Sample records for includes crude asphalt

  1. The effect of asphalt deposition on recovery of oil by a pentane slug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhagia, Nanik S

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ":ty reduction increases, in general, with the increase in amount of, asphalt contained ir the oil. The increases in recovery at breakthrough due to asphalt deposition were noted for four asphaltic crude oils and were compared to those of asphalt-free refined... substantial range, the gain in recovery at breakthrough of asphaltic oils over refined oils of the same viscosity increases with increase in size of slug used. This is attributed to more favorable mobility ratios resulting from asphalt deposition during...

  2. Aged asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Kenneth Lloyd

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dorchester Asphalts Exxon Asphalts CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX 41 42 48 59 70 84 90 93 96 99 103 105 106 A. GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAMS OF TEST ASPHALTS 108 B. FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTRUMS OF TEST... Apparatus 5. Abson Method Apparatus 6. ASTM D 2171 Apparatus 7. Sample Pellet Die 8. Sample Pellet Holder 21 23 27 29 38 40 9. GPC of Lufkin Exxon AC-20 Extracted by Two Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10. GPC of Dickens Exxon AC-20 51...

  3. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore »present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  4. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  5. Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

  6. asphalt concrete pavement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this thesis. It included the following tasks: investigation of a testing and grading system for grading asphalt binder residues... Hoyt, Denise 2012-07-16 8 Full-Depth Pavement...

  7. asphaltic concrete pavement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this thesis. It included the following tasks: investigation of a testing and grading system for grading asphalt binder residues... Hoyt, Denise 2012-07-16 8 Full-Depth Pavement...

  8. asphalt concrete pavements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this thesis. It included the following tasks: investigation of a testing and grading system for grading asphalt binder residues... Hoyt, Denise 2012-07-16 8 Full-Depth Pavement...

  9. asphaltic concrete pavements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this thesis. It included the following tasks: investigation of a testing and grading system for grading asphalt binder residues... Hoyt, Denise 2012-07-16 8 Full-Depth Pavement...

  10. Use of recycled chunk rubber asphalt concrete (CRAC) on low volume roads and use of recycled crumb rubber modifier in asphalt pavements. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, M.; Funk, L.P.; Sadeq, M.A.; Marucci, G.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of this project was to formulate a Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC) mix for use on low volume roads. CRAC is a rubber modified asphalt concrete product produced by the `dry process` where rubber chunks of 1/2 inch size are used as aggregate in a cold mix with a type C fly ash. The second objective of this project was to develop guidelines concerning the use of rubber modified asphalt concrete hot mix to include: (1) Design methods for use of asphalt-rubber mix for new construction and overlay, (2) Mix design method for asphalt-rubber, and (3) Test method for determining the amount of rubber in an asphalt-rubber concrete for quality control purposes.

  11. asphalt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asphalt pavements containing asphalt binder and aggregates. The use of RAP can reduce the cost of construction materials, reduce the amount of waste... Thakur, Jitendra Kumar...

  12. asphalts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asphalt pavements containing asphalt binder and aggregates. The use of RAP can reduce the cost of construction materials, reduce the amount of waste... Thakur, Jitendra Kumar...

  13. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  14. BBR Asphalt mixture creep test BBR Asphalt mixture creep size effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    #12;Outline ØBBR Asphalt mixture creep test ØBBR Asphalt mixture creep size effect ØBBR Asphalt Point Bending Test Low temperature 3-point bending creep tests on specimens with three different sizes mixture strength test ØBBR Asphalt binder strength test #12;Asphalt Pavements ØRecent efforts under NCHRP

  15. The use of HPGPC for determination of MWD of asphalt cement - A spectrophotometric vs. gravimetric finish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishara, S.W.; McReynolds, R.L. (Kansas Dept. of Transportation, Topeka (United States))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison between spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods to study MWD of asphalt is presented. Spectrophotometry suffers from not detecting saturated compounds, as well as from variation of molar absorptivity during analysis. To address these shortcoming, the whole asphalt sample is fractionated, and the relative molar absorptivity determined for each fraction. Using another sample weight of the whole asphalt, the saturates are separated, and injected to get their MWD using refractive index detection. This information, when used to mathematically treat the whole asphalt distribution data, can correct the latter to include saturates as well, but can only partially account for continuous variation of the molar absorptivity.

  16. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded ­ II ­ Asphalt Pavements ­ Effect of Aging ­ Simulations ­ Concluding Remarks #12;3 Objectives Develop) Correspondence Principle based formulation Application: Asphalt concrete pavements (Part II) #12;4 Asphalt

  17. Chemical characterization of beach asphalts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Lloyd Alexander

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy for vanadium, nickel, and iron. The neutron activation procedure was shown to be superior for vanadium, but no significant difference in methods was noted for nickel and iron. Other trace metals were done... by activation analysis. These include: mercury, gold, chromium, bromine, zinc, scandium, cobalt, and antimony. Use of the vanadium to nickel ratio, and of other trace element data, was discussed. As a key to understanding the nature of vanadium in crude...

  18. BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES ON CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS IN OHIO. Final report includes the quarterly report that ended 12/31/1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Hodges; Richard J. Simmers

    1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to define the optimum limits of chemical and physical conditions that reduce soil salinity and maximize indigenous aerobic microbiological populations in the bioremediation of oil field waste solids. Specifically, the study centers around treatment of surface contained oily waste having low density and limited solubility in water. Successful remediation is defined by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction to 1% and no hydrocarbon or salinity impact on ground water resources. The Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission have encouraged oil and gas producing states to identify and develop improved methods such as this to reduce, recycle or treat solid waste generated with the exploration and development of domestic petroleum resources (IOGCC, 1995). With encouragement and funding assistance through the Department of Energy, Ohio is developing these bioremediation practices to protect soil and water resources. Ohio produced 8,300,000 barrels of crude oil in 1996 from wells operated by 4310 registered owners (ODNR, 1996). Good well site housekeeping can minimize spills, however accidental spills inevitably occur with oil production of this magnitude. Development of sound environmental and economical clean-up procedures is essential.

  19. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Andrew T.

    process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement to Improve Asphalt Pavement Sustainability By Pavement (RAP) Courtesy of http://myconstructionphotos.smugmug.com/ RAP #12;Transport Back to the Plant-melt old binder on the RAP #12;Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) · #12;Asphalt Pavement Life Cycle Road

  1. State of the practice: Design and construction of asphalt paving materials with crumb-rubber modifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitzman, M.A.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document is a comprehensive overview of the terminology, processes, products, and applications of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) technology. The technology includes any use of scrap tire rubber in asphalt paving materials. In general, CRM technology can be divided into two categories--the wet process and the dry process. When CRM is incorporated into an asphalt paving material, it will modify the properties of the binder (asphalt rubber) and/or act as a rubber aggregate (rubber modified hot mix asphalt). The five concepts for using CRM discussed in the report are McDonald, PlusRide, generic dry, chunk rubber asphalt concrete, and continuous blending asphalt rubber. There are two principal unresolved engineering issues related to the use of CRM in asphalt paving materials. On the national level, the ability to recycle asphalt paving mixes containing CRM has not been demonstrated. At the State and local levels, these modified asphalt mixes must be field evaluated to establish expected levels of performance. The appendices provide guidelines for material specifications, mix design, and construction specifications. An experimental work plan for monitoring performance and a stack emission testing program are also included.

  2. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poinsot, Laurent

    #include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

  3. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  4. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  5. Crude oil and shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This year`s review on crude oil and shale oil has been prepared by classifying the references into the following main headings: Hydrocarbon Identification and Characterization, Trace Element Determination, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties, Viscosity, and Miscellaneous Topics. In the two-year review period, the references on shale oils were considerably less in number than those dealing with crude oils. Several new analytical methodologies and applications were reported for hydrocarbon characterization and trace element determination of crude oils and shale oils. Also included in this review are nine U.S., Canadian British and European patents. 12 refs.

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  7. Asphalt deposition in miscible floods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Petroleum Engineering ASPHALT DEPOSITION IN MISCIBLE FLOODS A Thesis By SYED MIR AHMED HASAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ommittee Member) Committee Member) Head of Department), (Co 'ttee Member) January, f964... Subject: Petroleum Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS ABS TRAC T. Page 2. INTRODUCTION. 3 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS. . . . . , . 6 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 5. INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. . . . . . 13 6. CONCLUSIONS. 7...

  8. Reduced Crude Conversion-2: demetallization unit broadens RCC feed slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

    1984-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reduced Crude Conversion (RCC) process has been shown as capable of handling feedstocks with high levels of heavy metals contamination. This article extends the applicability of the RCC process further to handle feedstock derived in part from extremely high metal crude oils, in discussing a commercial unit installed by Ashland which is capable of metals removal using the ART technology. Nickel and vanadium removal from certain highly contaminated RCC feedstocks shown that the RCC unit with ART technology benefits from substantial catalyst savings while extending RCC technology to more challenging feedstocks. The demetallized product is mixed with virgin reduced crude oil and with lower metal content asphalts to provide feedstock for the RCC unit.

  9. Winter Performance and Maintenance of Porous Asphalt Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concrete (HSG-B)Porous Asphalt (HSG-C) #12;Cold Climate Performance Results #12;12 Porous Asphalt SurfaceWinter Performance and Maintenance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Robert M. Roseen, Ph.D., P.E., D impacts for new development and reverse impacts in areas with redevelopment. #12;Porous Asphalt Design

  10. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labib, M.E. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  11. Materials characterization of asphalt and polymer modified asphalt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paramasivam, Mohan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    specimen mold made of aluminum ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? - 28 5. Strain sweep of Santa Maria AC10/AR4000 at 100 rad/sec --- 33 6. Strain sweep of Conoco AC10 at 10 rad/sec ------------- 34 7. Stress relaxation modulus of AAM grade asphalt at 25'C --- 37 8.... The verification of Cox-Merz rule for Santa Maria AC6/AR2000 at 40'C- 9. The master curve of Santa Maria AC6/Muehlstein LDPE shifted to 25'C showing the errors 10. Master curve (G') of Santa Maria AC6 shifted to 25'C ? ? ? ? ? 43 11. Master curve of Santa...

  12. Materials characterization of asphalt and polymer modified asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paramasivam, Mohan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    specimen mold made of aluminum ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? - 28 5. Strain sweep of Santa Maria AC10/AR4000 at 100 rad/sec --- 33 6. Strain sweep of Conoco AC10 at 10 rad/sec ------------- 34 7. Stress relaxation modulus of AAM grade asphalt at 25'C --- 37 8.... The verification of Cox-Merz rule for Santa Maria AC6/AR2000 at 40'C- 9. The master curve of Santa Maria AC6/Muehlstein LDPE shifted to 25'C showing the errors 10. Master curve (G') of Santa Maria AC6 shifted to 25'C ? ? ? ? ? 43 11. Master curve of Santa...

  13. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve crude oil assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet provides background information on the purchase of crude oils for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), procedures used to assess quality of the stored petroleum, and methods used in generating assays of the various streams which may be sold. Current assays of the eight SPR crude oil streams are included.

  15. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  16. Arabian crude fractions analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.F.; Bukhari, A.M.; Hasan, M.U.; Saleem, M.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure for separating and characterizing highboiling distillates was developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute. However, their studies focused chiefly on U.S. crude oils, and very little has been reported for Middle East crude oils-particularly Saudi Arabian crude oils. The work reported here deals with the separation and characterization of 370-535/sup 0/C and 535-675/sup 0/C distillates from four Saudi Arabian crude oils produced by Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO).

  17. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  18. Mirzahosseini et. al. ANN-Based Prediction Model for Rutting Propensity of Asphalt Mixtures1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    in a repeated load permanent deformation test.21 Dynamic creep test is one of the best tools for assessing of load cycles is the most23 important output of the dynamic creep test. This curve includes primary based on volumetric proportioning of the asphalt mixture. This method does16 not include any direct test

  19. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)] [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  20. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR ASPHALT PREPARATION OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delivery, Storage and Cold Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.2 Liquid Asphalt Delivery, Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 INDUSTRY PROFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1 ASPHALT and Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.3 Cold Feed Drying and Heating

  1. An investigation of the use of tire rubber in asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Heamo Lee

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -rubber binder. The selected variables chosen are curing time, curing temperature, rubber content (weight percent), rubber particle size, base asphalt type, and carbonyl area. Results confirmed that the addition of rubber increased the viscosity of the asphalt...

  2. asphalt composition aplicacao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is not a hot mix asphalt (HMA), it's just warm mix The WMA production temperature typically ranges from 100 to 140o C, whereas for HMA it ranges Das,...

  3. Moisture Diffusion in Asphalt Binders and Fine Aggregate Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    cost in highway maintenance and vehicle operations. One key mechanism of how moisture reaches the asphalt-aggregate interface is by its permeation or diffusion through the asphalt binder or mastic. Different techniques are available for diffusion...

  4. Controlling Thermal Properties of Asphalt Concrete and its Multifunctional Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xijun

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ) by controlling thermal properties of the construction materials. To change thermal properties of asphalt concrete, expanded polypropylene (EPP) pellet and graphite were selected as the additives and mixed into asphalt concrete. Experimental tests are classified...

  5. Damage analysis in asphalt concrete mixtures based on parameter relationships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Injun

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Asphalt pavements experience damage due to traffic loading under various environmental conditions. Damage can be caused by viscopl microcracks, fracture due to fatigue cracking, or fracture due to thermal cracking. Asphalt ...

  6. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 51 Table 29. F.O.B. a Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  7. Evaluation of Rexene polymers in hot mixed asphalt concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Mary Anne Reese

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Committee: Dr. Dallas N. Little The objective of this research was to provide a comprehensive characterization of asphalt binders and paving mixtures modified with four polymers produced by the Rexene Products Company (Odessa, Texas). The four polymers... LITERATURE REVIEW AND INTERPRETATION General Available Asphalt Additives Practical Application of Asphalt Additives Benefit-Costs for Additives Future Outlook for Additives MATERIALS AND TEST METHODS Polymers Asphalt Cements Aggregate Procedure...

  8. Asphaltenes in crude oil and bitumen: Structure and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude petroleum is a mixture of compounds boiling at different temperatures that can be separated into a variety of generic fractions by distillation and by fractionation. In fact, such methods provide a better sense of the overall composition of petroleum and the behavioral characteristics. However, petroleum from different sources exhibits different characteristics, and the behavioral characteristics are often difficult to define with any degree of precision. As anticipated and inasmuch as there is a wide variation in the properties of petroleum, the proportions in which the different constituents occur will also vary widely. Thus, some crude oils have higher proportions of the lower boiling constituents, whereas others (such as bitumen, also referred to as natural asphalt) have higher proportions of the higher boiling constituents (often called the {open_quotes}asphaltic components{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}residuum{close_quotes}). It is these higher boiling constituents that often lead to problems during recovery and refining operations. 105 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Disk-shaped Compact Tension Test for Asphalt Concrete Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Disk-shaped Compact Tension Test for Asphalt Concrete Fracture by M.P.Wagoner, W.G. Buttlar and G geometry is the ability to test cylindrical cores obtained from in-place asphalt concrete pavements finalizing the specimen geometry, a typical asphalt concrete surface mixture was tested at various

  10. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded ­ Verification ­ Concluding Remarks Part ­ II (Companion presentation) ­ Asphalt Pavements ­ Effect of Aging: Asphalt concrete pavements (Part II) E1 E2 E3 Eh 1 2 3 h #12;Graded Finite Elements Graded Elements

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  13. What's the future for rubberized asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the debate over the use of rubberized asphalt for highway surfacing. The Department of Transportation claims that the process is too costly; that it presents potential air pollution, safety and health problems. They also claim that there is a lack of understanding between rubber and asphalt cement and of the recyclability of the product. The Legislative Commission on Solid Waste Management claims that the mixture performs as well or better than conventional asphalt at reduced thicknesses. In addition, there could be savings of local funds currently expended for regulation of tire dumps, fire-fighting and clean-up, vector control and scrap tire disposal costs ranging from $.50 to $2.00 per tire.

  14. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper several research reports describing the preparation of potential paving asphalts from tar sand bitumen are reviewed and the results of the studies compared. The tar sand asphalts described in the studies were prepared from 1) hot water-recovered bitumen from deposits near San Luis Obispo, California (Edna deposits), and deposits near Vernal and Sunnyside, Utah; and 2) bitumen recovered from the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposits near Vernal, Utah, by both in situ steamflood and in situ combustion recovery processes. Important properties of the tar sand asphalts compare favorably with those of specification petroleum asphalts. Laboratory data suggest that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics and produce more water-resistant paving mixtures than typical petroleum asphalts.

  15. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of several tar sand asphalts prepared in past studies by several different investigators were compared with each other and with the properties of petroleum asphalts. These results were reviewed and discussed with regard to the potential use of tar sand bitumen in pavement applications. The data show that tar sand bitumen has good potential for use in highway pavements that meet today's performance specifications. No deficiencies in the tar sand asphalts were found that would be expected to seriously affect performance. On the other hand, the data indicate that some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics, being relatively resistant to oxidative age hardening compared with typical petroleum asphalts. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared using two tar sand asphalts also showed acceptable strength properties and excellent resistance to moisture-induced damage.

  16. Evaluation of polyethylene-modified asphalt blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Consuegra Granger, Fernando

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate and asphalt modified with LDPE (binder contents of 4. 8%%u and 5. 87'). 42 Table 9. Summary of statistical parameters derived from IDT testing on crushed granite mixtures bound with AC-20 + LDPE (4. 8%, and 5. 8/ binder). 46 Table 10. Summary... of creep to rupture data for crushed granite mixtures. 71 Table 11. Summary of the results of IDT repeated load fatigue testing of river gravel mixtures bound with Texaco asphalt: AC- 10, AC-10 + LDPE and AC-20. Table 12. K, ' and n, values of river...

  17. Mixture design and performance prediction of rubber-modified asphalt in Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, R.Y.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appropriate disposal of scrap tires has been a major environmental concern over the years, mainly due to potential fire and health hazards associated with uncontrolled stockpiling. Primarily driven by this environmental concern, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 has required each State to begin incorporating scrap tire rubber into its asphalt paving materials. Although in the revision of the original ISTEA, the mandate has been eliminated, there remains a language of encouraging the use of crumb rubbers in asphalt paving materials. Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) desires to develop the mix design procedure, construction practice, and performance specifications for crumb rubber modified asphalt paving materials. This research was conducted to develop the needed design and construction guidance for meeting the ODOT anticipated needs. Specifically, the objectives of this research encompass the following scope: (1) investigation of the rheological properties of asphalt-rubber binder to determine optimum content of crumb rubber, (2) development of optimum mix design for various applications, including both wet and dry mix processes, (3) characterization of mechanical properties of recommended paving mixtures, including resilient modulus, fatigue cracking behavior, low-temperature thermal cracking resistance, water sensitivity test, incremental creep test and loaded wheel track test, and (4) comparison of performance of selected paving mixes.

  18. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  19. Asphalt Pavement Aging and TemperatureAsphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties using a FunctionallyDependent Properties using a Functionally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Asphalt Pavement Aging and TemperatureAsphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Analysis Time Integration Analysis Application Examples: Asphalt Pavement Summary and Conclusions #12) ­ Large fraction produced as hot-mix asphalt (HMA) ­ Most common form of pavement surfacing material (96

  20. Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Investigation of Noise and Durability Performance Trends for Asphaltic Pavement Surface Types: Three-Year Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Qing; Kohler, Erwin R.; Harvey, John T; Ongel, Aybike

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends for Asphalt Pavement Surface Types: First- andResults. University of California Pavement Research Center,Trends for Asphaltic Pavement Surface Types: First- and

  2. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for providing concrete tiles, and Lou Hahn of GAF-Elk forof cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofingsolar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle

  3. Predicting the fatigue life of asphalt concrete overlay systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germann, Frederick P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON CRACK GROWTH IN VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS C'HAPTER V - STATE OF THE ART Effect of Mix Variables on Fatigue and Cracking Resistance in Asphalt Concrete Pavements . Field Performance of Asphalt Overlays with Fabric Summary CHAPTER VI ? MATERIALS... LIFE OF AN ASPHALT OVERLAY CHAPTER X - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX A. CRACK TIP STRESS ANALYSIS APPENDIX B. CONSTRUCTION OF THE MASTER RESILIENT MODULUS AND MASTER CREEP COMPLIANCE CURVES APPENDIX C. CRACK GROWTH RATES, da...

  4. Microstructural Characterization of Material Properties and Damage in Asphalt Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Khorasani, Sara

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND DAMAGE IN ASPHALT COMPOSITES A Thesis by SARA MOHAMMAD KHORASANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Engineering Copyright 2013 Sara Mohammad Khorasani ii ABSTRACT Asphalt composites are used to construct 90% of roads in the United States. These composites consist of asphalt binder, which is a product of the refinery process of oil, aggregates...

  5. Competitiveness of Mexican crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mexico is under great pressure to maintain oil export revenue levels if it is to avoid a reversal in its economic recovery program. While the country's vulnerability to a price plunge is also applicable to OPEC countries, the North Sea producers, and others, Mexico does have an ace. The ace is that its heavier, metals-ridden and sulfur-laden Maya crude, which had to be pushed on customers until about 1981, is now in strong demand. Comparisons are presented of the market value of five crude oils refined in the US Gulf Coast: West Texas Intermediate (or WTI, a 40/sup 0/ API, light), Arabian Light and Isthmus (both 34/sup 0/ medium-light), Alaska North Slope (or ANS, a 27/sup 0/ API, a medium), and Maya (22/sup 0/ API, medium-heavy). In this mix, the heavier the crude, the greater is the refining margin (except for Arabian Light, for which freight cost and product yield provide lower margins than those derived from WTI). The sacrifice by OPEC and other producers cutting crude oil prices was to the benefit to refiners' improved margins during the first half of 1983. Those cuts were on the lighter-quality oils. But prices for heavier Venezuelan, Californian, and Mexican crudes increased during the second half of 1983, due to developing refinery technologies in extracting favorable product yields from them. This issue of Energy Detente presents their fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for December 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  6. asphalt technology test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and evaluated its performance when used in split mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture using Marshall Characteristic and dynamic charateristics (resilient modulus). As many as 90...

  7. anionic emulsified asphalt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Volucm Change... Gandhi, Poduru Mohandas Karamchand 1966-01-01 15 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites...

  8. asphalt rock: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corrections to Volucm Change... Gandhi, Poduru Mohandas Karamchand 1966-01-01 17 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  9. asphaltic sand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corrections to Volucm Change... Gandhi, Poduru Mohandas Karamchand 1966-01-01 19 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  10. asphalt concrete overlays: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    experimental results for concrete containing virgin limestone Paulino, Glaucio H. 71 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  11. asphalt overlay design: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these overlay networks. Routing and search in these overlay ... Cheng, Bow-Nan 69 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  12. asphalt binder extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corrections to Volucm Change... Gandhi, Poduru Mohandas Karamchand 1966-01-01 43 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  13. Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt: Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Fu, P.; Harvey, John T; Halles, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University of California Pavement Research Center. (WP-2005-8 th Conference on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa (International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol 8, No

  14. asphalt concrete bases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large amounts of PS wastes in civil engineering constructions. Key words: Asphalt surfaces Disposable dishes Polystyrene (PS) Wastes Environment A. Akbari Motlagh; A....

  15. asphalt concrete soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large amounts of PS wastes in civil engineering constructions. Key words: Asphalt surfaces Disposable dishes Polystyrene (PS) Wastes Environment A. Akbari Motlagh; A....

  16. Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madrid, Richard Charles

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from: Exxon Research and Engineering Company, The National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science, Inc. Fellowship (GEM), and the DOW Technical Fellowship is greatly appreciated. I thank Sophie and Ignacio Madrid... for Recycled Blends . . . . . Asphaltic Materials. . 54 58 63 69 V-2 V-3 V-4 V-5 V-6 V-7 Fina DMO and Exxon Tank Compositions and Viscosities. . . . Blend Compositions and Viscosities...

  17. Waxy crude oil handling in Nigeria; Practices, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajienka, J.A.; Ikoku, C.U. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt (NG))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With case studies, the practices, problems, and prospects of handling waxy crude oils in Nigeria are discussed. Using a rotational viscometer, the temperature dependence of rheological properties and thixotropy of these crudes were determined. Suggestions are given on how to improve handling practices. These suggestions include adequate screening and ranking of wax inhibitors, taking into account pour-point depression, viscosity, and yield value.

  18. Rheological Investigation of the Influence of Acrylate Polymers on the Modification of Asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    and superior ACM properties when blended with the high asphaltenes Arabian asphalt. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals

  19. Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

  20. Field Manual for Crack Sealing in Asphalt Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Field Manual for Crack Sealing in Asphalt Pavements Yetkin Yildirim, Ahmed Qatan, and Jorge Prozzi January 2006 3208RedRiver Austin,TX78705 #12;Dr. Yetkin Yildirim, P.E. Director Texas Pavement for Crack Sealing in Asphalt Pavements #12;Performing Organization: Center for Transportation Research

  1. Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use in France Y. Brosseaud ­ LCPC hal with ring for recycling ­ Average rate with high proportion : 30 to 50% ­ Used of rejuvenators (soft oil,version1-20May2011 #12;4 Hot recycling asphalt on mixing plant Recycling in place in hot or cold

  2. Relationship Between Surface Free Energy and Total Work of Fracture of Asphalt Binder and Asphalt Binder-Aggregate Interfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howson, Jonathan Embrey

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    is the surface free energy of the asphalt binder and the aggregate. Surface free energy, which is a thermodynamic material property, is directly related to the adhesive bond energy between the asphalt binder and the aggregate as well as the cohesive bond energy...

  3. Relationship Between Surface Free Energy and Total Work of Fracture of Asphalt Binder and Asphalt Binder-Aggregate Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howson, Jonathan Embrey

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    is the surface free energy of the asphalt binder and the aggregate. Surface free energy, which is a thermodynamic material property, is directly related to the adhesive bond energy between the asphalt binder and the aggregate as well as the cohesive bond energy...

  4. Crude Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX ImeansCrude2009 2010

  5. Crude Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX ImeansCrude2009

  6. Influence of the dietary crude protein level during gestation on long term performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of the dietary crude protein level during gestation on long term performance of sows crude protein levels during gestation (12 and 14.5 p. 100). The feed restriction level during gestation including 14.5 p. 100 crude protein. The experiment was made with 219 Large White sows corresponding to 309

  7. Table 1. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    December 1980; Form EIA-14, "Refiners' Monthly Cost Report," January 1981 to present. 1. Crude Oil Prices 2 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996...

  8. Table 1. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    December 1980; Form EIA-14, "Refiners' Monthly Cost Report," January 1981 to present. 1. Crude Oil Prices 2 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997...

  9. Improvements to a Transport Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements: Pavement Temperature Modeling, Oxygen Diffusivity in Asphalt Binders and Mastics, and Pavement Air Void Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Rongbin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Although evidence is mounting that asphalt binder oxidizes in pavements, and that oxidation and subsequent hardening of asphalt binder has a profound effect on pavement durability, important implementation issues remain to be better understood...

  10. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model, Part-II: Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded simulation of functionally graded viscoelastic properties in asphalt concrete pavements. The techniques properties. A full-depth asphalt concrete pavement has been simulated to demonstrate the applicability

  11. The curing of asphalt with rubber and its effect on the physical and chemical properties of asphalt-rubber binders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Jay Sung

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10% TG-40 and 90% Exxon AC-5. 105 B-1 Molecular Size Distribution of Rubber in Asphalt 5% TG-40 and 95% Fina AC-10. . . 123 B-2 Molecular Size Distribution of Rubber in Asphalt 10% TG-40 and 90% Fina AC-10. . 124 xlv FIGURE B-3 Molecular Size.... 0 Frequency (rad/s) 10. 0 100. 0 Figure III-2: Effect of Frequency on Viscosity Measurements Fina AC-10 Tank Asphalt 2500 2000 0 a 1500 1000 o 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 Fina AC-10 with 5% TG-40 mesh rubber Cured at 375 F and 500...

  12. asphalt emulsions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  13. Characterization of Fatigue Cracking and Healing of Asphalt Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xue

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    mixtures using an energy-based mechanistic approach. A controlled-strain repeated direct tension (RDT) test is selected to generate both fatigue cracking and permanent deformation in an asphalt mixture specimen. Fatigue cracking is separated from...

  14. Viscoelastic{Viscoplastic Damage Model for Asphalt Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Michael A.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a continuum model for asphalt concrete incorporating non- linear viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, mechanically-induced damage and moisture- induced damage. The Schapery single-integral viscoelastic model describes the nonlinear...

  15. A thermodynamic approach for compaction of asphaltic composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koneru, Saradhi

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    and Focus of Current Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 B. Outline of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 C. Notations Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 II LITERATURE REVIEW... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 b. Asphalt Binder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C. Compaction Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Field Compaction Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 a. Static Steel Wheel Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 b...

  16. asphaltic pavements microsurfacing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service have been... Lau, Chee Keung 1991-01-01 14 A utility evaluation of nondestructive testing devices used on asphalt concrete pavements Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  17. asphalt pavement cracking: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service have been... Lau, Chee Keung 1991-01-01 16 A utility evaluation of nondestructive testing devices used on asphalt concrete pavements Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  18. asphalt pavement rap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service have been... Lau, Chee Keung 1991-01-01 14 A utility evaluation of nondestructive testing devices used on asphalt concrete pavements Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  19. asphalt pavements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service have been... Lau, Chee Keung 1991-01-01 14 A utility evaluation of nondestructive testing devices used on asphalt concrete pavements Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  20. Measurements of moisture suction in hot mix asphalt mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassem, Emad Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    with different bond energies and exhibited different field performance in terms of resistance to moisture damage. The suction measurements in sand asphalt specimens were used to calculate the moisture diffusion coefficient. The results revealed that water...

  1. Moisture Diffusion in Asphalt Binders and Fine Aggregate Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    coefficient measurement of a wide variety of polymersolvent systems. For the asphalt-water system studied, the focus is on two techniques: (i) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)-Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectrometry and (ii) Gravimetric Sorption...

  2. Imparting Electrical Conductivity into Asphalt Composites Using Graphite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baranikumar, Aishwarya

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    publications showed the potential of graphite in mitigating the sudden transition. The study presented herein investigates possibility of precisely controlling the electrical conductivity of asphalt concrete only by adding filler size graphite powder. Nine...

  3. asphalt concrete performance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robert L. 2014-01-01 23 Establishing material properties for thin asphalt concrete surfaces on granular bases Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  4. Study of properties of sand asphalt using a torsional rheometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasula, Lavan Kumar Reddy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The modeling of Sand Asphalt and experiments to measure their rheological properties are of vital concern to many industrial processes especially highway and roadway pavement construction industry. A variety of hot mix ...

  5. Use of VFDs on Asphalt Plant Induced Draft Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, G. R.; Case, P. L.; Lowery, J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of 10 asphalt plants in the Intermountain Region have identified average ID fan energy savings of 68% by controlling airflow using Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) on the fan motors in place of damper control (inlet or outlet). Average...

  6. Stocks of Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Including SPR)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConference |6: "Regulating31,947,078

  7. Fiber reinforcement of asphalt concrete using cow manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakar, Mohammed Abu

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Specimens were made according to the Marshall Method of Mixture Design and tested for 1) Marshall Stability 2) Hveem Stability and 3) Hater Susceptibil- ity. Test results indicated that 4. 4 percent cow manure by volume of rhe total aggregate when used... Voids in Mineral Aggregate 11 LIST OF FIGURES Figures Page l. 2 l. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 Determination of Optimum Asphalt Content by the Marshall Method Determination of Optimum Asphalt Content by the Marshall Method Determination of Optimum...

  8. Characterization of road asphalt using Gel Permeation Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Guy Randal

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inconsistent and inconsistent. Six were consistent, three were slightly inconsist nt, and three were inconsistent. To study the relationship between GPC and performance, samples from test pavements at three locations were obtained. Both original asphalts... Columns/Toluene/100 Nicroliters/ 7X 3 ' 2. Reproducibility of the Standard Asphalt in THF . ~ . . ~ . ~ . . . 500 and 50 Angstrom Columns/Toluene/100 Nicroliters/ 7X 19 3. 3. Differences in Refractive Index Detector Response. Exxon AC-10/Dumas Tank...

  9. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate contact due to dust particles on the aggregate surface. The rupture may occur because of the construction loads and operating traffic during construction, or could be environmentally induced by freeze-thaw cycling. Once a break in the film... design, environment and traffic, can be defined as progressive degradation of asphalt mixture material due to the presence of water. The occurrence of moisture damage in asphalt material is a rather complex phenomenon, which involves chemical, physical...

  10. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  11. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  12. Table 1. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    can be the month of loading, the month of landing, or sometime between those events. Prices for crude oil can be determined at a time other than the acquisition date. See the...

  13. Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Qing

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Asphalt Concrete-Physical Testing. ” Final Report, #930-of Asphalt Concrete: Chemical Testing. ” Alabama Highwayconcrete mixes, it is preferred to use a mix that would have good moisture resistance under laboratory testing

  14. Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, John T; Lu, Qing

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Asphalt Concrete-Physical Testing. ” Final Report no.of Asphalt Concrete: Chemical Testing. ” Alabama Highwayconcrete mixes, it is preferable to use a mix that would have good moisture resistance under laboratory testing

  15. A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro Spinel, Silvia

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined...

  16. Experimental Study on Geocell-Reinforced Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases under Static and Cyclic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is a removed and reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregates which can be used as a base course material for pavement applications. Geocells are a three-dimensional interconnected honeycomb type...

  17. Asphalt compositions containing spurted polyolefin fibers with improved dispersibility in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabloner, H.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutback asphalt composition is described comprising asphalt and a hydrocarbon solvent. The improvement composition comprises a water-dispersible spurted polyolefin pulp having precipitated a natural rubber or synthetic elastomer that is swellable in hydrocarbon solvents.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - asphalt mix design Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University Collection: Engineering 35 Bi Oil i A h ltBio-Oil in Asphalt ApplicationsApplications Summary: tons of hot mix asphalt...

  19. Evaluation of the filler effects on fatique cracking and permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzo, Richard P

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of hydrated lime to asphalt has shown to be beneficial with an improvement in the Theological properties of the binder, as well as resistance to permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue cracking of asphalt concrete mixtures...

  20. Evaluation of the filler effects on fatique cracking and permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzo, Richard P

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of hydrated lime to asphalt has shown to be beneficial with an improvement in the Theological properties of the binder, as well as resistance to permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue cracking of asphalt concrete mixtures...

  1. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1: technical feasibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the technical progress made on the development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber.

  2. A study of the mixing viscosity of asphalt in hot-mix production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Md. Musharraf Hossain

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity and Absorption of Aggregates. 36 Sieve Analysis of Combined Aggregates 37 Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent Test Data for Estimated Optimum Asphalt Content . 38 Test Data on Molded Specimens for Optimum Asphalt Content 39 XIII . Test Data... there is available to be filled with asphalt. The Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent (CKE) Test was performed to 11 determine the estimated optimum asphalt content as a percentage of the 10 The American Association of State Highway Officials, "Standard...

  3. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  4. Recycling of plastic and rubber tire waste in asphalt pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.R.; Lee, N.K.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses some important issues related to the use of recycled thermoplastics and rubber tire waste in asphalt binders for hot-mix pavements. Both high temperature rheological and low temperature fracture studies are presented on recycled polyethylene, devulcanized and crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders. The results are compared to unmodified and commercially available modified binders. This research is especially timely in light of the US Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, Section 1038 which, starting in 1995, will force state and local governments to use significant amounts of recycled rubber tire or plastic waste in federally funded highway projects. High temperature rheological measurements of the loss modulus, loss tangent and complex modulus show a significant improvement when only small quantities of crumb rubber, devulcanized crumb rubber or waste polyethylene are added to the asphalt binders. The low temperature fracture performance of the modified asphalts is greatly influenced by the interfacial strength between the dispersed and continuous phase. The fracture toughness increases dramatically, only when low molecular weight polymers are grafted in-situ onto the rubber and polymer dispersed phases in order to strength the interface. This points to a crack-pinning mechanism as being responsible for the dramatic increase in fracture toughness that is observed in this work. Single phase, devulcanized crumb rubber-asphalt systems perform quite poorly at low temperatures.

  5. 1 INTRODUCTION A typical flexible pavement system includes four

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    1 INTRODUCTION A typical flexible pavement system includes four distinct layers: asphalt concrete course in order to reduce costs or to minimize capil- lary action under the pavement. Figure 1: Cross-section of flexible pavement system (Muench 2006) Pavement distress may occur due to either traffic or environmental

  6. Effect of pyrolyzed carbon black on asphalt cement. Part 2. Asphalt binder. Final report, September 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Lovell, C.W.

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tires derived from automobiles have become a large environmental problem in the United States. In the study, research is carried out to investigate the potential use of tire-derived pyrolyzed carbon black from scrap tires as an asphalt cement modifier. The asphlat cements used in the research were AC10 and AC20. Penetration and softening point tests were performed to obtain the consistency of the asphalt cements. The pyrolyzed carbon black, as provided by Wolf Industries, was combined with the asphalt cement in the following percentages: 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Penetration, softening point and ductility tests were performed to determine the temperature susceptibility of the modified binder as altered by the pyrolyzed carbon black. In order that the results are comparable to previous testing, commercial carbon black purchased from CABOT Industry was also used as a modifier in the tests. The same test procedures were applied to the asphalt cements modified by commercial carbon black. The test results contained in the report illustrate the viability of the pyrolyzed carbon black as an asphalt modifier. Recommendations are provided to facilitate further research on this particular project. A preliminary assessment of a test road using the pyrolyzed carbon is appended.

  7. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 53 Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  8. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 53 Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  9. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 53 Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year...

  10. A study of the effects of limestone rock asphalt screenings on the structural properties of hot-mix asphaltic concrete made with siliceous materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albritton, Oscar Willard

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LiSRagy pptt8pp py IEXAa A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE ROCK ASPHALT SCREENINGS ON THE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF HOT-MIX ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MADE WITH SILICEOUS MATERIALS A Thesis By OSCAR WILLARD. AQBRITTON Submitted to the Graduate... ON THE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF HOT-MIX ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MADE WITH SILICEOUS MATERIALS A Thesis By OSCAR WILLARD ALBRITTON Approved as to Style and Content by: Chairman of Committee ead of Departme t August 1958 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgment is due...

  11. Recycling asphaltic concrete with sulphur as a supplemental binder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the United States, and the use of this secondary sulphur for construction purposes could provide not only a vast savings of natural resources and reusable materials but also aid industry in recovering the cost of environ- mental protection. The waste... industry [25, 26, 27, 28]. Research has been undertaken to investigate the use of sulphur in sand-asphalt- sulphur pavement mixes [11, 25, 29, 30]. The use of sulphur in sulphur-asphalt emulsions to serve as a binder has also been studied [26, 31, 32...

  12. Asphalt roofing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy modified bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Request for Emissions Testing at Four Asphalt Roofing and Processing Facilities was submitted by the US EPA Emission Standards Division (ESD), Minerals and Inorganic Chemicals Group (MICG) to the Emission Measurement Center (EMC). The Emission Measurement Center directed Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct emissions testing at asphalt roofing plants. This report presents results of MRI`s FTIR and Method 25A testing conducted at US Intec in Port Arthur, Texas. The field measurements were performed in September 1997 under several test conditions for both controlled and uncontrolled emissions.

  13. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauli, Adam T. (Cheyenne, WY); Robertson, Raymond E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Chatham, IL); Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  14. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams 44 Energy Information Administration...

  15. instructions HisTrap FF crude,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    · p1 instructions HisTrap FF crude, 1 ml and 5 ml i 11-0012-38 Edition AA HisTrapTM FF crude, such as degradation and oxidation of sensitive target proteins, and is therefore of great importance. HisTrap FF crude properties HisTrap FF crude 1-ml and 5-ml columns are prepacked with the affinity medium Ni Sepharose 6 Fast

  16. Recycling spent sandblasting grit and similar wastes as aggregate in asphaltic concrete. Technical data sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, J.C.; Nelson, B.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC), Port Hueneme, California, and Naval Facilities Engineering Command Engineering Field Activity, West, San Bruno, California, took overall leadership in identifying and testing methods to manage waste generated from a machine shop located at Hunters Point Annex, at Naval Station, Treasure Island, California. Ship cleaning and equipment maintenance resulted in the accumulation of 4,665 tons of spent sandblasting grit at the site. The spent grit, consisting of silica sand plus a small amount of slag-derived grit, had the physical characteristics of coarse-grained beach sand and also contained fragments of coatings. The spent grit had the potential for exhibiting hazardous characteristics since the coatings included lead-based primers, copper, and butyltin-containing antifouling topcoats. The most beneficial application of reusing the spent grit was to use it as a replacement for some of the fine aggregate in asphaltic concrete. A test program was established that included characterization, bench-scale testing, long-term pilot scale testing, and a full-scale demonstration. Full-scale asphalt production provided samples which proved both the chemical leaching resistance and physical performance characteristics were acceptable.

  17. Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    #12;2 #12;Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func- tion schemes, and/or change quality of the feedstock (crude). Demand for crude oil is growing, especially perspective. This thesis aims pre- cisely at understanding the quality of oil from a demand side perspective

  18. Rumen disappearance of organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ADF and NDF from grasses, white clover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rumen disappearance of organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ADF and NDF from grasses, white observed in crude fiber, ADF and NDF degradation among forages. For 24 h incubation, the lowest values of crude fiber, ADF and NDF degradations were obtained for Poa pratensis (50, 41, 51 %) and the highest

  19. A Methodology of Quantifying Precipitation Exposure for Wet-Weather Collisions and Evaluating Effectiveness of Open-Grade Asphalt Concrete as a Countermeasure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Ching-Yao; Jin, Eui-Jae; Oh, Soon Mi; Ragland, David R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Open-graded Asphaltic Concrete Friction Courses in Arizona.for Open-Graded Asphalt Concrete (OGAC) Wearing Courses.of Open-Grade Asphalt Concrete as a Countermeasure Ching-Yao

  20. asphalt technology development: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asphalt technology development First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Development and...

  1. asphalt based materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asphalt based materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Establishing material...

  2. Controlling Thermal Properties of Asphalt Concrete and its Multifunctional Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xijun

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of the thermally modified asphalt mixtures on the surface temperature of pavements and bridges, a series of heat transfer analysis were conducted using the finite difference heat transfer model. In addition, a case study of a building using EPP modified cement...

  3. Measurements of moisture suction in hot mix asphalt mixes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassem, Emad Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of moisture in hot mix asphalt (HMA) causes loss of strength and durability of the mix, which is referred to as moisture damage. This study deals with the development of experimental methods for measuring total suction in HMA, which can...

  4. asphalt construction premature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asphalt construction premature First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Moisture Diffusion in...

  5. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  6. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41[degree] API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing.

  7. Summary of Construction Activities and Results from Six Initial Accelerated Pavement Tests Conducted on Asphalt Concrete Pavement Section for Modified-Binder Overlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bejarano, Manuel O.; Morton, Bruce S.; Scheffy, Clark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing on the Asphalt Concrete FWD testing was conducted onin asphalt concrete modulus after HVS testing for Sectionsconcrete pavements under accelerated pavement testing. This

  8. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems Michael K. Poindexter,*, Nael N production, producers often determine beforehand various processing issues that might be encountered during full-scale production. A host of issues are considered pertinent, some of which include production line

  9. The use of sulfer modified bottom ash (SMBA) as an aggregate in asphaltic mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chimakurthy, Harshavardhan

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , bottom ash is lighter in weight and generally much cheaper than conventional quality aggregates such as limestone, sand and gravel. This research was designed to up-grade the load-bearing charactcnstics of bottom ash and maximize its usc m asphaltic... and gravel. According to a study done by Hafizuddin Ahmad in 1974, sulfur was used extensively in sand-asphalt sulfur to upgrade marginal aggregates for use in asphaltic mixtures, was developed at Texas Transportation Institute (TT1) (JO). TTI's work...

  10. Geochemical and carbon isotopic studies of crude oil destruction, bitumen precipitation, and sulfate reduction in the deep Smackover Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, R. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil generated by the Lower Smackover source facies migrated to Upper Smackover reservoirs where slow thermal cracking of crude oil resulted in the formation of gas-condensate and late solid bitumen. Ultimately, only pyrobitumen, methane, and nonhydrocarbon gases including hydrogen sulfide persist in the deepest Smackover reservoirs. The carbon isotopic compositions of crude oils became heavier during crude oil destruction. The carbon isotopic compositions of asphaltenes, NSO-compounds, and saturated hydrocarbons in late solid bitumen and the Lower Smackover source facies became isotopically lighter during crude oil destruction. It is suggested that some isotopically-light components from crude oils were incorporated in late solid bitumen by reactions involving thermochemical sulfate reduction. Thermochemical sulfate reduction and crude oil destruction occurred over a long span of geologic time at temperatures in the 120-150C range.

  11. Experimental Study on Geocell-Reinforced Flexible Pavements with Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Bases under Cyclic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, B. S.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The reprocessed old hot mix asphalt (HMA) concrete also called "Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP)", if used to build new roads or to maintain existing roads, would have several benefits, such as preservation of natural resources for future...

  12. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model, Part-I: Development,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded simulations, correspondence principle, finite-element method Abstract. Asphalt concrete pavements to climatic conditions are the major cause of such graded non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis

  13. Microstructural Characterization of the Chemo-mechanical Behavior of Asphalt in Terms of Aging and Fatigue Performance Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Robert Grover

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely...

  14. Microstructural Characterization of Material Properties and Damage in Asphalt Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Khorasani, Sara

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    by NPRP grant # 08-310-2-110 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... ........................................................................................................................ 17 3D Experimental Investigation of the Microstructure of Cement Pastes Using Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography (?CT) .......................................................... 18 Dynamic Modulus Simulation of the Asphalt Concrete Using the X...

  15. Evaluation of Rexene polymers in hot mixed asphalt concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Mary Anne Reese

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -- polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene-propylene rubbers -- show increased stability and stiffness modulus, increased resistance to permanent deformation and lower temperature susceptibility. Carpenter and VanDam (14... five asphalt additives: block copolymer rubber, SBR latex, EVA, polyethylene and carbon black. Mixture stability, stiffness, tensile strength and resistance to fatigue, thermal cracking, permanent deformation and moisture damage were tested. Three...

  16. A novel method of bitumen extraction from asphalt pavement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, T.J. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo (United States))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of extracting bitumen from asphalt pavement mixtures has been developed which does not require chlorinated or aromatic compounds for solvents. The preferred solvent is cyclohexane (although cyclopentane may be used) at high temperatures and pressures. The new method requires equipment that is less costly than the centrifuge method currently used and takes less time than extractions with Bioact but more time than when chlorocompounds are used.

  17. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization. Citation: Eckert PA, PJ Roach, A Laskin, and J Laskin.2012."Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using...

  18. Quantitative microscopic spectral fluorescence measurement of crude oil, bitumen, kerogen, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Rullkoetter, J.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten samples each of black shale (kerogen and bitumen fractions) from Lias epsilon, coal from Western Canada and nine crude oil and condensate samples from Alaska and northern Germany have been studied using quantitative microscopic spectral fluorescence. The parameters used are lambda/sub max/, red/green quotient (Q), and alteration of fluorescence emission intensity under UV excitation. Using the same parameters, the data show that kerogen and crude oil have opposite maturation trends. Autochthonous bitumens include both kerogen and crude oil characters. Immature, biodegraded, or normal crude oil of different maturity can be characterized using these parameters. Quantitative spectral fluorescence microscopy yields more accurate maturation parameters for the Type I and II kerogens than vitrinite reflectance because the fluorescence of liptinites are used (i.e., the main oil-generating macerals). This method may become the most suitable inexpensive scanning technique for the characterization of crude oil, condensate, and autochthonous/allochthonous source rock bitumens.

  19. INTRODUCTION The increase in energy costs has led to a significant rise in the cost of mixtures containing asphalt cement. This resulted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    containing asphalt cement. This resulted in a need to search for alternatives that reduce the cost of those mixed with low percentages (1 percent below standard HMA mixtures) of paving grade asphalt cement and lower percentages of asphalt cement binder and easier compaction efforts. Asphalt treated mixtures can

  20. Effect of pavement temperature on the macrotexture of a semidense asphalt surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effect of pavement temperature on the macrotexture of a semidense asphalt surface J. Luong, M the pavement temperature could change the texture surface of the pavement. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of the surface temperature on the macrotexture of a semidense asphalt pavement located in an urban

  1. Dynamic Effects on Moisture Transport in Asphalt Concrete M. Emin Kutay1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Dynamic Effects on Moisture Transport in Asphalt Concrete M. Emin Kutay1 and Ahmet H. Aydilek2 2007 133:7 406 CE Database subject headings: Moisture; Asphalt concrete; Dynamics; Hydraulic and Magdalena 2002 ; however, limited research has been conducted in modeling dynamic flow in porous geomedia

  2. RESEARCH REPORT 987-9 ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    by using a fractional factorial design. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to identifyRESEARCH REPORT 987-9 ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS CONSIDERING RUTTING's Catalog No. 5. Report Date October 1998 4. Title and Subtitle ASPHALT OVERLAY DESIGN METHODS FOR RIGID

  3. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, W.H.; Negulescu, I.I.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blends with up to 20 percent ground vulcanized rubber (both crumb and 200 mesh powder particles) from recycled tires were prepared with asphalt cements of various grades (AC5 - AC30) and evaluated using DMA. Blends produced from powdered rubber particles exhibited Newtonian behavior at high temperatures; similar behavior was not observed with crumb rubber blends. The mechanical properties of asphalt-rubber blends depend upon the concentration of rubber additives, the particle dimensions, and the chemical composition of the asphalt.

  4. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  6. A study of the effects of limestone rock asphalt screenings on the structural properties of hot-mix asphaltic concrete made with siliceous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albritton, Oscar Willard

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society for Testing Materials, Phila. , Pa. 15 PROCEDURE To limit the wide variations of aggregate grading, specifica- tions of the Texas Highway Department for a Type "D" Hot-Mix, Hot- Laid, Asphaltic Concrete were used as a guide in the design... Standards on Mineral Aggregates, Concrete, and Nonbituminous Highway Materials, American Society for Testing Materials, Phila, , Pa. Benson, Fred J, and Bh. Subbaraju, "Specific Gravity of Aggregates in Asphaltic Paving Mixtures, " Texas Engineering...

  7. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ranks 17th in crude oil production globally (EIA 2008).the country’s crude oil production averaged only 157,770s production of nearly 2 million barrels of crude oil per

  8. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel...

  9. High temperature performance of scrap tire rubber modified asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coomarasamy, A. [Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Manolis, S.; Hesp, S. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheel track rutting tests on mixes modified with 30 mesh, 80 mesh, and very fine colloidal crumb rubber particles show that a very significant improvement in performance occurs with a reduction in the rubber particle size. The SHRP binder test for rutting, which was originally developed for homogeneous systems only, does not predict the performance improvement for smaller rubber particles. If these new scrap rubber binder systems are to be used in pavements then rutting tests on the asphalt-aggregate mixture should be conducted in order to accurately predict high temperature performance.

  10. Determinants of official OPEC crude prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verleger, P.K. Jr.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hypothesis of this paper is that crude oil, like any other unfinished commodity, is valued for the products derived from it; the purpose is to offer an empirical explanation for changes in the crude price charged by the members of OPEC. The model results show that the market-clearing prices reported to prevail for petroleum products on the principal petroleum spot market at Rotterdam are the primary determinants of changes in official crude prices. A systematic relationship between offical and spot prices is argued to have prevailed since 1974. An appendix clarifies five types of data required for the model. 13 references, 4 tables.

  11. Nigeria: after crude, the gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.

  12. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); McNutt, B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  13. ERCB updates estimated reserves of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board prepares yearly updates of Alberta reserves of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil. The latest figures are as of the end of 1985. Alberta's crude bitumen reserves are contained in designated deposits with the oil sand areas of Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River. The total initial volume of crude bitumen in-place for the designated deposits at December 31, 1985 was estimated as 266.4 billion cubic meters. Within the potentially mineable areas, the initial mineable volume in-place of crude bitumen was established to be 11.9 billion cubic meters. After allowing for surface facilities (plant sites, tailings ponds, discard dumps), environmental protection corridors along major rivers, isolated mineable areas, and assuming a combined mining/extraction recovery factor of 0.78, the resulting initial established mineable reserve of crude bitumen is estimated to be 5.2 billion cubic meters. Data are presented in three tables.

  14. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  15. Supercritical Water desulfurization of crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kida, Yuko

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical Water (SCW) desulfurization was investigated for both model sulfur compounds and Arab Heavy crude. In part 1, the reactions of alkyl sulfides in SCW were studied. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in SCW, ...

  16. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  17. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  18. Urethane coatings rehabilitate large crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kresic, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. (IPL) provides a vital transportation link for moving liquid petroleum resources from oil-producing areas of western Canada to refining centers and markets in eastern canada and the midwestern US. Together with Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., the pipeline system consists of about 7,600 miles of pipe. Approximately 1.6 million bpd of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons are transported by the system. Along with high-resolution inspection data, an in-house engineering critical assessment process based on Battelle`s NG-18 surface flaw equation was developed to identify corrosion anomalies needing structural reinforcement sleeve repairs. A majority of ht non-critical anomalies remained unearthed and were exposed to possible future growth which could become critical. Several rehabilitation methods were considered including on-going sleeve repair, selective pipe replacement, and coating reconditioning. Economics and logistics of sleeving programs and selective pipe replacement were well known at IPL. However, aspects of replacing a coating system over a relatively long length of pipe were not completely known. Preliminary cost estimates favored replacement of the coating over a massive sleeving program or pipe replacement. To gain further insight, IPL began a two-year pilot program to research long length coating replacement feasibility. Two sections of Line 3 ultimately were rehabilitated in this manner. This paper reviews the project.

  19. Crude Depletion Conditions for XKCM1 Arshad Desai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    Crude Depletion Conditions for XKCM1 Arshad Desai 3/17/95 Problems: The main problem with immunodepletion of crude CSF extracts is that they activate during or soon after immunodepletion. Empirically well in crude). However, we have never been able to cycle a depleted crude - all assays were performed

  20. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  1. Influence of fundamental material properties and air void structure on moisture damage of asphalt mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arambula Mercado, Edith

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters were obtained using mechanical tests and surface energy measurements. The microstructure of asphalt mixes prepared in the laboratory having different air void structures was captured using X-ray CT, and image analysis techniques were used...

  2. Evaluation of healing in asphalt binders using dynamic shear rheometer and molecular modeling techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bommavaram, Ramamohan Reddy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-healing material has the inherent ability to partially reverse damage such as crack formation that might have occurred during its service. Significant evidence exists in the literature to indicate that asphalt binder is a self...

  3. A Continuum Coupled Moisture-mechanical Constitutive Model for Asphalt Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shakiba, Maryam

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    procedure and give insight into the various damage inducing mechanisms in asphalt concrete. In this dissertation, thermo-hygro-mechanical constitutive relationships are developed based on the principle of virtual power and laws of thermodynamics in order...

  4. Chip Seals for Asphalt Concrete Pavements: A Proposed Emulsion Residue Specification and Existing Pavement Texture Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyt, Denise

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Chip seals are a pavement surface treatment used for maintaining asphalt concrete pavements. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 14-17 was performed to produce a national Chip Seal Manual which would consolidate the best...

  5. Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

  6. A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the research are to understand the occurrence and behavior of reflection cracking and for devising ways of mitigating them and to put together an effective and complete package of computer programs to design asphalt concrete overlays. Another primary objective...

  7. Evaluation of healing in asphalt binders using dynamic shear rheometer and molecular modeling techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bommavaram, Ramamohan Reddy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    the parameters of characteristic healing function of asphalt binders. In the second part of this study, Molecular Modeling (MM) techniques were used to determine the interrelationship between molecular structure, surface free energy, self diffusivity, and other...

  8. Laboratory evaluation of crumb rubber asphalt concrete mixtures using the concepts of SMA mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebala, Somasekhar Reddy

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eight CRM asphalt concrete mixtures were evaluated using AAMAS characterization procedures: Four wet-process mixtures and four dry-process mixtures. These mixtures were compared to a conventional dense graded mixture. It was determined that CRM has...

  9. Automated Protocol for the Analysis of Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer Date from Fine Aggregate Asphalt Mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti De Sousa, Pedro

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatigue cracking and moisture damage are two important modes of distresses in asphalt pavements. Recently, the Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to characterize fatigue cracking and evaluate the effects of moisture ...

  10. The morphology of polymer modified asphalt and its relationship to rheology and durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, Zachary Rothman

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    % % loglog * deg6010* deg6010 ?? , where d%A is the change in asphaltene in the asphalt (19). The other theory is that only the polar aromatics and napthene aromatics fluoresce when separated from the asphalt binder (16). Therefore as polar and napthene... aromatics change to asphaltenes with oxidative aging, the brightness would decrease. This brightness decrease would correspond to the increase in asphaltene with carbonyl area leading to a graph that looks like a chart for hardening susceptibility...

  11. An investigation of three problems concerning the analysis of airborne asphalt fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laird, Larry Teal

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THREE PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE ASPHALT FUMES A Thesis by LARRY TEAL LAIRD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene AN INVESTIGATION OF THREE PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE ASPHALT FUMES A Thesis by LARRY T. LAIRD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (Head of Department...

  12. Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    19.47 16.46 15.72 18.06 20.07 15.57 20.05 See footnotes at end of table. 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Evaluation of the effects of crumb rubber and SBR on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chuang-Tsair; Tia, Mang; Ruth, B.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effects of addition of crumb rubber (CR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) on the rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. These two additives were blended with an AC-20 and an AC-30 grade asphalt cements at different levels of concentrations. These modified and unmodified asphalt blends were tested at intermediate and high temperatures to evaluate their rutting resistance characteristics. They were also used to make Florida type S-I structural surface mixtures. These mixtures were made into Marshall-size specimens by using Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM) equipped with air-roller to compact and density to three compaction levels which simulate three different conditions in the pavement. The FDOT`s (Florida Department of Transportation) Loaded Wheel Tester was also used to evaluate the rutting resistance of these asphalt mixtures. The test results indicate that the modified asphalt mixtures show relatively better rutting resistance and shear resistance as compared with the unmodified asphalt mixtures.

  15. In the first trial involving 86 piglets per treatment, diets containing 18 and 20 p. 100 crude protein, with and without fish meal, were used. The weight and mean age of the piglets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - In the first trial involving 86 piglets per treatment, diets containing 18 and 20 p. 100 crude trial involving 144 piglets per treatment, a diet including 20 p. 100 crude protein with and without /piglet. The results of the two trials show that for a given crude protein level, the addition of fish

  16. Arabian crude-oil residues evaluated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.F.; Bukhari, A.; Hasan, M.; Saleem, M.

    1985-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This article evaluates detailed physical and chemical characteristics for four important Saudi Arabian resids. Petroleum residues are composed of a mixture of large and complex hydrocarbon molecules along with one or more heteroatoms such as sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, vanadium, and nickel. The amount of residue and its physical and chemical composition depend on the source of the crude oil and methods of processing. Residues from four Saudi Arabian crude oils produced by the Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco) were evaluated. The crude oils are 38.5 degrees API Arabian Extra Light, 33.8 degrees API Arabian Light, 30.4 degrees Api Arabian Medium, and 28.03 degrees API Arabian Heavy. Results are presented and residue preparation, and physical and chemical characteristics are analyzed.

  17. Development of statistical wet weather model to evaluate frictional properties at the pavement-tire interface on hot mix asphalt concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedi, Harpreet

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skid resistance on wet pavements is influenced by friction at the tire-pavement interface as well as overall hot mix asphalt (HMA) performance. It is important to control aggregate, asphalt, and mix properties to achieve desirable frictional...

  18. Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the origin of heavy oil. Nature, 426, 344-352. HEITKAMP,natural asphalts and heavy oil compounds. A major questionmainly of asphalts and heavy oils, which have saturated into

  19. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  20. Nuclear salt-in-crude monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikh, S.; Richter, A.P.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) recently installed a nuclear salt-in-crude monitor (SICM) that continuously measures the salt content of a flowing stream of crude oil. This device was developed by Texaco Inc.'s Bellaire (TX) Research Laboratory. The monitor consists of two parts: a counting chamber and an instrument console. The counting chamber is a length of 24-in.-diameter pipe containing a long-life neutron source and a gamma ray detector, both mounted in cross pipes so that there is no direct contact with the flowing crude. Neutrons from the source are absorbed by chloride ions in the stream, which in turn emit gamma rays. The intensity of the gamma rays is proportional to the amount of chlorine in the crude. The gamma ray detector is electrically connected to the instrument console, which is located in a control room. The console contains the necessary instrumentation to process the data from the detector, to compute the salt concentration, and to provide a continuous printed record of the salt per thousand barrels (PTB).

  1. Combination process for upgrading reduced crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger, W.P. Jr.

    1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduced crude conversion process is described for heavy oil feeds having Conradson carbon numbers above two, which process comprises contacting a heavy oil feed with a catalyst to form products comprising lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and coke-on-catalyst, the coke containing minor amounts of hydrogen, and thereafter regenerating the catalyst by removing at least a portion of the coke.

  2. Development of reduced crude cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger, W.P. Jr. (Ashland Petroleum Company, KY (USA))

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1974 OPEC imposed an embargo on oil to the United States and caused a rapid rise in the price of a barrel of oil. At the time of the embargo, Ashland imported a considerable portion of its oil from the Middle East, thus raising the question of oil availability. As the problem increased in severity, Messrs. George Meyer, Oliver Zandona and Llyod Busch, began to explore alternative ways of squeezing more product from a given barrel of crude. After considering many alternatives, they arrived at the innovative thought that it might be possible to catalytically crack the 1050{degree}F plus fraction of the barrel directly to gasoline which would in effect, give them an additional volume of crude oil. Also, if vacuum fractionation were eliminated and if the entire 650{degree}F plus (reduced crude) portion of the barrel processed, this would further reduce operating costs. With these objectives and some new process innovations in mind, they began reduced crude cracking experimentation in a small 12,000 B/D FCC operating unit at Louisville. It was from these goals, concepts and a small operating unit, that the RCC process was born.

  3. Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring Roller Design to Increase the Lifespan of Asphalt Compactor Wiper Blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    the Lifespan of Asphalt Compactor Wiper Blades By: Thomas Krupa, Eric Resch, Phillip Yesenosky, John Marshall, Asset Kusmanov Overview Volvo CE's asphalt compactors have a polymer wiper blade that is used life. o The roller was tested five times as long as the wipers and never showed any change in diameter

  4. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

  5. Effects of carboxylic acids on the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tauer, J.E.; Robertson, R.E. [Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal mandate of 1991-1995 on the use of scrap tires in Federal roadway construction sparked a major interest in gaining a fundamental understanding of the behavior of rubber in asphalt. This study is a systematic elucidation of what chemistry controls the final crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) product quality. We discovered that the type and total acid content in the asphalt are the most influential chemical factors that determine the changes in the important roadway properties of shear modulus (G*) and loss angle ({delta}) of CRMA. Low acid (<0.005 m/L) asphalts were modified with three types of carboxylic acid and each made into CRMA using typical field mixing conditions of 1 hour at 175{degrees}C. Rheological measurements were then made at various storage times up to 192 hours following storage at both 156 and 200{degrees}C. We found the changes in CRMA theological properties correspond to the acid type spiked into the asphalt.

  6. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    to the petroleum industry. Nonaqueous foams occur in the production of and refining of crude oil. Crude oil foamsFactors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 2. Synthetic Crude Oil Systems Nael N. Zaki, Michael K August 28, 2001 The influence of petroleum asphaltenes and resins on stabilizing model oil foams

  7. Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    of the production of crude oil in deep-water environments and the operations of enhanced oil recovery by miscible asphaltenes and resins. Asphaltenes are defined as the fraction separated from crude oil or petroleum productsAsphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro

  8. MFR PAPER 1074 Effects of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MFR PAPER 1074 Effects of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil on Molting Tanner Crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi JOHN F bairdi , from Alaska walers were exposed 10 Prudhoe Bay crude oil in sIalic bioassays ill Ih e laboralory. Crabs in bOlh slages were similarly susceplible 10 crude oil; Ihe eSlimaled 48-hour TLIIl (Illedian

  9. Using Crude Corrective Movements to Learn Accurate Motor Programs for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagg, Andrew H.

    Using Crude Corrective Movements to Learn Accurate Motor Programs for Reaching Andrew H. Fagg University School of Medicine Chicago, IL 60611 Abstract A computational model that uses crude corrective of #12; Fagg, Zelevinsky, Barto, & Houk: Crude Corrective Movements for Learning Accurate Motor Programs

  10. PRIMARY RESEARCH Open Access Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRIMARY RESEARCH Open Access Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent

  11. Improved measurement of crude oil vapor pressure via PVT study methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roehner, R. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States); Wetzel, G.; Stonestreet, W.; Lievios, J.; Reed, D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical task force created by owner companies of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) including BP Pipelines (Alaska), and Arco Transportation Alaska, Inc., and Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC), the operator of TAPS, have investigated new technology for measuring the saturated liquid bubble point vapor pressure (BPVP) of crude oils. This technology is based on Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Cell study methods and consists of an on-line Vapor Pressure Analyzer (VPA) developed by Arco Oil & Gas Company and marketed by Fluid Data (TVP-1000), and a mercury-free automated PVT lab system (RUSKA 2370 Lab System) marketed by Ruska Instrument Corporation and modified to meet APSC requirements. In this methodology, the BPVP for the multicomponent fluid crude oil is defined and approximated by the intersection of the liquid compressibility and two phase lines on the isothermal pressure-volume (PV) curve for the fluid. The Task Force finds that this new technology provides saturated liquid bubble point vapor pressure values of TAPS crude oils which differ by 15 to 95 kPa from True Vapor Pressure (TVP) values obtained using API Publication 2517, Figure 18B-Equation for of Crude Oils With A Reid Vapor Pressure of 2-15 Pounds per Square Inch and corresponding RVP data from the crude oils tested. The range in difference between the BPVP and the TVP for each of five different TAPS crude oils tested was found to be due to differences in crude oil composition. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Viscoroute 2.0: a tool for the simulation of moving load effects on asphalt pavement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chabot, Armelle; Deloffre, Lydie; Duhamel, Denis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As shown by strains measured on full scale experimental aircraft structures, traffic of slow-moving multiple loads leads to asymmetric transverse strains that can be higher than longitudinal strains at the bottom of asphalt pavement layers. To analyze this effect, a model and a software called ViscoRoute have been developed. In these tools, the structure is represented by a multilayered half-space, the thermo-viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt layers is accounted by the Huet-Sayegh rheological law and loads are assumed to move at constant speed. First, the paper presents a comparison of results obtained with ViscoRoute to results stemming from the specialized literature. For thick asphalt pavement and several configurations of moving loads, other ViscoRoute simulations confirm that it is necessary to incorporate viscoelastic effects in the modelling to well predict the pavement behaviour and to anticipate possible damages in the structure.

  13. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  14. Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in asphalt pavement design and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, T.; Coree, B.J. [Indiana Department of Transportation, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Division of Research; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    According to EPA reports (1991) of the over 242 million waste generated each year in the United State, 5% are exported, 6% recycled, 11% incinerated, and 78% are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. A variety of uses for these tires are being studied. Among these is pyrolysis which produces 5 5% of oil, 25% of carbon black, 9% of steel, 5% of fiber and 6% of gas. Pyrolized carbon black contains 9 % of ash, 4% of sulfur, 12% of butadine copolymer and 75% of carbon black. The objective of this research is to investigate the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt. The use of PCB in asphalt pavement is expected not only to improve the performance of conventional asphalt, but also to provide a means for the mass disposal of waste fires.

  15. Recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The papers in this volume, dealing with various facets of recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. In the first papers, Rebala and Estakhri, Malpass and Khosla, and Baker and Connolly describe research related to crumb rubber modified mixtures that was done for the Texas, North Carolina, and New Jersey State Departments of Transportation. Ali et al. report on their research in Canada to determine the feasibility of sing reclaimed roofing materials in hot mix asphalt pavement. Emery discusses the evaluation of 11 Ontario rubber modified demonstration projects in terms of pavement performance, environmental impacts, and recyclability. In the last paper, Fwa and Aziz report on their work in Singapore related to the use of incinerator residue in asphalt mixtures.

  16. Reduced crude processing with Ashland's RCC process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandona, O.J.; Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Oil has long recognized the need to improve the process for the direct conversion of residual feedstocks into transportation fuels and other lighter products. The reduced crude oil conversion (RCC) unit now under construction at the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, refinery was developed to meet these demands. The facility incorporates RCC process innovations and recent catalyst technology improvements, and provides increased operating flexibility. Heavier, higher-sulfur crude oils can be processed under several economically attractive scenarios. They allow for an excellent balance between the production of transportation fuels, and reduced amounts of heavy fractions. An outstanding feature of the RCC process is the highoctane quality of full-boiling-range gasoline that results when converting residual feedstocks.

  17. Geochemical studies of crude oil generation, migration, and destruction in Mississippi salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, R.; Moore, C.H.; Nunn, J.A.; Meendsen, F.C.; Heydari, E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main source for crude oil in the Mississippi salt basin is the laminated lime mudstone facies of the lower Smackover. Crude oil generation and migration commenced at a level of thermal maturity equivalent to about 0.55% vitrinite reflectance. Short-range lateral migration of crude oil was focused on upper Smackover and Norphlet reservoirs, but vertical migration also charged some overlying Cotton Valley, Rodessa, lower Tuscaloosa, and Eutaw reservoirs. Following migration from the lower Smackover, thermal maturity history of reservoir rocks controls the preservation of crude oil, gas condensate, and methane. Slow thermal cracking of crude oil occurred in deep upper Smackover reservoirs, resulting in formation of gas condensate and precipitation of solid bitumen. The maximum thermal maturity for preservation of condensate is equivalent to about 1.3% vitrinite reflectance. Only methane, pyrobitumen, and nonhydrocarbon gases, including hydrogen sulfide, persist at higher levels of thermal maturity. Early destruction of methane in deep upper Smackover reservoirs near the Wiggins arch is driven by thermochemical sulfate reduction. Lesser availability of sulfate in Norphlet reservoirs could account for methane preservation at higher levels of thermal maturity. One basic geochemical strategy for further exploration of the Mississippi salt basin is to focus exploration effort on traps with reservoirs in the thermal maturity window for hydrocarbon preservation. Another strategy is to avoid drilling traps with overmature reservoir rocks.

  18. Studies of asphalt air blowing and development of a new short-term aging technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliev, Nicolai

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Table m-2. Low temperature hardening properi. ies of air blown asphalt fractions and blends. Table III-3. Parent asphalt HS, oxidation rate, and HR . Table IV-1. Estimated time required to achieve same degrcc of aging as RTFOT for Exxon AC-10 films... of varying I. hickness . 70 Table IV-2 Effect of air blowing conditions for Exxon AC- I 0, 325 'F, 70 min. 70 Table IV-3. Condensed volatiles and RTFOT mass change . 80 Table IV-4. Reproducibility analysis. LIST OF FIGURES P ige Figure I-l. Thin film...

  19. H.R. 70: A Bill to permit exports of certain domestically produced crude oil, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, January 4, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report H.R.70 is a bill to permit exports of certain domestically produced crude oil. The proposed legislative text is included.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  1. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Influence of coarse aggregate size, shape and surface texture on rutting of hot mix asphalt concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeggoni, Mohan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increased Hveem Stability, Marshall Stability and resistance to creep of hot mix asphalt concrete. The resilient modulus of the specimens was also enhanced by the increase in the amount of crushed aggregate in the mix at high temperatures (115'F). Fractal...

  3. The State of the Practice and Common Pitfalls for Porous Asphalt for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of stormwater treatment systems · To provide resources to stormwater communities currently involved in design)-131 Porous Asphalt Pavements (2008) NAPA IS-115 Open-Graded Friction Courses (2002) 3 #12;Overview 1. State of the Practice 2. Water Quality Performance 3. Hydraulic Performance 4. Cold Climate

  4. Project Information Form Project Title Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Pavement (RAP), Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS), and Different Virgin Binder Sources on Performance of Research Project As virgin material sources become increasingly scarce, and the volume of pavement material for pavement construction. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has recently increased

  5. FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN of rubberized bitumen has been spread out mainly due to environmental aspects, but high mixing and compaction temperatures are necessary due to the higher viscosity of this bitumen. A WMA mixture (using a surfactant

  6. Creep Compliance Analysis Technique for the Flattened Indirect Tension Test of Asphalt Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Creep Compliance Analysis Technique for the Flattened Indirect Tension Test of Asphalt Concrete: ­ Cored Sample (Cylindrical) Indirect tensile testing (IDT) (Strength/Creep) ­ AASHTO T-322 Damage under and Flattened IDT · 1000-sec creep tests on three replicates · 0, -10, and -20 deg. C · Displacement

  7. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Carbon Dioxide (December 1980) Olusegun Omole, B. S. , University of Ibadan, Nigeria Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. S. Osoba It has long been recognized that carbon dioxide could be used as an oil recovery agent. Both laboratory and field...- tion. Crude oil from the Foster Field in West Texas, of 7 cp and 34 API, 0 was used as the oil in place. Oil displacements were conducted at pres- sures between 750 psig and 1800 ps1g, and at a temperature of 110 F. 0 Carbon dioxide was injected...

  8. Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX ImeansCrude Oil Imports

  9. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX ImeansCrude2009Oct-14

  10. Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 2013 IndependentProduct: Crude

  11. This Week In Petroleum Crude Oil Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9.The U.S.Crude

  12. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15.

  13. asphaltenic crude oils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Options for the Future University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: capex will go to exploration and production in an attempt to keep up faltering crude...

  14. aqueous crude leaf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro.interscience.wiley.com). The precipitation of asphaltenes in two Mexican crude oils was measured using a combination of high- and tank-oil...

  15. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  16. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    company data. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 44 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual...

  17. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  18. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    company data. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 44 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories Releases Literature Survey of Crude...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sandia National Laboratories Releases Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport Sandia National Laboratories Releases Literature...

  20. Asphalt and Asphaltic Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, A. R.

    1914-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and combined curb and gutter furnished and set, the rate for resetting old curbing; the rate per cubic yard for extra concrete, if any is used; the price per cubic yard for broken stone or gravel; the rate per square yard for paving and for relaying old...- tified and given access to the same at least ten days be- fore it is required for use, and any work in which re- jected cement was used will be rejected altogether. 5. The cement shall be packed in strong bags having printed on the outside the brand...

  1. A comparison of the fracture properties of conventional and polymer-modified two-layer asphalt concrete overlay systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Praveena Gutha

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of reflection cracking through the conventional asphalt concrete overlays has increased the need to find new materials which could resist cracking or fracture more effectively. It is for this reason that polymers ...

  2. Comparison of fatigue analysis approaches for predicting fatigue lives of hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walubita, Lubinda F.

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) mixture fatigue characterization constitutes a fundamental component of HMAC pavement structural design and analysis to ensure adequate field fatigue performance. HMAC is a heterogeneous complex composite material...

  3. Fatigue resistance of hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) mixtures using the calibrated mechanistic with surface energy (CMSE) measurements approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori-Abebresse, Edward Kwame

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatigue cracking is one of the fundamental distresses that occur in the life of a Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) pavement. This load induced distress leads to structural collapse of the entire pavement ultimately and can only be remedied...

  4. Fatigue resistance of hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) mixtures using the calibrated mechanistic with surface energy (CMSE) measurements approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori-Abebresse, Edward Kwame

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatigue cracking is one of the fundamental distresses that occur in the life of a Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) pavement. This load induced distress leads to structural collapse of the entire pavement ultimately and can ...

  5. A unified method for the analysis of nonlinear viscoelasticity and fatigue cracking of asphalt mixtures using the dynamic mechanical analyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castelo Branco, Veronica Teixeira Franco

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A UNIFIED METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR VISCOELASTICITY AND FATIGUE CRACKING OF ASPHALT MIXTURES USING THE DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYZER A Dissertation by VERONICA TEIXEIRA FRANCO CASTELO BRANCO Submitted to the Office... VISCOELASTICITY AND FATIGUE CRACKING OF ASPHALT MIXTURES USING THE DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYZER A Dissertation by VERONICA TEIXEIRA FRANCO CASTELO BRANCO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  6. A study of substitution solvents in asphalt fume extraction and the effects of heating duration and temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, Noel Thomas

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    may be used as substitute solvents for the solvent extraction analytical method for asphalt furres proposed by NlnSH and currently in use by OSHA. Benzene is known to orovide IC0% effic- 1 iency in asphalt fume extraction. The results..., rather than the solvents' effic- iency loss, was responsible for the differences. The importance of the data lies in the fact that the other two test solvents exhibited a consiatency equal to that of benzene. 'Ahile the exact coefficient of any...

  7. INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

  8. Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, David

    Sunco Oil manufactures three types of gasoline (gas 1, gas 2 and gas 3). Each type is produced by blending three types of crude oil (crude 1, crude 2 and crude 3). The sales price per barrel of gasoline and the purchase price per barrel of crude oil are given in following table: Gasoline Sale Price per barrel Gas 1

  9. Steamflooding projects boost California's crude oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer and fall of 1981, the first time in more than a decade, US crude oil production in the lower 48 was higher than production in the preceding year. California is leading this resurgence. The state's oil production in October 1981 averaged 1,076,000 bpd, compared with 991,000 bpd in October 1980. Some of the increase comes from production in several offshore fields whose development had been delayed; some is due to greater output from the US Government's petroleum reserve at Elk Hills. However, a big portion of the state's increased production results from large steamdrive projects in heavy-oil fields of the San Joaquin Valley that were set in motion by decontrol of heavy-oil proces in mid-1979. California holds vast reserves of viscous, low-gravity oil in relatively shallow reservoirs. The methods used to produce heavy oil are discussed.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. DYNAMIC HEDGING STRATEGIES: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRUDE OIL MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DYNAMIC HEDGING STRATEGIES: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRUDE OIL MARKET Delphine LAUTIER 1 , Professor-5Jul2013 Author manuscript, published in "Review of futures markets 19, 1 (2010) 7-41" #12;ABSTRACT ratios. Different strategies, with maturities up to seven years, are tested on the American crude oil

  13. Volatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amlie CHARLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , reflecting rising demand for crude oil, particularly from developing nations. Oil prices have been veryVolatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amélie CHARLES Audencia Nantes, School of Management oil markets ­ Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  14. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    , the majority of applied microbiologi- cal methods of enhanced oil recovery also dete- riorates oil and appearsREVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil

  15. An analysis of some properties of paving asphalts in Texas as they relate to pavement performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuBose, Emmett Haygood

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    51 73 93 115 115 DISTRESS AND CRACKING FACTORS THE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE SYSTEM 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES . APPENDIX A: RAW DATA APPENDIX B: PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE VS. TIME CURVES APPENDIX C... harden1ng model. It had been shown in earlier research that excessive asphalt1c concrete binder hardening was a detrimental factor influencing certain types of pavement distress such as thermal cracking, raveling, fatigue cracking, and reflective crack...

  16. Thickness estimation of subsurface layers in asphalt pavement using monstatic ground penetrating radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Chun Lok

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Approved as to style and content by... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. LIST OF FIGURES. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. 1. 1 Importance of pavement profile data. 1. 2 Principle of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) . . . 1. 3 Subsurface layer thickness measurement method. . . . . . II GPR ANTENNA AND SYSTEM CALIBRATION...

  17. Oxidative reactions and their impact on the properties of asphalt as a pavement binder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Chee Keung

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanical spectrometer was found to increase with aging time. Correlation was shown to exist between the limiting complex viscosity and the carbonyl area as determined by infrared analysis. The correlation was unique for each asphalt and was independent... of aging temperature. The carbonyl area growth rate was a strong function of the aging temperature and the temperature dependence of the rate constant followed the Arrhenius relation within the temperature range tested. The results led...

  18. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L., E-mail: greenfield@egr.uri.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ?42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  19. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    "Monthly Foreign Crude Oil Acquisition Report," July 1984 to present. 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil, by Selected Country Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Analysis on Falls Death Crude Rate in Western Region of United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Lung Fai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Falls Death Crude Rate in Western Region of United States AFalls Death Crude Rate in Western Region of United States by

  1. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  2. DOE to Issue Second Solicitation for Purchase of Crude Oil for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    second of several solicitations planned to purchase up to four million barrels of crude oil for the United States' crude oil reserve. The first solicitation, issued March 16,...

  3. EIAs U.S. Crude Oil Import Tracking Tool

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    onshore production will be dominated by light crudes, issues surrounding the absorption of domestic crude by increased runs, by like-for-like replacement of import streams...

  4. Fluorescent spectra of chromatographic fractions of crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, William Samuel

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . For this investigation, n-heptane, cyclohexane, iso-octane, benzene, chloroform, ether, and methanol were used in that order. The volume of eluent depended upon the size of the charged crude. Splitting sess eluent charges into two or three fractions gave a... better fractionat. '. on. hecovery of the oil raried from BO. Q to 89. 5 per cent on tests on four different crudes. Analysis of the fractions in iso-prapyl ether 'by spectrographic means revealed a distinct di ference between the crude oils...

  5. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  6. Crude Oil Movements of Crude of by Rail between PAD Districts

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S. DEPARTMENTshort0 U.S.4:4Company LevelCoosProduct: Crude

  7. ,"Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"for Selected Crude

  8. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events...

  9. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    19.11 18.73 18.63 17.97 18.75 18.10 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  10. Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, James B

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parameter on the rate of coalescence. Using previously established procedures, the potential for enhancement of the electrostatic coalescence rate for oil/water emulsions of highly refined oils and different grades of crude oils was explored using a 2-L...

  11. arabian crude oil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and subsequent treatment by in-situ burning in a coastal marsh in the western Gulf of Mexico.Crude Oil, Pollution Control, Skimmer Leavitt, M. 1990. New Mexico's Louisiana...

  12. arabian crude oils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and subsequent treatment by in-situ burning in a coastal marsh in the western Gulf of Mexico.Crude Oil, Pollution Control, Skimmer Leavitt, M. 1990. New Mexico's Louisiana...

  13. Supply and demand planning for crude oil procurement in refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Beatrice N. (Beatrice Nne)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upstream petroleum supply chain is inefficient and uneconomical because of the independence of the four complex and fragmented functions which comprise it. Crude oil exploration, trading, transportation, and refining ...

  14. Alaska Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil Shut-in Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background and facts on Alaska's crude oil reserves, production, and transportation with the Energy Information Administration's analysis of potential shut-in impacts on U.S. oil markets.

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvey, Luke

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol By Copyright 2011 Luke Grantham Silvey Submitted to the graduate degree program in the Chemical and Petroleum Program, School of Engineering and the Graduate Faculty...D ________________________________ Christopher Depcik , PhD Date Defended: December 15, 2011 ii The Thesis Committee for Luke Grantham Silvey certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude...

  17. A comparative study of continuous-time modelings for scheduling of crude oil operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    on its efficient performance for industrial problems. Keywords: Crude oil scheduling; event-based model problem is the first and critical stage of the crude oil refining process. The problem involves crude oilA comparative study of continuous-time modelings for scheduling of crude oil operations Xuan Chena

  18. Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    . It can aid emulsification of the crude in the production and refining of crudes, as well as in oil spillsMolecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils Barbara J. Musser and Peter Carolina 27695-7905 Received November 5, 1997 Petroleum waxes from sixteen different crude oils were

  19. A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: A thixotropic yield stress fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: A thixotropic yield stress fluid Christopher J features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, which are characterized the model crude oil under conditions of imposed steady shearing. These instabilities are a result

  20. The Proof: and The approximate and of crude circuits CC(X) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    The Proof: and · The approximate and of crude circuits CC(X) and CC(Y) is CC(pluck({Xi Yj : Xi X that the resulting crude circuit has "a lot" of false positives or false negatives. c 2008 Prof. Yuh-Dauh Lyuu, National Taiwan University Page 718 #12;The Final Crude Circuit Lemma 93 Every final crude circuit either

  1. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petit, Christophe; Canestrari, Francesco; Pannunzio, Valter; Virgili, Amadeo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  2. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  3. a type of barley from its crude fibre content using a correction of 110Kcal per supplementary point of crude fibre in the seed dry matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a type of barley from its crude fibre content using a correction of 110Kcal per supplementary point of crude fibre in the seed dry matter : D.E. (Kcal i'kg 1) - 4.072- I10 crude fibre p. ioo D.1I. r = - o.96 different types (SoNJn: two-row winter barley, ASTlux: six-row winter barley) and of different crude fibre

  4. Establishing material properties for thin asphalt concrete surfaces on granular bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosson, Barry Thomas

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cross-section of a Goodyear Hi -Miler 10. 00-20 14-ply bias truck tire carcass was obtained; the input data for the Tielking tire model was developed by measuring cord locations, angles, and plies on a section of the tire; and the tire pressure.... Since little work in the past has been done in the area of thin asphalt concrete surface analysis, re-evaluation of several assumptions concerning the tire load were necessary. The truck tire pressures on Texas highways have dramatically increased...

  5. The Effects of Using Alkali-Silica Reaction Affected Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, Brian James

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    mix asphalt (HMA) were investigated in this study. Dilatometer and modified beam tests were performed to determine the possibility of new ASR occurring in reactive aggregates within the HMA or re-expansion of existing gel. The Lottman test... (XRD) was used to check for the potential presence of gel in the filler fraction of the ASR-RCAs. Micro-deval and freeze-thaw tests were evaluated for their potential to indicate the presence of excess micro-cracks or ASR gel. Expansion testing...

  6. Whole House Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles Exploiting Special Infrared Reflective Pigments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, L.; Miller, W.; Desjarlais, A.; Jacobs, J.; Youngquist, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -04 using cycle 4 as described in Table X2.1, Common Exposure Conditions, of the G 154 standard (ASTM 2002b). A UVB-340 lamp was used for simulating direct solar UV radiation; this lamp has no UV output below 300 nm, which is the cutoff wavelength... for this behavior is unknown; overall, however, the data clearly show that the IRR shingles perform just as well when subjected to direct solar UV radiation as standard products accepted on the open market. The IRR asphalt shingles do not lose solar reflectance...

  7. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  8. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  9. Porous Asphalt Pavement for Stormwater Management The UNH Stormwater Center Web: www.unh.edu/erg/cstev/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porous Asphalt Pavement for Stormwater Management The UNH Stormwater Center Web: www. Extended Pavement Life Due to Well Drained Base and Reduced Freeze-Thaw Disadvantages · Requires Routine. Standard Pavement Applications where Stormwater Infrastructure is Required · Materials Cost is ~20-25% More

  10. SOURCE: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PAVEMENT RESEARCH CENTER FIGURE 1 Moisture-induced stripping in asphalt treated base layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    SOURCE: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PAVEMENT RESEARCH CENTER FIGURE 1 Moisture-induced stripping in asphalt treated base layer PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY UPDATE This Technology Transfer Program publication is provided by the University of California Pavement Research Center. The University of California Pavement

  11. Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

    Design of Crude Oil Pre-heat Trains G.T.Po]Jey B.L.Yeap D.I.Wilson M.H.Panjeh Shahi Pinchtechnology.com Dept of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. University of Cambridge University of Tehran Pre-heat trains differ from most other heat... recovery networks in a number of important ways. Combination offactors gives rise to the need for a design procedure specific to pre heat trains. Outlining these factors, we first observe that one cold stream (the incoming crude) dominates the heat...

  12. Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, liquid crude oil, shale oil, tars and bitumen (Scragg,gas, liquid crude oil, shale oil, tars and bitumen (Scragg,

  13. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  14. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  15. Bioprocessing of High-sulfur Crudes Via Appliaction of Critical Fluid Biocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Bala, Greg Alan; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Stanescue, Marina A.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental research project investigated protein-based biocatalysis in supercritical fluid solvents as an integrated process approach to catalyze the removal of sulfur atoms from crude oils and fuels. The work focused on the oxidation of model sulfur-containing compounds in supercritical reaction media and included three major tasks: microbiological induction experiments, proteincatalyzed biooxidation in supercritical solvents, and a work-in-kind cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). This work demonstrated that the biooxidation reaction could be improved by an order-of-magnitude by carrying out the reaction in emulsions in supercritical fluids.

  16. Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

  17. Two- and Three-Dimensional Microstructural Modeling of Asphalt Particulate Composite Materials using a Unified Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic-Viscodamage Constitutive Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Taesun

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a framework for microstructural modeling of asphalt composite materials using a coupled thermo-viscoelastic, thermo-viscoplastic, and thermo-viscodamage constitutive model. In addition...

  18. Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C at the front-end of a petroleum refinery. The model relies on a continuous time representation making use-412-268-7139. Email address: grossmann@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;2 Keywords: Refinery scheduling; Nonconvex MINLP

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. The rheological complexity of waxy crude oils : yielding, thixotropy and shear heterogeneities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou, Christopher (Christopher J.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitate-containing crude oils are of increasing economic importance, due to diminishing oil reserves and the increased need to extract hydrate and wax-containing crude oil from ultra deep-water resources. Despite this ...

  1. Sapphire Energy Out to Prove That Crud Can Take On Crude | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sapphire Energy Out to Prove That Crud Can Take On Crude Sapphire Energy Out to Prove That Crud Can Take On Crude December 16, 2011 - 2:48pm Addthis An aerial view of Sapphire...

  2. Implementation issues for realtime optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 Implementation issues for real­time optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network Tore Lid­ mentation of real time optimization results in a crude unit heat exchanger network. Two di#erent control

  3. Implementation issues for real-time optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 Implementation issues for real-time optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network Tore Lid of real time optimization results in a crude unit heat exchanger network. Two different control strategies

  4. Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid b142 levels in an Alzheimer's mouse model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockery, Shawn

    Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid b1­42 levels in an Alzheimer's mouse model Yi the elderly. Crude caffeine (CC), a major by-product of the decaffeination of coffee, has potent hydrophilic

  5. A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: a thixotropic yield stress fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou, Christopher J.

    Guided by a series of discriminating rheometric tests, we develop a new constitutive model that can quantitatively predict the key rheological features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, ...

  6. Heavier Crude, Changing Demand for Petroleum Fuels, Regional Climate Policy, and the Location of Upgrading Capacity:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John

    The crude slate is likely to become heavier in the future with greater reliance on bitumens, tar sands, heavy oils, and eventually possibly shale oil. Under standard refining processes these crude oil sources produce a ...

  7. Living Expenses (includes approximately

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    & engineering programs All other programs Graduate: MBA/INFSY at Erie & Harrisburg (12 credits) Business Guarantee 3 (Does not include Dependents Costs4 ) Altoona, Berks, Erie, and Harrisburg 12-Month Estimated

  8. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  9. Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    , the formation of stable emulsions and sludges in petroleum refineries comprised of water, crude oil, and solidComparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua Joseph D. Mc the stability of emulsions or sludges which are produced by these crudes in refinery processing. The resin

  10. How Increased Crude Oil Demand by China and India Affects the International Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 How Increased Crude Oil Demand by China and India Affects the International Market. Abstract The global crude oil market is characterised by complex interactions between demand and supply. The question that we address in this paper is how increased demand for crude oil by China and India affects

  11. Energy security and crude oil in Atlantic Canada Larry Hughes, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ) where upwards of 70% of the crude oil is imported to meet refining demand (Hughes, 2010). The problemEnergy security and crude oil in Atlantic Canada Larry Hughes, PhD Energy Research Group Department, Atlantic Canada relies heavily on light fuel oil for space heating Over 80% of the crude oil used

  12. Submitted to Energy Policy, 16 November 2009 Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada shortages, or both. Keywords: Energy security, NAFTA, Canadian crude oil production 1 Introduction In 2007 Canada's crude oil supply and growing reliance on imports from countries with declining production

  13. The Quarterly Publication of NCEER Volume 9, Number 3, July 1995 Crude Oil Transmission Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajaiah, Satish

    . The production and delivery of crude oil is critical to every major in- dustry and business sector in the UnitedThe Quarterly Publication of NCEER Volume 9, Number 3, July 1995 Crude Oil Transmission Study States. This nation's most crucial crude oil system traverses the midwest and is subject to seismic

  14. The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance crude, making reliance on Canadian heavy crude oil more significant, and the approval of the Keystone XL of ConocoPhillips' Petrozuata- Hamaca and ExxonMobil's Cerro Negro Orinoco Belt heavy oil projects

  15. Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Heavy crude oil can that by using carbon nano- catalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively

  16. In situ ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation of various forbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradation of various forbs RG Ramirez, N Garcia (DM) and crude protein (CP) of 13 commonly available native forbs. Forbs evaluated were Coldenia. barbigerum (80). Crude protein digestion rate (/h) was highest in P. maculosa (0.17), S. filicaulis (0.12), Z

  17. Monthly variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of paragrass (Brachiaria mutica (Forsk)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Monthly variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of paragrass variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of forages collected in the pastures. The samples were dried, ground and analysed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid

  18. A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide Nael N State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 CO2 was used to break several water-in-crude oil density and mole fraction. The proposed mechanism by which CO2 destabilizes water-in-crude oil emulsions

  19. Crude closure dynamics through large scale statistical theories Marcus J. Grote and Andrew J. Majda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majda, Andrew J.

    Crude closure dynamics through large scale statistical theories Marcus J. Grote and Andrew J. Majda 10012-1185 Received 22 January 1997; accepted 9 July 1997 Crude closure algorithms based on equilibrium on equilibrium energy-enstrophy statistical theory, or two parameters, the energy and circulation, for crude

  20. On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger Statoil Mongstad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network Tore Lid #3; Statoil Mongstad N-5954 modeling and on-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network at the Statoil Mongstad re#12;nery. The objective is to minimize the energy input in the gas #12;red heater by optimally distributing the cold crude

  1. Effects of dietary crude protein levels on development, antioxidant status, and total midgut protease activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of dietary crude protein levels on development, antioxidant status, and total midgut crude protein on the development, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and total midgut protease activity in the test. Dietary treatments were pure rape pollen (Control) and pollen substitutes (PS) with crude protein

  2. "No Crude Surfeit": A Critical Appreciation of The Reign of Department of Philosophy and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Don

    "No Crude Surfeit": A Critical Appreciation of The Reign of Relativity Don Howard Department no crude surfeit reigns. John Milton. Comus (1634). Introduction Tom Rykcman's The Reign of Relativity and philosophical #12;Don Howard. "No Crude Surfeit": Ryckman's Reign Page 2 Pacific APA, March 2005 sophistication

  3. Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lübbecke, Marco

    Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with Split, Germany March 7, 2012 Abstract The split pickup split delivery crude oil tanker routing and scheduling, because of the large expenses in crude oil shipping it is attractive to make use of optimization

  4. WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano -Mario Primicerio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano - Mario Primicerio abstract. The complex phenomenon of solid wax deposition in wax sat- urated crude oils subject to thermal gradients has. Introduction Crude oils are complex mixtures containing parans, aromatics, naph- tenics, resins, asphaltenes

  5. Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils Christopher J. Dimitriou@mit.edu Abstract Waxes are a commonly encountered precipitate that can result in gelation of crude oils behavior similar to waxy crude oils encountered in production scenarios. To study the consequences

  6. Interfacial and colloidal behavior of asphaltenes obtained from Brazilian crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Interfacial and colloidal behavior of asphaltenes obtained from Brazilian crude oils Anto and crude oils and discuss the implications of these data on the aggregation, adsorption on solid surfaces Brazilian crude oils. Surface tension measurements in solutions formed by any of these two types

  7. Use of shredded tires in the subbase layer of asphalt pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, W.J. Jr.; Maher, M.H. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Baker, R.F. [New Jersey Dept. of Transportation, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted on the use of shredded scrap tires for use in the subbase layer of asphalt pavements. Mixtures of shredded scrap tires with virgin soil provide a means of recycling unwanted tires and conserving a finite supply of virgin soil. The mechanistic procedure for the design of pavement systems requires resilient modulus values. Plastic and elastic strains were measured using external LVDT`s and internal proximity sensors. Resilient modulus measurements were conducted on cohesionless soils mixed with various amounts of shredded tire chips. The performance f the shredded tire mixture is compared to that of the naturally occurring virgin soil used in subbase applications in New Jersey. A number of experimental issues are discussed such as: method of compaction, optimum ratio of shredded tire chips to soil, optimum size and gradation of shredded tire chips, and strength testing using California Bearing Ratio.

  8. Recycled brake linings as partial aggregate substitute in asphalt paving. Construction and final report. Report for July 1992-August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P.A.; Sukley, R.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the performance of asphalt containing various percentages of brake lining as an aggregate, and compare its performance to that of normal asphalt containing natural aggregate. This project is an effort to explore alternate ways to use waste product. Four test section of FB-2 Modified mix containing brake lining materials were placed in July 1992 along with one control section on SR 3022 in Mercer county. To date all sections are performing satisfactory, and Brake linings should be recommended as a viable partial replacement of aggregate in bituminous materials. This study only considered the performance of only off-spec brake linings, therefore, any performance data or enviromental effects of placement of used brake material should be addressed.

  9. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  10. Wetting of mercury electrode by crude oil in surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuvshinov, V.A.; Altumina, L.K.; Genkina, L.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of electrosurface phenomena in the system consisting of crude oil, mercury, and a surfactant solution. The type of relationship between the wetting of mercury by oil in surfactant solutions and the electric potential of the mercury has been determined. Feasibility has been demonstrated for the use of the mercury/oil/surfactant solution system as a model in studying the oil-displacing capabilities of various surfactants.

  11. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Elliott, Doug

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  12. Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L.; Zhou, W.M.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  13. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; SHELENKOVA,L.; ZHOU,W.M.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  14. Electrochemical assessment and service-life prediction of mechanically stabilized earth walls backfilled with crushed concrete and recycled asphalt pavement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfeller, Michael Watts, Jr.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2006 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ELECTROCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT AND SERVICE-LIFE PREDICTION... OF MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALLS BACKFILLED WITH CRUSHED CONCRETE AND RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT A Thesis by MICHAEL WATTS ESFELLER, JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  15. 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    44 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE of imbibition or oil production rate, particularly after seven days or more aging time with oil. However in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine

  16. The effect of un-saturates on low-temperature oxidation of crude oil Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    The effect of un-saturates on low-temperature oxidation of crude oil Sidqi A. Abu-temperature oxidation (LTO) of four Arabian crudes as well as blends of naphtha with a super-light crude-saturates increased. The lightest crude with 51.1 ºAPI gravity and un-saturates fraction of 0.2 showed the least LTO

  17. SCADA computer sytem controls major Saudi Aramco crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J.; Al-Habib, R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A replacement Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) computer system which monitors and controls two 1,100 kilometer pipelines and eleven associated pump stations is described. The SCADA system was designed to meet two objectives: (1) decentralize the overall control system and provide a distributed control system capable of regulatory control at each pump and pressure reducing station, and (2) provide system wide monitoring and supervisory control function during normal operations at the crude oil terminal. The SCADA computer system hardware (host computers and consoles), software modules, and applications are overviewed. A data flow diagram and a hardware configuration diagram are provided. 3 figs.

  18. New York Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels) LiquidsCoalbed Methane ProvedCrude

  19. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReserves (Million Barrels) Crude Oil + Lease

  20. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReserves (Million Barrels) CrudeReserves

  1. Indiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015 Independent StatisticsCrude Oil

  2. Indiana Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015 Independent StatisticsCrude

  3. Nebraska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough, 2002 (next8,,9,7,3, 2011Crude Oil +

  4. Nebraska Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough, 2002 (next8,,9,7,3, 2011Crude Oil

  5. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptemberProcessed in(Million Barrels) Crude Oil

  6. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptemberProcessed in(MillionProductionReservesCrude

  7. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas plays:Domestic Crude

  8. U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil andNov-14

  9. Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"Year JanExpected FutureReservesBarrels) Crude Oil

  10. U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion CubicCrude

  11. Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197 14,197(BillionYear Jan FebProvedCrude Oil

  12. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables TablesPricesSpot Prices (Crude

  13. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-21960-2012Mission: Focus onDepth of Crude Oil and

  14. Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan Next MECS will beProvedShaleBarrels) Crude

  15. Value-added utilisation of recycled concrete in hot-mix asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Yiik Diew [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, Darren Delai [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: ddsun@ntu.edu.sg; Lai, Dickson [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of partial substitution of granite aggregate in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) with waste concrete aggregate was investigated. Three hybrid HMA mixes incorporating substitutions of granite fillers/fines with 6%, 45% untreated, and 45% heat-treated concrete were evaluated by the Marshall mix design method; the optimum binder contents were found to be 5.3%, 6.5% and 7.0% of grade Pen 60/70 bitumen, respectively. All three hybrid mixes satisfied the Marshall criteria of the Singapore Land Transport Authority (LTA) W3B wearing course specification. The hybrid mix with 6% concrete fillers gave comparable resilient modulus and creep resistance as the conventional W3B mix, while hybrid mixes with higher concrete substitutions achieved better performance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the distinct presence of free lime in the heat-treated concrete, while the scanning electron microscope (SEM) provided an in-depth perspective of the concrete grains in the HMA matrix. The results suggest feasible use of waste concrete as partial aggregate substitution in HMA.

  16. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June.

  17. Polarity characterization of crude oils predicts treatment trends in field development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrade Bruening, I.M.R. de

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining crude oil polarity using inverse gas chromatography proved successful for classifying crudes as well as for assessing their ability to form stable emulsions with water. Polarity determinations have been applied to the formation test crude oil samples collected in Albacora and Marlim deepwater fields of the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results have been compared with the polarities of the first produced crudes of the Basin and showed that the emulsion separation problems tend to increase. Polarity results provided substantial data to help production field development decisions.

  18. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    data reported. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  19. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12.17 12.80 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual...

  20. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    17.18 17.64 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual...

  1. Contribution of Building Materials to Urban Wet-Weather Pollutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    and to prevent stripping of asphalt from binders. · Fillers include carbon black from pyrolized tires. Asphalt · Khandal et al. (1995) investigated incorporation recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) into new

  2. A study of substitution solvents in asphalt fume extraction and the effects of heating duration and temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, Noel Thomas

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (denoted Dl). Duration two ( D2) ran from time 60 minutes to time 90 minutes, Dl and DZ were separated by a 30 minute period in wh i ch no sampling occurred. The total time of heati ng at this temperature range was 90 minutes, which was near the limit... of the filter to hold it in position, and the cassette cap was placed on top of this. 3oth ends were then plugged. (Figure 2) After a warming period of approximately 30 minutes, the temperature of the liquid asphalt was raised to 250 C. iihen it reached...

  3. Separation of anthracene from crude anthracene using gas antisolvent recrystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuchung Liou; Chiehming Chang (Yuan-Ze Inst. of Tech., Neili (Taiwan))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure anthracene is mostly used for conversion to anthraquinone, an intermediate for the synthesis of very powerful vat dyestuffs. A coal tar distillate, crude anthracene, which contains 30% anthracene, 25% phenanthrene, 15% carbazole, and other impurities, was used as the model mixture. In this study, 90% by weight purity anthracene was obtained using gas antisolvent (GAS) recrystallization. The GAS process induces the separation of solids by introducing an antisolvent, carbon dioxide (or the supercritical fluid), into acetone which was used as the liquid solvent. The dissolution of the compressed gas into the solute-laden solution selectively lowers the solubilities of solid solutes and salts them out. The results showed that high purity anthracene was obtained at a high feed concentration and high pressure conditions. The separation factor of anthracene versus phenanthrene is close to 30.07.

  4. Correlation structure and principal components in global crude oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yue-Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, George J; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article investigates the correlation structure of the global crude oil market using the daily returns of 71 oil price time series across the world from 1992 to 2012. We identify from the correlation matrix six clusters of time series exhibiting evident geographical traits, which supports Weiner's (1991) regionalization hypothesis of the global oil market. We find that intra-cluster pairs of time series are highly correlated while inter-cluster pairs have relatively low correlations. Principal component analysis shows that most eigenvalues of the correlation matrix locate outside the prediction of the random matrix theory and these deviating eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors contain rich economic information. Specifically, the largest eigenvalue reflects a collective effect of the global market, other four largest eigenvalues possess a partitioning function to distinguish the six clusters, and the smallest eigenvalues highlight the pairs of time series with the largest correlation coefficie...

  5. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department or other Federal agencies. #12;#12;1 U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

  6. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR-Award 0654118 Ion Cyclotron Resonance User Program Solid deposits and emulsions from crude oil can that contain carbons, hydrogens, and two oxygen atoms. #12;A major problem in oil production, both

  7. Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian-study and a larger refinery problem show that the Lagrangian decomposition algorithm is more robust than the other

  8. Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    refinery Crude-oil blending scheduling Scheduling formulations 2 Proposed approach Basic idea MINLP model Proposed approach Results and comparisons Conclusion Oil refinery A typical oil refinery Refining crude definition Given Refinery configuration Logistics constraints Initial tank inventory and composition Vessel

  9. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices Ahmed distributed lags (NARDL) mod- el to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas the possibility to quantify the respective responses of gasoline and natural gas prices to positive and negative

  10. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

  11. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  12. a normal commercial rapeseed oil-meal : dry matter : 90 ; total crude protein : 39.0 ; fat : 2.7 ; ashes : 7.5 ; crude fibre : 12.2 ;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - a normal commercial rapeseed oil-meal : dry matter : 90 ; total crude protein : 39.0 ; fat : 2.7 ; ashes : 7.5 ; crude fibre : 12.2 ; I.T.C. (v`) : 2.2 ; T.O.V. (*) : 5.2 ; gross energy kcal/kg D.M. : 4.5 ; total crude protein : 37.9 ; fat : 2.5 ; ashes : 7.5 ; crude fibre : 15.4 ; I.T.C. (*) : 0.85 ; T

  13. Asphaltenes and Asphalts, 2. Developments in Petroleum Science, 40 B edited by T.F. Yen and G.V. Chilingarian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?agin, Tahir

    Asphaltenes and Asphalts, 2. Developments in Petroleum Science, 40 B edited by T.F. Yen and G OF ASPHALTENES: A PREDICTIVE APPROACH BASED ON COMPUTER ASSISTED STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION AND ATOMISTIC SIMULATIONS, asphaltenes and resins [1­4]. Asphaltenes are operationally defined as the non-volatile and polar fraction

  14. Crude Injustice in the Gulf: Why Categorical Exclusions for Deepwater Drilling in the Gulf of Mexico are Inconsistent with U.S. International Ocean Law and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Eric V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Percentage of Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200and 2010, monthly crude oil production in the Gulf more thanof Mexico Field Production of Crude Oil, U.S. ENERGY INFO.

  15. Aquatic Toxicology 61 (2002) 127140 www.elsevier.com/locate/aquatox Tolerance to biodegraded crude oil in marine invertebrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be an important mechanism for extrusion of the by-products of crude oil degradation by microbes production and transport in addition to catastrophic spills. Crude oil is relatively unstable * Corresponding of water-soluble fractions of biodegraded crude oil (BWSF) to embryos and larvae of two marine

  16. Effect of Crude Oil and Chemical Additives on Metabolic Activity of Mixed Microbial Populations in Fresh Marsh Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyman, John

    Effect of Crude Oil and Chemical Additives on Metabolic Activity of Mixed Microbial Populations remineralization rates. Crude oil, which is known to contain toxins and reduce microbial diversity organic matter (Panicum hemitomon Shult. or Sagittaria lancifolia L. dominated marshes), crude oil

  17. Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig diets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig pens to compare several types of barley with variable contents of crude fibre components under the same : a naked barley, a spring barley, a two-row winter barley and two six-row winter barleys with a crude fibre

  18. Diurnal patterns in crude protein and amino acid flow in the duodenum and the influence of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diurnal patterns in crude protein and amino acid flow in the duodenum and the influence of time'). The mean concentration of crude protein in duodenal digesta did not differ significantly between treatments amino acids largely reflected the pattern for flow of crude protein, with the variability again being

  19. We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates by negative-ion electrospray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    We highlight the selective ionization of acidic components of crude oils and naphthenates sample consumption. Angola and offshore Canadian crude oils and Athabasca bitumen were used as supplied differences of acidic species in crude oils and naphthenates and also afford structural characterization

  20. Petroporphyrins The most abundant and problematic metal compounds in crude oil exist as organic complexes of vanadium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Petroporphyrins ­The most abundant and problematic metal compounds in crude oil exist as organic of porphyrins is critical for developing petroleum upgrading processes, as well as linking crude oil to source routine analytical techniques due to the increased complexity associated with heavy crudes. Atmospheric

  1. Path Search Algorithm for Connections with Pumps in Crude Oil Pipe Networks Jorge L. Rojas-D'Onofrio*. Jack Mrquez**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Path Search Algorithm for Connections with Pumps in Crude Oil Pipe Networks Jorge L. Rojas of connections in pipe networks for crude oil transportation, using pumps to overcome negative differences SCADA. We tested the algorithms using data from real pipe networks located in Venezuela. Keywords: Crude

  2. A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils A Comparison of the Properties of Diluted Bitumen Crudes with other Oils POLARIS Applied Sciences, Inc. (2013) Abstract Diluted bitumen (dilbit) crude oil represents a range of oils produced from bitumen extracted from oil sands

  3. It Pays to Modify Existing Crude Preheat Trains to Conserve More Energy!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feintuch, H. M.; Peer, V.; Wong, W. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    called EXTRA (EXchanger TRAin) which can be used to determine which modifications to an existing crude preheat train will be most effective in economically recovering additional waste heat. The program can rigorously develop temperature profiles and heat...

  4. Understanding government and railroad strategy for crude oil transportation in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, S. Joel (Stephen Joel)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 6, 2013, an oil-laden unit train derailed and exploded in Lac-Megantic, Quebec, Canada, killing 47 people, shocking and saddening many, and leading to significantly increased public scrutiny of crude oil transported ...

  5. Chemistry and processability of crude oil asphaltenes as studied by ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weeks, R.W. Jr.; McBride, W.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From the number of crudes of this study, there appears to be a positive correlation between the total quantity of crude oil hetero atoms (S, N, Ni, and V) which are precipitated under conditions of ultracentrifugation and the degree of that particular crude's difficulty of hydroprocessing. Because of its powerful ability to separate colloidal material from suspensions and because of the known colloidal nature of asphaltenes, the ultracentrifuge was employed to effect the separation of crude oil constituents, and to thus provide information relating to the hydrocracking of resids. Asphaltenes vary greatly in their response to hydrocracking with some being remarkably refractive while others are readily destroyed. By studying the chemical nature of the asphaltene/colloid fractions, a correlation between this chemical constitution and processability was observed. The observation of Liesegang band-like phenomena is also reported along with chemical analyses of these bands.

  6. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

  7. Field Instruments for Real Time In-Situ Crude Oil Concentration Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, C. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Page, C. A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling Jr., M. C.; Ojo, T.

    The Texas Water Resources Institute awarded a Mill Scholarship to M.C. Sterling, Jr in 2002. This project describes five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in an aquatic system. These measurements are critical for monitoring...

  8. Multi-Factor Model of Correlated Commodity - Forward Curves for Crude Oil and Shipping Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellefsen, Per Einar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An arbitrage free multi-factor model is developed of the correlated forward curves of the crude oil, gasoline, heating oil and tanker shipping markets. Futures contracts trading on public exchanges are used as the primary ...

  9. Rheo-PIV Analysis of the Yielding and Flow of Model Waxy Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou, Christopher J.

    Waxes are a commonly encountered precipitate that can result in the gelation of crude oils and cessation of flow in pipelines. In this work, we develop a model wax–oil system that exhibits rheological behavior similar to ...

  10. The relationship between crude oil and natural gas spot prices and its stability over time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramberg, David J. (David John)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The historical basis for a link between crude oil and natural gas prices was examined to determine whether one has existed in the past and exists in the present. Physical bases for a price relationship are examined. An ...

  11. Update: World average retail gasoline and diesel prices. Crude oil falls, but consumer taxes rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil prices plunged to five year lows late in 1993. However, examination of consumer petroleum product prices around the world reveals that consumers in many countries did not enjoy a consequent drop.

  12. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  13. Long range weathering effects on the chemical properties of two Venezuelan crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautz, Anton Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON Tl'iE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON THE CHEHICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis by ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C t Head of Department Hember...

  14. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  15. Blood, rumen liquor, and fecal components as affected by dietary crude protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinnant, R. T

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BLOOD, RUMEN LIQUOR, AND FECAL COMPONENTS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN A Thesis by RAY THOMAS HINNANT Submitted to the Graduate College ot Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December' 1979 Major Subject: Range Science BLOOD, RUMEN LIQUOR, AND FECAL COMPONENTS AS APFECTED BY DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN A Thesis by RAY THOMAS HINNANT Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Cosssittee) (Member) ( ?) (Head...

  16. Destructive-condensation transformations of resinous crude oil by the action of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melikadze, L.D.; Kuprashvili, B.G.; Barabadze, S.S.; Bakhturidze, G.S.; Shatakishvili, T.N.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of radiation from a mercury-quartz lamp PRK-2 upon native resin-asphaltene substances of Norian, Samgore and Supsin crude oils is examined. Irradiated resin substances from crude oil undergo marked changes - photochemical breakdown to form gaseous hydrocarbons (methane, ethane and propane) and photochemical condensation. During the condensation step molar mass increases and three-dimensional structures are formed, these have a high softening point (above 400/sup 0/C) and do not dissolve in organic solvents.

  17. Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

  18. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  19. The Role of Inventories and Speculative Trading in the Global Market for Crude Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz Kilian; Dan Murphy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a structural model of the global market for crude oil that for the first time explicitly allows for shocks to the speculative demand for oil as well as shocks to the flow demand and flow supply. The forward-looking element of the real price of oil is identified with the help of data on oil inventories. The model estimates rule out explanations of the 2003-08 oil price surge based on unexpectedly diminishing oil supplies and based on speculative trading. Instead, we find that this surge was caused by fluctuations in the flow demand for oil driven by the global business cycle. There is evidence, however, that speculative demand shifts played an important role during earlier oil price shock episodes including 1979, 1986, and 1990. We also show that, even after accounting for the role of inventories in smoothing oil consumption, our estimate of the short-run price elasticity of oil demand is much higher than traditional estimates from dynamic models that do not account for price endogeneity. We conclude that additional regulation of oil markets would not have prevented the 2003-08 oil price surge.

  20. Forecasting Model for Crude Oil Price Using Artificial Neural Networks and Commodity Futures Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Siddhivinayak

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a model based on multilayer feedforward neural network to forecast crude oil spot price direction in the short-term, up to three days ahead. A great deal of attention was paid on finding the optimal ANN model structure. In addition, several methods of data pre-processing were tested. Our approach is to create a benchmark based on lagged value of pre-processed spot price, then add pre-processed futures prices for 1, 2, 3,and four months to maturity, one by one and also altogether. The results on the benchmark suggest that a dynamic model of 13 lags is the optimal to forecast spot price direction for the short-term. Further, the forecast accuracy of the direction of the market was 78%, 66%, and 53% for one, two, and three days in future conclusively. For all the experiments, that include futures data as an input, the results show that on the short-term, futures prices do hold new information on the spot price direction. The results obtained will generate comprehensive understanding of the cr...

  1. A Novel 9.4 Tesla FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass Range, for Petroleum Heavy Crude Oil Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Range, for Petroleum Heavy Crude Oil Analysis Nathan K. Kaiser, John P. Quinn, Greg T. Blakney NHMFL 9.4 T FT- species in petroleum crude oil and its products, extending to "heavy" crudes for unequivocal identification of sulfur-containing components in petroloeum heavy crude oils. Facilities: NHMFL 9

  2. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1493525 Title: From crude law to civil relations: the dynamics and potential resolution of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1493525 Title: From crude law to civil and transformation of intractable conflict is presented. The formal model translates the insights of the Crude Law: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1493525 1 Running head: Crude Law and conflict From crude law to civil

  3. Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    in the price of crude oil quickly transmit themselves through the "food chain," quickly hitting gasoline prices an additional pop to the price. In addition, the futures markets draw off gasoline from existing stocks to supply more gasoline in the near future, when even higher prices are expected. In other words, prices

  4. Rutting Performance of Airport Hot-Mix Asphalt Characterized by Laboratory Performance Testing, Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing, and Finite Element Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushing, John Ford

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    California Bearing Ratio DoD Department of Defense DSR Dynamic Shear Rheometer ERDC U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center FAA Federal Aviation Administration FN flow number FT flow time HMA Hot Mix Asphalt HVS heavy vehicle simulator... aircraft continue to necessitate modifications in the procedures by which HMA mixtures are designed so that rutting does not become a prevalent distress on airport pavements. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has predominantly required use...

  5. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  6. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. In this laboratory systematic studies are being conducted which deal with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention is being paid to heavy crude oils such as Boscan and Cerro Negro (Venezuela), Monterey (California) and those from Alabama and Arkansas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent solubilization of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative chemical and physical changes appear to be microbial species dependent. Effects on heavy crude oils are also compared to those on lighter oils such as oils from the Wyoming petroleum reserve. Microbial oil interactions are monitored routinely by a consortium of analytical techniques which are continuously upgraded and are capable of multiparameter analysis. The results generated in fiscal year 1991, describing (1) through (6), are presented and discussed in this report.

  7. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Selected Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 51115 6.15 6.08 6.28 6.83 6.96 6.75 3.06 5415 6.14 6.06...

  8. Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

  9. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Usup, Gires [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  10. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  11. Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Polley, G. T.

    Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains B.L. Yeap D.I. Wilson G.T. PoUey Dept. of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. ESDU International Ltd University of Cambridge University of Cambridge Fouling has two significant... across a unit. Extended fouling can affect the throughput of the train. The impetus behind exchanger cleaning is often the need to maintain throughput rather than save energy. If we are to be able to consider fouling in the design of crude oil pre...

  12. The recovery of crude oil spilled on a ground water aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malter, Paul Lawrence

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE RECOVERY OF CRUDE OIL SPILLED ON A GROUND WATER AQUIFER A Thesis by PAUL LAWRENCE MALTER Approved as to style and content by: oy W, ann, J (Ch irman of Committee) / Dona McDona (Head of Department) as (Me ) 0 s Le a . ~e e (Member...) May 1983 ABSTRACT The Recovery of Crude Oil Spilled on a Ground Water Aquifer. (Nay 1983) Paul Lawrence Malter, B. S. , Texas A6K University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Roy W. Bann, Jr. Case histories of previous petroleum spill cleanups...

  13. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  14. ,"Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold toDryDryDry NaturalCrudeGas,Crude Oil +

  15. ,"California Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellheadNatural Gas,Crude Oil +Crude Oil +

  16. Crossing conflict: The in-service lowering of a 34-in. crude oil pipeline for the construction of the Owen flood diversion channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkola, C.A.; Fridel, T.W. [Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., Duluth, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Lakehead Pipe Line Company, Inc. (LPL) was involved in a collaborative effort with State, local, and private agencies to solve a major crossing conflict in Owen, Wisconsin. This report describes the analysis and design of an in-service lowering of a 34-in. crude oil pipeline. An integrity assessment was performed using internal smart pig data and magnetic particle and ultrasonic inspections. The pipeline lowering design was based on maximum allowable pipe bending moments and included a coating replacement program and river weight installation. The paper describes design options, right-of-way agreement, contracts, pipe repair techniques and construction.

  17. Contact angle measurements and wetting behavior of inner surfaces of pipelines exposed to heavy crude oil and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    alternative for the transportation of heavy crude oils. The lubricating effect of the aqueous film leads of such surfaces by crude oils through contact angle measurements in systems containing heavy oil/aqueous phase Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Heavy oil; Asphaltenes; Naphthenic acids; Wettability; Oil

  18. Macro-and Microscale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes which form w/o Emulsions upon Mixing with Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Macro- and Microscale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes which form w/o Emulsions upon Mixing with Brines N. Rezaei and A. Firoozabadi*,, Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, 595 Lytton Avenue, Palo ABSTRACT: We study the micro- and macroscale waterflooding performances of unusual crudes which naturally

  19. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  20. RAILROAD STRATEGY FOR CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT: Considering Public Policy and Pipeline Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    of crude oil transportation by rail from the Alberta oil sands has been slower than the growth, stakeholders, and objectives for the bitumen transport system from the Alberta oil sands, and reviews: Existing railroad network: Some products shipped: Fig. 1: Predicted oil sands production growth

  1. EIS-0016: Cumulative Production/Consumption Effects of the Crude Oil Price Incentive Rulemakings, Programmatic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this Final Statement to FEA-FES-77-7 to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of a rulemaking on crude oil pricing incentives as pertains to the full range of oil production technologies (present as well as anticipated.)

  2. The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the 1990s oil prices have been steadily increasing, reflecting rising demand for crude oil, particularly costs, and reserves (Pindyck, 1999). Supply and demand remain the main factors determining oil prices. More precisely, oil demands depend on oil consumption by developed and developing countries, and oil

  3. Time-varying Predictability in Crude Oil Markets: The Case of GCC Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a nonlinear model to investigate the relationship between oil-price shock and economic growth in Japan the dynamic behavior of crude-oil prices for the period 1997-2008. Using data from four countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, we find evidence of short-term pre- dictability in oil-price changes over time, except

  4. The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    are found in a variety of industries, from food and pharmaceuticals to petroleum production and refining and refining operations of the petroleum industry. 2. Background 2.1. Surface-Active Species in PetroleumThe Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability Andrew P

  5. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  6. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  7. Utilizing asphaltene pyrolysis to predict pyrolysis kinetics of heavy crude oil and extractable native bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected heavy crude oils and extracted tar sand bitumens were separated into asphaltene and maltene fractions. The whole feeds and fractions were then examined by micropyrolysis at nominal constant heating rates from 1 to 50{degrees}C/min from temperatures of 250 to 650{degrees}C to establish evolution behavior, pyrolysate yields, and kinetics of evolution.

  8. Pour-point depression of crude oils by addition of tar sand bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderberg, D.J.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for reducing the pour point of a crude oil which comprises adding a pour-point depressant selected from the group consisting of a raw tar sands bitumen and hydrotreated tar sands bitumen to form a blend possessing a relatively lower pour point.

  9. BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

  10. Emerging Heat Exchanger Technologies for the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.; King, D. C.

    -heat train exchangers foul is controlled by fluid velocity and by wall temperature. Technologies which promote the heat transfer on the crude oil side of an exchanger are therefore favoured. (Note: promotion of the heat transfer on the hot side of the unit...

  11. Calibration of Stochastic Convenience Yield Models For Crude Oil Using the Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Calibration of Stochastic Convenience Yield Models For Crude Oil Using the Kalman Filter A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Stochastic convenience yield model following an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process 7 2.1 Mean and variance of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2 Market price

  12. Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

  13. An evaluation of permanent deformation properties of crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makunike, Danai Ellarin

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are associated with permanent deformation. These include Hveem stability, air voids, permeability, creep response, and compressive strength. Three CRMAC mixtures were used, each containing different amounts of RAP. The study aimed at defining how these properties...

  14. were obtained when using the different CW criteria (crude fibre, ADF, NDF, AD lignine) which were highly correlated with each other. In particular, DE varied curvilinearly with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    were obtained when using the different CW criteria (crude fibre, ADF, NDF, AD lignine) which were highly correlated with each other. In particular, DE varied curvilinearly with the level of crude fibre of oilmeals. Our results enable to correct easily the digestible energy content of oilmeals from their crude

  15. Responses of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, exposed to acute concentrations of crude oil, as assessed by molecular and physiological biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Responses of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, exposed to acute concentrations of crude oil In the present study, juvenile sea bass were exposed for 48 and 96 h to an Arabian light crude oil to assess i) the short term effects of crude oil exposure by the measurement of several molecular biomarkers

  16. ,"Calif--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellhead PricePriceShale ProvedCrudeCrudeCrude

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete Fatigue Cracking Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamison, Brandon Parker

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    that the crack initiates in the center of the specimen, including Walubita et al. (5), Mohammad et al. (10), and Mull et al. (21). Notch depths vary depending on many factors such as specimen thickness, diameter, loading rate, test temperature, and mix type...

  18. The recovery of crude oil spilled on a ground water aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malter, Paul Lawrence

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over 25, 200 gallons of crude oil. The recovery well method of oil spill cleanup was analyzed for effectiveness at the Chadbourne Ranch. Draw- down measurements from observation wells and daily oil pro- duction data were recorded during the in... Lawn Memorial Park Spill. BACKGROUND . RESPONSE MECHANISM EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY NEW EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT Theory of Skimmer Operation ~ CHADBOURNE RANCH OIL SPILL CLEANUP ~ Site Stratigraphy . Methodology Selected for Oil Recovery . Equipment...

  19. Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkhosh, Hamed

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or low pressure gas, capillary forces and interfacial tensions will result in the leaving behind of a fixed residual oil saturation. Therefore complete or total recovery of oil from an oil bearing for- mation is impossible, even though many pore...EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  20. ,"Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit:1996..........RegionTotalPriceShareCrude Oil + Lease

  1. ,"California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellheadNatural Gas,Crude Oil + Lease

  2. ,"Federal Offshore--California Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per Thousand CubicMarketedCrude Oil

  3. ,"Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future Production (MillionCrude Oil + Lease

  4. Geochemical analysis of crude oil from northern Appalachian, eastern Illinois, and southern Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noel, J.A.; Cole, J.; Innes, C.; Juzwick, S.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1986, the Ohio Board of Regents awarded a research grant to Ashland College to investigate the basinal origin of crude oil through trace-element analysis. The major thrust of the project was to attempt to finger print crude oils of various ages and depths from the northern Appalachian, eastern Illinois, and southern Michigan basins, to learn if the oldest crudes may have migrated among the basins. This in turn might give a more definitive time for the separation of the three basins. Nickel to vanadium ratios, were chosen to be the discriminators. Nickel to vanadium ratios show that the Trenton oil from the fields at Lima, Ohio; Oak Harbor in Ottawa County, Ohio; Urbana, Indiana; Peru, Indiana; and Albion, Michigan, are all different. The Trempealeau oils in Harmony and Lincoln Townships, Morrow County, are similar but they are different from those in Peru and Bennington Townships. The Devonian oils of the Illinois and Appalachian basins are distinctly different. The Berea oil shows little or no variability along strike. The Mississippian oils of the Illinois basin are different from the Berea oils and the Salem oil is different from the Chester. The only thing consistent about the Clinton is its inconsistency.

  5. Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, A.S.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

  6. Characterization of vanadium compounds in selected crudes. I. Porphyrin and non-porphyrin separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Brown, R.J.; Reynolds, J.G.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have applied size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC) and reversed-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC), with element specific detection, (inductively coupled and direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP and DCP)), to selected crude oils - Boscan, Beta, Morichal, Arabian Heavy, and Maya - and their separated fractions. By these procedures, they have further characterized both the V porphyrin and the V non-porphyrin compounds. From the SEC-HPLC-ICP profiles of the heavy crude oils they found the V compounds generally have a bimodal distribution, with maxima at approx. 800 and 9000 polystyrene equivalent (PS) molecular weight (MW). Arabian Heavy, though, had relatively few of the small V compounds. The crude oils were separated into porphyrin and non-porphyrin fractions by methanol extraction. From the SEC-HPLC-ICP profiles of the porphyrin fraction, they identified and quantitated the maximum at approx. MW 800 (PS) as being V porphyrins. The remaining V compounds are non-porphyrin. 39 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  8. Leaching of BTEX from Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils: Experimental and Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally assumed that soil properties such as organic matter content, porosity, and mineral surface area have a significant effect on the bioavailability and leachability of aged petroleum hydrocarbons. In order to test this hypothesis, nine model soils or sorbents (i.e., fine and coarse quartz sand, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, peat, 60? and 150? silica gel, a loam soil, and non-porous glass beads) were spiked with a crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and transferred to glass columns for the performance of continuous flow leaching experiments. The column effluents were periodically sampled for 43 days and analyzed for BTEX. A one-dimensional flow model for predicting the dissolution and dispersion of individual hydrocarbons from a multi-component NAPL such as crude oil was used to fit the leaching data (i.e., the BTEX concentration versus time curves) by adjusting the equilibrium oil-leachate partitioning coefficient (Kol) for each respective hydrocarbon. The Peclet number, which is a measure of dispersion and a required modeling parameter, was measured in separate chloride tracer experiments for each soil column. Results demonstrate that soil properties did not significantly affect the leaching kinetics of BTEX from the columns. Instead, BTEX leaching curves could be successfully fitted with the one-dimensional NAPL dissolution flow model for all sorbents with the exception of montmorillonite clay. The fitting parameter Kol for each hydrocarbon was found to be similar to the Kol values that were independently measured for the same crude oil by Rixey et al. (Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 65: 137-156, 1999). In addition, the fitted Kol values were very similar for BTEX leaching from aged compared to freshly spiked loam soil. These findings indicate that leaching of BTEX in the aged soils that are contaminated with crude oil at the high concentrations commonly found in the environment (i.e., >20,000 mg/kg) was not affected by soil properties or aging but rather was governed by the equilibrium dissolution of these hydrocarbons from the crude oil NAPL that is coating the soil particles.

  9. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    product consumption Nat Gas NGL Additives Crude Tot Pet.Pet Coke Lubricants Asphalt Waxes Special Naphtha Petrochem feedstocks Other Petro Prods Coal Net reconciliation error Total Consumption

  10. LAMBOT et al. (1979) found comparable results : the optimum crude protein concentration for growth and nitrogen utilisation is about 13.3 -12.2 and 11.4 per cent at body weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LAMBOT et al. (1979) found comparable results : the optimum crude protein concentration for growth for protein are expressed as digestible crude protein (DCP). #12;Energy value of feeds The content of SFU per= digestible crude protein, per cent of dry matter X! = digestible crude fat, per cent of dry matter X3

  11. Crude Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX Imeans ofFHomeImports -

  12. Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX Imeans ofFHomeImports

  13. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

  14. New Mexico--West Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels) Liquids LeaseBarrels) Crude Oil

  15. ,"Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice Sold toDryDryDry NaturalCrude Oil + Lease

  16. Crude Oil Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail between PAD

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX ImeansCrude Oil

  17. Crude Oil Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX ImeansCrude

  18. Table 7: Crude oil proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:1 Table 7: Crude oil

  19. Table 7: Crude oil proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:1 Table 7: Crude oil:

  20. EIA-813, Monthly Crude Oil Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2, Monthly13, Monthly Crude

  1. U.S. Total Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion CubicCrude Oil

  2. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per day in December

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heatingintensityArea: U.S. East Coast (PADDU.S. crude

  3. U.S. crude oil production in July was the highest in more than two decades

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heatingintensityArea: U.S. East Coast (PADDU.S.crude

  4. ,"Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellhead PricePriceShale ProvedCrude Oil

  5. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellhead PricePriceShaleonshCrude Oil + Lease

  6. ,"California--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellheadNaturalDry NaturalCrude Oil Reserves

  7. ,"Louisiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas, Wet AfterCrude Oil + Lease

  8. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas, WetGas, WetCrude Oil +

  9. ,"Louisiana--South Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas, WetGas,PlantCrude Oil

  10. ,"Louisiana--State Offshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas,Coalbed Methane ProvedCrude

  11. ,"New Mexico--East Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7,DryPlant Liquids,VolumeGas,Crude Oil

  12. ,"New York Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future7,DryPlantCoalbed MethaneShaleCoalbedCrude

  13. Control Policy--CCL Based Controls Part 742-page 1 Export Administration Regulations October 1, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    chemicals); 1C981 (Crude petroleum, including reconstituted crude petro- leum, tar sands, and crude shale

  14. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  15. Amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols using a crude extract of sweet potato

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz Vieira, I. da; Fatibello-Filho, O. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (Brazil)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An amperometric biosensor for the determination of phenols is proposed using a crude extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) as an enzymatic source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO; tyrosinase; catechol oxidase; EC 1.14.18.1). The biosensor is constructed by the immobilization of sweet potato crude extract with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin onto an oxygen membrane. This biosensor provides a linear response for catechol, pyrogallol, phenol and p-cresol in the concentration ranges of 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} and 2.0 x 10{sup -5} -4.5 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The response time was about 3-5 min for the useful response range, and the lifetime of this electrode was excellent for fifteen days (over 220 determinations for each enzymatic membrane). Application of this biosensor for the determination of phenols in industrial wastewaters is presented.

  16. Fact #863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products

  17. Crude Injustice in the Gulf: Why Categorical Exclusions for Deepwater Drilling in the Gulf of Mexico are Inconsistent with U.S. International Ocean Law and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Eric V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NEPA AND OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION .. A. B. C. D. E.Country Comparison: Oil Production, CENT. INTELLIGENCEPercentage of Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200

  18. Proposals sought for supplying crude to SPR (Strategic Petroleum Reserve)/ERA (U. S. Economic Regulatory Administration) spells out options for distribution of SPR crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, H.R.

    1980-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has asked major oil companies to submit proposals for filling the SPR salt caverns with oil at 100,000 bbl/day and receiving Elk Hills (Calif.) field oil in exchange. Elk Hills is currently producing at 160,000-170,000 bbl/day and will be producing at 190,000 bbl/day in 1982; provision has been made to continue supplying small refiners who currently depend on Elk Hills production. The Government will impose an as-yet undetermined mandatory plan if no satisfactory alternatives are proposed. The 18 salt dome caverns in Louisiana and Texas have a 248 million bbl capacity but have stored only 91.7 million bbl. The capacity will eventually be expanded to 500 million bbl. In accordance with the Energy Security Act, DOE wants to increase storage by about 36 million bbl during the first year of the exchange program, and probably by larger amounts in subsequent years. The submitted proposals, which will be filed with the Defense Fuel Supply Center, will indicate rate of filling (between 5000 and 100,000 bbl/day), type (preferably sweet), and source. According to H. R. Rollins (Econ. Regulatory Admin.), there will be one price for all refiners, based on the average landed cost to all refiners of imported crude in the month of the sale.

  19. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  20. The Phase One I-710 Freeway Rehabilitation Project: Initial Design (1999) to Performance after Five-Plus Years of Traffic (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monismith, Carl L.; Harvey, John T; Tsai, Bor-Wen; Long, Fenella; Signore, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Open-graded Porous Friction Asphalt Concrete (PBA-6a*)additional asphalt concrete and the porous friction course.concrete with asphalt rubber binder (RAC-O). The thickness including the open-graded porous

  1. Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, D.

    1996-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient, oxygen and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide range of viscosity. Task one of the bioremediation project began on July 3, 1995 with the selection and preparation of a site in Smith township. Mahoning County. The plots were arranged and parameters were varied. Plots, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal. ) of Corning grade crude oil and plots 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. Plots 13 through 21 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil and 477 liters (126 gal.) of Clinton sandstone brine with a 160,000 mg/liter concentration of chloride. Treatment and administration of variables were conducted from August 17, 1995 to October 26, 1995. During this period samples were collected twice from each plot and analyzed for the parameters specified in the contract. Results from both sampling events of total petroleum hydrocarbons suggest that crude oil spread on surface is not easily mixed into soils as tillage depth, resulting in considerably variable composite samples from plot to plot.

  2. The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

  3. A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A THREE-PHASE K-VALUE STUDY FOR PURE HYDROCARBONS/WATER AND CRUDE OIL/WATER SYSTEMS A Thesis by RITCHIE PAUL LANCLOS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... of Committee) P. T. Eubank (Member) R. A. Wattenbar (Member) W. D. Von Gonten (Member) December 1990 ABSTRACT A Three-Phase K-Value Study for Pure Hydrocarbons/Water and Crude Oil/Water Systems Ritchie Paul Lanclos, B. S. , University...

  4. Collection of Windfall Profit Tax for crude oil sales at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (Elk Hills, California)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Our audit disclosed that between October 1, 1983 and March 31, 1984 the government lost about $244,000 in interest income due to delays in collecting the tax on NPRC crude oil sales. We found that purchasers of the crude oil were not paying the windfall profit tax at the same time that they paid the Department for the oil itself, as required by the oil sales contracts and the windfall profits tax regulations. Correction of the deficiencies, through changes in the tax code and improved oversight by Department officials, could lead to estimated annual interest savings to the government of about $500,000.

  5. ,"Calif--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellhead PricePriceShale ProvedCrudeCrude Oil

  6. ,"California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellhead PricePriceShaleonshCrudeCoalbedCrude

  7. MHK technologies include current energy conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research leverages decades of experience in engineering and design and analysis (D&A) of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high-performance...

  8. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  9. Two-tier crude pricing in flux: U. S. postings phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent time, US crude oil buyers have invented a means by which the difference between their posted offered buying prices to sellers and the futures market are reduced. Purpose: reduce the bonuses paid to buyers when the futures price soars above the current market price. The problem is that the bonus amount was calculated above the posted price of just one company. Some companies, nervous about possible inferences concerning proper free competition, are dropping the practice. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of March 27, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, March 1992 Edition.

  10. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  11. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  12. Identification of R&D Needs Relating to the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

    of industries. In terms of projected implemented fuel savings achievable by the year 2015, minimisation of fouling in crude oil systems was found to be the second most significant of the technologies considered. It yielded a potential fuel saving of 123 TBtu...

  13. The Effect of Weathering on the Flammability of a Slick of Crude Oil on a Water Bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Neil; Kolb, Gilles; Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study to define a practical methodology that will serve to assess the burning of crude oils on a water sub-layer by means of a bench scale procedure is presented. A modified ASTM-E1321 (LIFT) is combined with flash point...

  14. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  15. Liver antioxidant and plasmatic immune responses in juvenile1 golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) exposed to dispersed crude oil2 3 Thomas Milinkovitch1* , Awa Ndiaye2 , Wilfried Sanchez2 , Stéphane Le ; CD : Chemically Dispersed oil ; D : Dispersant solution ; MD : Mechanically Dispersed oil; WSF application is an oil spill response technique. To evaluate the environmental31 cost of this operation

  16. Phenotype and Genotype Analysis of Primary Articular Chondrocytes Sub-Cultured on Collagen Type 2 Crude Extract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    was used to evaluate the results (Figure 5). Panel 2: Replicating vs. Apoptotic cells Results Figure 5. a Crude Extract Sofía Solar Cafaggi1, under the supervision of Derek Rosenzweig1 and Thomas M Quinn1 1 in articular chondrocytes specifically, for they are the source of cells for the cell-based treatment

  17. 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    , followed by waterflooding, were performed at reservoir conditions to investigate rock wettability. A two Berea and Spraberry cores at reservoir conditions to illustrate the actual process of waterflooding- 31 - 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS

  18. Study: Exposure to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster causes swimming deficiencies in juvenile mahi mahi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    , the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill also had profound impacts on the open ocean and deep sea environmentStudy: Exposure to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster causes swimming deficiencies in juvenile mahi mahi Posted on June 12, 2014 by Bob Berwyn Evidence is mounting that BP's oil harmed millions

  19. EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

  20. DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where