Sample records for includes methane propane

  1. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues with Methane and Propane Michael A. Green LawrenceSAFETY ISSUES WITH METHANE AND PROPANE M. A. Green Lawrencehydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary

  2. Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames

  3. Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessions, Alex L.

    Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps Identified by Stable Isotope Probing Running Title: Novel Methane, Ethane, and Propane Oxidizing Bacteria Section incubating sediment with 13 C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we5 confirmed the incorporation of 13 C

  4. Molecular Properties of the "Ideal" Inhaled Anesthetic: Studies of Fluorinated Methanes, Ethanes, Propanes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    , Propanes, and Butanes E. 1Eger, 11, MD*, J. Liu, MD*, D. D. Koblin, PhD, MDt, M. J. Laster, DVM*, S. Taheri unfluorinated, partially fluorinated, and perfluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes to define fluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes, also obtaining limited data on longer- chained alkanes

  5. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (���© pilot �¢���¼ 0.2-0.6 and ���© overall �¢���¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ���© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ���© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ���© overall (at constant ���© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  6. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  7. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 6950 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada V6T 1Z4)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  8. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  9. 4-70C Propane (molar mass = 44.1 kg/kmol) poses a greater fire danger than methane (molar mass = 16 kg/kmol) since propane is heavier than air (molar mass = 29 kg/kmol), and it will settle near the floor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    4-36 Ideal Gas 4-70C Propane (molar mass = 44.1 kg/kmol) poses a greater fire danger than methane (molar mass = 16 kg/kmol) since propane is heavier than air (molar mass = 29 kg/kmol), and it will settle MATERIAL. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers

  10. Dynamic light scattering in sooting premixed atmospheric-pressure methane-, propane-, ethene-, and propene-oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamprecht, A.; Eimer, W.; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, K. [Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)] [Univ. Bielefeld (Germany)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a systematic investigation under well-defined flame conditions, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was applied to the determination of soot particle radii with the aim of examining the suitability of this technique for accurate soot particle sizing. In particular, flat premixed methane-, propane-, ethene-, and propene-oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure were investigated, and particle sizes were obtained as a function of stoichiometry and height above the burner surface. In combination with absorption measurements, soot volume fraction and particle number density were determined; also, the temperature was measured at each flame condition. In comparison to absorption techniques, attractive features of DLS are its independence of the particle refractive index and its insensitivity to fluorescence interference; also, it offers spatial resolution. In principle, additional information on the particle size distribution as well as on the global shape of the particles may be obtained from DLS experiments. This study is therefore an evaluation of the potential of DLS as a complement to other soot diagnostic techniques.

  11. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  12. Etude cin\\'etique de CVD de pyrocarbone obtenu par pyrolyse de propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler-Devin, Isabelle; Marquaire, Paul-Marie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temeperature (900-1000\\degree C) low pressure (propane yields a pyrocarbon deposit, but also mainly hydrogen and hydrocarbons from methane to polyaromatics. 30 reaction products were exeperimentally quantified at different operating conditions. A detailed kinetic pyrolysis model (600 reactions) has been developed and validated based on the totality of experiments. This model includes a homogeneous model (describing the gas phase pyrolysis of propane) coupled with a heterogeneous model describing the pyrocarbon deposit.

  13. Propane on Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. G. Roe; T. K. Greathouse; M. J. Richter; J. H. Lacy

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first observations of propane (C$_3$H$_8$) on Titan that unambiguously resolve propane features from other numerous stratospheric emissions. This is accomplished using a $R=\\lambda/\\delta\\lambda\\approx10^5$ spectrometer (TEXES) to observe propane's $\

  14. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the...

  15. Reply to Saba and Orzechowski and Schon: Methane contamination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    , and that the ratios of methane to ethane and propane were different [figure 4b (3)]. Furthermore, the methane present underground gas storage, leading to documented leaks into well water (5). The DEP correspondence they cite

  16. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  17. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  18. Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water-hydrophobe system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water) The Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex (C3H,-H,O) has been observed and analyzed. This spectrum includes transitions assigned to propane complexed with both the ortho and para

  19. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  1. The catalytic oxidation of propane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  2. The catalytic oxidation of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  3. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014propane

  4. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane prices

  5. Residential propane prices decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane prices5, 2014

  6. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane prices5,

  7. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05,propane

  8. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruary 2004AugustApril 20133 Audit2013 NUFOPlasma Propane

  9. Titan's Prolific Propane: The Cassini CIRS Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nixon, C A; Flaud, J -M; Bezard, B; Teanby, N A; Irwin, P G J; Ansty, T M; Coustenis, A; Vinatier, S; Flasar, F M; 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we select large spectral averages of data from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained in limb-viewing mode at low latitudes (30S--30N), greatly increasing the path length and hence signal-to-noise ratio for optically thin trace species such as propane. By modeling and subtracting the emissions of other gas species, we demonstrate that at least six infrared bands of propane are detected by CIRS, including two not previously identified in Titan spectra. Using a new line list for the range 1300-1400cm -1, along with an existing GEISA list, we retrieve propane abundances from two bands at 748 and 1376 cm-1. At 748 cm-1 we retrieve 4.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-7) (1-sigma error) at 2 mbar, in good agreement with previous studies, although lack of hotbands in the present spectral atlas remains a problem. We also determine 5.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-7) at 2 mbar from the 1376 cm-1 band - a value that is probably affected by systematic errors including continuum gradients due to haze and also an imperf...

  10. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  11. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  12. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  13. 1, 2341, 2001 OH + propane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions #12;ACPD 1, 23­41, 2001 OH + propane and iodopropanes S. A. Carl and J. N. Crowley Title Page Abstract

  14. Fuels outlook for oil/propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weigand, P.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outlook for using oil and propane as fuels is outlined. The following topics are discussed: factors affecting price of the burner tip, supply and demand forecast, distribution costs and availability, alternate fuels economics, propane prices, No. 2 oil prices, natural gas vs. 1% residual HP prices, and future for industrial oil and propane consumers.

  15. State heating oil and propane program, 1994--1995 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane prices and No. 2 fuel prices during the 1994-1995 heating season are tabulated for the state of Ohio. Nineteen companies were included in the telephone survey of propane prices, and twenty two companies for the fuel oil prices. A bar graph is also presented for average residential prices of No. 2 heating oil.

  16. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Andrew T.

    process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

  17. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  18. Propane Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Propane Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-months) forecast of demand and price for consumer-grad propane in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. Another part of the model allows for short-term demand forecasts for certain individual Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) districts. The model is used to analyze market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand, and stock level.

  19. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  20. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  1. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poinsot, Laurent

    #include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

  2. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  3. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  4. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  5. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014propane price

  6. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March....

  7. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  8. RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /s at 333 K and mixtures containing 55.6% argon, 15.3% methane (99.95 %, pure supplied by Alphagaz - L'Air propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-butadiene, vinylacetylene, diacetylene

  9. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

  10. 29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    29Counting Atoms in a Molecule The complex molecule Propanal was discovered in a dense interstellar is the ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in propanal? Problem 4 - If the mass of a hydrogen atom of a propanal molecule in AMUs? Problem 5 - What is the complete chemical formula for propanal? C3 H __ O

  11. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 08/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Propane Contents Introduction to Propane (LPG...........................................................................................................2 Benefits of Using Propane (LPG) for Transportation of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006083. #12;2 08/2014 Introduction to Propane (LPG) for Transportation

  12. Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substitutions compared to P450BM3 of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic efficiency for propane oxidation (9000

  13. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  14. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  15. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  16. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tainan (China); Chung, K. [National Cheng Kung University, Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, Tainan (China); Lu, F.K. [University of Texas at Arlington, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Aerodynamics Research Center, TX 76019 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  17. State heating oil and propane program: Final report. Survey of No.2 heating oil and propane prices at the retail level, October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Efficiency Division of the Vermont Department of Public Service (DPS) monitored the price and inventory of residential heating oil and propane during the 1997--98 heating season under a grant from the US Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration (EIA). DPS staff collected data biweekly between October 5, 1997 and March 16, 1998 on the retail price of {number_sign}2 home heating oil and propane by telephone survey. Propane price quoted was based on the rate for a residential home heating customer using 1,000+ per year. The survey included a sample of fuel dealers selected by the EIA, plus additional dealers and fuels selected by the DPS. The EIA weighted, analyzed, and reported the data collected from their sample.

  18. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  19. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  20. Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition C´edric Descamps, G propane pyrolysis is studied in a 1-D hot-wall CVD furnace. The gas-phase pyrolysis is modelled in previous reports [6]: total pressure equal to 2 kPa, temperature between 900 K and 1400 K, and pure propane

  1. Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the Low Temperature Oxidation of Propane Maximilien Cord , Benoit Husson , Juan of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P. R. China Abstract The lowtemperature oxidation of propane oxidation of propane in the gas phase has been the subject of very few experimental studies, mainly

  2. Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    Evolutionary History of a Specialized P450 Propane Monooxygenase Rudi Fasan1 , Yergalem T hydroxylase (P450BM3) to a laboratory-evolved P450 propane mono- oxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substrate range and the emergence of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic

  3. The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wieland, Denton R.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The object of the work reported In this dissertation was to determine the solubility of sulfur in gaseous methane carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide and in mixtures of these gases, at various pressures and temperatures* Sulfur solubility... of methane and propane (which has a critical pressure of approximately the same value of hydrogen sulfide) is 1500 psia. To have liquid in this system at 1500 psia, however, would require a maximum temperature of 20?F which is well below the minimum...

  4. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with distance along the reactor, and therefore the coke distribution should follow a similar pattern. A distribution of coke deposits along the reactor was also observed by Noda er al. (1974) in a study of iso-pentane isomerization. In this case the coke..., methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, iso-butane, butane, iso-pentane, pentane and hexanes. Also, the flow rate of the effluent stream is measured using the bubble meter. The mole percentages of methane and ethylene are subtracted of the effluent stream...

  5. Mars long has been considered a cold, dead planet.However,recent reports of methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    , and not necessarily just methane-pro- ducing organisms. However,if these environments were found not to be inhabited as from the thermal pro- cessing of complex organic remnants of past life (thermogenesis). In the first (ethane,propane,butane). On Mars, more shallowly buried organic material from putative past life could

  6. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  7. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  8. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  9. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  10. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for propane consumers in acquiring adequate supply at affordable prices. Crop drying demand of 500% of last year's demand combined with heating demand of 20% above the...

  11. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane on Vanadium, Molybdenum catalysts confirmed that oxidative dehydrogenation of propane occurs via similar pathways, which involve for propane dehydrogenation and for propene combustion increase in the sequence VOx/ZrO2

  12. CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACTYLNE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONTRIBUTION A L'ÉTUDE DES FLAMMES D'HYDROCARBURES. PROPANE ET ACÉTYLÈNE Par MM. JEAN VAN DER POLL du propane et de l'acétylène qui ont montré que, dans certains cas, les flammes oxy-propane et oxy

  13. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

  14. Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment of EnergyLiquid propane

  15. Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014propane price7,

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable Version Share this

  17. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  18. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  19. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  20. Propane tank explosion (2 deaths, 7 injuries) at Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, Albert City, Iowa, April 9, 1998. Investigation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explains the explosion/BLEVE that took place on April 9, 1998, at the Herrig Brothers Feather Creek Farm, located in Albert City, Iowa. Two volunteer fire fighters were killed and seven other emergency response personnel were injured. Safety issues covered in the report include protection of propane storage tanks and piping, state regulatory oversight of such installations, and fire fighter response to propane storage tank fires.

  1. Coalbed methane production case histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of methane gas from coal and coal-bearing rocks is one of the prime objectives of the Department of Energy's Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project. This report contains brief description of wells that are presently producing gas from coal or coal-bearing rocks. Data from three gob gas production areas in Illinois, an in-mine horizontal borehole degasification, and eleven vertical boreholes are presented. Production charts and electric logs of the producing zones are included for some of the wells. Additional information on dry gas production from the San Juan Basin, Colorado/New Mexico and the Greater Green River Coal Region, Colorado/Wyoming is also included.

  2. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya [University of Cincinnati; Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  3. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

  4. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  5. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  6. Residential home heating oil and propane survey, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains pricing and consumption data on heating oils and propane for the Maine residential sector during the heating season 1991--1992. The information was gathered by survey. (VC)

  7. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon Propylene Hydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady state distribution of propane between gas andK). A steady state distribution of propane between gas phasesteady state distribution between propane inside and outside

  8. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    governments are considering a diverse energy mix that includes a growing proportion of renewable energy sources and natural gas. Proponents of this approach suggest that methane...

  9. Methane production by attached film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  10. Adsorption Mechanism and Uptake of Methane in Covalent Organic Frameworks: Theory and Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    this disadvantage include · storing methane as liquefied natural gas (LNG, at 112 K) or compressed natural gas (CNG

  11. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  12. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  13. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles...

  14. Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

  15. Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and David H. Olson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Kinetic Separation of Propane and Propene Kunhao Li, David H the first examples of MMOFs that are capable of kinetic separation of propane and propene (propylene), which

  16. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  17. The Methane to Markets Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: a report from the Administrative Support Group; strategy updates from Australia, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland and the USA; coal mine methane update and IEA's strategy and activities; the power of VAM - technology application update; the emissions trading market; the voluntary emissions reduction market - creating profitable CMM projects in the USA; an Italian perspective towards a zero emission strategies; and the wrap-up and summary.

  18. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Biofilms in Fracture-Dominated Sediment that Anaerobically Oxidize Methane. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 7 pp. Brunner, C., Ingram, W., Meyers, S.,...

  19. Methane Digester Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Established in 1998, the Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture Methane Digester Loan Program helps livestock producers install on-farm anaerobic digesters used for the production of electricity by...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropaneOrleans Propane

  1. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  2. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a , Georges and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane

  3. A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM, CIS the behavior of different consortiums of aerobic propane-utilizing microorganisms, with respect to both the lag time for growth after exposure to propane, and their ability to transform three chlorinated aliphatic

  4. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Reaction Pathways for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum of propane over ZrO2-supported MoOx catalysts. Competitive reactions of C3H6 and CH3 13 CH2CH3 showed combustion of propene, or by direct combustion of propane. A mixture of C3H8 and C3D8 undergoes oxidative

  5. Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    ARTICLE Functional Characterization of Propane-Enhanced N-Nitrosodimethylamine Degradation by Two: Propane-induced cometabolic degradation of n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by two propanotrophs is characterized through kinetic, gene presence, and expression studies. After growth on propane, resting cells

  6. Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming of propane{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of propane{ Christian, Michael Mitchell and Paul J. A. Kenis* Received 31st May 2006, Accepted 10th August of propane into hydrogen at temperatures between 800 and 1000 uC. We characterized these microreactors. Kinetic analysis using a power law model showed reaction orders of 0.50 and 20.23 with respect to propane

  7. Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    ARTICLE Improved Product-Per-Glucose Yields in P450-Dependent Propane Biotransformations Using propane monooxygenase prepared by directed evolu- tion [P450PMOR2; Fasan et al. (2007); Angew Chem Int Ed of the energy source (glucose) in the propane biotransformation com- pared to the native E. coli strain. Using

  8. Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane Kaidong The effects of MoOx structure on propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rates and selectivity were examined with those obtained on MoOx/ZrO2. On MoOx/Al2O3 catalysts, propane turnover rate increased with increasing Mo

  9. High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High propylene/propane adsorption selectivity in a copper(catecholate)-decorated porous organic and propane isotherms measured at ambient temperatures and ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) calculations revealed increasing propylene/propane selectivities with increasing pressures. The eld of highly

  10. Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    Layering and orientational ordering of propane on graphite: An experimental and simulation study 2002; accepted 30 July 2002 We report the results of an experimental and theoretical study of propane and experiments show that propane adsorbs in a layer-by-layer fashion and exhibits continuous growth beyond

  11. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metalorganic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal in the energy costs associated with the cryogenic separation of ethylene­ethane and propylene­propane mixtures adsorption data for ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane at 45, 60, and 80 C for the entire series

  12. Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    1 Experimental Study of Propane-Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Frank K. Lu,* Jason M. Meyers in comparison to cases without the spiral. Tests through a range of cycle frequencies up to 20 Hz in oxygen-propane spiral in a pulsed detonation engine operating with propane and oxygen. A high-energy igniter is used

  13. Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation between] in interaction with propane. Two complexes have been found as minima coordinated through either a methyl the methylene complex of propane into a methyl complex of pro- pane. This latter reaction has a much lower

  14. Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational Preference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational conformational isomers of propanal, cis and gauche, are investigated by the vacuum-UV mass- analyzed thresholdV and 9.9516 ( 0.0006 eV, respectively. cis-Propanal, which is the more stable conformer in the neutral

  15. PROPANE -C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    PROPANE - C3H8 MSDS (Document # 001045) PAGE 1 OF 8 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: PROPANE - C3H8 Document Number: 001045 PRODUCT IN AIR ACGIH OSHA TLV STEL PEL STEL IDLH OTHER ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Propane 74-98-6 > 96.0 Simple

  16. Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed for outdoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Coleman Two Burner Stove The Coleman Matchlight 2-Burner Propane Stove is especially designed-burner propane stove has a high-pressure regulator that ensures a constant flame regardless of weather propane stove has a removable nickel-chrome-plated grate that makes for easy cleaning. The aluminized

  17. Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimtres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Absorption du rayonnement 12 et 8 millimètres par les vapeurs de propane sous pression A. Battaglia des pertes diélectriques (03B5") présentées par le propane gazeux aux fréquences de 24 et 36 GHz, à la Birnbaum. Abstract. 2014 Experimental study of dielectric losses (03B5") presented by gaseous propane

  18. Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model NiAu Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model Ni­Au Catalysts Zhen Yan · Yunxi Yao 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract Hydrogenolysis and dehydrogenation of propane. For the conversionofpropane in the presence of hydrogen, the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene was observed onthe Ni

  19. RMOTC - News - Methane Test 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy (DOE), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Chevron Corporation. The test was a methane controlled-release experiment and was designed to measure methane...

  20. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  1. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  2. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  3. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  4. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  5. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  6. Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of a current polarisation on BIMEVOX membranes for oxidation of propane in a Catalytic Dense of propane under OCV and under electrical bias. The propane conversion remained constantly equal to 12 by partial oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, respectively. An anodic polarisation led

  7. Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Isotopic Tracer Studies of Propane Reactions on H-ZSM5 Zeolite Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique unlabeled products from mixtures of propene and propane-2-13C reactants. Aromatic products of propane-2-13C-Parmer) that allowed differential reactor operation (propane reactions were

  8. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  9. State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service's survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.

  10. Mechanistic Studies on the Hydroxylation of Methane by Methane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baik, Mu-Hyun

    a relatively small transition metal- based active site28,29 to achieve a difficult chemical transformationMechanistic Studies on the Hydroxylation of Methane by Methane Monooxygenase Mu-Hyun Baik, Martin 2393 3.1. KIE in Methane Oxidations 2394 3.2. Primary and Secondary KIEs 2396 3.3. Other KIEs 2396 3

  11. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  12. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  13. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastruct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the Gulf Coast. * Growth in Canadian demand for diluent (Pentanes+) demand for the oil sands industry. American Shale Production In 2013, U.S. Propane Production Increased...

  15. Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen Michael J McAnulty, Pennsylvania State, Thomas K; and Ferry, James G (March 2013) Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen. In: e

  16. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  17. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon Propylene Hydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    state distribution of propane between gas and mesopore phaseWavenumber (cm ) B Gas Phase Propane 2968 cm k 1 = 3.1 ± 0.4slices showing the gas phase propane component at 216, 648,

  18. Propane cold neutron source: creation and operation experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemlyanov, M. G.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most cold neutron sources, utilized until recently, liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium and their mixtures were used as a moderating medium. The sources with the liquid hydrogen moderator offer the most specific effectiveness of cold neutron generation. But they are complicated in design, require special safety measures in the course of operation and are very expensive. In this connection, it is of undoubted interest to create a source which, although it yields the specific generation of cold neutrons comparable to the liquid hydrogen one, is safer in operation and simple in design. We assume such a source may be one which uses as a moderator liquid propane cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduce OperatingPropane in OhioReducing

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane Buses Shuttle

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane Buses

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane BusesStation

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropane

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNew HampshirePropaneOrleans

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable Version Share

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable Version

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane Printable VersionCompany

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduceNewPropane PrintableTools

  9. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  10. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  11. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  12. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

  13. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

  14. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  15. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  16. 9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Propane Buwe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Scheme 111 Propane Buwe X =CHI and Y = H lossofH2 Z = H-82-8; ethane, 74- 84-0; propane, 74-98-6;butane, 106-97-8. (28) The heats of formation for C3H2are the scaled

  17. Studies of n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, and Propane Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomena of propagation and extinction of flames of saturated C{sub 3} alcohols and propane were studied experimentally and numerically in order to assess the effects of the presence and location of the hydroxyl radical in the fuel molecular structure. The experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure and for unreacted fuel-carrying stream temperature of 343 K. The simulations included detailed descriptions of molecular transport and chemical kinetics using a recently developed kinetic model for C{sub 3} alcohols. The experimental results revealed that the laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of n-propanol/air and propane/air flames are close to each other whereas those of iso-propanol/air flames are consistently lower. Similar behavior was observed also for the extinction strain rates of non-premixed n-propanol and iso-propanol flames. It was shown through sensitivity and reaction path analyses that there are two major differences between the intermediates of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames. In iso-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of propene whose consumption pathway results in the relatively unreactive allyl radicals, retarding thus the overall reactivity. In n-propanol/air flames there are notably higher concentrations of formaldehyde that reacts readily to form formyl radicals whose subsequent reactions enhance the overall reactivity. The kinetic model used in this study was found to overpredict the experimental results for rich n-propanol/air and propane/air flames. Analysis revealed that those discrepancies are most likely caused by deficiencies in the C{sub 3} alkane kinetics. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined also that the propagation and extinction of n-propanol/air and iso-propanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 3} kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions. Finally, the relative sooting propensities of flames of these three fuels were assessed computationally.

  18. Investigation of the flame speeds of propane/methanol gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, K.L.; Villareal, J.

    1985-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests was conducted in an acoustically tuned flame tube in order to determine the laminar burning velocities in air of various propane/methanol gas mixtures. The experimental method is explained in detail, along with the tabular results. A 90% propane, 10% methanol mixture is shown to have a maximum burning velocity of 40.8 cm/s. A 65% propane, 35% methanol mixture has a maximum velocity of 41.8 cm/s. These maximum flame speeds are shown to be about the same as that of pure propane by the same method. Gulder has found evidence that the presence of methanol in some hydrocarbon fuels may actually inhibit combustion, but we see no apparent modifications in the combustion of propane when mixed with methanol.

  19. Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal-Seams Technology. Volume 8, Number 4, July 1991. Report for October-December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents include reports on: Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Piceance Basin, Colorado; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; Coalbed Methane Development in the Appalachian Basin; Geologic Evaluation of Critical Production Parameters for Coalbed Methane Resources; Reservoir Engineering and Analysis; Coordinated Laboratory Studies in Support of Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed Methane; Physical Sciences Coalbed Methane Research; Coalbed Methane Opportunities in Alberta.

  20. Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional dynamics of the hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional 1993) The far-infrared laservibration-rotation-tunneling (FIR-VRT) spectrumof the propane-water complex calculations. In the present paper and in its counterpart,13we present our results for the water-propane

  1. Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Non-oxidative reactions of propane on Zn/Na-ZSM5 Joseph A. Biscardi and Enrique Iglesia* Department rates during propane conversion at 773 K on Zn/Na-ZSM5 are about ten times higher than on Zn/H-ZSM5 catalysts with similar Zn content. The total rate of propane conversion is also higher on Zn/Na-ZSM5

  2. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n for ethane, propane, and neopentane involvesthe cleavage of a single carbon-carbon bond, resulting

  3. Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames F. Battin-Leclerc , 1 , A. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized in a combustion apparatus which can easily be modeled, a laminar premixed flame of propane at atmospheric pressure

  4. Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H-ZSM5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Reaction Pathways for Propane Dehydrogenation and Aromatization on Co/H-ZSM5 and H Co/H-ZSM5 catalyzes propane dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions. Initial product selectivities, product site-yields, and the 13C content and distribution in the products of 2-13C-propane show

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A CATALYST/SORBENT FOR METHANE REFORMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shanks; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus A. Satrio; Timothy Diehl; Brigitte Vollmer

    2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work has led to the initial development of a very promising material that has the potential to greatly simplify hydrocarbon reforming for the production of hydrogen and to improve the overall efficiency and economics of the process. This material, which was derived from an advanced calcium-based sorbent, was composed of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consisted of a CaO core and an alumina-based shell. By incorporating a nickel catalyst in the shell, a combined catalyst and sorbent was prepared to facilitate the reaction of hydrocarbons with steam. It was shown that this material not only catalyzes the reactions of methane and propane with steam, it also absorbs CO{sub 2} simultaneously, and thereby separates the principal reaction products, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the absorption of CO{sub 2} permits the water gas shift reaction to proceed much further towards completion at temperatures where otherwise it would be limited severely by thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, an additional water gas shift reaction step would not be required to achieve low concentrations of CO. In a laboratory test of methane reforming at 600 C and 1 atm it was possible to produce a gaseous product containing 96 mole% H{sub 2} (dry basis) while also achieving a H{sub 2} yield of 95%. Methane reforming under these conditions without CO{sub 2} absorption provided a H{sub 2} concentration of 75 mole% and yield of 82%. Similar results were achieved in a test of propane reforming at 560 C and 1 atm which produced a product containing 96 mole% H{sub 2} while CO{sub 2} was being absorbed but which contained only 69 mole% H{sub 2} while CO{sub 2} was not being absorbed. These results were achieved with an improved catalyst support that was developed by replacing a portion of the {alpha}-alumina in the original shell material with {gamma}-alumina having a much greater surface area. This replacement had the unfortunate consequence of reducing the overall compressive strength of the core-in-shell pellets. Therefore, a preliminary study of the factors that control the surface area and compressive strength of the shell material was conducted. The important factors were identified as the relative concentrations and particle size distributions of the {alpha}-alumina, {gamma}-alumina, and limestone particles plus the calcination temperature and time used for sintering the shell material. An optimization of these factors in the future could lead to the development of a material that has both the necessary mechanical strength and catalytic activity.

  6. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  7. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  8. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  9. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  10. Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

  11. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Liu, Tingting, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Welch, Susan; Cole, David [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 275 Mendenhall Laboratory, 125 S Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rother, Gernot [Geochemistry and Interfacial Science Group, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jalarvo, Niina [Jülich Center for Neutron Sciences (JCNS-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source(SNS), Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF METHANE STORAGE IN ACTIVATED CARBON USING METHANE HYDRATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    it to a gas hydrate formation. In fact, the gas hydrate formation in the remaining free porosity after manuscript, published in "Fifth International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 5),, Tromdheim : Norway (2005IMPROVEMENT OF METHANE STORAGE IN ACTIVATED CARBON USING METHANE HYDRATE M.L. Zanota(1) , L. Perier

  13. Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Technology available for licensing: Enhanced renewable methane production system provides a low-cost process that accelerates...

  14. Working Draft

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gases-including nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, ethane, and propane-and butanes and other volatile liquids) composition, and flash gas composition....

  15. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARMMeasurementsMethane Gas Outreach Home Room

  16. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison...

  17. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  18. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand...

  19. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  20. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Analysis of tank deformation from fire induced ruptures and BLEVEs of 400 l propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400 liter ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. the resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. this paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step by step description of how the correlation was determined.

  2. Analysis of fire-induced ruptures of 400-L propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400-L ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. The resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVEs). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. This paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step-by-step description of how the correlation was determined.

  3. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles 2011 Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) October 3-6, 2011 Presented By: Kent...

  4. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

  5. Quarterly review of methane from coal seams Technology. Volume 7, Numbers 1 and 2. October 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents include: basin activities--(western Washington, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming and Colorado, Piceance Basin, Colorado, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama); features--(research in small-scale gas processing, GRI publications on coalbed methane, coalbed methane information sources); methane from coal seams research--(multiple coal seams project, hydrologic characterization of coal seams, spalling and the development of a hydraulic-fracturing strategy for coal, geologic evaluation of critical production parameters for coalbed methane resources, permeability changes resulting from gas desorption); technical events; departments.

  6. Heat transfer coefficients for propane (R-290), isobutane (R-600a), and 50/50 mixture of propane and isobutane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, G.D. [Zexel USA Corp., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tube-side heat transfer coefficients for single-phase flow, evaporation, and condensation are presented for propane (R-290), isobutane (R-600a), and a 50/50 mixture (by weight) of propane and isobutane. Heat transfer coefficients have been presented for smooth tubes based on the standard correlations available in the literature for pure refrigerants. The correlations for evaporation and condensation have previously been verified for R-12 and other refrigerants. The correlations for evaporation and condensation have previously been verified for R-12 and other refrigerants. The mass flux of the refrigerant is varied over a wide range that is typically encountered in residential, commercial, and automotive applications. Evaporation temperatures of {minus}6.7 C (20 F) and 4.4 C (40 F) and condensation temperatures of 37.8 C (100 F) and 48.9 C (120 F) have been used for this investigation. The heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a, R-290/R-600a) have been compared with R-12 and R-134a. The REFPROP computer program developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been used to determine the thermodynamic properties for R-290, R-600a, and R-290/R-600a. This study shows that the heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are significantly higher than those for both R-12 and R-134a. For the range of refrigerant temperatures and mass flux studied, single-phase vapor heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 234% to 259% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 167% to 181% in comparison to R-134a. The single-phase liquid heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 193% to 245% in comparison to R-12; and are greater by 155% to 198% in comparison to R-134a. Average evaporative heat transfer coefficients for hydrocarbons are greater by 194% to 238% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 157% to 192% in comparison to R-134a. Finally, average condensing coefficients are greater by 220% to 233% in comparison to R-12 and are greater by 177% to 187% in comparison to R-134a. Tables 3 through 6 show a summary of the heat transfer coefficient enhancement of the hydrocarbons in comparison to both R-12 and R-134a.

  7. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  8. Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  9. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  10. Catalytic performance of vanadium incorporated MCM-41 catalysts for the partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    that of oil. Methane, as the principle component of the natural gas and by product of oil refining and chemical processing, has been considered as an important sustainable feedstock for the chemical industry­4]. Industrially, formaldehyde is produced from methane by a three-step process including: (i) high temperature

  11. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    process of a solar reformer of dry methane reforming was proposed to operate in a temperature range of 600SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 including lower melting point, thermal and chemical stability, acting simultaneously as heat transport

  12. Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory of methane from flooded unexploited coal seams Field experience from the flooding operations of the abandoned gassy coal seams in abandoned mines. The tests included the following main stages: - Determining

  13. Modeling of the formation of short-chain acids in propane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to better understand their potential formation in combustion systems, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the formation of short-chain monocarboxylic acids, formic (HCOOH), acetic (CH3COOH), propionic (C2H5COOH) and propenic (C2H3COOH)) acids, has been developed. Simulations of lean (equivalence ratios from 0.9 to 0.48) laminar premixed flames of propane stabilized at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as diluent have been performed. It was found that amounts up to 25 ppm of acetic acid, 15 ppm of formic acid and 1 ppm of C3 acid can be formed for some positions in the flames. Simulations showed that the more abundant C3 acid formed is propenic acid. A quite acceptable agreement has been obtained with the scarce results from the literature concerning oxygenated compounds, including aldehydes (CH2O, CH3CHO) and acids. A reaction pathways analysis demonstrated that each acid is mainly derived from the aldehyde of similar structure.

  14. Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench scale. The project is on schedule and on budget. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement. The system has six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration will be initiated in the next fiscal year. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study.

  15. Lean and ultralean stretched propane-air counterflow flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pitz, Robert W. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Vanderbilt University, Box 1592, Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wehrmeyer, Joseph A. [Aerospace Testing Alliance, Building 1099, Avenue C, Arnold Air Force Base, TN 37389 (United States)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stretched laminar flame structures for a wide range of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air mixtures vs hot products are investigated by laser-based diagnostics and numerical simulation. The hot products are produced by a lean H{sub 2}-air premixed flame. The effect of stretch rate and equivalence ratio on four groups of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air flame structures is studied in detail by Raman scattering measurements and by numerical calculations of the major species concentration and temperature profiles. The equivalence ratio, f, is varied from a near-stoichiometric condition (f=0.86) to the sublean limit (f=0.44) and the stretch rate varies from 90 s{sup -1} to near extinction. For most of these C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air lean mixtures, hot products are needed to maintain the flame. The significant feature of these flames is the relatively low flame temperatures (1200-1800 K). For this temperature range, the predicted C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air flame structure is sensitive to the specific chemical kinetic mechanism. Two types of flame structures (a lean self-propagating flame and a lean diffusion-controlled flame) are obtained based on the combined effect of stretch and equivalence ratio. Three different mechanisms, the M5 mechanism, the Optimized mechanism, and the San Diego mechanism, are chosen for the numerical simulations. None of the propane chemical mechanisms give good agreement with the data over the entire range of flame conditions. (author)

  16. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  18. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  19. Propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase: Reactivity of surface cations in hydrogen abstraction steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory calculations (GGA-PBE) have been performed to investigate the adsorption of C3 (propane, isopropyl, propene, and allyl) and H species on the proposed active center present in the surface ab planes of the bulk Mo-V-Te-Nb-O M1 phase in order to better understand the roles of the different surface cations in propane ammoxidation. Modified cluster models were employed to isolate the closely spaced V=O and Te=O from each other and to vary the oxidation state of the V cation. While propane and propene adsorb with nearly zero adsorption energy, the isopropyl and allyl radicals bind strongly to V=O and Te=O with adsorption energies, {Delta}E, being {le} -1.75 eV, but appreciably more weakly on other sites, such as Mo=O, bridging oxygen (Mo-O-V and Mo-O-Mo), and empty metal apical sites ({Delta}E > -1 eV). Atomic H binds more strongly to Te = O ({Delta}E {le} -3 eV) than to all the other sites, including V = O ({Delta}E = -2.59 eV). The reduction of surface oxo groups by dissociated H and their removal as water are thermodynamically favorable except when both H atoms are bonded to the same Te=O. Consistent with the strong binding of H, Te=O is markedly more active at abstracting the methylene H from propane (E{sub a} {le} 1.01 eV) than V = O (E{sub a} = 1.70 eV on V{sup 5+} = O and 2.13 eV on V{sup 4+} = O). The higher-than-observed activity and the loose binding of Te = O moieties to the mixed metal oxide lattice of M1 raise the question of whether active Te = O groups are in fact present in the surface ab planes of the M1 phase under propane ammoxidation conditions.

  20. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kirchman

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (â??Methane in the Arctic Shelfâ? or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (â??metagenomesâ?). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation.

  1. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  2. Clean Fuel Advanced Technology Public Education Campaign: Billboards According to the U.S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy's July 2013 alternative fuel price report, the price of propane (LPG) in North Carolina at least $1,000 in yearly fuel costs by driving on natural gas or propane. · According to the U

  3. Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane) and R407C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane Abstract In this paper, a series of compressors with different capacities and geometries working with propane as refrigerant are analyzed in terms of the compressor model developed by [E. Navarro, E. Granryd

  4. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

  5. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

  6. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A N O'iLLEOE OF 1EXAS THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEIN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of' Texas in partial... f'ulf'illment of the requirements for the de~ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Ma]or GubjectI Chemistry May I&55 THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS PROPANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES A Thesis Cecil Herman Dickson Approved as to style...

  7. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thc Beg;voc cf kBSTBACT The propane-nitrogen system has been investigated in the gaseous phase at a temperature of 300 F. and at pressures up to 4/0 atmospheres. Compressibility curves for three mixtures of this system have been determined. A... the pressure corresponding to the "n " expansion ? th? the partial pressure of nitrogen the partial pressure oi' propane the total pressure of a gaseous system the universal gas constant (0. 08206 liter-atmosphere/ gram mole - oK) the absolute...

  8. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David T.

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its ...

  9. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, R.P.; Taylor, C.E.; D`Este, J.R.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time. 3 figs.

  10. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); D'Este, Joseph R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time.

  11. SUR LA POSSIBILIT D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'TUDE DES RACTIONS NUCLAIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    175 A. SUR LA POSSIBILITÉ D'UTILISATION D'UNE CHAMBRE A BULLES A PROPANE POUR L'ÉTUDE DES RÉACTIONS. - Mise au point et étude des caractéristiques du fonctionnement d'une chambre à bulles à propane de 6 135 MeV. Abstract. 2014 Adjustment and studies of some characteristics of a 6 litre propane bubble

  12. Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on the Cubic V4O10 Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane of density functional theory) to examine the detailed mechanism for propane reacting with a V4O10 cluster to model the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane on the V2O5(001) surface. We here report

  13. Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mössbauer spectroscopy UV­Vis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brønsted

  14. Methane Activation Structural and Mechanistic Requirements for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Methane Activation Structural and Mechanistic Requirements for Methane Activation and Chemical and petrochemical processes and in fuel cells. The strong bonds in CH4 (439 kJmolÀ1 [1] ) and the endothermic nature by BP as part of the Methane Conversion Cooperative Research Program at the University of California

  15. Predicting Methane Production in Dairy Mohammad Ramin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting Methane Production in Dairy Cows Mohammad Ramin Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden Umeå Doctoral Thesis Swedish (Karoline) #12;Predicting Methane Production in Dairy cows Abstract Methane is a potent greenhouse gas

  16. Methane adsorption on Devonian shales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Fan-Chang

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis by FAN-CHANG LI Submitted to thc Office of Graclua4e Sturiics of texas AgiM Ulllvel'sliy in pari, ial fulfilhuent of t, hc requirements I'or t, hc degree of ii IAS'I'Elf OF SCIL'NCE December... 1992 Major Subject, : Chemical Engineering METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis l&y I'AN-CHANC LI Approved as to style and contcut by: A. T. 'vtratson (Chair of Commitl. ee) John C. Slattery (Member) Bruce . Hcrhcrt (Memhcr...

  17. Methane adsorption on Devonian shales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Fan-Chang

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis by FAN-CHANG LI Submitted to thc Office of Graclua4e Sturiics of texas AgiM Ulllvel'sliy in pari, ial fulfilhuent of t, hc requirements I'or t, hc degree of ii IAS'I'Elf OF SCIL'NCE December... 1992 Major Subject, : Chemical Engineering METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis l&y I'AN-CHANC LI Approved as to style and contcut by: A. T. 'vtratson (Chair of Commitl. ee) John C. Slattery (Member) Bruce . Hcrhcrt (Memhcr...

  18. Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

  19. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

  20. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  1. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Gilberto Jose

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation studies were performed to evaluate a novel technology, steam-propane injection, for the heavy Hamaca crude oil. The oil has a gravity of 9.3?API and a viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50?C. Two types of simulation studies were performed: a...

  2. Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef* and J. M applications (1, 2) . Synthesis gas or syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) are used as a major. The conventional reformers allowing syngas production are based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons (3) following

  3. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE2011] METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY methane, and 64%

  4. 6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is an important greenhouse gas, whose radiative forcing (1750­1998) has been estimated to be 0.48 Wm -2 , 20). The methane bud-15 get (sources and sinks) was believed to be relatively well known, however, recently confusing results were obtained in studies of CH4 soil fluxes in the Venezuelan savanna region (Hao et al

  5. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  6. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T. (UCB); (ORNL)

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  7. EFFECT OF FUEL TYPE ON FLAME IGNITION BY TRANSIENT PLASMA Jianbang Liu1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT Rise and delay times of mixtures of methane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane and iso- octane mixed performance of various fuels including methane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane and iso-octane mixed with air with air ignited by transient plasma discharge were investigated and compared with spark discharge ignition

  8. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) using propane and methane as growth substrates. Tests were performed in groundwater con transformation rate coefficients. Evidence that gas-sparging of propane (or methane) and oxygen had stimulated

  9. Gettering of hydrogen and methane from a helium gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cárdenas, Rosa Elia, E-mail: recarde1@uiwtx.edu [Department of Physics, The University of the Incarnate Word, 4301 Broadway, San Antonio, Texas 78209 (United States); Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F., E-mail: dfcowgi@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Hydrogen and Metallurgical Sciences, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172{sup ®} getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. The optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650?°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110?°C to remove the hydrogen. This approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  10. Thermophysical property predictions of propane, propylene and their mixtures by Benedict-Webb-Rubin type equations of state 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bengani, Pramod Kumar

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTY PREDICTIONS OF PROPANE, PROPYLENE AND THEIR MIXTURES BY BENEDICT-WEBB-RUBIN TYPE EQUATIONS OF STATE A Thesis by PRAMOD KUMAR BENGANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTY PREDICTIONS OF PROPANE, PROPYLENE AND THEIR MIXTURES BY BENEDICT-WEBB-RUBIN TYPE EQUATIONS OF STATE A Thesis...

  11. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  12. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with emphasis; (6) detailed study of CH4-CO2 exchange as a unique alternative to recover CH4 gas while sequestering CO2; (7) the relevance of fines in otherwise clean sand sediments on gas recovery and related phenomena such as fines migration and clogging, vuggy structure formation, and gas-driven fracture formation during gas production by depressurization.

  13. SCADA system aids BGE`s Notch Cliff propane-air facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.A. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCADA systems in the natural gas industry are commonly associated with distribution networks and transmission pipelines. There is however, another application for SCADA technology that is increasingly being utilized in the industry. By implementing automation technology and process control concepts more typically associated with industrial and petrochemical process facilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. (BGE) has significantly improved the efficiency, performance, and safety at its Notch Cliff Propane-Air peak shaving facility. These results have contributed to BGE`s ongoing efforts to effectively operate in the competitive energy marketplace. When the Notch Cliff plant was built in the early 1960s, it was a state-of-the-art facility. The plant blends propane vapor and compressed air to create a supplement to the natural gas supply during peak demand periods.

  14. Methane escape from gas hydrate systems in marine environment, and methane-driven oceanic eruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Methane escape from gas hydrate systems in marine environment, and methane-driven oceanic eruptions are suitable for gas hydrate stability [Lunine and Stevenson, 1985]. Enor- mous amounts of methane are stored as gas hydrate and free gas in the pore space of marine sediment [Kvenvolden, 1988; Buffet, 2000

  15. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    from Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP), Dr. Fernando Rodriguez de la Garza, and Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez Bujanos from Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), and Lawyer Rolando Rueda de Leon from Diario de Mexico, for their help and valuable advice. I would...-, and Steam with Propane-Distillation. (May 2004) Marco Antonio Ramírez-Garnica, B.S., Instituto Politécnico Nacional; M.S., Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Daulat D. Mamora Recent experimental and simulation...

  16. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane ?13C values increased from about...

  17. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure Henrik B. Mller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure Henrik B. Møller Danish Institute This thesis, entitled "Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure" is presented in partial of digested and separated products.................... 13 3. Methane productivity and greenhouse gas emissions

  18. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  19. A Sequential Fluid-mechanic Chemical-kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C; Pitz, W; Dibble, R; Wright, J F; Akinyemi, W C; Hessel, R P

    2000-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers. The success of this procedure is in large part a consequence of the fact that for much of the compression stroke the chemistry is inactive and thus has little influence on fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Then, when chemistry is active, combustion is rather sudden, leaving little time for interaction between chemistry and fluid mixing and heat transfer. This sequential methodology has been capable of explaining the main characteristics of HCCI combustion that have been observed in experiments. In this paper, we use our model to explore an HCCI engine running on propane. The paper compares experimental and numerical pressure traces, heat release rates, and hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The results show an excellent agreement, even in parameters that are difficult to predict, such as chemical heat release rates. Carbon monoxide emissions are reasonably well predicted, even though it is intrinsically difficult to make good predictions of CO emissions in HCCI engines. The paper includes a sensitivity study on the effect of the heat transfer correlation on the results of the analysis. Importantly, the paper also shows a numerical study on how parameters such as swirl rate, crevices and ceramic walls could help in reducing HC and CO emissions from HCCI engines.

  20. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methane that actually preceded recent concerns about potential emissions from fracking," Dubey said. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected over...

  1. Direct Observation of the Active Center for Methane Dehydroaromatizati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Dehydroaromatization Using an Ultrahigh Field 95Mo NMR Spectroscopy. Abstract: Direct conversion of methane to value-added chemicals remains a challenge from both...

  2. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop The Advanced Manufacturing Office...

  3. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, O.U.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. J. Villanueva (2010). "Propane respiration jump-startsin samples that exhibited propane and ethane anomalies (loss of both ethane and propane relative to methane

  4. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    initiated ignition in methane-propane mixtures”, Combustiontemperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive:detonation in ethylene and propane mixtures”, Combustion and

  5. Coalbed Methane | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - AprilEvents CleanSeattle,Coalbed Methane Coalbed

  6. Methane Hydrate | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMake Your Next Road TripMentor-ProtegeEnergy »Methane

  7. Methane Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend <StevensMcClellan,II JumpMepsolarMesilla,Methane Credit Jump

  8. Analysis and Methane Gas Separations Studies for City of Marsing, Idaho An Idaho National Laboratory Technical Assistance Program Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Orme

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction and Background Large amounts of methane in well water is a wide spread problem in North America. Methane gas from decaying biomass and oil and gas deposits escape into water wells typically through cracks or faults in otherwise non-porous rock strata producing saturated water systems. This methane saturated water can pose several problems in the delivery of drinking water. The problems range from pumps vapor locking (cavitating), to pump houses exploding. The City of Marsing requested Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assist with some water analyses as well as to provide some engineering approaches to methane capture through the INL Technical Assistance Program (TAP). There are several engineering approaches to the removal of methane and natural gas from water sources that include gas stripping followed by compression and/or dehydration; membrane gas separators coupled with dehydration processes, membrane water contactors with dehydration processes.

  9. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spokas, K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States)]. E-mail: spokas@morris.ars.usda.gov; Bogner, J. [Landfills Inc., Wheaton, Illinois and University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Morcet, M. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Aran, C. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Graff, C. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States); Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le [COLLEX Pty Ltd., CReeD, Veolia Environnement, Pyrmont NSW (Australia); Hebe, I. [Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management, Angers (France)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.

  10. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University, School of Engineering, Ocean .. Engineel'ing-and nutrition, ocean engineering and methane generation. In

  11. Department of Energy Advance Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Descriptions for Energy Department Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects, August 31, 2012

  12. Coalbed methane production enhancement by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettema, M.H.H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Neumann, B.V.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-surface of the Netherlands is generally underlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous strata at greater depths (at many places over 1,500 m). These coal seams are generally thinner than 3 meter, occur in groups (5--15) within several hundred meters and are often fairly continuous over many square kilometers. In many cases they have endured complex burial history, influencing their methane saturation. In certain particular geological settings, a high, maximum coalbed methane saturation, may be expected. Carboniferous/Permian coals in the Tianjin-region (China) show many similarities concerning geological settings, rank and composition. Economical coalbed methane production at greater depths is often obstructed by the (very) low permeabilities of the coal seams as with increasing depth the deformation of the coal reduces both its macro-porosity (the cleat system) and microporosity. Experiments in abandoned underground mines, as well as after underground coal gasification tests indicate ways to improve the prospects for coalbed methane production in originally tight coal reservoirs. High permeability areas can be created by the application of underground coal gasification of one of the coal seams of a multi-seam cycle with some 200 meter of coal bearing strata. The gasification of one of the coal seams transforms that seam over a certain area into a highly permeable bed, consisting of coal residues, ash and (thermally altered) roof rubble. Additionally, roof collapse and subsidence will destabilize the overburden. In conjunction this will permit a better coalbed methane production from the remaining surrounding parts of the coal seams. Moreover, the effects of subsidence will influence the stress patterns around the gasified seam and this improves the permeability over certain distances in the coal seams above and below. In this paper the effects of the combined underground coal gasification and coalbed methane production technique are regarded for a single injection well. Known geotechnical aspects are combined with results from laboratory experiments on compaction of thermally treated rubble. An axi-symmetric numerical model is used to determine the effects induced by the gasified coal seam. The calculation includes the rubble formation, rubble compaction and induced stress effects in the overlying strata. Subsequently the stress effects are related to changes in coal permeability, based on experimental results of McKee et al.

  13. Modelling of stable isotope fractionation by methane oxidation and diffusion in landfill cover soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahieu, Koenraad [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.mahieu@lid.kviv.be; De Visscher, Alex [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Vanrolleghem, Peter A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Civil Engineering (modelEAU), Universite Laval, Pavillon Pouliot, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Van Cleemput, Oswald [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to measure biological methane oxidation in landfill cover soils that is gaining increased interest is the measurement of stable isotope fractionation in the methane. Usually to quantify methane oxidation, only fractionation by oxidation is taken into account. Recently it was shown that neglecting the isotope fractionation by diffusion results in underestimation of the methane oxidation. In this study a simulation model was developed that describes gas transport and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. The model distinguishes between {sup 12}CH{sub 4}, {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, and {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D explicitly, and includes isotope fractionation by diffusion and oxidation. To evaluate the model, the simulations were compared with column experiments from previous studies. The predicted concentration profiles and isotopic profiles match the measured ones very well, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 vol% in the concentration and a RMSD of 0.8 per mille in the {delta}{sup 13}C value, with {delta}{sup 13}C the relative {sup 13}C abundance as compared to an international standard. Overall, the comparison shows that a model-based isotope approach for the determination of methane oxidation efficiencies is feasible and superior to existing isotope methods.

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3OtherPropane

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels CleanReduce OperatingPropane inMichigan School

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuels andConversionsAssumptionsBenefitsPropane

  17. Winter fuels report, week ending February 12, 1993. [Contains Glossary and feature article on Midwest Propane Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's 1, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD'S; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; selected cities; and a 6--10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  18. Combustion: What is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of Propane? Before we start: how reasonable is the use of the LHV? What is the dewpoint of the reaction products?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combustion: What is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of Propane? Before we start: how reasonable temperature we can achieve with a propane-and-air blowtorch? We repeat this calculation for several different

  19. Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A.; Dugan, Patrick R.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

  20. Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Dugan, Patrick R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

  1. The catalytic oxidation of propane and propylene with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity at low conversions. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Looney, Franklin Sittig

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ Ths writer is izntebteg to pr, P G~ ~och Tor his assistance azsi guidance in this work aC to Br~ J+ 9 Kinds Tor his aery. suggestions eel Succor~ a The oxidation cf propane~ propylene and prcya~cregyimm mbetccres ctver a ~ aiucdna ~st in a flew... formation of aldehyde fran pure grade propane The ~ce of Within the range of variables of this investigation and with propylene ~& aldehyde pr~cn was f'ennd to bs independent of" residence Qorrcgations relating aldehyde pressure to ~ and cncygsn pressure...

  2. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, Emily

    , University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA Abstract Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emis- sions from streams could also contribute methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble

  3. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  4. Production of olefins by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and butane over monoliths at short contact times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, M.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The autothermal production of olefins from propane or n-butane by oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking in air or oxygen at atmospheric pressure over noble metal coated ceramic foam monoliths at contact times of {approximately}5 milliseconds has been studied. On Pt, synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) dominates near its stoichiometry, while olefin production dominates at higher fuel-to-oxygen ratios. No carbon buildup is observed, and catalysts exhibit no deactivation over at least several days. On Rh, primarily synthesis gas is produced under these conditions, while on Pd, carbon deposition rapidly deactivates the catalyst. The authors observed up to 65% selectivity to olefins at nearly 100% conversion of propane or n-butane with a catalyst contact time of 5 ms. Ethylene selectivity is maximized by increasing the reaction temperature, either by preheating the reactants or by using oxygen enriched air. Propylene selectivity is maximized by lower temperature and shorter catalyst contact time. Very small amounts alkanes and higher molecular weight species are obtained, suggesting that a homogeneous pyrolysis mechanism is not occurring. A very simple reaction mechanism appears to explain the observed product distribution. Reactions are initiated by oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkane by adsorbed oxygen to form a surface alkyl. On Pt, {beta}-hydrogen and {beta}-alkyl elimination reactions of adsorbed alkyl dominate which lead to olefin production rather than cracking to C{sub s} and H{sub s}. 24 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. MethaneHydrateRD_FC.indd

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    source of natural gas in 1983. The Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 established DOE as the lead U.S. agency for R&D in this fi eld. Early phases of...

  6. High Temperature Solar Splitting of Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Methane to Hydrogen and Carbon Allan Lewandowski (NREL) Alan Weimer (University of Colorado, Boulder) Team Members: CU: Jaimee Dahl, Karen Buechler, Chris Perkins NREL: Carl Bingham, Judy Netter Allan Lewandowski

  7. The role of methane in tropospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golomb, D.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While methane is chemically quite inert to reactions with atmospheric molecular species, it does react with atomic species and molecular radicals. Because of its relatively large abundance in the global troposphere and ...

  8. Transient Supersonic Methane-Air Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, John L.

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermochemical properties of a transient supersonic flame. Creation of the transient flame was controlled by pulsing air in 200 millisecond intervals into a combustor filled with flowing methane...

  9. Published in Journal de Physique IV, vol 11, pp. Pr3-101 ---Pr3-108 Kinetic modelling of gas-phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -phase decomposition of propane : correlation with pyrocarbon deposition Cédric Descamps, Gerard L. Vignoles , Olivier : A chemical kinetic model for gas-phase pyrolysis of propane has been set up, partially reduced, and validated the notion of "maturation" from propane to lighter hydrocarbons, then to aromatic compounds and PAHs. The gas

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donn McGuire; Thomas Williams; Bjorn Paulsson; Alexander Goertz

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a drilling hazard by the oil and gas industry for years. Drilling engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous problems, including drilling kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates as a potential energy source agree that the resource potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained from physical samples taken from actual hydrate-bearing rocks. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The project team drilled and continuously cored the Hot Ice No. 1 well on Anadarko-leased acreage beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and used for determining physical characteristics of hydrates and surrounding rock. After the well was logged, a 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was recorded to calibrate the shallow geologic section with seismic data and to investigate techniques to better resolve lateral subsurface variations of potential hydrate-bearing strata. Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. deployed their 80 level 3C clamped borehole seismic receiver array in the wellbore to record samples every 25 ft. Seismic vibrators were successively positioned at 1185 different surface positions in a circular pattern around the wellbore. This technique generated a 3D image of the subsurface. Correlations were generated of these seismic data with cores, logging, and other well data. Unfortunately, the Hot Ice No. 1 well did not encounter hydrates in the reservoir sands, although brine-saturated sands containing minor amounts of methane were encountered within the hydrate stability zone (HSZ). Synthetic seismograms created from well log data were in agreement with reflectivity data measured by the 3D VSP survey. Modeled synthetic seismograms indicated a detectable seismic response would be expected in the presence of hydrate-bearing sands. Such a response was detected in the 3D VSP data at locations up-dip to the west of the Hot Ice No. 1 wellbore. Results of this project suggest that the presence of hydrate-bearing strata may not be related as simply to HSZ thickness as previously thought. Geological complications of reservoir facies distribution within fluvial-deltaic environments will require sophisticated detection technologies to assess the locations of recoverable volumes of methane contained in hydrates. High-resolution surface seismic data and more rigorous well log data analysis offer the best near-term potential. The hydrate resource potential is huge, but better tools are needed to accurately assess their location, distribution and economic recoverability.

  11. Field Exploration of Methane Seep Near Atqasuk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katey Walter, Dennis Witmer, Gwen Holdmann

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) in natural gas is a major energy source in the U.S., and is used extensively on Alaska's North Slope, including the oilfields in Prudhoe Bay, the community of Barrow, and the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Smaller villages, however, are dependent on imported diesel fuel for both power and heating, resulting in some of the highest energy costs in the U.S. and crippling local economies. Numerous CH{sub 4} gas seeps have been observed on wetlands near Atqasuk, Alaska (in the NPRA), and initial measurements have indicated flow rates of 3,000-5,000 ft{sup 3} day{sup -1} (60-100 kg CH{sub 4} day{sup -1}). Gas samples collected in 1996 indicated biogenic origin, although more recent sampling indicated a mixture of biogenic and thermogenic gas. In this study, we (1) quantified the amount of CH{sub 4} generated by several seeps and evaluated their potential use as an unconventional gas source for the village of Atqasuk; (2) collected gas and analyzed its composition from multiple seeps several miles apart to see if the source is the same, or if gas is being generated locally from isolated biogenic sources; and (3) assessed the potential magnitude of natural CH{sub 4} gas seeps for future use in climate change modeling.

  12. A simulation study of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Munoz, Jorge Eduardo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3D 8-component thermal compositional simulation study has been performed to evaluate the merits of steam-propane injection and a novel vertical-smart horizontal well system for the Lombardi reservoir in the San Ardo field, California. The novel...

  13. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

  14. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added in amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures in shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenius parameters of E{sub a}{approximately}40 kcal/mol and log (A){approximately} 9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified.

  16. High-temperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive: Shock-tube experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Westbrook, C.K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of propane has been studied in a shock tube and by computational modeling to determine the effect of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel additive. MTBE and isobutene were added to amounts up to 25% of the fuel to propane-oxygen-argon mixtures to shock-tube experiments covering a range of temperatures between 1450 and 1800 K. Ignition delays were measured from chemiluminescence at 432 nm due to excited CH radicals. The temperature dependence of the ignition rates was analyzed to yield Arrhenium parameters of E{sub a}{sup {minus}}40 kcal/mol and log(A) {sup {minus}}9.0 sec{sup {minus}1} for the overall reaction. Reactions involving MTBE and its decomposition products were combined with an established propane mechanism in a numerical model to describe the kinetic interaction of this additive with a typical hydrocarbon fuel. The experiments and the kinetic model both show that MTBE and isobutene retard propane ignition with nearly equal efficiency. The kinetic model demonstrates that isobutene kinetics are responsible for inhibition by both MTBE and isobutene, and the specific elementary reactions which produce this behavior are identified. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  18. Effect of propane-air on NGVs and vehicle fueling stations. Topical report, January 1-October 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, W.E.; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane-air (P/A) peakshaving is an important element of peak-load management for some U.S. gas utilities. P/A is used as a supplemental energy medium with natural gas and has been shown to operate satisfactorily in most natural gas applications. The propane levels injected are compatible with the pressures (under 200 psig) and temperatures (over 40 F) found in utility distribution networks. However, P/A can create problems for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operating on compressed gas as well as NGV fueling stations. This report contains information on P/A peakshaving and its compatibility with NGVs by documenting condensation impacts at nine conditions--i.e., three propane levels and three temperatures. These data portray the depressurization of a vehicle tank, an area selected because it illustrates NGV operation and can discriminate between acceptable and potentially non-acceptable operating points. These analyses show, not surprisingly, a correlation exists between propane level, ambient temperature, and condensation.

  19. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic properties of Al2O3-supported vanadia with a wide range of VOx surface density (1.4-34.2 V/nm2) and structure were examined for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman spectra showed that vanadia is dispersed predominantly as isolated monovanadate species below {approx}2.3 V/nm2. As surface densities increase, two-dimensional polyvanadates appear (2.3-7.0 V/nm2) along with increasing amounts of V2O5 crystallites at surface densities above 7.0 V/nm2. The rate constant for oxidative dehydrogenation (k1) and its ratio with alkane and alkene combustion (k2/k1 and k3/k1, respectively) were compared for both alkane reactants as a function of vanadia surface density. Propene formation rates (per V-atom) are {approx}8 times higher than ethene formation rates at a given reaction temperature, but the apparent ODH activation energies (E1) are similar for the two reactants and relatively insensitive to vanadia surface density. Ethene and propene formation rates (per V-atom) are strongly influenced by vanadia surface density and reach a maximum value at intermediate surface densities ({approx}8 V/nm2). The ratio of k2/k1 depends weakly on reaction temperature, indicating that activation energies for alkane combustion and ODH reactions are similar. The ratio of k2/k1 is independent of surface density for ethane, but increase slightly with vanadia surface density for propane, suggesting that isolated structures prevalent at low surface densities are slightly more selective for alkane dehydrogenation reactions. The ratio of k3/k1 decreases markedly with increasing reaction temperature for both ethane and propane ODH. Thus, the apparent activation energy for alkene combustion (E3) is much lower than that for alkane dehydrogenation (E1) and the difference between these two activation energies decreases with increasing surface density. The lower alkene selectivities observed at high vanadia surface densities are attributed to an increase in alkene adsorption enthalpies with increasing vanadia surface density. The highest yield of alkene is obtained for catalysts containing predominantly isolated monovanadate species and operated at high temperatures that avoid homogeneous reactions (< {approx} 800 K).

  20. UNDERSTANDING METHANE EMISSIONS SOURCES AND VIABLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN THE NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: RUSSIAN AND U.S. EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishkov, A.; Akopova, Gretta; Evans, Meredydd; Yulkin, Grigory; Roshchanka, Volha; Waltzer, Suzie; Romanov, K.; Picard, David; Stepanenko, O.; Neretin, D.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article will compare the natural gas transmission systems in the U.S. and Russia and review experience with methane mitigation technologies in the two countries. Russia and the United States (U.S.) are the world's largest consumers and producers of natural gas, and consequently, have some of the largest natural gas infrastructure. This paper compares the natural gas transmission systems in Russia and the U.S., their methane emissions and experiences in implementing methane mitigation technologies. Given the scale of the two systems, many international oil and natural gas companies have expressed interest in better understanding the methane emission volumes and trends as well as the methane mitigation options. This paper compares the two transmission systems and documents experiences in Russia and the U.S. in implementing technologies and programs for methane mitigation. The systems are inherently different. For instance, while the U.S. natural gas transmission system is represented by many companies, which operate pipelines with various characteristics, in Russia predominately one company, Gazprom, operates the gas transmission system. However, companies in both countries found that reducing methane emissions can be feasible and profitable. Examples of technologies in use include replacing wet seals with dry seals, implementing Directed Inspection and Maintenance (DI&M) programs, performing pipeline pump-down, applying composite wrap for non-leaking pipeline defects and installing low-bleed pneumatics. The research methodology for this paper involved a review of information on methane emissions trends and mitigation measures, analytical and statistical data collection; accumulation and analysis of operational data on compressor seals and other emission sources; and analysis of technologies used in both countries to mitigate methane emissions in the transmission sector. Operators of natural gas transmission systems have many options to reduce natural gas losses. Depending on the value of gas, simple, low-cost measures, such as adjusting leaking equipment components, or larger-scale measures, such as installing dry seals on compressors, can be applied.

  1. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, UFSC, 88010-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 7784-3255 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  2. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

  4. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

  5. Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and Reaction with CO on Pd Nanoparticles on MgO(100) and on Pd(111). Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen...

  6. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12, 2014 11:00AM EST to...

  7. Numerical modeling of methane venting from lake sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scandella, Benjamin P. (Benjamin Paul)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of methane transport in lake sediments control the release of methane into the water column above, and the portion that reaches the atmosphere may contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. The observed ...

  8. Diurnal variations in methane emission from rice plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laskowski, Nicholas Aaron

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms causing diurnal variations in methane emission from rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Methane emission was measured using a closed chamber system on individual rice plants at five stages...

  9. This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    , reproduction and distribution, including without limitation commercial reprints, selling or licensing copies (methane, propane, etc.) serves as the fuel while oxygen serves as the oxidant. The ideal anode should

  10. CFD Modeling of Methane Production from Hydrate-Bearing Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamwo, I.K.; Myshakin, E.M.; Warzinski, R.P.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane hydrate is being examined as a next-generation energy resource to replace oil and natural gas. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that methane hydrate may contain more organic carbon the the world's coal, oil, and natural gas combined. To assist in developing this unfamiliar resource, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has undertaken intensive research in understanding the fate of methane hydrate in geological reservoirs. This presentation reports preliminary computational fluid dynamics predictions of methane production from a subsurface reservoir.

  11. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  12. Screening tests for improved methane cracking materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J. E.; Hoelder, J. S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{sup R} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 deg.C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 seem feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAESr getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas. (authors)

  13. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

  14. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

  15. Methane Hydrates: Major Energy Source for the Future or Wishful Thinking?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Charles Phillip

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane hydrates are methane bearing, ice-like materials that occur in abundance in permafrost areas such as on the North Slope of Alaska and Canada and as well as in offshore continental margin environments throughout the world including the Gulf of Mexico and the East and West Coasts of the United States. Methane hydrate accumulations in the United States are currently estimated to be about 200,000 Tcf, which is enormous when compared to the conventional recoverable resource estimate of 2300 Tcf. On a worldwide basis, the estimate is 700,000 Tcf or about two times the total carbon in coal, oil and conventional gas in the world. The enormous size of this resource, if producible to any degree, has significant implications for U.S. and worldwide clean energy supplies and global environmental issues. Historically the petroleum industry's interests in methane hydrates have primarily been related to safety issues such as wellbore stability while drilling, seafloor stability, platform subsidence, and pipeline plugging. Many questions remain to be answered to determine if any of this potential energy resource is technically and economically viable to produce. Major technical hurdles include: 1) methods to find, characterize, and evaluate the resource; 2) technology to safely and economically produce natural gas from methane hydrate deposits; and 3) safety and seafloor stability issues related to drilling through gas hydrate accumulations to produce conventional oil and gas. The petroleum engineering profession currently deals with gas hydrates in drilling and production operations and will be key to solving the technical and economic problems that must be overcome for methane hydrates to be part of the future energy mix in the world.

  16. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  17. The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton Stephanie Lyn Shaw Center for Global://web.mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie Lyn Shaw Submitted to the Department of Earth

  18. Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of methane in the atmosphere is controlled by oxidation, mainly in chemical reaction with the hydroxyl by the combination of pre-industrial methane concentration levels from ice cores and bottom-up estimates based important terms in the global methane budget. Anthropogenic source estimates are mainly based on socio

  19. Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic in assumptions in estimating emissions · Measured data for some sources of methane emissions during natural gas

  20. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports.

  1. A method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low levels of 14C-labeled methane and accelerator mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NEsediment from a marine gas hydrate area. Environ. Microbiol.

  2. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  3. Appalachian basin coal-bed methane: Elephant or flea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.M. (Dames and Moore, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, interest in the Appalachian basin coal-bed methane resource extends at least over the last 50 years. The Northern and Central Appalachian basins are estimated to contain 61 tcf and 5 tcf of coal-bed methane gas, respectively. Development of this resource has not kept pace with that of other basins, such as the Black Warrior basin of Alabama of the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico and Colorado. Without the benefit of modern completion, stimulation, and production technology, some older Appalachian basin coal-bed methane wells were reported to have produced in excess of 150 used here to characterize some past projects and their results. This work is not intended to comprise a comprehensive survey of all Appalachian basin projects, but rather to provide background information from which to proceed for those who may be interested in doing so. Several constraints to the development of this resource have been identified, including conflicting legal rights of ownership of the gas produced from the coal seams when coal and conventional oil and gas rights are controlled by separate parties. In addition, large leaseholds have been difficult to acquire and finding costs have been high. However, the threshold of minimum economic production may be relatively low when compared with other areas, because low-pressures pipelines are available and gas prices are among the highest in the nation. Interest in the commercial development of the resource seems to be on the increase with several projects currently active and more reported to be planned for the near future.

  4. Factors influencing methane distribution in Texas ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, C.; Grossman, E.L.; Ammerman, J.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the factors that influence the distribution of methane in Texas ground water, water samples were collected from 40 wells in east-central and central Texas aquifers. Among the chemical parameters examined, sulfate is most important in controlling methane distribution. Methane occurs in high concentration in east-central Texas only where sulfate concentration is low, supporting the hypothesis that abundant microbial methane production does not begin until sulfate is depleted. Because water samples from central Texas are high in either oxygen or sulfate, methane concentrations are low in these waters. A positive correlation between methane and sulfate in these waters indicates a different, perhaps thermogenic, origin for the trace methane. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of dissolved methane ranged from {minus}80{per_thousand} to {minus}21{per_thousand} in east-central Texas and {minus}41.2{per_thousand} to {minus}8.5{per_thousand} in central Texas. Low values of < {minus}50{per_thousand} in the east-central Texas ground water indicate a microbial origin for methane and are consistent with the observed sulfate-methane relationship; high {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of > {minus}31{per_thousand} likely result from bacterial methane oxidation. Similarly, methane with high {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios in central Texas may reflect partial oxidation of the methane pool. Overall, water samples from both regions show a positive correlation between sulfate concentration and the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of methane, suggesting that methane oxidation may be associated with sulfate reduction in Texas ground water.

  5. Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

  6. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  7. Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

  8. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  9. Quantifying Sustainable Development with Sustainable Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    .6 Synthesis Gas Methane reforming 17.2 Propylene Propane dehydrogenation 4.3 Propylene Propane dehydrogenation · Syngas from CO2 and CH4 · Propane dehydrogenation · Propylene from propane and CO2 · Styrene from

  10. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    propane standard. Methane,MTBE, speciated and NMHC concentrations were determined following the pro-

  11. Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komar, C.A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

  12. Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coefficient of PVC, LLDPE, and HDPE geomembranes by performing the standard gas transport test (ASTM D1434). The measured methane gas permeability coefficient through a PVC geomembrane is 7.55 3 104 ml(STP).mil/m2.day thicknesses is proposed using the measured permeability coefficients for PVC, LLDPE, and HDPE geomembranes

  13. Methane production from ozonated pulp mill effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremmon, C.E.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was made of the production of methane from desugared spent sulfite liquor (SSL) reacted with ozone. The ozonated SSL was fed continuously to three anaerobic fermenters for three months as the sole source of carbon and energy. The fermenters were inoculated with anaerobic bacteria obtained from sewage sludge and acclimated for 1 month in ozonated SSL prior to continuous fermentation. Chemical and biological parameters such as COD, BOD, total sulfur content, redox potential, pH, fatty acid composition, and methane bacteria populations were monitored to determine changes in the SSL during fermentation. Methane production from ozone-treated SSL averaged 1.7 liters/ liter or 17 ml of CH/sub 4/ produced/gram of volatile solids fed. Fatty acis analysis of fermenter effluent indicated a net production of 58 mM/ liter of acetate during ozonated SSL fermentation. This acetic acid production shows future potential for further fermentation by protein-producing yeast. Although the rate of conversion of volatile solids to CH/sub 4/ in this process was not competitive with domestic or agricultural waste digesters, this study did indicate the potential benefits of ozonating organic wastes for increased methane fermentation yields.

  14. 2, 11971241, 2005 Control of methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of giant sulphide- oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Au- thigenic Carbonates

  15. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  16. Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

  17. Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe[sup III] or Sn[sup IV], was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C[sub 2] coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu[sup II](ion exchanged) Fe[sup III](framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La[sub 2]O[sub 3] has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C[sub 2] hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

  18. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models and to research teams for developing future gas-hydrate projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and has been documented by the project team. This Topical Report documents drilling and coring operations and other daily activities.

  19. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists planning hydrate exploration and development projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this and other project reports. This Topical Report contains details describing logging operations.

  20. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  1. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  2. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  3. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  4. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  5. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  6. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  7. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of propane in coflow jets with tribrachial edge and mild combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Kim, K.N.; Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of laminar lifted flames have been investigated experimentally by varying the initial temperature of coflow air over 800 K in the non-premixed jets of propane diluted with nitrogen. The result showed that the lifted flame with the initial temperature below 860 K maintained the typical tribrachial structure at the leading edge, which was stabilized by the balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and the local flow velocity. For the temperature above 860 K, the flame was autoignited without having any external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames were categorized in two regimes. In the case with tribrachial edge structure, the liftoff height increased nonlinearly with jet velocity. Especially, for the critical condition near blowout, the lifted flame showed a repetitive behavior of extinction and reignition. In such a case, the autoignition was controlled by the non-adiabatic ignition delay time considering heat loss such that the autoignition height was correlated with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. In the case with mild combustion regime at excessively diluted conditions, the liftoff height increased linearly with jet velocity and was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  8. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  9. Soot formation and temperature field structure in laminar propane-air diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bento, Decio S.; Guelder, OEmer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON M3H 5T6 (Canada); Thomson, Kevin A. [National Research Council, ICPET Combustion Technology, 1200 Montreal Road M-9, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of pressure on soot formation and the structure of the temperature field was studied in coflow propane-air laminar diffusion flames over the pressure range of 0.1 to 0.73 MPa in a high-pressure combustion chamber. The fuel flow rate was selected so that the soot was completely oxidized within the visible flame and the flame was stable at all pressures. Spectral soot emission was used to measure radially resolved soot volume fraction and soot temperature as a function of pressure. Additional soot volume fraction measurements were made at selected heights using line-of-sight light attenuation. Soot concentration values from these two techniques agreed to within 30% and both methods exhibited similar trends in the spatial distribution of soot concentration. Maximum line-of-sight soot concentration along the flame centerline scaled with pressure; the pressure exponent was about 1.4 for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel carbon content converted to soot, also followed a power-law dependence on pressure, where the pressure exponent was near to unity for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Soot temperature measurements indicated that the overall temperatures decreased with increasing pressure; however, the temperature gradients increased with increasing pressure. (author)

  10. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  11. Regulation of methane genes and genome expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John N. Reeve

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    At the start of this project, it was known that methanogens were Archaeabacteria (now Archaea) and were therefore predicted to have gene expression and regulatory systems different from Bacteria, but few of the molecular biology details were established. The goals were then to establish the structures and organizations of genes in methanogens, and to develop the genetic technologies needed to investigate and dissect methanogen gene expression and regulation in vivo. By cloning and sequencing, we established the gene and operon structures of all of the “methane” genes that encode the enzymes that catalyze methane biosynthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This work identified unique sequences in the methane gene that we designated mcrA, that encodes the largest subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, that could be used to identify methanogen DNA and establish methanogen phylogenetic relationships. McrA sequences are now the accepted standard and used extensively as hybridization probes to identify and quantify methanogens in environmental research. With the methane genes in hand, we used northern blot and then later whole-genome microarray hybridization analyses to establish how growth phase and substrate availability regulated methane gene expression in Methanobacterium thermautotrophicus ?H (now Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus). Isoenzymes or pairs of functionally equivalent enzymes catalyze several steps in the hydrogen-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. We established that hydrogen availability determine which of these pairs of methane genes is expressed and therefore which of the alternative enzymes is employed to catalyze methane biosynthesis under different environmental conditions. As were unable to establish a reliable genetic system for M. thermautotrophicus, we developed in vitro transcription as an alternative system to investigate methanogen gene expression and regulation. This led to the discovery that an archaeal protein, designated TFE, that had sequences in common with the eukaryotic general transcription factor TFIIE, stimulated archaeal transcription initiation and that the archaeal TATA-box binding protein (TBP) remained attached to the promoter region whereas the transcription factor TFB dissociated from the template DNA following initiation. DNA sequences that directed the localized assembly of archaeal histones into archaeal nucleosomes were identified, and we established that transcription by an archaeal RNA polymerase was slowed but not blocked by archaeal nucleosomes. We developed a new protocol to purify archaeal RNA polymerases and with this enzyme and additional improvements to the in vitro transcription system, we established the template requirements for archaeal transcription termination, investigated the activities of proteins predicted to be methane gene regulators, and established how TrpY, a novel archaeal regulator of expression of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon functions in M. thermautotrophicus. This also resulted in the discovery that almost all M. thermautotrophicus mutants isolated as spontaneously resistant to 5-methyl tryptophan (5MTR) had mutations in trpY and were therefore 5MTR through de-repressed trp operon expression. This established a very simple, practical procedure to determine and quantify the DNA sequence changes that result from exposure of this Archaeon to any experimental mutagenesis protocol. Following the discovery that the Thermococcus kodakaraensis was amenable to genetic manipulation, we established this technology at OSU and subsequently added plasmid expression, a reporter system and additional genetic selections to the T. kodakaraensis genetic toolbox. We established that transcription and translation are coupled in this Archaeon, and by combining in vitro transcription and in vivo genetics, we documented that both TFB1 and TFB2 support transcription initiation in T. kodakaraensis. We quantified the roles of ribosome binding sequences and alternative initiation codons in translation initiation, established that polarity e

  12. Living Expenses (includes approximately

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    & engineering programs All other programs Graduate: MBA/INFSY at Erie & Harrisburg (12 credits) Business Guarantee 3 (Does not include Dependents Costs4 ) Altoona, Berks, Erie, and Harrisburg 12-Month Estimated

  13. Process, including membrane separation, for separating hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for providing improved methane removal and hydrogen reuse in reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved methane removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the reactor recycle loop across membranes selective in favor of methane over hydrogen, and capable of exhibiting a methane/hydrogen selectivity of at least about 2.5 under the process conditions.

  14. Effect of bubble size and density on methane conversion to hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leske, J.; Taylor, C.E.; Ladner, E.P.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. One area of investigation is the storage of methane as methane hydrates. An economical and efficient means of storing methane in hydrates opens many commercial opportunities such as transport of stranded gas, off-peak storage of line gas, etc.We have observed during our investigations that the ability to convert methane to methane hydrate is enhanced by foaming of the methane–water solution using a surfactant. The density of the foam, along with the bubble size, is important in the conversion of methane to methane hydrate.

  15. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

  16. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports. Documenting the results of this effort are key to extracting lessons learned and maximizing the industry's benefits for future hydrate exploitation.

  17. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane over V2O5/MoO3/Al2O3 and V2O5/Cr2O3/Al2O3: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane over V2O5/MoO3/Al2O3 and V2O5/Cr2O3/Al2O3: Structural of stoichiometric reduction in H2, and the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. VOx domains on Al2O3 modified The oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane provides an attractive route for the synthesis of propene.1

  18. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  19. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  20. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

  1. New thermodynamic diagrams developed for methane and ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Sheth, S.D.; Han, M. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic diagrams have been developed for methane and ethane. The diagrams determine volume and enthalpy as a function of pressure and temperature. The diagrams cover a wide range of conditions and are designed for ease of use. The enthalpy diagrams also contain constant-entropy lines, which allow engineers to solve second-law problems such as adiabatic expansion and fluid compression. Each diagram includes: a two-phase region for saturated liquid and vapor; a superheated gas region for gases at temperatures above the saturation temperature; a subcooled liquid region for liquids at temperatures below the saturation temperature; and a supercritical region for temperatures and pressures above the critical point. Representative engineering uses are illustrated in three examples.

  2. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  3. Mechanistic studies of electron transfer, complex formation, C-H bond activation, and product binding in soluble methane monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Daniel Arthur

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Soluble Methane Monooxygenase: Activation of Dioxygen and Methane The mechanisms by which soluble methane monooxygenase uses dioxygen to convert methane selectively to methanol have come into sharp focus. Diverse ...

  4. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. DOE/AMO NG Infrastructure R & D & Methane emissions Mitigation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Confidential to NYSEARCHNGA DOEAMO NG INFRASTRUCTURE R & D & METHANE EMISSIONS MITIGATION WORKSHOP November 2014 David Merte & Daphne D'Zurko, NYSEARCHNGA...

  6. Energy Department Expands Research into Methane Hydrates, a Vast...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of methane in shallow subsurface and water columns, and the role gas hydrates play in carbon cycling. DOE Investment: approximately 650,000 Massachusetts Institute of...

  7. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution...

  8. Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir: Contribution from Bubbling Sediments and their importance were quantified during a yearlong survey of a temperate hydropower reservoir. Measurements using

  9. anthropogenic methane emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMISSIONS FROM MSW LANDFILLS D. SAVANNE*, P. CASSINI the contribution to the greenhouse effect due to methane emitted by municipal solid waste landfills. The objective of the...

  10. Methane production during the anaerobic decomposition of composted and raw organic refuse in simulated landfill cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Margrit Evelyn

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane contributes 20% annually to increases in global warming, and is explosive at concentrations of 5-15% in air. Landfills contribute 15% to total methane emissions. This study was conducted to determine the potential decrease in methane...

  11. Analysis of a direct methane conversion to high molecular weight hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghafran, Moh'd. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane conversion to heavier hydrocarbons was studied using electrical furnaces and a plasma apparatus. The experiments were performed with pure methane for the electrical furnace experiments while pure methane and additions such as hydrogen...

  12. New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico brine pool via in situ mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girguis, Peter R.

    , likely exceeding reserves of conventional oil and gas (Collett and Kuuskraa, 1998). In deep-ocean regionsNew constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico Keywords: Methane flux Mass spectrometer Brine pool Methane oxidation Gulf of Mexico a b s t r a c t Deep

  13. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit (DPU) was developed and deployed for operation in the Powder River Basin. First year operatio

  14. ED-XAS Data Reveal In-situ Time-Resolved Adsorbate Coverage on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts during Propane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramaker, David; Gatewood, Daniel [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington D.C. 20052 (United States); Beale, Andrew M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Dept. of Chem., Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (ED-XAS) data combined with UV/Vis, Raman, and mass spectrometry data on alumina- and silica-supported molybdenum oxide catalysts under propane dehydrogenation conditions have been previously reported. A novel {delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique was applied here to the time-resolved (0.1 min) Mo K-edge ED-XAS data by taking the difference of absorption, {mu}, at t>1 against the initial time, t=0. Further, full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF 8.0 code are performed to interpret the {delta}{mu} signatures. The resulting difference spectra and interpretation provide real time propane coverage and O depletion at the MoOn surface. The propane coverage is seen to correlate with the propene and/or coke production, with the maximum coke formation occurring when the propane coverage is the largest. Combined, these data give unprecedented insight into the complicated dynamics for propane dehydrogenation.

  15. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was included because of the extensive data collected in a producible hydrate accumulation. To date, such a location had not been studied in the oceanic environment. The project worked closely with ongoing projects (e.g. GOM JIP and offshore India) that are actively investigating potentially economic hydrate accumulations in marine settings. The overall approach was fivefold: (1) collect key data concerning hydrocarbon fluxes which is currently missing at all locations to be included in the study, (2) use this and existing data to build numerical models that can explain gas hydrate variance at all four locations, (3) simulate how natural gas could be produced from each location with different production strategies, (4) collect new sediment property data at these locations that are required for constraining fluxes, production simulations and assessing sediment stability, and (5) develop a method for remotely quantifying heterogeneities in gas hydrate and free gas distributions. While we generally restricted our efforts to the locations where key parameters can be measured or constrained, our ultimate aim was to make our efforts universally applicable to any hydrate accumulation.

  16. State heating oil & propane program. Final report for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1994--1995 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Energy Office (PEO) to summarize its activities under the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1994-95 heating season. The PEO is under a cooperative agreement, Agreement DE-7C01-91E122784, Amendment No. 3, with the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) to conduct these activities. The objective of the SHOPP program was to collect Pennsylvania-specific price information for residential No. 2 heating oil and propane and transmit this information to DOE/EIA for compilation into its various reports and publications. Under the PEO`s cooperative agreement with DOE/EIA, prices were collected on the first and third Mondays of each month, starting on October 3, 1994, and extending through March 20, 1995. Prices were obtained via telephone calls made by PEO staff. For each heating oil distributor in the survey sample, the PEO collected charge prices for a standard delivery quantity of No. 2 heating oil. For propane, dealers were requested to provide the price for a customer using between one thousand and fifteen hundred gallons of fuel during the heating season. The PEO agreed to forward the survey results to the DOE/EIA within three days of the date of each survey. DOE/EIA`s responsibility was to compile the data from all states and distribute a bi-weekly report. In addition, DOE/EIA took responsibility for the collection of primary stock information for No. 2 heating oil.

  17. The catalytic oxidation of propane and propylene with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity at low conversions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Looney, Franklin Sittig

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ Ths writer is izntebteg to pr, P G~ ~och Tor his assistance azsi guidance in this work aC to Br~ J+ 9 Kinds Tor his aery. suggestions eel Succor~ a The oxidation cf propane~ propylene and prcya~cregyimm mbetccres ctver a ~ aiucdna ~st in a flew... vere developed for rms with Iow propylene pressers Froa ths recncits of this study it, appears that the reaction yieldiccg aldehyde occurs in the fere part af the reactec bed Increased oxidation br' about by tunreased residence tins causes eccidation...

  18. U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies May 2,...

  19. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY Digesters Do Not Address theMethane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE

  20. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THEA. Digesters Have Received Attention for Their Potential to

  1. Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal Seams Technology. Volume 8, Number 3, April 1991. Rept. for Jul-Sep 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents include reports on: Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana; Greater Green River Coal Region, Wyoming and Colorado; Uinta Basin, Utah; Piceance Basin, Colorado; San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico; Black Warrior Basin, Alabama; Experimental Fracturing and Propping of Coal-Implications for Hydraulic Fracture Design; Western Cretaceous Coal Seams Project; Multiple Coal Seams Project; Coalbed Methane Technology Development in the Appalachian Basin; Reservoir Engineering and Analysis and Geologic Evaluation of Critical Production Parameters for Coalbed Methane Resources.

  2. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tan, Sugata [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  3. Correlation of producing Fruitland Formation coals within the western outcrop and coalbed methane leakage on the Southern Ute Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Christopher J.; Mathews, Stephanie; Wickman, Barbara

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Colorado Geological Survey and Southern Ute Indian Tribe proposed to determine the cause of several gas seeps which are occurring on the western outcrop of the coalbed methane producing Fruitland Formation on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. Correlation between outcrop coals and subsurface coals was necessary to determine seep source in the northern part of the study area. Subsurface studies include structure and net coal isopach maps, stratigraphy was cross-sections, production maps, and a production database. Detailed coal stratigraphy was correlated through production wells near the outcrop region. These maps and cross-sections were correlated to new surface outcrop maps generated by the Colorado, Geological Survey and the Southern Ute Division of Energy Resources. Methane gas seepage has been noted historically within the study area. The total investigation may help determine if gas seepage is natural, a result of coalbed methane development, or some combination of the above.

  4. Process, including PSA and membrane separation, for separating hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for separating hydrogen from hydrocarbons. The process includes a pressure swing adsorption step, a compression/cooling step and a membrane separation step. The membrane step relies on achieving a methane/hydrogen selectivity of at least about 2.5 under the conditions of the process.

  5. 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b, , Lilin inorganic and organic solutes (including 56 hydrocarbons) and gaseous species (e.g. carbon dioxide, CO2, the chemical and physical properties of the solid and fluid phases collectively dictate how fluid 35molecules

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual23. Methane

  7. File:Methane.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park at Methil Jump to:Methane.pdf Jump to:

  8. methane_hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires mayYuan T.External Links ExternalMethane Hydrates Special

  9. Methane Stakeholder Roundtables | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy MetalProgramFiscalMethane

  10. Methane Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee Falls,MccoyMerrimac,MesoFuelMethane Power Inc Jump to:

  11. Methane Hydrate Annual Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approvedof6,Projects38, 1)QuestionnairesMentorMethane

  12. Methane Stakeholder Roundtables | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approvedof6,Projects38,R&D Methane HydrateHydrates

  13. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 atthe District ofInstitute Regarding ProposedOnU.SformentorsThe Methane

  14. Methane hydrate research at NETL: Research to make methane production from hydrates a reality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, C.E.; Link, D.D.; English, N.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. Five key areas of research that need further investigation have been identified. These five areas, i.e. thermal properties of hydrates in sediments, kinetics of natural hydrate dissociation, hysteresis effects, permeability of sediments to gas flow and capillary pressures within sediments, and hydrate distribution at porous scale, are important to the production models that will be used for producing methane from hydrate deposits. NETL is using both laboratory experiments and computational modeling to address these five key areas. The laboratory and computational research reinforce each other by providing feedback. The laboratory results are used in the computational models and the results from the computational modeling is used to help direct future laboratory research. The data generated at NETL will be used to help fulfill The National Methane Hydrate R&D Program of a “long-term supply of natural gas by developing the knowledge and technology base to allow commercial production of methane from domestic hydrate deposits by the year 2015” as outlined on the NETL Website [NETL Website, 2005. http://www.netl.doe.gov/scngo/Natural%20Gas/hydrates/index.html]. Laboratory research is accomplished in one of the numerous high-pressure hydrate cells available ranging in size from 0.15 mL to 15 L in volume. A dedicated high-pressure view cell within the Raman spectrometer allows for monitoring the formation and dissociation of hydrates. Thermal conductivity of hydrates (synthetic and natural) at a certain temperature and pressure is performed in a NETL-designed cell. Computational modeling studies are investigating the kinetics of hydrate formation and dissociation, modeling methane hydrate reservoirs, molecular dynamics simulations of hydrate formation, dissociation, and thermal properties, and Monte Carlo simulations of hydrate formation and dissociation.

  15. METHANE IN SUBSURFACE: MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peszynska, Malgorzata

    consortium led by Chevron, in gas hydrate drilling, research expeditions [6], and observatories [5, 7] which help to evaluate methane hydrate as an energy resource. Although the existence of gas hydrates and energy recovery involving the evolution of methane gas in the subsurface. In particular, we develop

  16. Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with CÀH Activation (generated by dissolution[6] of Au2O3) react with methane at 1808C to selectively generate methanol (as a mixture of the ester and methanol) in high yield (Table 1, entries 1 and 2). As expected, the irreversible

  17. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  18. United States Department of Energy New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy. 1991--1992 Heating Oil and Propane Price Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in a program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. The period of the surveys was October 7, 1991 to March 16 1992. We submitted data collected as of specified reference dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates.

  19. Methane coupling by membrane reactor. First quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yi Hua

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was studied by running the methane coupling reactions at different methane to oxygen ratios, temperatures and dilution gas flow rates. For methane to oxygen ratios less than 3, the C{sub 2} yield was almost the same; and C{sub 2} yield began to decrease as the methane to oxygen ratio was further increased. The optimal temperature observed was around 800{degrees}C, where the C{sub 2} yield reached a maximum value. Increasing the dilution gas (helium) flow rate resulted in higher C{sub 2} selectivity; however, after a certain dilution gas flow rate the C{sub 2} yield began to decrease due to a decrease in methane conversion as a result of the reduced contact time. The stability study of the catalyst showed that, after five successive run cycles, the C{sub 2} yield obtained decreased from 24% to 19% at 780 {degrees}C, and methane, oxygen and helium flow rates of 12.2, 4.1, and 44. 3 mm/min, respectively. XRD analysis showed that, after the reaction, the XRD peaks of the cristabolite and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} phases in the catalyst became smaller than those in the fresh catalyst, and that at least one new, unidentified phase was observed. Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was used as the methane oxidative coupling catalyst in a porous membrane reactor and its performance was compared with a packed reactor operated at similar conditions. Although the membrane reactor showed lower methane conversion at the same reaction conditions, it gave higher C{sub 2} selectivity and C{sub 2} yield at similar methane conversions.

  20. Experimental studies of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production in the San Ardo field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    is the use of propane as a steam additive with the purpose of increasing recovery and accelerating oil production. The second process involves the use of a novel production configuration that makes use of a vertical injector and a smart horizontal producer...

  1. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  2. An In-Situ XAS Study of the Structural Changes in a CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 Catalyst during Total Oxidation of Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silversmith, Geert; Poelman, Hilde; Poelman, Dirk; Gryse, Roger de [Ghent University, Department of Solid State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Olea, Maria; Balcaen, Veerle; Heynderickx, Philippe; Marin, Guy B. [Ghent University, Laboratorium voor Petrochemische Techniek, Krijgslaan 281 S5, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A CuOx-CeOx/Al2O3 catalyst was studied with in-situ transmission Cu K XAS for the total oxidation of propane as model reaction for the catalytic elimination of volatile organic compounds. The local Cu structure was determined for the catalyst as such, after pre-oxidation and after reduction with propane. The catalyst as such has a local CuO structure. No structural effect was observed upon heating in He up to 600 deg. C or after pre-oxidation at 150 deg. C. A full reduction of the Cu2+ towards metallic Cu0 occurred, when propane was fed to the catalyst. The change in local Cu structure during propane reduction was followed with a time resolution of 1 min. The {chi}(k) scans appeared as linear combinations of start and end spectra, CuO and Cu structure, respectively. However, careful examination of the XANES edge spectra indicates the presence of a small amount of additional Cu1+ species.

  3. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  4. Influence of low and high temperature coking of H-GaMFI propane aromatization catalyst on its surface and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, V.R.; Kinage, A.K.; Devadas, P. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)] [and others] [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); and others

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-Gallosilicate (MFI) (i.e., H-GaMFI) zeolite shows high activity/selectivity in the aromatization of lower alkanes, which is processes of treat practical importance. The high aromatization activity of this catalyst is attributed to its high dehydrogenation activity due to the presence of high dispersed nonframework Ga-oxide species (which are formed during hydrothermal synthesis and/or pretreatments to the zeolite) along with the zeolitic acid sites (or framework Ga), resulting in a bifunctional catalyst. However, this zeolite undergoes fast catalyst deactivation in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization at 500-550{degrees}C for a short time-on-stream (10 h). It is interesting to know the effect of catalyst deactivation due to coking in the propane aromatization for much longer periods both at low (at 400{degrees}C) and high (at 550{degrees}C) temperatures on the product selectivity and also on the surface (viz., sorption capacity, acidity/acid strength distribution) and catalytic properties of the zeolite. The present investigation was undertaken for this purpose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion Apparatus. . . 20 22 Temperature Profile Inside the Reactor. . 30 Methane and Acetylene Conversion over Time on Stream, T = 412 C, Molar Feed Ratio = 6/I (CH4/CqHr). . 36 Mass Flow Rate (g/s) of the Effluent Gas (Unreacted Methane... and Acetylene, Isobutane, Ethylene, and Nitrogen) from the Reactor Integrated over Time on Stream. 40 Mass Flow Rate (g/s) of the Gas Products (Isobutane and Ethylene) Integrated over Time on Stream. 41 Methane and Acetylene Conversion over Time on Stream...

  6. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

  7. The electronic spectra and structure of bis(2,2'biphenylene) methane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofer, Owen Charles

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transit ion Sysssetries ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 12 Theuretioal Calculation uf Fluorene and Bis(2iiR bipheuyleme) Methane . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 13 Theoretioal Caloulatiun and Experimental Beta Sf Flugrene and Bis(2 2 bkpMenylsne) Methane ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ e... Calouiation of Fluorene ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ 22 P Matrix of Bis(2~2 biphemyleue) Methane ~ ~ ~ 23 P Matrix of Bis(2, 2 biphewylene) Methane (Continued) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 P Matrix of Fluorene ~ ~ 25 Gesssa Matrix of Bis(2, 2 biphenyleue) Methane ~ ~ 26...

  8. Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts. Topical report, September 8, 1992--September 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to selectively oxidize methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons and to oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol, in high space time yields using air at the oxidant under milder reaction conditions that heretofore employed over industrially practical oxide catalysts. The research carried out under this US DOE-METC contract was divided into the following three tasks: Task 1, maximizing selective methane oxidation to C{sub 2}{sup +} products over promoted SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts; Task 2, selective methane oxidation to oxygenates; and Task 3, catalyst characterization and optimization. Principal accomplishments include the following: the 1 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}/SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} promoted catalyst developed here produced over 2 kg of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/kg catalyst/hr at 550 C; V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts have been prepared that produce up to 1.5 kg formaldehyde/kg catalyst/hr at 630 C with low CO{sub 2} selectivities; and a novel dual bed catalyst system has been designed and utilized to produce over 100 g methanol/kg catalyst/hr at 600 C with the presence of steam in the reactant mixture.

  9. The preliminary result from spectra of $K^0_s ?^-$ in reaction p+propane at 10 GeV/c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Zh. Aslanyan

    2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental data from 2m propane bubble chamber have been analyzed to search for scalar meson $\\kappa(800)$ in a $K^0_s\\pi$ decay mode for the reaction p+$C_3H_8$ at 10 GeV/c. The $K^0_s\\pi^-$ invariant mass spectrum has shown resonant structures with $M_{K^0_s\\pi^-}$=730, 900 and $\\Gamma$=143, 48 MeV/$c^2$, respectively. The statistical significance are estimated to be of 14.2$\\sigma$ and 4.2$\\sigma$, respectively. The peak in M(900) is identified as reflection from the well known resonance with mass of 892 MeV/c$^2$.

  10. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600°F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 – 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  11. air methane vam: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 161 Uncorking the bottle: What triggered the PaleoceneEocene thermal maximum methane release? Geosciences...

  12. Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to be eligible for the exemption, methane digester equipment must be certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the farm must be verified as compliant under the...

  13. Compressible Solution Properties of Amorphous Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene, Crystalline Polystyrene-block-Poly(Hydrogenated Polybutadiene) and Their Corresponding Homopolymers: Fluid-Fluid, Fluid-Solid and Fluid-Micelle Phase Transitions in Propane and Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Polystyrene, polybutadiene, hydrogenated polybutadiene, and styrene diblock copolymers of these homopolymers can form homogenous solutions in compressible solvents, such as propane and propylene, which separate into two bulk phases upon reducing pressure. The cloud and micellization pressures for homopolymer and diblock copolymers are generally found to be higher in propane than in propylene, except for hydrogenated polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-(hydrogenated polybutadiene). Hydrogenated polybutadiene homopolymers and copolymers exhibit relatively pressure-independent crystallization and melting observed in both propane and propylene solutions.

  14. Methanation in catalyst-sprayed tube wall reactors: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H. W.; Schehl, R. R.; Haynes, W. P.; Forney, A. J.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of catalyst-sprayed tube wall reactors for methanation are discussed. Reactor tubes were either coated on the inner surface or on the outer surface with a Raney nickel catalyst. A liquid coolant, which was opposite the catalyst-reactant gas-side, removed the heat of methanation. Catalyst performance, reactor operating conditions, spent catalyst analyses, and other results are presented for five PDU tests.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of methane adsorbed on porous silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Feng

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technique studied hydrogen physisorbed on graphitized carbon black. In their study, temperatures ranged from 12 K to 28 K, and coverages ranged from 0. 03 to 0. 33 of a statistical monolayer. Their results showed that both Tt and Tz increased... of methane adsorbed on graphite. The thermal properties of the 2-D system are inuch more complex than that of bulk methane. Results from neutron scattering, calorimetric 3 4 and thermodynamic studies showed the existence of a, complicated phase diagram...

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of methane adsorbed on porous silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Feng

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDY OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by FENG I I Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1992 Major Subject: Physics NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDY OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by FENG LI Approved as to style and content by: . P. Kirk (Chair of Committee) i G. Agnolet (Member) J. H. Ross, r (Member) M...

  17. The study of methane adsorbed on porous silicon by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czermak, Adam Kazimierz

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE STUDY OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON BY NMR A Thesis by ADAM KAZIMIERZ CZERMAK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986... Major Subject: Physics THE STUDY OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON BY NMR A Thesis by ADAM KAZIMIERZ CZERMAK Approved as to style and content by: e Wile . Kirk (Chairman of Committee) J eevak M. Par pi a (Member) Randall L. Geiger...

  18. Velocity of sound in solid methane near melting temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John Martin

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VELOCITY OF SOUND IN SOLID METHANE NEAR MELTING TEMPERATURES A Thesis By JOHN MARTIN WHITEHEAD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1968 Ma)or Sub)ect: Physics VELOCITY OF SOVND IN SOLID METHANE NEAR MELTING TEMPERATURES A Thesis By JOHN MARTIN WHITEHEAD Approved as to style and content by& (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departsmnt) (Mem er (Member) May 1968...

  19. Two dimensional properties of methane adsorbed on porous silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennis, Richard Franklin

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TWO DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by RICHARD FRANKLIN TENNIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Physics TWO DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES OF METHANE ADSORBED ON POROUS SILICON A Thesis by RICHARD FRANKLIN TENNIS Approved as to style and content by: P. Kirk (C ir of Committee) Glenn olet (M er) Da J. Ernst...

  20. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and reactivity of supercritical CO{sub 2} in coal-bearing strata is unknown, and potential exists for supercritical conditions to develop below a depth of 2,480 feet following abandonment of the coalbed methane fields. High-pressure adsorption isotherms confirm that coal sorbs approximately twice as much CO{sub 2} as CH{sub 4} and approximately four times as much CO{sub 2} as N{sub 2}. Analysis of isotherm data reveals that the sorption performance of each gas can vary by a factor of two depending on rank and ash content. Gas content data exhibit extreme vertical and lateral variability that is the product of a complex burial history involving an early phase of thermogenic gas generation and an ongoing stage of late biogenic gas generation. Production characteristics of coalbed methane wells are helpful for identifying areas that are candidates for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Many geologic and engineering factors, including well construction, well spacing, and regional structure influence well performance. Close fault spacing limits areas where five-spot patterns may be developed for enhanced gas recovery, but large structural panels lacking normal faults are in several gas fields and can be given priority as areas to demonstrate and commercialize carbon sequestration technology in coalbed methane reservoirs.

  1. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ON THE CARBON-HYDROGEN SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakowski, R.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    one temperature and analyzed for propane for corr- osion-ratThe pyrolysis of ethane and propane at 2000 to 5000 0 K wasproduct was methane. Propane and The tempera- ethane

  2. Methane conversion for application in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulder, A. [Gastec N.V., Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Looy, F. van [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Waveren, A. van; Wingerden, A.J.M. van

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional steam reformers are large and expensive for small scale fuel cell installations. But also the high endothermicity of the reforming reaction for the production of synthesis gas is a drawback. An alternative to conventional steam reforming is the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. This process is slightly exothermic. The flexibility of the process makes small scale application possible. However, the partial oxidation process seems especially attractive for application within a high temperature fuel cell, because of relatively high CO/H{sub 2}-ratio for the output gases. In this paper the results of the study on the mechanism of the partial oxidation to synthesis gas on silica-supported nickel catalysts are discussed. Moreover, a process for the partial oxidation is proposed in which air instead of oxygen can be used. Based on the results of the mechanistic study two processes for the catalytic partial oxidation are proposed and simulated using the Aspen Plus flowsheeting program with which the mass and heat balances were optimized.

  3. Electrochemistry of soluble methane monooxygenase on a modified gold electrode : implications for chemical sensing in natural waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Janet Duanping

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work explored the possibility of using the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzyme, a three-component enzyme which catalyzes the oxygenation of methane and other substrates, to design a methane sensor for use in ...

  4. Methane Hydrate Field Program: Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, Tim; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn; Malone, Mitch; Shipp, Craig; Torres, Marta; Myers, Greg; Divins, David; Morell, Margo

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these e?orts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these e?orts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and o?ers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  5. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  6. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Jade [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tyrrell, Zachary [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

  7. Deuteration Can Impact Micellization Pressure and Cloud Pressure of Polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in Compressible Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Shen, Youqin [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deuterated homopolymers and their corresponding polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene copolymers require lower cloud pressures than their hydrogenous analogues to dissolve in a compressible alkane solvent, such as propane. For symmetric diblocks, deuteration reduces the micellization pressure. By contrast, for asymmetric diblocks with a long diene block relative to the styrene block, deuteration can increase the micellization pressure. All in all, however, the deuteration effects, while measurable, do not qualitatively change the principal diblock properties in compressible propane solutions, such as pressure-induced micelle decomposition, micelle formation and micelle size, and their temperature dependence. Therefore, isotope labeling should be a useful approach to neutron-scattering characterization for styrene-diene block copolymers in compressible alkane systems.

  8. H-gallosilicate (MFI) propane aromatization catalyst: Influence of Si/Ga ratio on acidity, activity and deactivation due to coking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, V.R.; Kinage, A.K.; Sivadinarayana, C. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)] [and others] [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Influence of bulk Si/Ga ratio of H-gallosilicate (MFI) on its degalliation (during calcination for removal of template and deammoniation of NH{sub 4} form), acidity/acid strength distribution (measured by stepwise thermal desorption and chemisorption of pyridine at 50-400{degrees}C using GC techniques and also by acid catalyzed model reactions viz. iso-octane cracking and toluene disproportionation) and initial activity/product selectivity and catalyst deactivation in propane aromatization (at 550{degrees}C) has been investigated. Framework Si/Ga ratio was measured by {sup 29}Si MAS NMR. Information on the external acid sites is obtained by isooctane cracking. The influence of poisoning of strong acid sites (by pyridine) on acid catalyzed model reactions and the effect of deactivation on the product distribution in the propane aromatization have also been studied. 21 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Premixed Turbulent Methane Combustion John B. Bell, Marcus S. Day and Joseph F. Grcar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the increased turbulent flame speed. Joint probability distributions are computed to establish a correlation chemistry, and Haworth et al. [21] have examined the effect of inho- mogeneous reactants for propane­air flames using detailed propane chemistry. More recently Tanahashi et al. [22] have performed direct

  10. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Merkel, David

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production tends to decline hyperbolically. Hyperbolic decline indicates that water volume is of greatest concern early in the life of a coalbed methane project. Regional mapping indicates that gas production is controlled primarily by the ability to depressurize permeable coal seams that are natively within the steep part of the adsorption isotherm. Water production is greatest within the freshwater intrusion and below thick Cretaceous cover strata and is least in areas of underpressure. Water management strategies include instream disposal, which can be applied effectively in most parts of the basin. Deep disposal may be applicable locally, particularly where high salinity limits the ability to dispose into streams. Artificial wetlands show promise for the management of saline water, especially where the reservoir yield is limited. Beneficial use options include municipal water supply, agricultural use, and industrial use. The water may be of use to an inland shrimp farming industry, which is active around the southwestern coalbed methane fields. The best opportunities for beneficial use are reuse of water by the coalbed methane industry for drilling and hydraulic fracturing. This research has further highlighted opportunities for additional research on treatment efficiency, the origin of nitrogen compounds, organic geochemistry, biogenic gas generation, flow modeling, and computer simulation. Results of this study are being disseminated through a vigorous technology transfer program that includes web resources, numerous presentations to stakeholders, and a variety of technical publications.

  11. Acid strength of support materials as a factor controlling oxidation state of palladium catalyst for propane combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazawa, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Hisao; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Komai, Shinichi; Satsuma, Atsushi; Hattori, Tadashi

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The support effect on the low temperature catalytic combustion of propane over palladium catalyst was studied by using a series of metal oxides as support materials: MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-ZrO{sub 2}. The catalytic activity varied with the kind of support materials; a support material with moderate acid strength gave maximum conversion. In order to discuss more details, 5 wt% Pd/ZrO{sub 2}, Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pd/SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were subjected to catalytic testing under the various conditions, and the catalysts after the test were characterized by XRD and XPS. The activity changed with the oxygen concentration, and the concentration providing the maximum activity depended on the support material. The maximum activity was obtained at high concentration on Pd/SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, at moderate concentration on Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and at low concentration on Pd/ZrO{sub 2}. This sequence corresponded to that of acid strength of the support materials measured by Hammett indicators. The relation between the oxidation state of palladium and its catalytic activity under the various mixtures indicated that the catalytic activity on each catalyst depends on the oxidation state of palladium, and that partially oxidized palladium is effective for propane combustion. Moreover, palladium on acidic support kept the metallic state even under high oxygen concentration, indicating that acidic support gives palladium the resistibility against oxidation. These results suggest one guideline for the design of active palladium catalyst; an acidic support must be chosen under the mixture of the higher oxygen concentration and vice versa.

  12. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  13. Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (King Saud Univ.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

  14. Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H. [and others

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

  15. Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharff, Heijo [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl; Jacobs, Joeri [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.jacobs@afvalzorg.nl

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of methane emission from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Both the United Nations and the European Union have adopted protocols to ensure quantification of methane emission from individual landfills. The purpose of these protocols is to disclose emission data to regulators and the general public. Criteria such as timeliness, completeness, certainty, comparability, consistency and transparency are set for inclusion of emission data in a publicly accessible database. All methods given as guidance to landfill operators to estimate landfill methane emissions are based on models. In this paper the consequences of applying six different models for estimates of three landfills are explored. It is not the intention of this paper to criticise or validate models. The modelling results are compared with whole site methane emission measurements. A huge difference in results is observed. This raises doubts about the accuracy of the models. It also indicates that at least some of the criteria previously mentioned are not met for the tools currently available to estimate methane emissions from individual landfills. This will inevitably lead to compiling and comparing data with an incomparable origin. Harmonisation of models is recommended. This may not necessarily reduce uncertainty, but it will at least result in comparable, consistent and transparent data.

  16. Structural stability of methane hydrate at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Jinfu; Chen, Xiaojia; Chou, I.-Ming; Yang, Wenge; Hu, Jingzhu; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural stability of methane hydrate under pressure at room temperature was examined by both in-situ single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques on samples with structure types I, II, and H in diamond-anvil cells. The diffraction data for types II (sII) and H (sH) were refined to the known structures with space groups Fd3m and P6{sub 3}/mmc, respectively. Upon compression, sI methane hydrate transforms to the sII phase at 120 MPa, and then to the sH phase at 600 MPa. The sII methane hydrate was found to coexist locally with sI phase up to 500 MPa and with sH phase up to 600 MPa. The pure sH structure was found to be stable between 600 and 900 MPa. Methane hydrate decomposes at pressures above 3 GPa to form methane with the orientationally disordered Fm3m structure and ice VII (Pn3m). The results highlight the role of guest (CH{sub 4})-host (H{sub 2}O) interactions in the stabilization of the hydrate structures under pressure.

  17. Coalbed methane produced water management guide treatment and discharge to surface waters: Black Warrior Basin, Alabama. Final report, April 1991-May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.A.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assist coalbed methane in their efforts to manage produced waters in an environmentally acceptable manner, GRI, in cooperation with the member companies of the Coalbed Methane Association of Alabama, developed a guidance manual that presents the state-of-the-art methodology for managing Black Warrior Basin produced water through the use of treatment ponds and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Six treatment pond systems were studied to develop information for the manual. Topics included in the manual are produced water characteristics, NPDES permit requirements, sample collection and testing, pond based treatment methods, treatment pond management, and process troubleshooting.

  18. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane oxidation and incorporation in seafloor carbonate, or expulsion to the ocean. This expedition builds on the previous Cascadia gas hydrate drilling of ODP Leg 146 and on more recent ODP Leg 204 off Oregon. Important experiments being considered for DOE/NETL funding as part of the JOI cooperative agreement include, (1) Logging-While-Drilling/Measurements-While-Drilling (LWD/MWD), (2) Pressure Core Sampling (PCS/HYACINTH) of gas hydrate, and fluid recovery under in situ conditions, (3) X-ray CT logging of whole cores under in situ conditions, and (4) Infrared thermal imaging of whole round cores to map temperature variations resulting from the presence of hydrate. Preliminary budget estimates have been made for each of these tasks and discussions are ongoing with DOE/NETL program managers to develop a final plan that can be implemented within the constraints of the available funding and logistical considerations.

  19. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  20. New mineralogy of the outer solar system and the high-pressure behaviour of methane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard-Casely, Helen E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will introduce the study of methane as a mineral. Along with ammonia and water, methane is one of the main planetary-forming materials in the outer solar system. The topic of `new mineralogy of the outer solar ...

  1. Biogeochemical modelling of anaerobic vs. aerobic methane oxidation in a meromictic crater lake (Lake Pavin, France)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Géosciences, 1A rue de la Férolerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France Abstract Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its concentration in the atmosphere has increased over the past decades. Methane produced

  2. Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 1 (to sustain instream #12;Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology Supporting Information 1.0 Produced Water Regulatory Framework for WY and NM

  3. ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL recovered. Carbon sequestration, therefore, allows the utilization of unexploited mineral resources while potential of coalbed methane production using carbon dioxide sequestration in the Central Appalachian Basin

  4. Magnitude and spatio-temporal variability of methane emissions from a eutrophic freshwater lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, Charuleka, 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and it can significantly impact global climate change. Considerable amounts of methane can be released to the atmosphere from freshwater lakes, ...

  5. Energy Policy Seminar Series: Climate impacts of methane-emitting energy technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    of greenhouse gases, most notably methane and carbon dioxide, and these gases have dissimilar properties. This research finds that methane-emitting energy such as natural gas becomes significantly more carbon dioxide

  6. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE SENSING FOR SYNGAS, METHANE AND JET-A COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzman, Jerry M.

    MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE SENSING FOR SYNGAS, METHANE AND JET-A COMBUSTION of Technology August 2008 #12;MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE SENSING FOR SYNGAS, METHANE AND JET

  7. Modeling ruminant methane emissions from the U.S. beef cattle industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Danny Carroll

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer models were constructed to estimate methane emissions from cow/calf, replacement heifers, burs, stockers and feedlot sectors of the U.S. beef cattle industry. Methane (CH4) yields were calculated based on net energy values and forage...

  8. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locatelli, R.

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model ...

  9. Control of substrate access to the active site in methane monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Jae

    Methanotrophs consume methane as their major carbon source and have an essential role in the global carbon cycle by limiting escape of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. These bacteria oxidize methane to methanol by ...

  10. Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

  11. Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

  12. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  13. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  14. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

  15. Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by FeO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by Fe.1063/1.1448489 I. INTRODUCTION The direct oxidation of methane to an easily transport- able liquid such as methanol process and as the simplest model for alkane oxidation.1,2 Although no direct, efficient methane­methanol

  16. EFFECTS OF WATER SPRAYS AND SCRUBBER EXHAUST ON FACE METHANE CONCENTRATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saylor, John R.

    Chapter 65 EFFECTS OF WATER SPRAYS AND SCRUBBER EXHAUST ON FACE METHANE CONCENTRATIONS Ch.D. Taylor-mounted scrubber and water sprays can reduced methane levels at the face. The current research was conducted to determine how the sprays and scrubber interact to reduce methane levels, and what spray configurations

  17. Compatibility of selected ceramics with steam-methane reformer environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) hasa conversion efficiency of about 85%. Replacement of metal tubes in the reformer with ceramic tubes offers the potential for operation at temperatures high enough to increase the efficiency to 98-99%. However, the two candidate ceramic materials being given strongest consideration, sintered alpha Si carbide and Si carbide particulate-strengthened alumina, have been shown to react with components of the reformer environment. Extent of degradation as a function of steam partial pressure and exposure time has been studied, and results suggest limits under which these structural ceramics can be used in advanced steam-methane reformers.

  18. International Cooperation in Methane Hydrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas » Methane Hydrate » International Cooperation in Methane

  19. Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee Falls,MccoyMerrimac,MesoFuelMethane PowerMetro Methane

  20. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czepiel, P.M.; Shorter, J.H.; Mosher, B.; Allwine, E.; McManus, J.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Kolb, C.E.; Lamb, B.K

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} min{sup -1}. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These data, along with CH{sub 4} oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH{sub 4} generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} and an estimated annual rate of CH{sub 4} oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} resulted in a calculated annual CH{sub 4} generation rate of 16.7x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential.

  1. Automatic isochoric apparatus for PVT and phase equilibrium studies of natural gas mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jingjun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................................................................ 51 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .................................................................................... 54 Carbon Dioxide and Propane Measurement........................................................... 54 91% Methane Natural Gas... 94% Methane Natural Gas ..................................................................................... 65 Phase Boundary....................................................................................... 65...

  2. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hydrogen, krypton, liquid nitrogen, methane, mixed, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, P-10, propane, sulfur hexafluoride, tetrafluoro methane. The Cylinders are to be turned over to a...

  3. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  4. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal Solid Waste-Sewage Sludge. b 4.15 SCF CH 4 / cu ftUP I j methane 31.5 scf sludge 18.61b water 161b Btu/scfsewer 65.3 lb ( 7.9 gal) sludge ash 1.74 lb stack emissions

  5. RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways2007 #12;3 INTRODUCTION Soots and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are present in the exhaust gas

  6. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  7. The Optimization of Well Spacing in a Coalbed Methane Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinurat, Pahala Dominicus

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    reserve estimation for a coalbed methane reservoir. Other numerical reservoir simulation studies were presented by David, H. and Law, S.18, Hower, T.L.19, and Jalal, J. and Shahab, D.M.20. They showed the application of a compositional simulator...

  8. METHANE IN SUBSURFACE: MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peszynska, Malgorzata

    ), in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and an industry consortium led by Chevron, in gas hydrate as an energy resource. Although the existence of gas hydrates in nature has been known for many decades, our and energy recovery involving the evolution of methane gas in the subsurface. In particular, we develop

  9. Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectrometer for Detection of Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectrometer for Detection of Methane 1 Funded by Environmental. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas, Austin #12;Motivation No other chip based optical Similar to: Doping of Semiconductor 3 #12;4 Photonic Crystal Bio-Chemical Sensors Loncar et al, Appl. Phys

  10. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  11. Partial oxidation of methane to syngas in different reactor types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapszewicz, J.A.; Campbell, I.; Charlton, B.G.; Foulds, G.A. [CSIRO Division of Coal and Energy Technology, Menai (Australia)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of Rh/ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for partial oxidation of methane to syngas was compared in fixed and fluidised bed reactors. Catalyst activity was found not to be a limiting factor under any experimental conditions and complete oxygen conversions were observed in all tests. In the fixed bed reactor both methane conversion and syngas selectivity were increasing with space velocity as the result of an autothermal effect. Satisfactory control of the catalyst temperature at high space velocities could only be achieved with addition of inert diluent or steam to the feed. Different conversion and selectivity patterns were observed in fluidised bed reactor. Methane conversion and carbon monoxide selectivity were decreasing with increasing gas flow. By contrast, hydrogen selectivity showed distinct maximum at medium space velocities. These results are interpreted in terms of catalyst backmixing and its effect on primary and secondary reactions. Improved temperature control was also achieved in fluidised bed reactor. Several experiments using fluidised bed reactor were carried out at elevated pressures. To eliminate the occurrence of non-catalytic gas phase reactions between methane and oxygen very short feed mixing times (< 1 ms) were employed. Despite these measures the reactor could not be successfully operated at pressures above 0.7 MPa. The implications of these findings for process development are discussed.

  12. Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA Abstract Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide (SnO2) was studied using: Combustion synthesis; Nanoparticles; Tin dioxide; Metals 1. Introduction Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most

  13. Variability of the methane trapping in martian subsurface clathrate hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caroline Thomas; Olivier Mousis; Sylvain Picaud; Vincent Ballenegger

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations have evidenced traces of methane CH4 heterogeneously distributed in the martian atmosphere. However, because the lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere of Mars is estimated to be around 300-600 years on the basis of photochemistry, its release from a subsurface reservoir or an active primary source of methane have been invoked in the recent literature. Among the existing scenarios, it has been proposed that clathrate hydrates located in the near subsurface of Mars could be at the origin of the small quantities of the detected CH4. Here, we accurately determine the composition of these clathrate hydrates, as a function of temperature and gas phase composition, by using a hybrid statistical thermodynamic model based on experimental data. Compared to other recent works, our model allows us to calculate the composition of clathrate hydrates formed from a more plausible composition of the martian atmosphere by considering its main compounds, i.e. carbon dioxyde, nitrogen and argon, together with methane. Besides, because there is no low temperature restriction in our model, we are able to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates formed at temperatures corresponding to the extreme ones measured in the polar caps. Our results show that methane enriched clathrate hydrates could be stable in the subsurface of Mars only if a primitive CH4-rich atmosphere has existed or if a subsurface source of CH4 has been (or is still) present.

  14. ESTIMATING METHANE EMISSION AND OXIDATION FROM TWO TEMPORARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    layer waste gas composition were measured on two French MBT plants with aerobic pre-treatment process using old municipal solid waste material (Huber-Humer & al, 2007, 2008). Another result of these studies amount of fugitive methane emissions for landfills without waste pre-treatment (Tarimini & al, 2003

  15. Direct Biological Conversion of Electrical Current into Methane by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    produced from renewable energy sources (such as wind, solar, or biomass) into a biofuel (methane) as well. Revised manuscript received March 5, 2009. Accepted March 6, 2009. New sustainable methods are needed to produce renewable energy carriers that can be stored and used for transportation, heating, or chemical

  16. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned for stranded gas reserves. The recent experiments and their results from the testing within NETL's 15-Liter Hydrate Cell Facility exhibit promising results. Introduction of water at the desired temperature and pressure through an NETL designed nozzle into a temperature controlled methane environment within the 15-Liter Hydrate Cell allowed for instantaneous formation of methane hydrates. The instantaneous and continuous hydrate formation process was repeated over several days while varying the flow rate of water, its' temperature, and the overall temperature of the methane environment. These results clearly indicated that hydrates formed immediately after the methane and water left the nozzle at temperatures above the freezing point of water throughout the range of operating conditions. [1] Oil and Gas Journal Vol. 160.48, Dec 22, 2008. [2] http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/chapter3.html and http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/pdf/tbl7.pdf [3] U.S. Geological Survey, “Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle,” May 2008.

  17. Modeling pure methane hydrate dissociation using a numerical simulator from a novel combination of X-ray computed tomography and macroscopic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.; Moridis, G.J.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Sloan, Jr., E.D.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The numerical simulator TOUGH+HYDRATE (T+H) was used to predict the transient pure methane hydrate (no sediment) dissociation data. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to visualize the methane hydrate formation and dissociation processes. A methane hydrate sample was formed from granular ice in a cylindrical vessel, and slow depressurization combined with thermal stimulation was applied to dissociate the hydrate sample. CT images showed that the water produced from the hydrate dissociation accumulated at the bottom of the vessel and increased the hydrate dissociation rate there. CT images were obtained during hydrate dissociation to confirm the radial dissociation of the hydrate sample. This radial dissociation process has implications for dissociation of hydrates in pipelines, suggesting lower dissociation times than for longitudinal dissociation. These observations were also confirmed by the numerical simulator predictions, which were in good agreement with the measured thermal data during hydrate dissociation. System pressure and sample temperature measured at the sample center followed the CH{sub 4} hydrate L{sub w}+H+V equilibrium line during hydrate dissociation. The predicted cumulative methane gas production was within 5% of the measured data. Thus, this study validated our simulation approach and assumptions, which include stationary pure methane hydrate-skeleton, equilibrium hydrate-dissociation and heat- and mass-transfer in predicting hydrate dissociation in the absence of sediments. It should be noted that the application of T+H for the pure methane hydrate system (no sediment) is outside the general applicability limits of T+H.

  18. Shock tube and theoretical studies on the thermal decomposition of propane : evidence for a roaming radical channel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal decomposition of propane has been studied using both shock tube experiments and ab initio transition state theory-based master equation calculations. Dissociation rate constants for propane have been measured at high temperatures behind reflected shock waves using high-sensitivity H-ARAS detection and CH{sub 3} optical absorption. The two major dissociation channels at high temperature are C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5} (eq 1a) and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} {yields} CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (eq 1b). Ultra high-sensitivity ARAS detection of H-atoms produced from the decomposition of the product, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, in (1a), allowed measurements of both the total decomposition rate constants, k{sub total}, and the branching to radical products, k{sub 1a}/k{sub total}. Theoretical analyses indicate that the molecular products are formed exclusively through the roaming radical mechanism and that radical products are formed exclusively through channel 1a. The experiments were performed over the temperature range 1417-1819 K and gave a minor contribution of (10 {+-} 8%) due to roaming. A multipass CH{sub 3} absorption diagnostic using a Zn resonance lamp was also developed and characterized in this work using the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}I as a reference reaction. The measured rate constants for CH{sub 3}I decomposition agreed with earlier determinations from this laboratory that were based on I-atom ARAS measurements. This CH{sub 3} diagnostic was then used to detect radicals from channel 1a allowing lower temperature (1202-1543 K) measurements of k1a to be determined. Variable reaction coordinate-transition state theory was used to predict the high pressure limits for channel (1a) and other bond fission reactions in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Conventional transition state theory calculations were also used to estimate rate constants for other tight transition state processes. These calculations predict a negligible contribution (<1%) from all other bond fission and tight transition state processes, indicating that the bond fission channel (1a) and the roaming channel (1b) are indeed the only active channels at the temperature and pressure ranges of the present experiments. The predicted reaction exo- and endothermicities are in excellent agreement with the current version of the Active Thermochemical Tables. Master equation calculations incorporating these transition state theory results yield predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the dissociation rate constants for channel 1a. The final theoretical results reliably reproduce the measured dissociation rate constants that are reported here and in the literature. The experimental data are well reproduced over the 500-2500 K and 1 x 10{sup -4} to 100 bar range (errors of {approx}15% or less) by the following Troe parameters for Ar as the bath gas: k{sub {infinity}} = 1.55 x 10{sup 24}T{sup -2.034} exp(-45490/T) s{sup -1}, k{sub 0} = 7.92 x 10{sup 53}T{sup -16.67} exp(-50380/T) cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, and F{sub c} = 0.190 exp(-T/3091) + 0.810 exp(-T/128) + exp(-8829/T).

  19. Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowry, William Baugh

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . Hydrocarbon blends of methane, ethane, and propane make up a large portion of natural gas and it has been shown that dimethyl ether can be used as a supplement or in its pure form for gas turbine combustion. Because of this, a fundamental understanding... include the flame speeds for binary blends of methane, ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether performed at elevated pressures, up to 10-atm initial pressure, using a spherically expanding flame in a constant-volume vessel. Also included in this thesis is a...

  20. Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe{sup III} or Sn{sup IV}, was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C{sub 2} coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu{sup II}(ion exchanged) Fe{sup III}(framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C{sub 2} hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

  1. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Selected Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 51115 6.15 6.08 6.28 6.83 6.96 6.75 3.06 5415 6.14 6.06...

  2. Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

  3. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  4. Correlation of flame speed with stretch in turbulent premixed methane/air flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.H.; Im, H.G.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional unsteady premixed methane/air flames are performed to determine the correlation of flame speed with stretch over a wide range of curvatures and strain rates generated by intense two-dimensional turbulence. Lean and stoichiometric premixtures are considered with a detailed C{sub 1}-mechanism for methane oxidation. The computed correlation shows the existence of two distinct stable branches. It further shows that exceedingly large negative values of stretch can be obtained solely through curvature effects which give rise to an overall nonlinear correlation of the flame speed with stretch. Over a narrower stretch range, {minus}1 {le} Ka {le} 1, which includes 90% of the sample, the correlation is approximately linear, and hence, the asymptotic theory for stretch is practically applicable. Overall, one-third of the sample has negative stretch. In this linear range, the Markstein number associated with the positive branch is determined and is consistent with values obtained from comparable steady counterflow computations. In addition to this conventional positive branch, a negative branch is identified. This negative branch occurs when a flame cusp, with a center of curvature in the burnt gases, is subjected to intense compressive strain, resulting in a negative displacement speed. Negative flame speeds are also encountered for extensive tangential strain rates exceeding a Karlovitz number of unity, a value consistent with steady counterflow computations.

  5. Methane hydrate formation and dissociation in a partially saturated core-scale sand sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T.J. (LBNL); Tomutsa, L. (LBNL); Moridis, G.J. (LBNL); Seol, Y. (LBNL); Freifeld, B.M. (LBNL); Taylor, C.E.; Gupta, A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a series of experiments to provide data for validating numerical models of gas hydrate behavior in porous media. Methane hydrate was formed and dissociated under various conditions in a large X-ray transparent pressure vessel, while pressure and temperature were monitored. In addition, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to determine local density changes during the experiment. The goals of the experiments were to observe changes occurring due to hydrate formation and dissociation, and to collect data to evaluate the importance of hydrate dissociation kinetics in porous media. In the series of experiments, we performed thermal perturbations on the sand/water/gas system, formed methane hydrate, performed thermal perturbations on the sand/hydrate/water/gas system resulting in hydrate formation and dissociation, formed hydrate in the resulting partially dissociated system, and dissociated the hydrate by depressurization coupled with thermal stimulation. Our CT work shows significant water migration in addition to possible shifting of mineral grains in response to hydrate formation and dissociation. The extensive data including pressure, temperatures at multiple locations, and density from CT data is described.

  6. Methane hydrate formation and dissociationin a partially saturatedcore-scale sand sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis, George J.; Seol,Yongkoo; Freifeld, Barry M.; Taylor, Charles E.; Gupta, Arvind

    2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a series of experiments to provide data forvalidating numerical models of gas hydrate behavior in porous media.Methane hydrate was formed and dissociated under various conditions in alarge X-ray transparent pressure vessel, while pressure and temperaturewere monitored. In addition, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used todetermine local density changes during the experiment. The goals of theexperiments were to observe changes occurring due to hydrate formationand dissociation, and to collect data to evaluate the importance ofhydrate dissociation kinetics in porous media. In the series ofexperiments, we performed thermal perturbations on the sand/water/gassystem, formed methane hydrate, performed thermal perturbations on thesand/hydrate/water/gas system resulting in hydrate formation anddissociation, formed hydrate in the resulting partially dissociatedsystem, and dissociated the hydrate by depressurization coupled withthermal stimulation. Our CT work shows significant water migration inaddition to possible shifting of mineral grains in response to hydrateformation and dissociation. The extensive data including pressure,temperatures at multiple locations, and density from CT data isdescribed.

  7. A practical grinding-assisted dry synthesis of nanocrystalline NiMoO{sub 4} polymorphs for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Miao, E-mail: chenmiao@sinochem.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research Institute, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Wu Jialing; Liu Yongmei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao Yong, E-mail: yongcao@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo Li [Zhejiang Chemical Industry Research Institute, Hangzhou 310023 (China); He Heyong; Fan Kangnian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A practical two-stage reactive grinding-assisted pathway waste-free and cost-effective for the synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} has been successfully developed. It was demonstrated that proper design in synthetic strategy for grinding plays a crucial role in determining the ultimate polymorph of NiMoO{sub 4}. Specifically, direct grinding (DG) of MoO{sub 3} and NiO rendered {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} after annealing, whereas sequential grinding (SG) of the two independently pre-ground oxides followed by annealing generated {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} solid solution. Characterizations in terms of Raman and X-ray diffraction suggest the creation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} precursor in the latter alternative is the key aspect for the formation of {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}. The DG-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} tested by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane exhibited superior activity in contrast to its analog synthesized via conventional coprecipitation. It is suggested that the favorable chemical composition facilely obtained via grinding in contrast to that by coprecipitation was essential for achieving a more selective production of propylene. - Graphical Abstract: Grinding-assisted synthesis of NiMoO{sub 4} offers higher and more reproducible activities in contrast to coprecipitation for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, and both {alpha}- and {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4} can be synthesized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiMoO{sub 4} was prepared through grinding-assisted pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct/sequential grinding rendered {alpha}-, {beta}-NiMoO{sub 4}, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grinding-derived {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} showed high and reproducible activity for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

  8. A Lean Methane Prelixed Laminar Flame Doped witg Components of Diesel Fuel. Part I: n)Butylbenzene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pousse, Emir; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; 10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.09.012

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the chemistry involved during the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with n-butylbenzene has been investigated. The inlet gases contained 7.1% (molar) of methane, 36.8% of oxygen and 0.96% of n-butylbenzene corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.74 and a ratio C10H14 / CH4 of 13.5%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as diluent, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.2 cm/s at 333 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C0-C2 combustion products, but also 16 C3-C5 hydrocarbons, 7 C1-C3 oxygenated compounds, as well as 20 aromatic products, namely benzene, toluene, phenylacetylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, allylbenzene, propylbenzene, cumene, methylstyrenes, butenylbenzenes, indene, indane, naphthalene, phenol, benzaldehyde, anisole, benzylalcohol, benzofuran, and isomers of C10H10 (1-methylindene, dihydronaphtalene, butadienylbenzene). A new mechanism for the...

  9. SaltRx HT -Scoring Sheet A1. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 1.8 M Sodium Acetate pH 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Chris

    SaltRx HT - Scoring Sheet A1. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 1.8 M Sodium Acetate pH 7.0 A2. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 2.8 M Sodium Acetate pH 7.0 A3. 0.1 M Sodium Acetate pH 4.6, 1.5 M Ammonium Chloride A4. 0.1 M Bis-Tris Propane pH 7.0, 1.5 M Ammonium Chloride A5. 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5, 1.5 M Ammonium

  10. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

  11. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  12. Methane storms as a driver of Titan's dune orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charnay, Benjamin; Rafkin, Scot; Narteau, Clément; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Pont, Sylvain Courrech du; Lucas, Antoine

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titan's equatorial regions are covered by eastward propagating linear dunes. This direction is opposite to mean surface winds simulated by Global Climate Models (GCMs), which are oriented westward at these latitudes, similar to trade winds on Earth. Different hypotheses have been proposed to address this apparent contradiction, involving Saturn's gravitational tides, large scale topography or wind statistics, but none of them can explain a global eastward dune propagation in the equatorial band. Here we analyse the impact of equinoctial tropical methane storms developing in the superrotating atmosphere (i.e. the eastward winds at high altitude) on Titan's dune orientation. Using mesoscale simulations of convective methane clouds with a GCM wind profile featuring superrotation, we show that Titan's storms should produce fast eastward gust fronts above the surface. Such gusts dominate the aeolian transport, allowing dunes to extend eastward. This analysis therefore suggests a coupling between superrotation, tro...

  13. Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos Nur

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

  14. Water storage key factor in coalbed methane production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckianow, B.J. (Taurus Exploration Inc., Birmingham, AL (US)); Hall, W.L. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (US))

    1991-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage ponds provide a cost-effective means to temporarily retain water produced with coalbed methane and permit gas production during times when stream flow rates drop. Normally, water produced with the gas is run into nearby streams, with the dilution rate closely monitored and controlled by environmental agencies. During low stream flow in the Black Warrior basin, Ala., large volumes of produced water must be stored to prevent shut-in of coalbed methane fields. The authors discuss how they constructed such production water facilities for the Cedar Cove field to eliminate periodic field shut-ins as a result of excess water production. The effectiveness of such a storage approach is governed by receiving stream flow variability, production water flow characteristics, and the economics of storage pond construction.

  15. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  16. Central-northern Appalachian coalbed methane flow grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, P.C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decade in the US, coalbed methane (CBM) has become an increasingly important source of unconventional natural gas. The most significant CBM production occurs in the San Juan basin of Colorado and new Mexico and the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, which collective in 1995 accounted for about 94% of US CBM production. The paper discusses early CBM production, recent production, gas composition, undiscovered potential, and new exploration areas.

  17. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  18. Structures, Mechanisms, and Kinetics of Ammoxidation and Selective Oxidation of Propane Over the M2 Phase of MoVNbTeO Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William A. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Materials and Process Simulation Center; Liu, Lianchi [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Materials and Process Simulation Center; Mueller, Jonathan E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Materials and Process Simulation Center; Pudar, Sanja [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Materials and Process Simulation Center; Nielsen, Robert J. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Materials and Process Simulation Center

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here first-principles-based predictions of the structures, mechanisms, and activation barriers for propane activation by the M2 phase of the MoVNbTeO multi-metal oxide catalysts capable of the direct conversion of propane to acrylonitrile. Our approach is to combine extensive quantum mechanical (QM) calculations to establish the mechanisms for idealized representations of the surfaces for these catalytic systems and then to modify the parameters in the ReaxFF reactive force field for molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to describe accurately the activation barriers and reaction mechanisms of the chemical reactions over complex mixed metal oxides. The parameters for ReaxFF are derived entirely from QM without the use of empirical data so that it can be applied to novel systems on which there is little or no data. To understand the catalysis in these systems it is essential to determine the surface structures that control the surface chemistry. High quality three-dimensional (3D) Rietveld structures are now available for the M1 and M2 phases of the MoVNbTeO catalysts.

  19. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  20. Method for in situ biological conversion of coal to methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volkwein, Jon C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the in situ biological conversion of coal to methane comprising culturing on a coal-containing substrate a consortium of microorganisms capable of degrading the coal into methane under suitable conditions. This consortium of microorganisms can be obtained from an underground cavity such as an abandoned mine which underwent a change from being supplied with sewage to where no sewage was present, since these conditions have favored the development of microorganisms capable of using coal as a carbon source and converting coal to methane. The consortium of microorganisms obtained from such abandoned coal mines can be isolated and introduced to hard-to-reach coal-containing substrates which lack such microorganisms and which would otherwise remain unrecoverable. The present invention comprises a significant advantage in that useable energy can be obtained from a number of abandoned mine sites or other areas wherein coal is no longer being recovered, and such energy can be obtained in a safe, efficient, and inexpensive manner.

  1. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  2. Coal-Derived Warm Syngas Purification and CO2 Capture-Assisted Methane Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; King, David L.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Xing, Rong; Spies, Kurt A.; Zhu, Yunhua; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Liyu; Braunberger, B.

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasifier-derived syngas from coal has many applications in the area of catalytic transformation to fuels and chemicals. Raw syngas must be treated to remove a number of impurities that would otherwise poison the synthesis catalysts. Inorganic impurities include alkali salts, chloride, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, and various P, As, Sb, and Se- containing compounds. Systems comprising multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the removal of impurities from gasified coal using a warm cleanup approach. This approach has the potential to be more economic than the currently available acid gas removal (AGR) approaches and improves upon currently available processes that do not provide the level of impurity removal that is required for catalytic synthesis application. Gasification also lends itself much more readily to the capture of CO2, important in the regulation and control of greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 capture material was developed and in this study was demonstrated to assist in methane production from the purified syngas. Simultaneous CO2 sorption enhances the CO methanation reaction through relaxation of thermodynamic constraint, thus providing economic benefit rather than simply consisting of an add-on cost for carbon capture and release. Molten and pre-molten LiNaKCO3 can promote MgO and MgO-based double salts to capture CO2 with high cycling capacity. A stable cycling CO2 capacity up to 13 mmol/g was demonstrated. This capture material was specifically developed in this study to operate in the same temperature range and therefore integrate effectively with warm gas cleanup and methane synthesis. By combining syngas methanation, water-gas-shift, and CO2 sorption in a single reactor, single pass yield to methane of 99% was demonstrated at 10 bar and 330oC when using a 20 wt% Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst and a molten-phase promoted MgO-based sorbent. Under model feed conditions both the sorbent and catalyst exhibited favorable stability after multiple test cycles. The cleanup for warm gas cleanup of inorganics was broken down into three major steps: chloride removal, sulfur removal, and the removal for a multitude of trace metal contaminants. Na2CO3 was found to optimally remove chlorides at an operating temperature of 450ºC. For sulfur removal two regenerable ZnO beds are used for bulk H2S removal at 450ºC (<5 ppm S) and a non-regenerable ZnO bed for H2S polishing at 300ºC (<40 ppb S). It was also found that sulfur from COS could be adsorbed (to levels below our detection limit of 40 ppb) in the presence of water that leads to no detectable slip of H2S. Finally, a sorbent material comprising of Cu and Ni was found to be effective in removing trace metal impurities such as AsH3 and PH3 when operating at 300ºC. Proof-of-concept of the integrated cleanup process was demonstrated with gasifier-generated syngas produced at the Western Research Institute using Wyoming Decker Coal. When operating with a ~1 SLPM feed, multiple inorganic contaminant removal sorbents and a tar-reforming bed was able to remove the vast majority of contaminants from the raw syngas. A tar-reforming catalyst was employed due to the production of tars generated from the gasifier used in this particular study. It is envisioned that in a real application a commercial scale gasifier operating at a higher temperature would produce lesser amount of tar. Continuous operation of a poison-sensitive copper-based WGS catalyst located downstream from the cleanup steps resulted in successful demonstration. ?

  3. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin Lingyun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Liu Guangzhen, E-mail: gzliu@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wang Liya [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  4. Propane/Propylene Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source:Additions to Capacity onThousand(Dollars2009 2010698 1.87324

  5. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheatingheating oil

  6. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheatingheating oilpropane

  7. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheatingheating

  8. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheatingheatingpropane price

  9. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheatingheatingpropane

  10. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price

  11. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreases The average

  12. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreases The

  13. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreases Thepropane

  14. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreases

  15. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreasespropane price

  16. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreasespropane

  17. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price decreasespropanepropane

  18. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price

  19. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014 Residential

  20. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil pricepropane price05, 2014