of 200 {micro}s for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results include data on negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, where the chemistry describing this phenomena is considered critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. The model simulates properly the production of many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments. Numerical simulations show many of the key reactions involving propylperoxy radicals are in partial equilibrium at 10--15 atm. This indicates that their relative concentrations are controlled by a combination of thermochemistry and rate of minor reaction channels (bleed reactions) rather than primary reaction rates. This suggests that thermodynamic parameters of the oxygenated species, which govern equilibrium concentrations, are important. The modeling results show propyl radical and hydroperoxy-propyl radicals reaction with O{sub 2} proceeds, primarily, through thermalized adducts, not chemically activated channels.

  8. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  9. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S.

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  10. Coalbed Methane | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Coalbed Methane Coalbed methane is natural gas found in coal deposits. It was once considered a nuisance and mine safety hazard, but today has become a valuable part of the U.S. energy portfolio. A major reason for this is resource characterization and the establishment of efficient recovery methods pioneered by Office of Fossil Energy R&D. Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Coalbed Methane (920.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Senate Energy and Natural

  11. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth Liu, Tingting Welch, Susan; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jalarvo, Niina; Mamontov, Eugene

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  12. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  13. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  14. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  15. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  16. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting ...

  17. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting certification requirements

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  19. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane (Brochure), Clean Cities, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane's School Bus History While propane has been used in buses for decades, recent technologi- cal advancements have made it more reliable than ever. Prior to 2007, all propane vehicles used vapor injection technology. In 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection for the first time, and this was followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Liquid injection technology makes propane buses a more reliable option. Since 2007, vehicle emissions standards have

  20. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Vehicle Systems Safety: Vehicle Tanks and Piping: Vehicle Components: Vehicle Dispensing Systems: Vehicle Dispensing System Components: Storage Systems: Storage

  1. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the

  2. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more environmentally sustainable. A new case study from the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory that examines five school bus fleets that are successfully using propane school buses provides one promising option. The case study describes how some of the school districts saved

  3. Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane ... Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 North Louisiana Coalbed Methane Proved ...

  4. Methane Hydrates R&D Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  5. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  6. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  7. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Mohanty, Kishore; Cook, Ann; Hillman, Jess

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis

  8. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2013-05-28

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  9. A study of partially premixed unconfined propane flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roekke, N.A.; Hustad, J.E.; Soenju, O.K. )

    1994-04-01

    Unconfined turbulent partially premixed propane/air flames issuing from a straight tube into quiescent air at atmospheric pressure and temperature are investigated. Experiments on lifted flames are performed. Flame height and liftoff are reported together with emission indices for oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub 3]). The degree of partially premixing has been varied between a fuel mass fraction of 1.0 to 0.15. Six different nozzle diameters, d[sub 0], of 3.2, 6, 10, 20.5, 23.3, and 29.5 mm have been used. This resulted in outlet velocities, u[sub 0], varying from 1 to 130 m/s, flame heights up to 2.5 m, Froude numbers, Fr, from 3 to 3 [times] 10[sup 5], and thermal heat releases up to 350 kW. Flame height and liftoff show a strong dependence upon the ratio of the nozzle outlet velocity to the outlet diameter, the Froude number, and the fuel mass fraction Y[sub f]. Both modified, simplified, and newly developed expressions for height, liftoff and NO[sub x] emissions are presented and discussed. All the proposed expressions scale with Y[sub f][sup a]Fr[sup b] or Y[sub r][sup a]f(u[sub 0], d[sub 0]). The emission index for NO[sub x] scales very well with a previously developed expression based on the buoyant flame volume. The agreement between predictions and experimental data is generally good and well within the underlying experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The results from this study contain new data, as very little focus has previously been directed toward lifted partially premixed free flames of this size.

  10. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Pinnau, Ingo; Segelke, Scott

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.