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Sample records for includes coal gasification

  1. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  2. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  3. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  4. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  5. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  6. Underground gasification of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  7. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  8. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  9. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Gasification Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage. DOE anticipates that coal gasification for hydrogen production with carbon capture, utilization, and storage could be deployed in the mid-term time frame. How Does It Work? Chemically, coal is a complex and highly

  10. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  11. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  12. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  13. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of coal gasification technology. Combined-cycle gas turbine power plants are reviewed. References also discuss dry-feed gasification, gas turbine interface, coal gasification pilot plants, underground coal gasification, gasification with nuclear heat, and molten bath processes. Clean-coal based electric power generation and environmental issues are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  15. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  16. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  17. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  18. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Oct 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.

  19. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  20. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  1. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  3. Coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A coal slagging gasifier and method of operating such gasifier are improved by providing an improved slag removal orifice. The orifice is located centrally within the hearth of a gasifier of the type in which hot burner gases are directed up through the orifice to retain the slag in molten condition on the hearth and in which the slag is periodically discharged through the slag removal orifice. The slag removal orifice is formed as a substantially vertical passageway through the removable slag tap member which comprises a solid cast mass of high thermal conductivity metal having an integrally formed metal tube for circulating liquid coolant through the cast mass. The upper tundish surface of the slag tap member slopes downwardly and inwardly and merges with the slag removal orifice. The coolant tube is capable of retaining its shape without any appreciable distortion during the casting of the surrounding metal mass, extends through the cast mass, and forms a coolant conduit adjacent to the tundish surface and to the surface of the orifice passageway and spaced from these surfaces a distance of 0.25 to 5 inches. The ends of the tube project out from the mass provide a coolant inlet and outlet. In operation, coolant is circulated through the tube such that the surfaces of the cast mass in direct contact with slag and burner gases are maintained at a temperature of from 50/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C.

  4. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  5. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Douglas W.; Spiro, Clifford L.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  6. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  7. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  8. Pneumatic solids feeder for coal gasification reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notestein, J.E.; Halow, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a pneumatic feeder system for a coal gasification reactor which includes one or more feeder tubes entering the reactor above the level of the particle bed inside the reactor. The tubes are inclined downward at their outer ends so that coal particles introduced into the tubes through an aperture at the top of the tubes slides downward away from the reactor and does not fall directly into the reactor. Pressurized gas introduced into, or resulting from ignition of recycled combustible gas in a chamber adjacent to the tube ends, propels the coal from the tube into the reactor volume and onto the particle bed. Leveling of the top of the bed is carried out by a bladed rotor mounted on the reactor stirring shaft. Coal is introduced into the tubes from containers above the tubes by means of rotary valves placed across supply conduits. This system avoids placement of feeder hardware in the plenum above the particle bed and keeps the coal from being excessively heated prior to reaching the particle bed.

  9. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  10. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  11. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  12. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  13. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-09-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  15. Coal gasification players, projects, prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-07-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been running refineries and chemical plants for decades. Power applications have dotted the globe. Two major IGCC demonstration plants operating in the United States since the mid-1900s have helped set the stage for prime time, which is now approaching. Two major reference plant designs are in the wings and at least two major US utilities are poised to build their own IGCC power plants. 2 figs.

  16. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  18. Study of catalysis of coal gasification at elevated pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study of catalysis of coal gasification at elevated pressures. Evaluation of 20 compounds at 850sup 0C Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of catalysis of coal ...

  19. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  20. Method for control of subsurface coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komar, Charles A.

    1976-12-14

    The burn front in an in situ underground coal gasification operation is controlled by utilizing at least two parallel groups of vertical bore holes disposed in the coalbed at spaced-apart locations in planes orthogonal to the plane of maximum permeability in the coalbed. The combustion of the coal is initiated in the coalbed adjacent to one group of the bore holes to establish a combustion zone extending across the group while the pressure of the combustion supporting gas mixture and/or the combustion products is regulated at each well head by valving to control the burn rate and maintain a uniform propagation of the burn front between the spaced-apart hole groups to gasify virtually all the coal lying therebetween.

  1. Coal gasification construction materials: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, J.M.; Laurens, R.M.; Danyluk, S.

    1981-12-01

    Materials performance test results are presented for two coal gasification processes, HYGAS SNG process, which converts any type of coal to substitute natural gas (SNG), and U-GAS fuel gas process, which converts coal to a low- or medium-heat value gas. A description of the pilot plant for each process and discussion of some experiences with materials and components used in plant construction is presented. Metals performance inside the gasifier reactors and in off-gas locations depended upon the character of the process. At moderate operating temperatures (427/sup 0/C), low-carbon steels are advisable. Very high-temperature environments may not only require use of exotic alloys, clads, and/or coatings but may also preclude extensive use of internal piping/valving in scale-up designs. Inconel 182, 600, and Monel 400 have all performed erratically in the plants; but in quench and purification sections, austenitic stainless steels performed well. 9 references. (BLM)

  2. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  3. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  4. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  7. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  8. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  13. Cyclic flow underground coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of in situ coal gasification for providing the product gas with an enriched concentration of carbon monoxide. The method is practiced by establishing a pair of combustion zones in spaced-apart boreholes within a subterranean coal bed and then cyclically terminating the combustion in the first of the two zones to establish a forward burn in the coal bed so that while an exothermic reaction is occurring in the second combustion zone to provide CO.sub.2 -laden product gas, an endothermic CO-forming reaction is occurring in the first combustion zone between the CO.sub.2 -laden gas percolating thereinto and the hot carbon in the wall defining the first combustion zone to increase the concentration of CO in the product gas. When the endothermic reaction slows to a selected activity the roles of the combustion zones are reversed by re-establishing an exothermic combustion reaction in the first zone and terminating the combustion in the second zone.

  14. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  15. Metallic heat exchangers for coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1984-07-01

    A high-temperature corrosion program is being conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of selected metallic alloys and coatings in mixed-gas atmospheres for application in heat recovery systems of coal gasification schemes. The experiments conducted with internally air-cooled specimens have established three key variables, namely the gas temperature, metal temperature, and gas chemistry. In addition, the alloy chemistry and exposure time have a strong influence on the corrosion scale morphologies and metal recession rates. The results showed that the scale growth in carbon steel and low- to medium-chromium steels is predominantly linear with time. Selection of these materials will be primarily based upon acceptable corrosion wastage rate. On the other hand, high-chromium alloys can develop thin oxide scales resulting in negligible wastage via corrosion, but are susceptible to accelerated corrosion in mixed-gas atmospheres. 6 references, 12 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  17. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  18. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A.

    2009-09-15

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  19. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  20. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  1. 2015 Gasification Systems and Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Workshop |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    netl.doe.gov 5 Gasification Systems and Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids Workshop Workshop Summary Additional materials will be added when they are received from the author. Presentations Monday, August 10, 2015 Welcome and Introduction Jenny Tennant, Technology Manager for Gasification and C&CBTL U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Wyoming Coal's Role in the World-Recent Past, Present and Future Don Collins, CEO of the Western Research Institute SESSION I

  2. How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The heart of a gasification-based system is the gasifier. A gasifier converts hydrocarbon feedstock into gaseous components by applying heat under pressure in the presence of steam.  

  3. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  4. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  5. Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.

    2007-11-15

    In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

  6. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this draft environmental impact statement that evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky. DOE cancelled this project after publication of the draft.

  7. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  8. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  9. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  10. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  11. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  12. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Exports and Imports Exports Total U.S. coal exports for 2010 increased by 38.3 percent to 81.7 million short tons (Figure 8). Figure Data This increase was largely due to two factors. First, heavy rains and flooding in Australia, Indonesia, and Colombia reduced world coal supply and

  13. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  14. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  15. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  16. Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon capture, utilisation, and storage Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION; POWER GENERATION; CARBON DIOXIDE; CAPTURE; STORAGE; USA; ENHANCED...

  17. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  18. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas

  19. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, George J.; Kydd, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  2. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  3. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  4. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  5. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Protective coatings for materials in coal gasification plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of protective coatings in coal gasification plants. The citations emphasize materials selection and problems associated with erosion and wear on internal surfaces. Refractory materials for corrosion and erosion protection, high temperature corrosion, and sulfidization corrosion are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li

    2008-05-15

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The feasibility study consisted of the following tasks: perform preliminary engineering of a gasification facility; provide a definitive full gas cost estimate based upon the preliminary engineering fuel design; determine the preferred source of coal; determine the potential for the disposition of, and income from, by-products; develop a health and safety program; perform an analysis of the risks involved in constructing and operating such a facility; and prepare a Financial Analysis of General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Constructors based upon the qualifications of Dravo in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts and, if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented, some budgetary risks would occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  9. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  10. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  11. Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification April 10, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. Washington, DC - Gasification. It's a versatile technology that uses coal to produce power, chemicals, and fuels. Inherently

  12. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  13. Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney

    2007-07-15

    The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

  14. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygourakis, K.

    1988-01-01

    Coals of different ranks will be pyrolyzed in a microscope hot-stage reactor using inert and reacting atmospheres. The macropore structure of the produced chars will be characterized using video microscopy and digital image processing techniques to obtain pore size distributions. Comparative studies will quantify the effect of pyrolysis conditions (heating rates, final heat treatment temperatures, particle size and inert or reacting atmosphere) on the pore structure of the devolatilized chars. The devolatilized chars will be gasified in the regime of strong intraparticle diffusional limitations using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}2 mixtures. Constant temperature and programmed-temperature experiments in a TGA will be used for these studies. Additional gasification experiments performed in the hot-stage reactor will be videotaped and selected images will be analyzed to obtain quantitative data on particle shrinkage and fragmentation. Discrete mathematical models will be developed and validated using the experimental gasification data.

  16. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

  17. Metallic heat exchangers for coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1984-05-01

    A high-temperature corrosion program is being conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of selected metallic alloys and coatings in mixed-gas atmospheres for application in heat recovery systems of coal gasification schemes. The experiments conducted with internally air-cooled specimens have established three key variables, namely the gas temperature, metal temperature, and gas chemistry. In addition, the alloy chemistry and exposure time have a strong influence on the corrosion scale morphologies and metal recession rates. The results showed that the scale growth in carbon steel and low- to medium-chromium steels is predominantly linear with time. Selection of these materials will be primarily based upon acceptable corrosion wastage rate. On the other hand, high-chromium alloys can develop thin oxide scales resulting in negligible wastage via corrosion, but are susceptible to accelerated corrosion in mixed-gas atmospheres.

  18. EA-1219: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming.

  19. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  20. Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova

    2009-07-01

    It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

  1. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  2. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  3. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  4. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  5. Ground movements associated with large-scale underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Layne, A.W.

    1989-09-01

    The primary objective of this work was to predict the surface and underground movement associated with large-scale multiwell burn sites in the Illinois Basin and Appalachian Basin by using the subsidence/thermomechanical model UCG/HEAT. This code is based on the finite element method. In particular, it can be used to compute (1) the temperature field around an underground cavity when the temperature variation of the cavity boundary is known, and (2) displacements and stresses associated with body forces (gravitational forces) and a temperature field. It is hypothesized that large Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) cavities generated during the line-drive process will be similar to those generated by longwall mining. If that is the case, then as a UCG process continues, the roof of the cavity becomes unstable and collapses. In the UCG/HEAT computer code, roof collapse is modeled using a simplified failure criterion (Lee 1985). It is anticipated that roof collapse would occur behind the burn front; therefore, forward combustion can be continued. As the gasification front propagates, the length of the cavity would become much larger than its width. Because of this large length-to-width ratio in the cavity, ground response behavior could be analyzed by considering a plane-strain idealization. In a plane-strain idealization of the UCG cavity, a cross-section perpendicular to the axis of propagation could be considered, and a thermomechanical analysis performed using a modified version of the two-dimensional finite element code UCG/HEAT. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  7. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  8. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  9. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, Madhav R.; Yang, Ralph T.

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  10. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  12. Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

  13. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  14. Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov

    2009-04-15

    It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

  15. Steam Gasification Rates of Three Bituminous Coal Chars in an Entrained-Flow Reactor at Pressurized Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Aaron D.; Holland, Troy M.; Marchant, Nathaniel R.; Fletcher, Emmett G.; Henley, Daniel J.; Fuller, Eric G.; Fletcher, Thomas H.

    2015-02-26

    Three bituminous coal chars (Illinois #6, Utah Skyline, and Pittsburgh #8) were gasified separately at total pressures of 10 and 15 atm in an entrained-flow reactor using gas temperatures up to 1830 K and particle residence times <240 ms. The experiments were performed at conditions where the majority of particle mass release was due to H2O gasification, although select experiments were performed at conditions where significant mass release was due to gasification by both H2O and CO2. The measured coal data we recorded were fit to three char gasification models including a simple first-order global model, as well as the CCKNand CCK models that stem from the CBK model. The optimal kinetic parameters for each of the three models are reported, and the steam reactivity of the coal chars at the studied conditions is as follows: Pittsburgh #8 > Utah Skyline > Illinois #6.

  16. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  19. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  20. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  1. Numerical Study of Coal Gasification Using Eulerian-Eulerian Multiphase Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, S.; Guenther, C.; Orsino, S.

    2007-09-01

    Gasification converts the carbon-containing material into a synthesis gas (syngas) which can be used as a fuel to generate electricity or used as a basic chemical building block for a large number of uses in the petrochemical and refining industries. Based on the mode of conveyance of the fuel and the gasifying medium, gasification can be classified into fixed or moving bed, fluidized bed, and entrained flow reactors. Entrained flow gasifiers normally feature dilute flow with small particle size and can be successfully modeled with the Discrete Phase Method (DPM). For the other types, the Eulerian-Eulerian (E-E) or the so called two-fluid multiphase model is a more appropriate approach. The E-E model treats the solid phase as a distinct interpenetrating granular fluid and it is the most general-purposed multi-fluid model. This approach provides transient, three-dimensional, detailed information inside the reactor which would otherwise be unobtainable through experiments due to the large scale, high pressure and/or temperature. In this paper, a transient, three-dimensional model of the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) transport gasifier will be presented to illustrate how Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used for large-scale complicated geometry with detailed physics and chemistry. In the model, eleven species are included in the gas phase while four pseudo-species are assumed in the solid phase. A total of sixteen reactions, both homogeneous (involving only gas phase species) and heterogeneous (involving species in both gas and solid phases), are used to model the coal gasification chemistry. Computational results have been validated against PSDF experimental data from lignite to bituminous coals under both air and oxygen blown conditions. The PSDF gasifier geometry was meshed with about 70,000, hexahedra-dominated cells. A total of six cases with different coal, feed gas, and/or operation conditions have been performed. The predicted and

  2. Effects of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, Dr., David E.

    1980-12-12

    The effects on lungs of emissions from fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification on man are being studied by inhalation experiments and intratracheal administration of fly ash to hamsters. The hamsters are sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 30 days and the lungs examined by methods which are described. (LTN)

  3. A concept for using solar energy in a coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, V.K. )

    1991-01-01

    A fluidized bed system called CO{sub 2} acceptor process to convert lignite or sub-bituminous coal into synthetic gas or pipeline gas has been developed by Conoco Coal Development Company under contract with Department of Energy at a pilot plant stage of 40 tons per day. The background of the process and its advantages over the Lurgi coal gasification process have been discussed. In this paper the potential methods on how solar energy can be stored in lime and recovered at night time have been presented. The possible strategies on how solar energy can be utilized in the CO{sub 2} acceptor process to gasify the coal have also been suggested. The preliminary analysis indicates that the product gas contains 50% more energy per kilogram of coal as compared to the standard CO{sub 2} acceptor process, and the gasification can be carried out during night time using the solar energy stored in a solid material. Some of the advantages of CO{sub 2} acceptor process using solar energy as compared to solar coal gasification have also been pointed out.

  4. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2008-11-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-06-30

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). We report here on findings of this analysis: (1) A SS409 coupon that was coated with multilayered combined nitrides of Ti, Al, and Si showed adherent coatings on the surface; (2) A similarly coated coupon, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h, revealed that the coating has cracked during the exposure; (3) An SS409 coupon that was coated with nitrides of Ti and Si with a barrier layer of tungsten in between to improve the adhesion of the coating and to prevent outward diffusion of iron to the surface. (4) A porous coupon was coated with nitrides of Ti and Al and examination of the coupon revealed deposition of Ti at the interior surfaces. A similarly prepared coupon was exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 h, and it showed no corrosion.

  6. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  8. CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

  9. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  10. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

  11. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  13. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  14. Production and gasification tests of coal fines/coal tar extrudate. Final report June 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, A.; Rib, D.; Smith, D.; Waslo, D.

    1984-01-01

    Gasification is a fuels conversion technology that permits the production of clean synthetic gas from coal and other carbonaceous fuels. Of the various gasifier types, however, the fixed bed is the only system currently being offered on a commercial basis. While this reactor type offers proven performance in terms of reliability and thermal efficiency, it requires a sized feedstock. This means that up to 30% of the incoming run-of-mine coal could be rejected as fines. Direct extrusion of this - 1/8-inch coal fines fraction with a tar binder offers a potentially attractive solution to this problem by consolidating the fines and, at the same time, providing a feed mechanism to the pressurized reactor. Work is described on a recently completed extrudate evaluation program conducted at the General Electric Research and Development Center in Schenectady under GRI and NYSERDA sponsorship. A 6-inch, single screw extruder was used to produce 88 tons of Illinois No. 6 coal extrudate with tar binder, which was then successfully gasified in General Electric's 1-ton/hr, Process Evaluation Facility (PEF) scale, fixed-bed reactor. Performance data on the extrusion process and on gasification testing are presented. The test results indicate that the extrudate makes a satisfactory gasifier feedstock in terms of both thermal and mechanical performance.

  15. Gasification FAQS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQS faq-header-big.jpg GASIFICATION BASICS Q: What is gasification? A: Gasification is the first step in many processes that are used to convert coal into plastic, fertilizer, gasoline, diesel fuel, hydrogen, chemicals, and electricity. Specifically, gasification is a technological process that uses heat, pressure, steam, and often oxygen or air to convert any carbonaceous (carbon-based) raw material into synthesis gas (syngas for short). Syngas is composed primarily of the colorless, odorless,

  16. Removal of mineral matter including pyrite from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reggel, Leslie; Raymond, Raphael; Blaustein, Bernard D.

    1976-11-23

    Mineral matter, including pyrite, is removed from coal by treatment of the coal with aqueous alkali at a temperature of about 175.degree. to 350.degree. C, followed by acidification with strong acid.

  17. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 1. Program and facility description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Poole, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittleson, D.

    1984-10-01

    The United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Twin Cities Research Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota is the site of a 6.5 foot diameter Wellman-Galusha gasifier, installed in 1977-1978. This gasifier, combustor/incinerator, and flue gas scrubber system in the past had been operated jointly by Bureau of Mines personnel, personnel from member companies of the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas Group, and United States Department of Energy personnel-consultants. Numerous tests using a variety of coals have to date been performed. In May of 1982, Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated (BS and B) was awarded the contract to plan, execute, and report gasification test performance data from this small industrial fixed-bed gasification test facility. BS and B is responsible for program administration, test planning, test execution, and all documentation of program activities and test reports. The University of Minnesota, Particle Technology Laboratory (UMPTL) is subcontractor to BS and B to monitor process parameters, and provide analysis for material inputs and outputs. This report is the initial volume in a series of reports describing the fixed-bed gasification of US coals at the Bureau of Mines, Twin Cities Research Center. A history of the program is given in Section 1 and a thorough description of the facility in Section 2. The operation of the facility is described in Section 3. Monitoring systems and procedures are described in Sections 4 and 5. Data reduction tools are outlined in Section 6. There is no executive summary or conclusions as this volume serves only to describe the research program. Subsequent volumes will detail each gasification test and other pertinent results of the gasification program. 32 references, 23 figures, 15 tables.

  18. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Hunsacker, Isaac; Li, Suhui; Kelly, Kerry; Puntai, Naveen; Reid, Charles; Schurtz, Randy

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  19. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  20. Effect of CO2 gasification reaction on oxycombustion of pulverized coal char.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, Alejandro; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S.

    2010-07-01

    For oxy-combustion with flue gas recirculation, as is commonly employed, it is recognized that elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect radiant transport, the heat capacity of the gas, and other gas transport properties. A topic of widespread speculation has concerned the effect of the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction with coal char on the char burning rate. To give clarity to the likely impact of this reaction on the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal char, the Surface Kinetics in Porous Particles (SKIPPY) code was employed for a range of potential CO{sub 2} reaction rates for a high-volatile bituminous coal char particle (130 {micro}m diameter) reacting in several O{sub 2} concentration environments. The effects of boundary layer chemistry are also examined in this analysis. Under oxygen-enriched conditions, boundary layer reactions (converting CO to CO{sub 2}, with concomitant heat release) are shown to increase the char particle temperature and burning rate, while decreasing the O{sub 2} concentration at the particle surface. The CO{sub 2} gasification reaction acts to reduce the char particle temperature (because of the reaction endothermicity) and thereby reduces the rate of char oxidation. Interestingly, the presence of the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction increases the char conversion rate for combustion at low O{sub 2} concentrations, but decreases char conversion for combustion at high O{sub 2} concentrations. These calculations give new insight into the complexity of the effects from the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction and should help improve the understanding of experimentally measured oxy-fuel char combustion and burnout trends in the literature.

  1. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  2. Gasification | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Gasification The Wabash River Clean Coal Power Plant The Wabash River Clean Coal ... that could reduce NOx from hydrogen fired turbines to as low as 2 parts per million. ...

  3. Environmental research program for slagging fixed-bed coal gasification. Status report, November 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilzbach, K. E.; Stetter, J. R.; Reilly, Jr., C. A.; Willson, W. G.

    1982-02-01

    A collaborative environmental research program to provide information needed to assess the health and environmental effects associated with large-scale coal gasification technology is being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center (GFETC). The objectives are to: investigate the toxicology and chemical composition of coal gasification by-products as a function of process variables and coal feed; compare the characteristics of isokinetic side-stream samples with those of process stream samples; identify the types of compounds responsible for toxicity; evaluate the chemical and toxicological effectiveness of various wastewater treatment operations; refine methodology for the collection and measurement of organic vapors and particulates in workplace air; and obtain preliminary data on workplace air quality. So far the toxicities of a set of process stream samples (tar, oil, and gas liquor) and side-stream condensates from the GFETC gasifier have been measured in a battery of cellular screening tests for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Preliminary data on the effects of acute and chronic exposures of laboratory animals to process tar have been obtained. The process tar has been chemically fractionated and the distribution of mutagenicity and compound types among the fractions has been determined. Organic vapors and particulates collected at various times and locations in the gasifier building have been characterized.

  4. A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2011-11-01

    Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties of ash and slag

  5. The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification and handling was found to be peat pellets with a diameter of 7/8 inch and a length of .75 to 2 inches. A mixture of 65% coal and 35% peat pellets was found to cause no loss in gasifier efficiency and no operational problems. However, there was found to be no economic advantage in using coal-peat mixtures. The very limited testing performed with coal-wood chip mixtures indicated that the wood chips would be difficult to handle with the coal handling-equipment and there would be no economic advantage in using wood chips. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Prediction and measurement of optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasification processes. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1, 1 November 1979-31 January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Smith, P.J.

    1980-02-15

    This report summarizes work completed to predict and measure optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasifications processes. This study is the third in a series designed to investigate mixing and reaction in entrained coal gasifiers. A new team of graduate and undergraduate students was formed to conduct the experiments on optimum gasification operating conditions. Additional coal types, which will be tested in the gasifier were identified, ordered, and delivered. Characterization of these coals will be initiated. Hardware design modifications to introduce swirl into the secondary were initiated. Minor modifications were made to the gasifier to allow laser diagnostics to be made on an independently funded study with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The tasks completed on the two-dimensional model included the substantiation of a Gaussian PDF for the top-hat PDF in BURN and the completion of a Lagrangian particle turbulent dispersion module. The reacting submodel is progressing into the final stages of debug. The formulation of the radiation submodel is nearly complete and coding has been initiated. A device was designed, fabricated, and used to calibrate the actual Swirl Number of the cold-flow swirl generator used in the Phase 2 study. Swirl calibrations were obtained at the normal tests flow rates and at reduced flow rates. Two cold-flow tests were also performed to gather local velocity data under swirling conditions. Further analysis of the cold-flow coal-dust and swirl test results from the previous Phase 2 study were completed.

  7. Dairy Biomass-Wyoming Coal Blends Fixed Gasification Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gordillo, Gerardo; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2012-01-01

    Concenmore » trated animal feeding operations such as dairies produce a large amount of manure, termed as dairy biomass (DB), which could serve as renewable feedstock for thermal gasification. DB is a low-quality fuel compared to fossil fuels, and hence the product gases have lower heat content; however, the quality of gases can be improved by blending with coals. This paper deals with air-steam fixed-bed counterflow gasification of dairy biomass-Wyoming coal blend (DBWC). The effects of equivalence ratio ( 1.6 < Φ < 6.4 ) and steam-to-fuel ratio ( 0.4 < S : F < 0.8 ) on peak temperatures, gas composition, gross heating value of the products, and energy recovery are presented. According to experimental results, increasing Φ and ( S : F ) ratios decreases the peak temperature and increases the H 2 and CO 2 production, while CO production decreases. On the other hand, the concentrations of CH 4 and C 2 H 6 were lower compared to those of other gases and almost not affected by Φ.« less

  8. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  9. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  10. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  11. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  12. Photoassisted electrolysis applied to coal gasification. Third quarterly report, 1 January 1982-31 Mar 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    The literature search on electrochemical studies of various carbons has been completed. Two conclusions were reached: (1) The surfaces of various carbons are covered by oxide films to different extents and the oxides resemble either the quinone-like structure in their oxidized form or the hydroquinone-like structure in the reduced form. (2) When carbonaceous materials are oxidized chemically, electrochemically, or thermally, the first stage involves formation of the oxide film and the later stages oxide gas (CO or CO/sub 2/) evolution. The catalytic reaction mechanism of coal oxidation was substantiated by adding Fe/sup 3 +/ or Ce/sup 4 +/ to a cell containing a coal slurry without passing any electrical current and by monitoring the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved. Also, studies were performed on current efficiencies of CO/sub 2/ production reaction as a function of the particle size of coal samples. Finally, the catalytic rate constants of various redox catalysts for the coal oxidation reaction are reported. These results indicate that the thermodynamics of the reaction systems play a predominant role in determining the rate constants. Methods of studying the stability of semiconductor electrodes were established employing rotating ring-disk electrode techniques. The long-term stability of semiconductor electrodes would be needed to carry out the photoassisted coal gasification reaction. In the method we developed, the semiconductor was used as a disk electrode while the noble metal, e.g., Au or Pt, is used as a ring electrode. The species generated at the semiconductor electrode by light illumination is detected at the ring electrode by applying the proper electrode potential. If the ring detection current is lower than its expected value, the disk may undergo the photocorrosion reaction.

  13. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Jordi Perez; Marc Hornbostel; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2007-05-31

    Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in the IGCC system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy will improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. In this study, the use of corrosion-resistant coatings on low alloy steels was investigated for use as high-temperature components in IGCC systems. The coatings were deposited using SRI's fluidized-bed reactor chemical vapor deposition technique. Diffusion coatings of Cr and Al were deposited by this method on to dense and porous, low alloy stainless steel substrates. Bench-scale exposure tests at 900 C with a simulated coal gas stream containing 1.7% H{sub 2}S showed that the low alloy steels such SS405 and SS409 coated with {approx

  14. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  15. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy’s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process – High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  16. Current Gasification Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    With coal gasification now in modern commercial-scale applications, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy has turned its attention to future gasification concepts that offer...

  17. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  18. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  19. Combined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covell, J.R.; Thomas, M.H.

    1996-12-01

    EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. is successfully remediating a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. EG&G is demonstrating the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology. This project is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the lease holder of the site. UCG testing from 1976 through 1979 contaminated three water-bearing units at the site with benzene. Previous pump and treat operations at the site showed the presence of a persistent non-dissolved benzene source material. The Felix I coal seam is the most contaminated unit at the site and was the target unit for the initial demonstration. Air sparging was selected to strip dissolved benzene, volatilize the non- dissolved benzene source material, and to provide oxygen for increasing aerobic bacteria populations. Indigenous bacteria populations were stimulated with ammonium phosphate addition. EG&G designed the remediation system to take advantage of the hydrogeologic environment to produce a cost-effective approach to the groundwater remediation. Groundwater pumping was used to manipulate subsurface air flow, nutrient transport, and biomass management. Demonstration operations began on September 29, 1995, and were suspended on April 30, 1996 to begin demonstration expansion. Initial results of the demonstration show substantial reduction in benzene concentrations across the demonstration area. Benzene concentration reductions greater than 80% were observed two months after demonstration operations were suspended.

  20. In situ small angle x-ray studies of coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, K F

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made the first 12 months of a planned 36 month project on small angle x-ray studies of coal and char pore structure. Model carbon studies have been employed to demonstrate the usefulness of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in monitoring the structural changes in porous carbonaceous materials during gasification. Scattering data from particles gasified to varying levels of conversion show increases in the micropore sizes with conversion. This is also supported by surface area measurements by SAXS showing a maximum at intermediate conversion in agreements with previous studies by conventional means. The application of SAXS to PSOC coal samples is also demonstrated. Existing models for the porous structure have been reviewed and percolation theory has been selected as a consistent framework for both the modelling and the data analysis. This theory will make it possible to describe the porous structure in terms of its geometry and connectivity, rather than being limited to a fixed geometry as in conventional approaches. Two graduate students and the PI have been trained in SAXS and the associated theory. Results from the model carbon studies have been published. 18 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Gasification of chars produced under simulated in situ processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CHARS; GASIFICATION; COAL; PYROLYSIS; IN-SITU GASIFICATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; ...

  2. Corrosion and degradation of materials in the Synthane coal-gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurkewycz, R.; Firestone, R.F.

    1981-09-01

    Corrosion monitoring of materials was conducted in the operating environments of the Synthane coal gasification pilot plant between 1976 and 1978. Metal and refractory specimens were exposed in the gasifier vessel in two test locations (fluidized bed, freeboard). Metal coupons only were exposed in the gasifier char cooler (freeboard) and four test locations in the quench system (vapor and liquid phases). Exposure times under operating conditions were 181 to 782 h. In two gasifier test locations (600 psig, 1284/sup 0/F and 1434/sup 0/F), the performance of nickel-base alloys with >20 wt % Cr, 40 to 46 wt % Ni, and 3 to 9.1 wt % Mo was consistently better than for other test alloys. Equivalent linear corrosion rates for these better alloys were < 20 mpy (782 h) with Montana Rosebud coal as feedstock; however, with Illinois No. 6 coal the linear rates were >20 mpy but <75 mpy (181 h). IN-600 (76.5 wt % Ni, 15.8 wt % Cr) was found unsuitable for gasifier internal application. All refractories tested in the two gasifier test locations (600 psig, 1284/sup 0/F and 1434/sup 0/F), with the exception of silicon nitride, were not greatly affected during either exposure period. The better materials were monolithic refractories with 5 to 30% porosity and 50 to 60% alumina content. Corrosion monitoring of metals in the gasifier char cooler freeboard (600 psig, 800/sup 0/F) showed that Type 304 was more resistant to corrosion attack than Type 410 and carbon steel (A-515).During exposure in the product gas quench system (5 to 600 psig, 200/sup 0/ to 445/sup 0/F), austenitic stainless steels, IN-600, and Type 430 experienced only limited corrosion loss and slight to moderate pitting attack (maximum pit depth <7 mils). Monel 400 and carbon steel specimens incurred unacceptable levels of degradation.

  3. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  4. Gasification Systems Project Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Syngas Chemical Looping for Hydrogen Production Ohio State University Research Foundation Gasification Systems FE0024068 Increasing the Rate and Extent of Microbial Coal to ...

  5. Gasification News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Modular Oxygen Production in Fossil Energy Gasification Systems August 24, 2016 Two projects were selected to develop stand-alone oxygen-production technologies for use in coal gasification processes. The new technologies will produce oxygen of at least 95 percent purity for use in small-scale (500 kilowatt to 5 megawatt) modular power plants at significantly lower cost than commercial state-of-the-art oxygen-production technologies. Archive

  6. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL SPINEL REFRACTORIES FOR USE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Armstrong, Beth L; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Work has been performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturer (Minteq International, Inc.), academic research partner (Missouri University of Science and Technology) and end users to employ novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels found in industries such as aluminum, chemical, glass, and pulp and paper. The objective of the project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3 spinel structured unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. As part of the four-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments. Additionally, work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against corrosion attack of the refractory brick and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the development of these materials, along with preliminary results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment.

  8. SPINEL-BASED REFRACTORIES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Armstrong, Beth L; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology and refractory end users have developed novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels. The objective of this U.S. DOE funded project was to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al 2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments and work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the service environment and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the systematic development of these materials, laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials, and relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  9. Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Armstrong, Beth L; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  10. Successful continuous injection of coal into gasification and PFBC system operating pressures exceeding 500 PSI - DOE funded program results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    President Bush's energy program is focussed towards commercializing power production technologies that offer improvements in efficiency and reductions in emissions while utilizing the nation's most abundant energy reserve - coal. Gasification offers such benefits. To bring this technology to full commercial acceptance, the operational issue of feeding solid fuel into the pressure environment needs to be addressed. The DOE, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory, has funded research to develop the unique Stamet 'Posimetric Solids Pump' to feed coal into current gasification operating pressures. The project comprised design and testing to feed coal into 300 PSI and a second Phase for feeding into 500 PSI. The 300 PSI target was achieved in December 2003. In January 2005, the Posimetric feeder achieved continuous injection of coal into 560 PSI, exceeding the Phase 2 target. This paper presents a review and evaluation of the design, design optimizations and test results of the successful feeder. It also presents analysis of economic benefits to pump use and results from semi-commercial testing at gasifier operating test facilities, which should have commenced by the date of the Conference. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the BI-GAS coal-gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurkewycz, R.; Firestone, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    Corrosion monitoring of test materials was conducted in the BI-GAS coal gasification pilot plant from 1976 through 1981. Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal was processed at pressures of 750 psia (5175 kPa). Metals were exposed at low to moderate temperatures (700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C)) in the coal preparation area, gasifier slag quench, and the product gas scrubbing system. Refractories and metals were evaluated in the gasifier high temperature (1372/sup 0/F (744/sup 0/C)-1915/sup 0/F (1046/sup 0/C)) test sites at the top of stage II. In the moderate temperature aqueous environments, alloys 26-1, Types 329, 304, 316, 405, and IN-825 were superior in performance to Monel 400, carbon steel A515, and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo. Stress corrosion cracking was not observed in welded U-bend samples (A515, 304, 316, 329, 26-1). First-exposure gasifier corrosion test results generally indicated that uncoated alloys with 23.0 to 26.2 wt % Cr and less than 30 wt % Ni exhibited the best performance. Alloy Types 446 and 310 experienced the least corrosion attack with linear corrosion rates less than 20 mpy (0.51 mm/y); marginal performing alloys were Type 314, 22-13-5, and RA-333. During the second exposure, all uncoated alloys incurred acceptable corrosion losses. Alloys with Co, Cr, and Ni (N155, 556) in approximately equal proportions, at concentrations of approx. 20 wt %, ranked higher in performance than alloys such as Type 310, IN-800, Cru-25, and RA-333. Gasifier exposure of pack-aluminized alloys IN-800(A1) and Type 310(A1)showed that the coating provided corrosion protection. Cracks in the bulk coating were filled with Fe-Al rich oxides. The refractories were changed very little by exposure with two exceptions: tar was removed from a tar-impregnated brick, and a lightweight insulating castable deteriorated greatly.

  12. Applications of organo-calcium chemistry to control contaminant aromatic hydrocarbons in advanced coal gasification processes: Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longwall, J.P.; Chang, C.C.S.; Lai, C.K.S.; Chen, P.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Peters, W.A.

    1988-09-01

    The broad goal of this contract was to provide quantitative understanding of the thermal reactions of aromatics contaminants with calcium oxide under conditions pertinent to their in situ or out-board reduction or elimination from advanced coal gasification process and waste streams. Specific objectives were formalized into the following four tasks: cracking of fresh coal pyrolysis tar, benzene cracking, CaO deactivation behavior, and preliminary economic implications. The approach primarily involved laboratory scale measurements of rates and extents of feed conversion, and of quality indices or compositions of the resulting products, when pure aromatic compounds or newly formed coal pyrolysis tars undergo controlled extents of thermal treatment with CaO of known preparation history. 70 refs., 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, LaTosha M; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V; Shadle, Lawrence J

    2013-10-01

    New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young

  14. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  15. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  16. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  17. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-04-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies involving gas solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 9 figures, 19 tables.

  18. Analysis of char-slag interaction and near-wall particle segregation in entrained-flow gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montagnaro, Fabio; Salatino, Piero

    2010-05-15

    The fate of carbon particles during entrained-flow gasification of coal in the slagging regime is analyzed. More specifically, the study addresses the relevance of segregation of carbon particles in a near-wall region of the gasifier to coal conversion. Segregation of carbon particles is analyzed considering the effects of turbulence- and swirl-promoted particle migration toward the wall, interaction of the impinging particles with the wall ash layer, coverage of the slag layer by refractory carbon particles, accumulation of carbon particles in a dense-dispersed phase near the wall of the gasifier. Operating conditions of the gasifier and slag properties may be combined so as to give rise to a variety of conversion regimes characterized by distinctively different patterns of carbon particles segregation. A simple 1D model of an entrained-flow gasifier has been developed based on the conceptual framework of carbon particle segregation. The model aims at providing a general assessment of the impact of the different patterns of carbon particle segregation on the course and extent of carbon gasification. A sensitivity analysis with reference to selected model parameters is performed to identify key processes controlling carbon segregation and their impact on the gasifier performance. (author)

  19. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David A.

    2013-08-15

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst-capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst-capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO2 and H2S capture, and (3) the steam-coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO3 was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO-CaCO3 cycles. The increased steam-coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2-4% per CaO-CaCO3 cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier-calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO4 and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  20. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; ASHES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; COAL; COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; AIR POLLUTION...

  1. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  2. Philadelphia gas works medium-Btu coal gasification project: capital and operating cost estimate, financial/legal analysis, project implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This volume of the final report is a compilation of the estimated capital and operating costs for the project. Using the definitive design as a basis, capital and operating costs were developed by obtaining quotations for equipment delivered to the site. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 provide a summary of the capital and operating costs estimated for the PGW Coal Gasification Project. In the course of its Phase I Feasibility Study of a medium-Btu coal-gas facility, Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) identified the financing mechanism as having great impact on gas cost. Consequently, PGW formed a Financial/Legal Task Force composed of legal, financial, and project analysis specialists to study various ownership/management options. In seeking an acceptable ownership, management, and financing arrangement, certain ownership forms were initially identified and classified. Several public ownership, private ownership, and third party ownership options for the coal-gas plant are presented. The ownership and financing forms classified as base alternatives involved tax-exempt and taxable financing arrangements and are discussed in Section 3. Project implementation would be initiated by effectively planning the methodology by which commercial operation will be realized. Areas covered in this report are sale of gas to customers, arrangements for feedstock supply and by-product disposal, a schedule of major events leading to commercialization, and a plan for managing the implementation.

  3. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures. Quarterly progress report No. 5, September 15, 1988--December 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygourakis, K.

    1988-12-31

    Coals of different ranks will be pyrolyzed in a microscope hot-stage reactor using inert and reacting atmospheres. The macropore structure of the produced chars will be characterized using video microscopy and digital image processing techniques to obtain pore size distributions. Comparative studies will quantify the effect of pyrolysis conditions (heating rates, final heat treatment temperatures, particle size and inert or reacting atmosphere) on the pore structure of the devolatilized chars. The devolatilized chars will be gasified in the regime of strong intraparticle diffusional limitations using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}2 mixtures. Constant temperature and programmed-temperature experiments in a TGA will be used for these studies. Additional gasification experiments performed in the hot-stage reactor will be videotaped and selected images will be analyzed to obtain quantitative data on particle shrinkage and fragmentation. Discrete mathematical models will be developed and validated using the experimental gasification data.

  4. Gasification Systems Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Gasification Systems Project Portfolio Gasification is a clean way to efficiently produce electric power, a wide range of transportation fuels, and chemicals from coal and other solid feedstocks. By first converting the solid feedstock to a gaseous form (syngas), potential pollutants can be captured and reduced to any desired level and then converted to useful by-products or safely disposed. The Gasification Systems Program is developing advanced technologies to improve the economics and

  5. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  6. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

  8. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

  9. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  10. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gary Stiegel

    2010-01-08

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  11. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Feed and Gasification The Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology will advance scientific knowledge of the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream steps for production of liquid transportation fuels with a lower net GHG emissions than conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on

  12. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  13. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4

  14. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center

  15. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC

  16. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  17. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  18. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Third quarter progress report FY-1984, April 1-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-31

    The overall objective of the KRW coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) modifications to the PDU; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) advanced process design and analysis; and (5) laboratory support studies. For laboratory support studies, coal and/or char fines from Wyoming Sub C, Western Kentucky, Republic of South Africa (RSA), and Pittsburgh seam coals processed in the PDU were characterized for reactivity on a thermogravimetric analyzer. The average relative reactivity of the fines (-120 x +140 mesh) was found to be nearly the same as that for larger size distribution (18 x 60 mesh, -1.0 + 0.25 mm). This is consistent with the observations of studies reported in literature on carbon gasification reactions.

  19. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  20. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  1. Coal gasification system with a modulated on/off control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A modulated control system is provided for improving regulation of the bed level in a fixed-bed coal gasifier into which coal is fed from a rotary coal feeder. A nuclear bed level gauge using a cobalt source and an ion chamber detector is used to detect the coal bed level in the gasifier. The detector signal is compared to a bed level set point signal in a primary controller which operates in proportional/integral modes to produce an error signal. The error signal is modulated by the injection of a triangular wave signal of a frequency of about 0.0004 Hz and an amplitude of about 80% of the primary deadband. The modulated error signal is fed to a triple-deadband secondary controller which jogs the coal feeder speed up or down by on/off control of a feeder speed change driver such that the gasifier bed level is driven toward the set point while preventing excessive cycling (oscillation) common in on/off mode automatic controllers of this type. Regulation of the bed level is achieved without excessive feeder speed control jogging.

  2. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  3. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  4. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  5. Gasification of chars produced under simulated in situ processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COAL; CRYOGENIC FLUIDS; DECOMPOSITION; ELEMENTS; ENERGY SOURCES; FLUIDS; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GASES; GASIFICATION; HYDROCARBONS; IN-SITU PROCESSING; KINETICS; MICROSCOPY; ...

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: ...

  7. A Texas project illustrates the benefits of integrated gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philcox, J.; Fenner, G.W.

    1997-07-14

    Gasification can be an attractive option for converting a variety of petroleum feedstocks to chemicals. Natural gas is commonly sued to produce acetic acid, isocyanates, plastics, and fibers. But low-cost, bottom-of-the-barrel feeds, such as vacuum resid, petroleum coke, and asphaltenes, also can be used. In any case, gasification products include synthesis gas, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, steam, carbon dioxide, and power. The more a gasification facility is integrated with utilities and other non-core operations of a production complex, the more economical the products are for all consumers. The paper discusses gasification of natural gas, light hydrocarbons (ethane, propanes, and butanes), and heavy hydrocarbons (distillates, heavy residues, asphalts, coals, petroleum coke). The paper then describes a Texas City Gasification Project, which gasifies methane to produce carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and alcohol. The plant is integrated with a cogeneration plant. Economics are discussed.

  8. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and

  11. Slang characterization and removal using pulse detonation technology during coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Biney, P.O.; Zhou, J.

    1997-03-25

    Boiler slagging and fouling as a result of inorganic impurities in combustion gases being deposited on heat transfer tubes have caused severe problems in coal-fired power plant operation. These problems are fuel, system design, and operating condition dependent. Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. The detonation wave technique based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. These detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. The experimental results show that the single shot detonation wave is capable of removing the entire slag (types of slag deposited on economizer) even at a distance of 8 in. from the exit of a detonation engine tube. Wave strength and slag orientation also have different effects on the chipping off of the slag. This paper discusses about the results obtained in effectively removing the economizer slag.

  12. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  13. Coal tar technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal tar production and applications. Topics examine production from coal gasification, synthesis of chemicals from coal tar, and chemical analyses of coal tar products. Toxicology pollution studies, and commercial uses of the product are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Coal tar technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal tar production and applications. Topics examine production from coal gasification, synthesis of chemicals from coal tar, and chemical analyses of coal tar products. Toxicology pollution studies, and commercial uses of the product are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Coal tar technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal tar production and applications. Topics examine production from coal gasification, synthesis of chemicals from coal tar, and chemical analyses of coal tar products. Toxicology pollution studies, and commercial uses of the product are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  17. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  18. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  19. EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS ...

  20. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  2. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  3. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  4. Coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebden, D.; Brooks, C.T.

    1984-12-11

    A slagging gasifier has a hearth comprising an annular solid cast structure formed from a high thermal conductivity metal such as copper and shaped to fit above a slag tap of the gasifier. The hearth is provided with one or more integrally formed passageways for circulating a coolant liquid therethrough and has an upper tundish surface with a slope of at least 10/sup 0/ to the horizontal (preferably between 25/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/), across which tundish surface the molten slag flows downwardly and inwardly towards the slag tap. The annular structure may be formed from at least three sector-shaped cast parts secured together in situ in the gasifier.

  5. Coal gasification plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    A removable annular hearth member, shaped to fit over the slag outlet of a slagging gasifier, comprises a cast body of high thermal conductivity having integral coolant passageways, said passageways being formed by shaping a metal tube into a coil having an inlet and an outlet, and casting metal to the desired shape around the coil such that the inlet and outlet communicate exteriorly of the cast body.

  6. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  7. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  8. EIS-0432: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Medicine Bow Gasification and Liquefaction Coal-to-Liquids, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is assessing the potential environmental impacts for its proposed action of issuing a Federal loan guarantee to Medicine Bow Fuel & Power LLC (MBFP), a wholly-owned subsidiary of DKRW Advanced Fuels LLC. MBFP submitted an application to DOE under the Federal loan guarantee program pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to support the construction and startup of the MBFP coal-to-liquids facility, a coal mine and associated coal handling facilities. This project is inactive.

  9. Segmental shell for a coal crusher roll including specialized removal means

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach, T.F.

    1986-10-21

    The patent describes a coal crusher having a cylindrical back-up roll having two ends, an outside face, a longitudinal axis, and a hub mounted in each end of the back-up roll. The coal crusher includes a combination of removable toothed segments mounted to the outside face of the roll and hook means including a tang for removing the segments from the roll. The coal crusher comprises metal segments, each of the segments in the form of a sector of a tube. The segment has an inside face and an outside face and an outside peripheral edge. The edge includes upper and lower axially extending edges, and two circumferential edges. The inside face of the segment has a radius of curvature substantially equal to the radius of curvature of the outside face of the back-up roll and has counterbored holes therein for receiving headed bolts which are threaded into tapped holes in the back-up roll to secure the segments to the back-up roll. Each of the counterbored holes has a seat to receive the heads of the bolts.

  10. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  11. Integrated Sensing & Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier & Syngas Cooler. Topical Rerport for Phase III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aditya

    2011-02-17

    This Topical Report for the final Phase III of the program summarizes the results from the Task 3 of the program. In this task, the separately designed extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and model predictive controls (MPC) with ideal sensing, developed in Phase II, were integrated to achieve the overall sensing and control system for the gasification section of an IGCC plant. The EKF and MPC algorithms were updated and re-tuned to achieve closed-loop system stability as well as good steady-state and transient control response. In particular, the performance of the integrated EKF and MPC solution was tested extensively through multiple simulation studies to achieve improved steady-state as well as transient performance, with coal as well as coal-petcoke blended fuel, in the presence of unknown modeling errors as well as sensor errors (noise and bias). The simulation studies demonstrated significant improvements in steady state and transient operation performance, similar to that achieved by MPC with ideal sensors in Phase II of the program.

  12. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    The conference presented over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal; research and development in coal conversion; advanced coal combustion; environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry, and a sessions on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 2 includes the following topics: Environmental systems and technologies/Environmental policy; Coal drying, dewatering and reconstitution; Coal cleaning technology; Slurry bed technology; Coal syngas, methanol, DME, olefins and oxygenates; Environmental issues in energy conversion technology; Applied coal geology; Use of coal in the steel industry; Recent developments in coal preparation; International coal gasification projects; Progress on Clean Coal projects; Retrofit air quality control technologies;Fluidized bed combustion; Commercialization of coal preparation technologies; Integrated gasification combined cycle program; the US Department of Energy`s Combustion 2000 program; and Environmental issues in coal utilization. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  15. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  16. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  17. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  18. Gasification Plant Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Databases Welcome to the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory's Gasification Plant Databases Within these databases you will find current publicly available information on proposed projects and projects undergoing construction and initial operation within the United States and worldwide. Currently operating projects are excluded. The data have been compiled here to keep the public informed of the technologies and investments in major industrial coal

  19. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  20. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  1. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  3. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  4. Hydrodeoxygenation of heavy oils derived from low-temperature coal gasification over NiW catalysts-effect of pore structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieter Leckel

    2008-01-15

    The effect of the pore structure on the hydroprocessing of heavy distillate oils derived from low-temperature coal gasification residues was studied using four NiW catalysts with different pore size distributions. The hydroprocessing was conducted at a pressure of 17.5 MPa, a temperature range of 370-410{sup o}C, and a 0.50 h{sup -1} space velocity. The degree of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) in terms of phenolics removal was influenced by the catalyst pore structure, with the most preferable peak pore diameter for HDO ranging between 6.8 and 16 nm. The catalyst with the highest volume of pores in the 3.5-6 nm range showed the lowest HDO activity. The apparent activation energies for the HDO reaction varied between 59 and 87 kJ/mol, whereby the lowest values are obtained for the catalysts with a peak pore diameter of 11 and 16 nm. 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieter Leckel

    2006-10-15

    Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  6. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power

  7. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  8. Low/medium Btu coal gasification assessment of central plant for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing, distributing, selling, and using fuel gas for industrial applications in Philadelphia. The primary driving force for the assessment is the fact that oil users are encountering rapidly escalating fuel costs, and are uncertain about the future availability of low sulfur fuel oil. The situation is also complicated by legislation aimed at reducing oil consumption and by difficulties in assuring a long term supply of natural gas. Early in the gasifier selection study it was decided that the level of risk associated with the gasification process sould be minimal. It was therefore determined that the process should be selected from those commercially proven. The following processes were considered: Lurgi, KT, Winkler, and Wellman-Galusha. From past experience and a knowledge of the characteristics of each gasifier, a list of advantages and disadvantages of each process was formulated. It was concluded that a medium Btu KT gas can be manufactured and distributed at a lower average price than the conservatively projected average price of No. 6 oil, provided that the plant is operated as a base load producer of gas. The methodology used is described, assumptions are detailed and recommendations are made. (LTN)

  9. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Phase 2, Final report, May 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-09-15

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized, carbonaceous feedstocks for electrical power generation, substitute natural gas, chemical feedstocks, and industrial fuels. This report covers Phase II of the contract period (May 1, 1983 to July 31, 1984) and is a continuation of the work performed in 1983 and reported in the Phase I final report, FE-19122-30. Included is work performed in fiscal 1983 to 1984 on PDU testing, process analysis, cold flow scaleup facility, process and component engineering and design, and laboratory support studies.

  10. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  11. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  12. Novel single stripper with side-draw to remove ammonia and sour gas simultaneously for coal-gasification wastewater treatment and the industrial implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, D.C.; Yu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2009-06-15

    A large amount of wastewater is produced in the Lurgi coal-gasification process with the complex compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, phenol, etc., which cause a serious environmental problem. In this paper, a novel stripper operated at elevated pressure is designed to improve the pretreatment process. In this technology, two noticeable improvements were established. First, the carbon dioxide and ammonia were removed simultaneously in a single stripper where sour gas (mainly carbon dioxide) is removed from the tower top and the ammonia vapor is drawn from the side and recovered by partial condensation. Second, the ammonia is removed before the phenol recovery to reduce the pH value of the subsequent extraction units, so as the phenol removal performance of the extraction is greatly improved. To ensure the operational efficiency, some key operational parameters are analyzed and optimized though simulation. It is shown that when the top temperature is kept at 40 C and the weight ratio of the side draw to the feed is above 9%, the elevated pressures can ensure the removal efficiency of NH{sub 3} and carbon dioxide and the desired purified water as the bottom product of the unit is obtained. A real industrial application demonstrates the attractiveness of the new technique: it removes 99.9% CO{sub 2} and 99.6% ammonia, compared to known techniques which remove 66.5% and 94.4%, respectively. As a result, the pH value of the wastewater is reduced from above 9 to below 7. This ensures that the phenol removal ratio is above 93% in the following extraction units. The operating cost is lower than that of known techniques, and the operation is simplified.

  13. EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline Documents Available for Download EIS-0429: Notice of Intent to Prepare an ...

  14. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  15. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter

  20. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Fifteenth quarterly report, [January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-04-26

    Maximum methane production was obtained in the experimental vials that contained 0.2% SNTM supplemented with 10 mM sodium citrate and 1% TxL (144 cc), while in the control vials CH{sub 4} production was only 58 cc. The conversion efficiency was 24%. This clearly shows citrate to be an important mediator for the formation of acetate (main precursor for CH{sub 4} formation) in the glyoxylate cycle, on the one hand, and as a sequestering agent, on the other. These results further indicate that citrate can, be successfully used as co-substrate for enhancement of the TxL biogasification process. The results obtained reconfirmed our hypothesis that the metals (such as Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CO{sup 2+}, Zr{sup 2+}, etc., present in the coal structure) are chelated/sequestered by the addition of citrate. Mass balance calculations show that this increase in CH{sup 4} production is due to the biomethanation of TxL and not because of the chemical conversion of co-substrate(s) to CH{sub 4} (Table 1). The effect of sodium citrate on biomethanation of TXL from the first experiment ``Effect of co-substrate addition No. 1`` was reconfirmed in this experiment. The peak in acetate concentration (1317 ppm) on day 7 was followed by a rapid conversion of this precursor to CH{sub 4} (Figure 16). The VFA data obtained from both experiments (``Effect of co-substrate addition No. 1 and No. 2``) confirms the hypothesis that citrate and methanol can significantly enhance the biomethanation of TxL (Figure 17).

  1. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    } separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  2. Steam gasification of carbon: Catalyst properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falconer, J.L.

    1993-01-10

    Coal gasification by steam is of critical importance in converting coal to gaseous products (CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4]) that can then be further converted to synthetic natural gas and higher hydrocarbon fuels. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (present as oxides) catalyze coal gasification reactions and cause them to occur at significantly lower temperatures. A more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the steam gasification reaction and catalyst utilization may well lead to better production techniques, increased gasification rates, greater yields, and less waste. We are studying the gasification of carbon by steam in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth oxides, using carbonates as the starting materials. Carbon dioxide gasification (CO[sub 2] + C --> 2CO) has been studied in some detail recently, but much less has been done on the actual steam gasification reaction, which is the main thrust of our work. In particular, the form of the active catalyst compound during reaction is still questioned and the dependence of the concentration of active sites on reaction parameters is not known. Until recently, no measurements of active site concentrations during reaction had been made. We have recently used transient isotope tracing to determine active site concentration during CO[sub 2] gasification. We are investigating the mechanism and the concentration of active sites for steam gasification with transient isotopic tracing. For this technique, the reactant feed is switched from H[sub 2]0 to isotopically-labeled water at the same concentration and tow rate. We can then directly measure, at reaction the concentration of active catalytic sites, their kinetic rate constants, and the presence of more than one rate constant. This procedure allows us to obtain transient kinetic data without perturbing the steady-state surface reactions.

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

  4. NETL: Aligned Gasification Research Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to coal use. For this purpose, NETL's Clean Coal Research Program (CCRP) is developing a portfolio of innovative technologies, including those for carbon capture and storage (CCS). ...

  5. Development and application of optimal design capability for coal gasification systems - Task 1 (Volume 1, 2 and 3). Topical report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. SCR has become increasingly widely applied in the U.S. to natural-gas fired gas turbine combined cycle systems. In the remainder of this section, we review the applicability of SCR, as well as the need for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, for several power generation systems.

  6. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  7. Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant amount of our nation’s electricity.

  8. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  9. 2007 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

  10. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was

  11. New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cleaner Coal through Gasification In a traditional coal-fired power plant, coal undergoes combustion in a boiler to turn water into steam. This steam pressure then drives turbine ...

  12. Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quality. As a component of that effort, the CCRP-ad- ministered by the Office of Clean Coal and implemented by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-is engaged in...

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT-DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002.

  14. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the

  15. World Gasification Database Now Available from DOE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A database just released by the U.S. Department of Energy documents the worldwide growth of gasification, the expected technology of choice for future coal-based plants that produce power, fuels, and/or chemicals with near-zero emissions.

  16. Clean Coal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Coal Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1F 8QE Product: London-based company which specialises in underground coal gasification project management and project...

  17. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  18. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  19. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Agenda of critical issues: coal price and availability. Final report. [Includes effect of legislation, sulfur content and rail transport costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennican, M.L.; Wayland, R.E.; Weinstein, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Temple, Barker, and Sloane, Inc. developed an agenda of critical issues regarding future coal prices and coal availability for EPRI. TBS interviewed nearly 50 utility, coal company, and railroad officials, academic experts, and coal consultants; held a one-day participatory workshop; and conducted a literature review and follow-up interviews with selected utilities. TBS found four causes of uncertainty in the utility industry over future coal prices. First, the acid deposition proposals in Congress vary in terms of the structure of the legislation, the costs of compliance, and the impact on coal prices; in turn these uncertainties impede utility fuel planning and decision making. Second, powerplant-specific factors will have a major impact on whether utilities switch or scrub in response to acid deposition legislation; existing analyses do not capture these factors. The most important powerplant-specific factors are matching unit characteristics with coal specifications, retrofit scrubber costs, and differing state regulatory environments. Third, TBS found that utility fuel managers have great uncertainty over the availability and future cost of compliance coal. TBS estimated that the existing production capacity of eastern compliance coal is at least twice as high as current production. Fourth, TBS concluded that uncertainty over future coal transportation rates was a major reason for utilities' uncertainty over future delivered prices of coal. Critical transportation-related issues are the strategic and tactical response of eastern coal producers to the Staggers Act; the impact on rail rates of the sale of Conrail, of possible transcontinental mergers, and of multi-modal mergers; and the future pricing policies that eastern railroads will adopt in response to imports of Colombian coal. 21 references.

  1. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakkestad, B.

    2009-07-01

    Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

  3. NREL: Energy Analysis - Coal-Fired Electricity Generation Results...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gasification combine cycle (IGCC), fluidized bed (FB), and supercritical pulverized coal-combustion technologies), NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review life ...

  4. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K.

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

  5. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (i) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (ii) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (iii) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-sixth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The program includes: (i) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (ii) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (iii) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a ``workstation`` environment. Success in this program will be a major step in improving the predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: Demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized ``first principles`` treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data.

  8. EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Moss Point, MS | Department of Energy 8: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS Documents Available for Download November 12, 2009 EIS-0428: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Construction and Startup of the Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, Mississippi December 1, 2009 EIS-0428:

  9. EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline | Department of Energy 9: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline EIS-0429: Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, IN and CO2 Pipeline Documents Available for Download November 12, 2009 EIS-0429: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Construction and Startup of the Indiana Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Rockport, Indiana December

  10. Model test on underground coal gasification (UCG) with low-pressure fire seepage push-through. Part I: Test conditions and air fire seepage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    The technology of a pushing-through gallery with oxygen-enriched fire-seepage combustion was studied during shaft-free UCG in this article, and the main experiment parameters were probed. The test results were analyzed in depth. The patterns of variation and development were pointed out for the fire source moving speed, temperature field, leakage rate, the expanding diameter for the gasification gallery, and blasting pressure. Test results showed that, with the increase in the wind-blasting volume, the moving velocity for the fire source speeded up, and the average temperature for the gallery continuously rose. Under the condition of oxygen-enriched air blasting, when O{sub 2} contents stood at 90%, the moving speed for the fire source was 4-5 times that of air blasting. In the push-through process, the average leakage rate for the blasting was 82.23%, with the average discharge volume of 3.43 m{sup 3}/h and average gallery diameter of 7.87 cm. With the proceeding of firepower seepage, the extent of dropping for the leakage rate increased rapidly, and the drop rate for the blasting pressure gradually heightened.

  11. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  12. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  14. Gasification of Biorefinery Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    This project is addressing syngas clean-up by developing a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms and kinetics of trace product formation in biomass gasification.

  15. Gasification Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is leading an effort to integrate and evaluate syngas cleanup and treatment technologies for syngas from biomass gasification processes.

  16. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Rich

    2003-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The DOE/WMPI Cooperative Agreement was modified on May 2003 to expand the project team to include Shell Global Solutions, U.S. and Uhde GmbH as the engineering contractor. The addition of Shell and Uhde strengthen both the technical capability and financing ability of the project. Uhde, as the prime EPC contractor, has the responsibility to develop a LSTK (lump sum turnkey) engineering design package for the EECP leading to the eventual detailed engineering, construction and operation of the proposed concept. Major technical activities during the reporting

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Rich

    2003-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. Phase I Task 6 activities of Preliminary Site Analysis were documented and reported as a separate Topical Report on February 2003. Most of the other technical activities were on hold pending on DOE's announcement of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) awards. WMPI was awarded one of the CCPI projects in late January 2003 to engineer, construct and operate a first-of-kind gasification/liquefaction facility in the U.S. as a continued effort for the current WMPI EECP engineering feasibility study. Since then, project technical activities were focused on: (1

  19. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Gasification Site - 045 Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Managed by DOE Office of Fossil Energy. More information at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/ Designated Name: Not Designated under FUSRAP Alternate Name: None Location: Campbell County, Wyoming Evaluation Year: Not considered for FUSRAP - in another program Site Operations: Energy research Site Disposition: Site managed by DOE Office of

  2. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, F.

    1982-08-01

    This report contains the results of a literature survey conducted by NASA Lewis Research Center. The survey objective was to systematically assemble existing data on the physical, chemical, and elemental composition and structural characteristics of synthetic fuels (liquids and gases) derived from coal. The report contains the survey results compiled to October 1980. The report includes the following: (1) a general description of fuel properties, with emphasis on those properties required for synfuels to be used in gas-turbine systems for industry and utilities; (2) description of the four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels (pyrolysis, solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction and indirect liquefaction); (3) data obtained from the literature on full range syncrudes and certain distillate cuts for fuels derived by various processes; (4) description of upgrading processes for coal liquids and characterization data for upgraded fuels; (5) data plots illustrating trends in the properties of fuels derived by several processes; (6) description of the most important concepts in coal gasification (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow and underground gasification) and characterization data for coal-derived gases; (7) a source list and bibliography on syncrude production and upgrading programs; and (8) a listing of some Federal energy contracts for coal-derived synthetic fuels production.

  3. Sixth clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1: Policy papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    The Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference focused on the ability of clean coal technologies (CCTs) to meet increasingly demanding environmental requirements while simultaneously remaining competitive in both international and domestic markets. Conference speakers assessed environmental, economic, and technical issues and identified approaches that will help enable CCTs to be deployed in an era of competing, interrelated demands for energy, economic growth, and environmental protection. Recognition was given to the dynamic changes that will result from increasing competition in electricity and fuel markets and industry restructuring, both domestically and internationally. Volume 1 contains 38 papers arranged under the following topical sections: International business forum branch; Keynote session; Identification of the issues; CCTs--Providing for unprecedented environmental concerns; Domestic competitive pressures for CCTs; Financing challenges for CCTs; New markets for CCTs; Clean coal for the 21st century: What will it take? Conclusions and recommendations. The clean coal technologies discussed include advanced pulverized coal-fired boilers, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), pressurized FBC, integrated gasification combined-cycle systems, pressurized pulverized coal combustion, integrated gasification fuel cell systems, and magnetohydrodynamic power generation.

  4. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors.

  5. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  6. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  7. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  8. EIS-0072: Great Plains Gasification Project, Mercer County, North Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy prepared this EIS to evaluate the impacts of a project to construct a 125 million cubic feet per day coal gasification facility located in Mercer County, North Dakota. The Office of Fossil Energy adopted three environmental impact evaluation documents prepared by other Federal agencies to develop this EIS.

  9. EIS-0409: Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Mississippi

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to provide funding for the Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project in Kemper County, Mississippi to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a project proposed by Southern Power Company, through its affiliate Mississippi Power Company, which has been selected by DOE for consideration under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program.

  10. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  11. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-29

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  12. Integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) demonstration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Sanderson, R.; Abens, S.

    2000-07-01

    As concern about the environment generates interest in ultra-clean energy plants, fuel cell power plants can respond to the challenge. Fuel cells convert hydrocarbon fuels to electricity at efficiencies exceeding conventional heat engine technologies while generating extremely low emissions. Emissions of SOx and NOx are expected to be well below current and anticipated future standards. Nitrogen oxides, a product of combustion, will be extremely low in this power plant because power is produced electrochemically rather than by combustion. Due to its higher efficiencies, a fuel cell power plant also produces less carbon dioxide. Fuel cells in combination with coal gasification, are an efficient and environmentally acceptable means to utilize the abundant coal reserves both in the US and around the world. To demonstrate this technology, FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), is planning to build and test a 2-MW Fuel Cell Power Plant for operation on coal derived gas. This power plant is based on Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{trademark}) technology and will be part of a Clean Coal V IGCC project supported by the US DOE. A British Gas Lurgi (BGL) slagging fixed-bed gasification system with cold gas clean up is planned as part of a 400 MW IGCC power plant to provide a fuel gas slip stream to the fuel cell. The IGFC power plant will be built by Kentucky Pioneer Energy, A subsidiary of Global Energy, in Clark County, KY. This demonstration will result in the world's largest fuel cell power plant operating on coal derived gas. The objective of this test is to demonstrate fuel cell operation on coal derived gas at a commercial scale and to verify the efficiency and environmental benefits.

  13. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the feeding and conversion of biomass and coal-biomass mixtures as essential upstream ... Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring ...

  14. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  15. Quantification of progress in indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; ElSawy, A.; Tomlinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the economic and technical impact of incorporating various advanced technologies into the indirect coal liquefaction system. These advanced technologies include entrained flow Shell gasification and slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. This objective was accomplished by substituting the Shell entrained goal gasifier system for the Lurgi and the advanced slurry F-T reactor for the Synthol and ARGE F-T systems in a SASOL-type indirect liquefaction facility. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  17. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  18. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  19. Shift conversion and methanation in coal gasification: bench-scale evaluation of a sulfur-resistant catalyst. Final report. [Iridium-promoted nickel catalysts supported or aluminium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, B. J.; McCarty, J. G.; Sheridan, D.; Ablow, C. M.; Wise, H.

    1980-10-24

    The results of this study demonstrate that the Ir-promoted Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst possesses several valuable and superior characteristics when used for catalytic methanation under typical industrial conditions. These properties include: higher activity by a factor of > 2 than that of the unpromoted Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst; enhanced resistance to deactivation by hydrogen sulfide during exposure to contaminated feedstock, as manifested by the prolonged high methanation activity and extended service lifetime; and high resistance to carbon fouling.

  20. EIS-0429: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Indiana Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Rockport, IN

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a coal-to-substitute natural gas facility proposed to be built in Rockport, IN by Indiana Gasification. The facility would utilize Illinois Basin coal. Other products would be marketable sulfuric acid, argon, and electric power. This project is inactive.

  1. Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. This report briefly introduces the IGCC process, the gasification process, and the main types and operating conditions of entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants. This report also discusses the effects of coal ash and slag properties on slag flow and its qualities required for the entrained flow gasifier. Finally this report will identify the key operating conditions affecting slag flow behaviors, including temperature, oxygen/coal ratio, and flux agents.

  2. International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy, 2012, 1, 1-11

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy, 2012, 1, 1-11 Published Online March 2012 ... by separating and capturing CO 2 from coal combustion and gasification plants and se- ...

  3. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  4. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the ...

  5. Supercritical Pulverized Coal and Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of COE, plant HHV efficiency, cost of CO 2 captured, and CO 2 capture rate with design emission levels for SC PC cases ......

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 23rd quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR`s Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (i) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (ii) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (iii) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a ``workstation`` environment.

  7. New Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasification Facilities | Department of Energy Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal Gasification Facilities New Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal Gasification Facilities July 27, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- Four projects that will demonstrate an innovative technology that could eventually enhance hydrogen fuel production, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve efficiencies and lower consumer

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  9. Steam gasification of carbon: Catalyst properties. Final report, September 15, 1988--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falconer, J.L.

    1993-01-10

    Coal gasification by steam is of critical importance in converting coal to gaseous products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) that can then be further converted to synthetic natural gas and higher hydrocarbon fuels. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (present as oxides) catalyze coal gasification reactions and cause them to occur at significantly lower temperatures. A more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the steam gasification reaction and catalyst utilization may well lead to better production techniques, increased gasification rates, greater yields, and less waste. We are studying the gasification of carbon by steam in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth oxides, using carbonates as the starting materials. Carbon dioxide gasification (CO{sub 2} + C --> 2CO) has been studied in some detail recently, but much less has been done on the actual steam gasification reaction, which is the main thrust of our work. In particular, the form of the active catalyst compound during reaction is still questioned and the dependence of the concentration of active sites on reaction parameters is not known. Until recently, no measurements of active site concentrations during reaction had been made. We have recently used transient isotope tracing to determine active site concentration during CO{sub 2} gasification. We are investigating the mechanism and the concentration of active sites for steam gasification with transient isotopic tracing. For this technique, the reactant feed is switched from H{sub 2}0 to isotopically-labeled water at the same concentration and tow rate. We can then directly measure, at reaction the concentration of active catalytic sites, their kinetic rate constants, and the presence of more than one rate constant. This procedure allows us to obtain transient kinetic data without perturbing the steady-state surface reactions.

  10. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  11. Slag-Refractory Interaction in Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Matyas, Josef; Fluegel, Alexander; Cooley, Scott K.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Edmondson, Autumn B.

    2007-10-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has taken an integrated approach to address major technical issues in conversion of coal into clean-burning liquid fuel. The approach includes: 1) modeling of gasifier and slag flow, 2) experimental characterization of slag viscoelastic behavior as a function of temperature for representative slags and refractory-slag interactions, and 3) interplay of the modeling and experimental measurements to identify critical conditions beyond which refractory corrosion tends to increase sharply. Basic heat and mass balances were considered in the gasifier and flow models. Two new refractory spalling models were developed. An experimental design that encompassed the broad range of slag chemistries that were of interest to coal gasification was developed and implemented. Selected gasifier refractories were tested in a simulated gasifier environment in our laboratory to identify refractory degradation mechanisms. Preliminary results of the effort are summarized.

  12. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  13. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Gasification Systems Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Publications Table of Contents National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Reports Patents Program Presentations Solicitations Technical Presentations & Papers New program direction concepts are described in a 3-pager Radically Engineered Modular Systems Presentation 2013 Program Plan Technology Readiness Assessment (Comprehensive Report | Overview Report) Video, Images & Photos Closely Aligned Carbon Capture & Storage and Power

  15. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  16. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  17. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  18. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  19. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are considered individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.

  20. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are consideredmore » individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.« less

  1. Use of low-rank coals in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D.; Rath, L.K.; Loh, H.P.; Reed, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the possible use of low rank coals in advanced power generation systems similar to those being demonstrated under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The results of the studies made on integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion using low rank coal and the implications of some future process enhancements are also discussed.

  2. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  6. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  7. DOE's Coal Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... The NCCC is a one of a kind, world class facility which offers an opportunity to validate capture technologies on actual gas from a coal-fired power plant or gasification facility. ...

  8. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  9. Estimation of Coal Reserves for UCG in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bialecka, Barbara

    2008-03-15

    One of the prospective methods of coal utilization, especially in case of coal resources which are not mineable by means of conventional methods, is underground coal gasification (UCG). This technology allows recovery of coal energy 'in situ' and thus avoid the health and safety risks related to people which are inseparable from traditional coal extraction techniques.In Poland most mining areas are characterized by numerous coal beds where extraction was ceased on account of technical and economic reasons or safety issues. This article presents estimates of Polish hard coal resources, broken down into individual mines, that can constitute the basis of raw materials for the gasification process. Five mines, representing more than 4 thousand tons, appear to be UCG candidates.

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  12. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  13. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  14. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... However, properly designing new pressurized combustion burners and boilers requires accurate data on coal devolatilization and combustion rates under these conditions. Similarly, ...

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  16. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  17. The U.S. Department of Energy`s integrated gasification combined cycle research, development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brdar, R.D.; Cicero, D.C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, coal has played a major role as a fuel source for power generation both domestically and abroad. Despite increasingly stringent environmental constraints and affordable natural gas, coal will remain one of the primary fuels for producing electricity. This is due to its abundance throughout the world, low price, ease of transport an export, decreasing capital cost for coal-based systems, and the need to maintain fuel diversity. Recognizing the role coal will continue to play, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is working in partnership with industry to develop ways to use this abundant fuel resource in a manner that is more economical, more efficient and environmentally superior to conventional means to burn coal. The most promising of these technologies is integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Although IGCC systems offer many advantages, there are still several hurdles that must be overcome before the technology achieves widespread commercial acceptance. The major hurdles to commercialization include reducing capital and operating costs, reducing technical risk, demonstrating environmental and technical performance at commercial scale, and demonstrating system reliability and operability. Overcoming these hurdles, as well as continued progress in improving system efficiency, are the goals of the DOE IGCC research, development and demonstrate (RD and D) program. This paper provides an overview of this integrated RD and D program and describes fundamental areas of technology development, key research projects and their related demonstration scale activities.

  18. First results, problems of French deep gasification program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaussens, P.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a technology for the gasification of deep coal reserves that are technically and economically not exploitable by classic mining methods was investigated. The principal problem is the very low permeability of the deep coal which makes it necessary to create an artificial connection between the injection and production wells which is done of hydrofracturing method. The possibilities of an electrical connection are studied. Difficulties related to the spontaneous ignition of the coal and the creation of a backward combustion are revealed. Exploration of the factors that might limit the quality of the gas produced or the quantity of coal extracted by doublet is suggested which should lead to obtaining criteria for site selection. Knowledge of the natural conditions of a site is essential for the decision and the selection of the operating method. The characterization can be obtained by using exploration methods such as coring, logging, surface geophysics.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  20. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  2. Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-04-01

    This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

  3. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    used in a reburning process. Computer simulations for coal: LB blends were performed by modifying an existing computer code to include the drying and phosphorus (P) oxidation models. The gasification studies revealed that there is bed agglomeration in the case of chicken litter biomass due to its higher alkaline oxide content in the ash. Finally, the results of the economic analysis show that considerable fuel cost savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings is reduced.

  4. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  6. Pioneering Gasification Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In the 1800s, lamplighters made their rounds in the streets of many of America's largest cities lighting street lights fueled by "town gas," frequently the product of early forms of coal...

  7. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

    2012-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel

  8. Revised data book for evaluation of combustion and gasification models: Final report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, K.R.; Rasband, M.W.; Smoot, L.D.

    1987-10-01

    During the previous contract (DE-AC21-81MC16518) a major task was to identify, collect and publish detailed experimental data for evaluation of comprehensive gasification/combustion codes. A review of the literature was completed and prospective data were identified for inclusion in this data book in five categories of increasing complexity: (1) non-reacting, gaseous flows (58 cases); (2) non-reacting, particle-laden flows (43 cases); (3) gaseous combustion (34 cases); (4) pulverized coal combustion (57 cases); (5) entrained coal gasification (6 cases). Selection of these data was based on a set of criteria which included data completeness, availability of detailed, digital profiles for several properties (e.g., species concentrations, velocity, temperature) and data accuracy. From these 198 cases, which were referenced in the final report (Vol. III), the data base was reduced to a total of 35 sets of data from 8 laboratories, with at least 3 cases in each category above. For these 35 cases, the measured data, together with geometrical dimensions and test conditions were documented in a uniform tabular format. These data were also stored on a magnetic tape for distribution. During this follow-on contract (DE-AC21-85MC22059), the accuracy of the data was checked and several additional corrections were made. The format for reporting the data (Appendix B) was simplified. Also, a review of additional data sets available from the Combustion Laboratory and other sources was completed. In all, 213 cases from 52 investigators at 18 laboratories were considered and 37 cases are included in this data book from 22 different investigations at 8 independent laboratories. 81 refs.

  9. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the

  11. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  13. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  14. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon Kramer

    2003-09-01

    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for

  15. Gasification Systems 2013 Project Selections

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy in 2013 selected ten projects that will focus on reducing the cost of gasification with carbon capture for producing electric power, fuels, and chemicals. The projects will...

  16. Viscosity measurements and empirical predictions for coal slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S K; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Arrigoni, Benjamin M

    2009-10-25

    Slag viscosity in slagging coal gasifier is an important factor affecting the gasification regime and operating cost. Most of the empirical viscosity models of coal slags that are available in the literature are applicable to only limited ranges of temperature and composition. To develop a reliable slag viscosity model, additional data are needed. Slag viscosity was measured under air or reducing atmosphere (calculated pO2~1.2 10-12 atm at 1400°C) at temperatures in the range of 1150-1550°C on 63 statistically designed slags, including 5 actual coal slag compositions and 4 validation slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation, with Arrhenius coefficients A = constant and B expressed as linear function of mass fractions of nine major components was used to fit the viscosity/temperature data. This Arrhenius relationship represents the viscosity–temperature relationship of tested slags reasonably well, = 0.981 (reducing atmosphere) and = 0.974 (air atmosphere). The validation of the model with four randomly selected slags (two from the SciGlass database and two from experimental design) indicated an accurately measured viscosity-temperature data and a fairly good predictive performance of slag viscosity models over designed compositions. The capability of the developed model to predict the viscosity of coal slags under reducing atmosphere was found to be a superior to a number of the most commonly used empirical models in the literature that are based on simplified oxide melts and British or Australian coal ash slags.

  17. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant

  18. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  19. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  20. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal liquefaction pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects discussed are: coking and gasification of liquefaction plant residues, filtration of coal liquids and refining of coal liquids by hydrogenation. (LTN)

  1. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  2. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  3. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and

  4. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  5. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  6. Programmed temperature gasification study. Final report, October 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spoon, M.J.; Gardner, M.P.; Starkovich, J.A.; Fein, H.L.; Apte, A.J.

    1980-11-30

    An experimental, modeling and conceptual engineering analysis study has been performed to assess the feasibility of TRW's Programmed Temperature Gasification (PTG) concept for carbonizing caking coals without severe agglomeration. The concept involves control of carbonizing heating rate to maintain metaplast concentration at a level equal to or slightly below that which causes agglomeration. The experimental studies required the contruction of a novel programmed temperature, elevated pressure, hot stage video microscope for observation of coal particle changes during heating. This system was used to develop a minimum-time heating schedule capable of carbonizing the coal at elevated pressures in the presence of hydrogen without severe agglomeration. Isothermal fixed heating rate data for a series of coals were subsequently used to calibrate and verify the mathematical model for the PTG process. These results showed good correlation between experimental data and mathematical predictions. Commercial application of the PTG concept to batch, moving bed and fluid bed processing schemes was then evaluated. Based on the calibrated model programmed temperature gasification of the coal without severe agglomeration could be carried out on a commercial batch reaction in 4 to 12 minutes. The next step in development of the PTG concept for commercial application would require testing on a bench scale (3-inch diameter) gasifier coupled with a full commercial assessment to determine size and cost of various gasification units.

  7. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  8. (Performance evaluation of fabric bug filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-15

    The objective of this proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  9. Treasury, Energy Departments Release New Advanced Coal Project Tax Credit Applications for 2007-2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - The Treasury Department and the Department of Energy (DOE) released today new instructions for applying for the tax credits for advanced coal projects and gasification projects. ...

  10. June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-15

    Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

  11. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  12. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  13. Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Gasification Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification Photo of a man standing near a pilot-scale gasification system. Biomass gasification is a mature technology pathway that uses a controlled process involving heat, steam, and oxygen to convert biomass to hydrogen and other products, without combustion. Because growing biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the net carbon emissions of this method can be low, especially if coupled with carbon capture, utilization, and

  14. Current Gasification Research | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    improvements in efficiency, fuel flexibility, economics and environmental sustainability. Fuel flexibility is especially important. Tomorrow's gasification plants conceivably could...

  15. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  16. An Integrated Approach to Coal Gasifier Testing, Modeling, and Process Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Matyas, Josef; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Korolev, Vladimir N.

    2009-10-01

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is performing multidisciplinary research to provide the experimental data and the engineering models needed to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. Our experimental program includes prediction of slag viscosity using empirical viscosity models encompassing US coals, characterization of selected slag-refractory interaction including transport of slag/refractory components at the slag-refractory interface, and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the operating temperature limits for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also being developed to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. Combining the slag flow, refractory degradation, and gasifier models will provide a powerful tool to predict the coal and oxidant feed rates and control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. A research scale gasifier has also been constructed at PNNL to provide syngas for coal conversion and carbon sequestration research, and also valuable datasets on operating conditions for validating the modeling results.

  17. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  18. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  19. The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R.J.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

  20. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  1. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plants for methanol and higher alcohols production, and ethers such as MTBE. Research and development work has concentrated on elucidating the fundamental transport and kinetic limitations governing various reactor configurations. But of equal or greater importance has been investigations into the optimal catalyst composition and process conditions for the production of various oxygenates.

  2. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  3. CFD modeling of entrained-flow coal gasifiers with improved physical and chemical sub-models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. While the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside entrained-flow gasifiers has been modeled through computational fluid dynamic (CFD), the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented here include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate, a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and heating rate effect on volatile yield, and careful selection of global gas phase reaction kinetics. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for systemwide design and optimization.

  4. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  5. Gasification of carbonaceous solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L.

    1976-10-26

    A process and apparatus for converting coal and other carbonaceous solids to an intermediate heating value fuel gas or to a synthesis gas. A stream of entrained pulverized coal is fed into the combustion stage of a three-stage gasifier along with a mixture of oxygen and steam at selected pressure and temperature. The products of the combustion stage pass into the second or quench stage where they are partially cooled and further reacted with water and/or steam. Ash is solidified into small particles and the formation of soot is suppressed by water/steam injections in the quench stage. The design of the quench stage prevents slag from solidifying on the walls. The products from the quench stage pass directly into a heat recovery stage where the products pass through the tube, or tubes, of a single-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger and steam is generated on the shell side and utilized for steam feed requirements of the process.

  6. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rounding. Bituminous and Lignite Total includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, and Anthracite Total includes Pennsylvania anthracite. The States in...

  8. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  9. [Toxicity studies of mild gasification products]. [Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner method of coal use can help meet future energy needs. As the technology develops and its commercial use becomes a more viable possibility, efforts are being made to study the safety or possible toxicity of the mild gasification products. DOE and the National Institute for occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are cooperating through an interagency agreement to examine some of these products for their genotoxic potential. NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of several mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. As reported earlier PSIS{number_sign}830331 failed to demonstrate genotoxic activity in the Ames assay under all conditions tested. Since the mild gasification products are complex mixtures, interactions between various components are likely to occur. Such interactions between various components of complex mixtures may increase or decrease genotoxic activity in short-term assays like the Ames test. Although all synergistic interactions may not be detailed, the separate analysis of those components in several classes provides a more accurate view of the genotoxicity of each component and better allows for chemical characterization of the possible mutagens in the mixture. NIOSH has performed mutagenicity studies on the subfractions of PSIS{number_sign}830331. The results of those studies are detailed in this report.

  10. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter Y.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. Here, we measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. We made all measurements in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. Finally, an understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  11. Method and system for controlling a gasification or partial oxidation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rozelle, Peter L; Der, Victor K

    2015-02-10

    A method and system for controlling a fuel gasification system includes optimizing a conversion of solid components in the fuel to gaseous fuel components, controlling the flux of solids entrained in the product gas through equipment downstream of the gasifier, and maximizing the overall efficiencies of processes utilizing gasification. A combination of models, when utilized together, can be integrated with existing plant control systems and operating procedures and employed to develop new control systems and operating procedures. Such an approach is further applicable to gasification systems that utilize both dry feed and slurry feed.

  12. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  13. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  14. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water

  15. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  17. Overview of Contaminant Removal From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Alvin, M.A.; Granite, E.; Pennline, H.W.; Siriwardane, R.V.; Keairns, D.; Newby, R.A.

    2007-11-01

    Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. DOE envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next 20 years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program, including the FutureGen initiative, will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal, with respect to multiple pollutants, such as sulfur, mercury, and nitrogen oxides. Since nearly one-third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are produced by coal-powered generation facilities, conventional coal-burning power plants, and advanced power generation plants, such as IGCC, present opportunities in which carbon can be removed and then permanently stored.
    Gas cleaning systems for IGCC power generation facilities have been effectively demonstrated and used in commercial operations for many years. These systems can reduce sulfur, mercury, and other contaminants in synthesis gas produced by gasifiers to the lowest level achievable in coal-based energy systems. Currently, DOE Fossil Energy's goals set for 2010 direct completion of R&D for advanced gasification combined cycle technology to produce electricity from coal at 4550% plant efficiency. By 2012, completion of R&D to integrate this technology with carbon dioxide separation, capture, and sequestration into a zero-emissions configuration is targeted with a goal to provide electricity with less than a 10% increase in cost of electricity. By 2020, goals are set to develop zero-emissions plants that are fuel-flexible and capable of multi-product output and thermal efficiencies of over 60% with coal. These objectives dictate that it is essential to not only reduce contaminant emissions into the generated synthesis gas, but also to increase the process or system operating temperature to that of humid gas cleaning criteria conditions (150 to 370 C), thus reducing the energy penalties that currently exist as a result of lowering process temperatures (?40 to 38 C) with

  18. A 50-month gasifier mechanistic study and downstream unit process development program for the pressurized ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haldipur, G.B.; Schmidt, D.K.; Smith, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    This technology development program scope included studies of those processes and components necessary to convert coal, oxidant and steam into a clean fuel gas. The configuration of the processes and components constitutes a Gasifier Island which is a key concept in the application of the KRW gasification and cleanup technologies. This Gasifier Island typically consists of process units that perform the following functions: feedstock preparation, gasification, desulfurization, heat recovery, particulate removal, and solid waste treatment. The processing has been conducted in a variety of gasifier operating modes including air-blown and oxygen-blown, both with and without in-bed desulfurization which includes injection of limestone or dolomite sorbent. Process configurations downstream of the gasifier have included recycle and non-recycle cyclones, sintered filters, and zinc ferrite fixed beds. Because of the developmental nature of the KRW technology program and the flexibility of the pilot plant itself, a wide range of gasifier-cleanup process configurations has been investigated. The KRW pilot plant program evaluated a system comprised of the following major process elements: gasifier and in-bed desulfurizer, particulate cleanup train, external sulfur polishing bed, and solid waste disposal system.

  19. Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  20. Validation of the materials-process-product model (coal SNG). [Estimating method for comparing processes, changing assumptions and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albanese, A.; Bhagat, N.; Friend, L.; Lamontagne, J.; Pouder, R.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-03-01

    The use of coal as a source of high Btu gas is currently viewed as one possible means of supplementing dwindling natural gas supplies. While certain coal gasification processes have demonstrated technical feasibility, much uncertainty and inconsistency remains regarding the capital and operating costs of large scale coal conversion facilities; cost estimates may vary by as much as 50%. Studies conducted for the American Gas Association (AGA) and US Energy Research and Development Administration by C.F. Braun and Co. have defined technical specifications and cost guidelines for estimating costs of coal gasification technologies (AGA Guidelines). Based on the AGA Guidelines, Braun has also prepared cost estimates for selected coal gasification processes. Recent efforts by International Research and Technology Inc. (IR and T) have led to development of the Materials-Process-Product Model (MPPM), a comprehensive anaytic tool for evaluation of processes and costs for coal gasification and other coal conversion technologies. This validation of the MPPM presents a comparison of engineering and cost computation methodologies employed in the MPPM to those employed by Braun and comparison of MPPM results to Braun cost estimates. These comparisons indicate that the MPPM has the potential to be a valuable tool for assisting in the evaluation of coal gasification technologies.

  1. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  2. EIS-0412: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont, TX EIS-0412: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont, TX February 18, 2009 EIS-0412: ...

  3. Advanced Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc ABGT | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc ABGT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Biomass Gasification Technologies Inc. (ABGT) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10036 Product:...

  4. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  5. CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here

  6. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  7. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  8. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    electricity computed for the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry cases is greater for both PRB and ND Lignite coals. It does not appear that there is any benefit to using liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries for feeding low rank coals to the E-Gas™ gasifier. Any incidental benefits in improved cold gas efficiency are more than compensated for in higher overall plant costs, increased complexity, and reduced power output and efficiency. The results of the study are compared with previous published analyses, and the differences in model assumptions, approach and basis are summarized. It has been concluded that the use of liquid CO{sub 2} may still prove to have a significant advantage in a different type of gasifier, i.e., single-stage entrained flow with radiant quench section, but some key questions remain unanswered that can validate the potential improvement of gasifier performance using liquid CO{sub 2} slurries. In order to provide a path to answering these questions, a technology development roadmap has been developed to resolve fundamental issues and to better define the operation aspects of using liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries. The fundamental issues could be resolved by conducting additional laboratory analyses consisting of: • A rheological test program to quantitatively evaluate slurry preparation and handling for liquid CO{sub 2} including experiments to evaluate preparation systems. • An experimental program on CO{sub 2}-assisted gasification in order to obtain the most relevant experimental data from drop tube furnace studies to aid in verifying the potential advantages of direct feed of liquid CO{sub 2}/coal as gasifier feedstocks. Quantifying the operational aspects of liquid CO{sub 2} slurries can best be achieved with: • An experimental program using a flow test loop to evaluate equipment performance and handling properties of liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurries for gasifier feedstocks on a scale sufficient to predict full scale operating parameters. • Spray

  9. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  11. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  12. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  13. Seca Coal-Based Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Alinger

    2008-05-31

    This report summarizes the progress made during the August 1, 2006 - May 31, 2008 award period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled 'SECA Coal Based Systems'. The initial overall objective of this program was to design, develop, and demonstrate multi-MW integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants with >50% overall efficiency from coal (HHV) to AC power. The focus of the program was to develop low-cost, high performance, modular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to support coal gas IGFC power systems. After a detailed GE internal review of the SOFC technology, the program was de-scoped at GE's request. The primary objective of this program was then focused on developing a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). There were two initial major objectives in this program. These were: (1) Develop and optimize a design of a >100 MWe integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plant; (2) Resolve identified barrier issues concerning the long-term economic performance of SOFC. The program focused on designing and cost estimating the IGFC system and resolving technical and economic barrier issues relating to SOFC. In doing so, manufacturing options for SOFC cells were evaluated, options for constructing stacks based upon various cell configurations identified, and key performance characteristics were identified. Key factors affecting SOFC performance degradation for cells in contact with metallic interconnects were be studied and a fundamental understanding of associated mechanisms was developed using a fixed materials set. Experiments and modeling were carried out to identify key processes/steps affecting cell performance degradation under SOFC operating conditions. Interfacial microstructural and elemental changes were characterized, and their relationships to observed degradation

  14. Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    1998-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

  15. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathe, Mandar; Xu, Dikai; Hsieh, Tien-Lin; Simpson, James; Statnick, Robert; Tong, Andrew; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  16. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  17. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Includes Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean ... Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers CCPI-1 Wisconsin ...

  18. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  19. Clean Coal Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of harmful pollutants from coal, including mercury, sulfur and coal tars. References: Clean Coal Technologies1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  20. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  1. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  3. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  4. [Performance evaluation of fabric bug filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier]. Quarterly technical progress report, December 30, 1985--March 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-15

    The objective of this proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  5. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorbaty, Martin L.; Taunton, John W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

  6. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Raul Subia; Arnaldo Frydman; Parag Kulkarni; Jennifer Schwerman; Valadimir Zamansky; John Reinker; Kanchan Mondal; Lubor Stonawski; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2005-02-28

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy technology for coal gasification with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into three separate streams of hydrogen-rich gas, sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in gas turbines. This is the draft final report for the first stage of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program. The UFP technology development program encompassed lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP concept. Modeling and economic assessments were also key parts of this program. The chemical and mechanical feasibility were established via lab and bench-scale testing, and a pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated, demonstrating the major UFP features. Experimental and preliminary modeling results showed that 80% H{sub 2} purity could be achieved, and that a UFP-based energy plant is projected to meet DOE efficiency targets. Future work will include additional pilot plant testing to optimize performance and reduce environmental, operability and combined cycle integration risks. Results obtained to date have confirmed that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  7. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  8. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  9. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  10. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  11. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  13. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  14. Industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the best available conditions, in terms of market volumes and prices, for the products from a mild gasification facility. A process feasibility study will then have to determine the cost of building and operating a facility to make those products. The study is presented as a summary of the options available to a coal producer for creating added product value. For this reason, three specific coal mines owned by AMAX Inc. were chosen, and the options were analyzed from the viewpoint of increasing the total revenue derived from those coals. No specific mild gasification, or mild devolatilization technology was assumed during the assessment. The analysis considers only product prices, volumes, and specifications. It does not assign any intangible value or national benefit to substituting coal for oil or to producing a cleaner fuel. Although it would be desirable to conceive of a product slate which would be immune from energy price fluctuations, such a goal is probably unattainable and no particular emphasis was placed on it. 76 figs., 75 tabs.

  15. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  16. Materials for coal gasification. Effect of environment on stress rupture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The biaxial stress rupture behavior for two of the alloys, Type 310 stainless steel and Haynes 188, is shown in figures. The other two alloys show similar behavior. The rupture parameter, P, is an empirical quantity which reflects the simultaneous effects of both temperature and duration of applied stress on stress rupture. Based on these results, several trends are apparent: (1) the biaxial stress rupture tests show the same trends and approximately the same stress rupture values as uniaxial data obtained from the literature for each alloy tested; (2) only for the Haynes 188 may the stress rupture strength/life in CGA have been significantly less than in air. But further testing has indicated there is probably no reduction of biaxial stress rupture strength/life in CGA even for this alloy; (3) the biaxial strain at rupture was small, typically only a few percent. It is appropriate to mention that in the uniaxial stress rupture testing at SwRI, exposure to CGA generally resulted in a shorter rupture life than with testing in air. No explanation is yet available for the observed difference in behavior between SwRI and INEL test specimens.

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test. Authors: Schwartz, Joseph 1 ; Porter, Jason 2 ; Patki, Neil 2 ; ...

  18. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  19. An integrated approach to coal gasifier testing, modeling, and process optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.K. Sundaram; K.I. Johnson; J. Matyas; R.E. Williford; S.P. Pilli; V.N. Korolev

    2009-09-15

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean-burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. This paper describes an integrated approach to provide the experimental data and engineering models needed to better understand how to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. The experimental program includes slag viscosity testing and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the limits on operating temperature for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also described to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. The goal of this experimental and model program is to predict coal and oxidant feed rates and to control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via ...

  1. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  2. Economics of coal fines utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  3. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  4. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability of the process model.

  5. Photolysis and radiant flash pyrolysis of coal-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worman, J.J.; Worman, J.J.; Hawthorne, S.B.; Sears, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    It is attractive to think that coal-derived wastes could be converted to useful fuels by irradiation with solar energy. This would eliminate energy-intensive steps in the processing of coal gasification condensate water as well as provide an inexpensive alternate source of energy. Environmental concerns for the distribution of contaminants from biosludge would be minimized. This paper demonstrates that coal gasification condensate water in the presence of photoconductors and varying wavelengths of light can produce useful fuels in addition to lowering the total organic carbon content. Biosludge obtained from the processing of the condensate water can be irradiated in the solid state with a high-intensity xenon flash to give fuel-type products as identified by GC/MS. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  7. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  8. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  9. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  10. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A.; Harrison, C.D.; Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  11. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  12. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  15. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  16. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  17. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  18. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  19. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  20. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MATERIALS; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; DIAGRAMS; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GASIFICATION; GREAT LAKES REGION; HALOGENS; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS; METALS; ...

  1. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biomass Gasification DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass gasification. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Biomass Gasification/Pyrolysis

  2. Thermochemical Conversion Research and Development: Gasification and Pyrolysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis research and development activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  4. EIS-0412: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TX | Department of Energy 2: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont, TX EIS-0412: TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility Near Beaumont, TX February 18, 2009 EIS-0412: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Construction of the TX Energy, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility near Beaumont, Texas

  5. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  6. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  7. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  8. DKRW Advanced Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels LLC Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056 Product: Focues on projects that utilise coal gasification technology, including coal-to-liquids, methanation, and integrated coal...

  9. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  10. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S.

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  12. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  13. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability ofmore » the process model.« less

  14. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator

  15. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  16. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  17. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  18. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  20. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.