National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for include space heating

  1. Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  11. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12 1 18 (*) 2 1 Q 6 Buildings without Cooling ... 30 1 (*) 4 (*) 14 (*) 4 (*) 1 6 Water-Heating Energy Source Electricity ... 402 21 57 42...

  14. Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Space Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarSpaceHeat&oldid...

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cooling ... 96.7 33.7 8.1 6.6 7.5 20.2 2.9 5.8 1.1 2.4 8.4 Buildings with Water Heating ..... 98.0 34.7 7.8 6.6 8.0 20.1 3.0 5.8 1.1 2.4 8.5 Note: Due to rounding,...

  16. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  17. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  18. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  19. Passive Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Solar Space Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePassiv...

  20. Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  1. Solar space heating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar space heating Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of solar space heating technology.)1...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (million gallons) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (gallonssquare foot) Energy-Related Space Functions (more than one may apply) Commercial Food Preparation.... 860 720 87 Q 41...

  3. Solar space heating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar space heating (Redirected from - Solar Ventilation Preheat) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's...

  4. Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "District Chilled Water ......",50,49,23,4,"Q",39,"Q","Q" "Water-Heating Energy Sources" "(more than one may apply)" "Electricity ......",1546,1465...

  5. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Glossary--Space-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space-Heating Equipment Glossary-Space-Heating Equipment Boiler: A type of space-heating equipment consisting of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such...

  6. Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Ouray, Colorado Coordinates...

  7. Hi-Tech Fisheries Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hi-Tech Fisheries Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hi-Tech Fisheries...

  8. Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Agua...

  9. Canon City Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canon City Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Canon City Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Canon...

  10. Klamath County Shops Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shops Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath County Shops Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath...

  11. Hunters Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunters Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunters...

  12. Modoc High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Modoc High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Modoc...

  13. Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Medical...

  14. Corral Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Corral Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Corral Sector Geothermal energy...

  15. The Wilderness Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name The Wilderness Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility The Wilderness...

  16. Boulder Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boulder Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Boulder Hot...

  17. Manley Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Manley Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Manley Hot Springs...

  18. Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  19. Circle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Circle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Circle Hot Springs...

  20. Klamath Schools (7) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schools (7) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Schools (7) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  1. Health Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Health Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Glenwood Springs Health...

  2. Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Desert Hot...

  3. Vale Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vale Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Vale...

  4. Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin...

  5. Lava Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lava Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lava Hot Springs...

  6. Hot Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Sulphur...

  7. Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  8. Klamath Residence (500) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residence (500) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Residence (500) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low...

  10. Van Norman Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Norman Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Van Norman Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Cottonwood Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cottonwood Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  12. Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low...

  13. Stroppel Hotel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Stroppel Hotel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Stroppel Hotel Sector...

  14. Tecopa Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tecopa Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Tecopa Hot Springs...

  15. Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Walley's...

  16. Vale Slaughter House Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Slaughter House Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vale Slaughter House Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  17. Arrowhead Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Arrowhead Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  18. Box Canyon Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canyon Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Box Canyon Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Box...

  19. Melozi Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Melozi Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Melozi Sector Geothermal energy...

  20. Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fairmont...

  1. Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low...

  2. Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature...

  3. Lolo Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lolo Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lolo Hot...

  4. Henley High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Henley High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Henley High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  5. Vichy Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vichy Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Vichy Hot Springs...

  6. Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Buckhorn...

  7. Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  8. Baranof Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Baranof Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Baranof Sector Geothermal...

  9. Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  10. White Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name White Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  11. Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Waunita Hot...

  12. Twin Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin Springs...

  13. Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  14. Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  15. Olene Gap Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Olene Gap Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Olene Gap Sector Geothermal...

  16. Homestead Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Homestead Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Homestead...

  17. Chico Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chico Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chico Hot Springs...

  18. Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bell Island Sector...

  19. Mount Princeton Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mount Princeton Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Mount...

  20. LDS Wardhouse Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wardhouse Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name LDS Wardhouse Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility LDS Wardhouse...

  1. Reno-Moana Area (300) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reno-Moana Area (300) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Reno-Moana Area (300) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Saratoga Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Saratoga Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Saratoga...

  3. Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  4. Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  5. Indian Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Indian Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Indian...

  6. Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  7. Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ft Bidwell...

  8. Breitenbush Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Breitenbush Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  9. Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bozeman Hot...

  10. Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  12. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Langel Valley Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Langel Valley Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Langel Valley Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Langel...

  14. LDS Church Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LDS Church Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name LDS Church Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility LDS Church...

  15. Klamath County Jail Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jail Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath County Jail Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath...

  16. Jemez Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jemez Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jemez Springs Sector...

  17. YMCA Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    YMCA Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name YMCA Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility YMCA Sector Geothermal...

  18. Utah State Prison Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prison Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Utah State Prison Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Utah State...

  19. Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  20. Surprise Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surprise Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Surprise Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  1. Del Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Del Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  2. Miracle Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot...

  3. St. Mary's Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name St. Mary's Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility St....

  4. Cotulla High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cotulla High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cotulla High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  5. Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  6. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  7. Miracle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot...

  8. Marlin Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marlin Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Marlin Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Marlin...

  9. Radium Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Radium Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Radium Hot Springs...

  10. Summer Lake Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Summer Lake Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Summer Lake...

  11. Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Banbury Hot...

  12. Peppermill Hotel Casino Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peppermill Hotel Casino Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Peppermill Hotel Casino Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  14. Indian Springs School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Indian Springs School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Indian...

  15. Geronimo Springs Museum Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geronimo Springs Museum Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geronimo Springs Museum Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  16. Ophir Creek Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ophir Creek Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ophir Creek Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ophir Creek...

  17. Burgdorf Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Burgdorf Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Burgdorf Hot...

  18. Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  19. List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 282 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 282) Incentive Incentive Type...

  20. Hot Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Lake...

  1. Jackson Well Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Well Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson Well...

  2. Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson...

  3. Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (13) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Klamath Falls, Oregon...

  4. Klamath Churches (5) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Churches (5) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Churches (5) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  5. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 01, 2013 Planned end date: February 28, 2015 Key Milestones: 1. Cycle & System Design: 12/31/2014 2. Breadboard Test Results: 06/30/2014 3. Packaged Prototype Results: 02/28/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $305,396 Total future DOE $: $597,474 Target

  6. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 01, 2013 Planned end date: August 31, 2015 Key Milestones: 1. Cycle & System Design: 12/31/2014 2. Breadboard Test Results: 12/31/2014 3. Packaged Prototype Results: 04/01/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $629,730 Total future DOE $: $273,140 Target

  7. Miniature heat pumps for portable and distributed space conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drost, M.K.; Friedrich, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a miniature absorption heat pump for a range of microclimate control applications, including manportable cooling and distributed space conditioning. The miniature absorption heat pump will be sized to provide 350 W cooling, will have dimensions of 9 cm x 9 cm x 6 cm, and will weigh approximately 0.65 kg. Compared to a macroscale absorption heat pump, this represents reduction in volume by a factor of 60. A complete manportable cooling system including the heat pump, an air-cooled heat exchanger, batteries, and fuel is estimated to weight between 4 and 5 kg, compared to the 10 kg weight of alternative systems. Size and weight reductions are obtained by developing a device that can simultaneously take advantage of the high heat and mass transfer rates attainable in microscale structures while being large enough to allow electric powered pumping.

  8. East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space...

  9. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating Systems Heat Pump Systems Supporting Equipment for

  10. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/activesteve/5259747234/">Flickr user ActiveSteve</a>. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space

  11. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Applications | Department of Energy Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed PDF icon fluerial.pdf More Documents &

  12. Schutz's Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Technology's Geo-Heat Center Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSchutz%27sHotSpringSpaceHeatingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility&oldid305547" ...

  13. List of Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 512 Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-512) Incentive Incentive Type...

  14. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's Nov. 30, 2010, presentation about passive solar building design, and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications. It's one in a series of Webinars to support state and local projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for

  15. Low Temperature Direct Use Space Heating Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":8...

  16. Avila Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Facility Avila Hot Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location San Luis Obispo, California Coordinates 35.2827524, -120.6596156 Show Map Loading...

  17. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Lead Performer: Stone Mountain Technologies - Erwin, TN Partners: -- A.O. Smith - Milwaukee, WI -- Gas Technology Institute - Des Plaines, IL DOE Funding: $903,000 Cost Share: $232,294 Project Term: 3/1/2013 - 2/28/2015 Funding Opportunity: Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies 2012

  18. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1994-10-18

    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace is described having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits. 7 figs.

  19. Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Naperville, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Burr Ridge, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

  1. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  2. City of Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  3. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  4. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  5. Heat pipe heat transport system for the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alger, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    Life issues relating to a sodium heat pipe heat transport system are described. The heat pipe system provides heat, at a temperature of 1050 K, to a 50 kWe Stirling engine/linear alternator power converter called the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC). The converter is being developed under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration program. Since corrosion of heat pipe materials in contact with sodium can impact the life of the heat pipe, a literature review of sodium corrosion processes was performed. It was found that the impurity reactions, primarily oxygen, and dissolution of alloy elements were the two corrosion process likely to be operative in the heat pipe. Approaches that are being taken to minimize these corrosion processes are discussed.

  6. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  7. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  8. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating Overview The City of Seattle was recognized as a Climate Action Champion (CAC) by The White House and the Department of Energy (DOE) in December 2014. In 2015, DOE released a Notice of Technical Assistance (NOTA) to provide CACs with additional opportunities for financial and technical assistance to support and advance their greenhouse gas emissions reduction and climate resilience objectives. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and

  9. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  10. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  11. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  13. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  14. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  15. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  16. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  17. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  18. Table HC9.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment................ 1.2 Q Q N 0.3 0.8 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.8 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.7 22.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment..................... 109.1 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.2 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It........................ 0.8 N N Q

  19. "Table HC14.4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.7,"Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,23.4,7.5,16

  20. Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: #EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: #EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up Electric Blanket vs. Space Heater: #EnergyFaceoff Round 3 Heats Up November 17, 2014 - 9:49am Q&A Which appliance do you think is more efficient? Tell Us Addthis #EnergyFaceoff heats up with round 3… Electric blanket vs. space heater. Which is more efficient? | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory #EnergyFaceoff heats up with round 3... Electric blanket vs. space

  1. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  2. Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.

  3. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort considerations and limitation of growth rates for dust mites and many bacteria. In addition it reports some corrections made to the simulation models used in order to correct some errors in the TRNSYS building model for Atlanta and in the refrigerant pressure drop calculation in the water-to-refrigerant evaporator module of the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) used for the IHP analyses. These changes resulted in some minor differences between IHP performance as reported in Baxter (2006) and in this report.

  4. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-05-01

    Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than 7 quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However these variations are mostly driven by a few influential parameters related to building design and operation. The findings provide insights for building designers, owners, operators, and energy policy makers to make better decisions on energy-efficiency technologies to reduce space-heating energy use for both new and existing buildings.

  5. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Conditioning Research Institute A directory listing air conditioning and heat pump products that meet energy performance tiers established by the Consortium for Energy...

  6. "Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Buildings with Cooling ......",58474,56361,17160,30003,2912,4392 "Buildings with Water Heating .",56115,54204,15562,29379,3085,4519 "Buildings with Cooking ......",24681,23813,7...

  7. "Table B21. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "District Chilled Water ......",2750,2739,1012,517,"Q",2279,"Q","Q" "Water-Heating Energy Sources" "(more than one may apply)" "Electricity ......",24171,230...

  8. "Table B27. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "District Chilled Water ......",2853,2734,637,605,"Q",2231,"Q","N" "Water-Heating Energy Sources" "(more than one may apply)" "Electricity ......",27490,265...

  9. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The proposed project was to take the existing geothermal greenhouse and home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive...

  10. Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 0.3 N Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 77.5 63.7 4.2 1.8 2.2 5.6 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 77.2 63.6 4.2 1.8 2.1 5.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 Q N Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel

  11. Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 Q Q Q 0.3 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 32.3 8.0 3.3 5.8 14.1 1.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 31.8 8.0 3.2 5.6 13.9 1.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.5 N Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel

  12. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and

  13. Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S. Housing Units.................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Heating Equipment..................... 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment....................... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Space Heating Equipment........................ 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Space Heating Usage During 2005

  14. Impingement heat transfer within arrays of circular jets including the effect of crossflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Ishihara, Isao; Yabe, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Keita; Kikkawa, Shinzo; Senda, Mamoru

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the heat transfer and the flow characteristics for the arrays of impingement jets taking into consideration the effect of the crossflow. In this experiment, two types of the crossflow schemes, referred to as the minimum crossflow and the maximum crossflow by the Obot et al. (1987), were examined. In the case of the maximum crossflow, the exhaust air was restricted by the side wall to leave through one side of the jet array. In the case of the minimum crossflow, the side wall was removed, and the exhaust air flowed away through all four edges of the jet array. To examine the flow pattern of the exhaust air, the flow visualization by the smoke flow was carried out. The air after impinging to the target surface was entrained into the downstream adjacent jet. The exhaust air was discharged to the outside of array through two ways: One was that the air was discharged to outside by entraining into the downstream adjacent jet. The other was that the exhaust air was discharged along the endwall surface on the mid-span of adjacent jets. The thermosensitive liquid crystal sheet was applied to measure the temperature distributions and to obtain the local heat transfer coefficients on the impingement surface. The local Nusselt number distribution for the maximum crossflow was hardly decreased in the downstream rows, although the velocity of the exhaust air increased. In the downstream row, however, the distribution of the local Nusselt number is non-circular shape because of the exhaust air. The averaged Nusselt number for the maximum crossflow was slightly lower than that in the case of minimum crossflow.

  15. "Table HC11.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q" "Have Main

  16. "Table HC12.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N" "Have Main

  17. "Table HC13.4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating

  18. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  19. Homogenous charge compression ignition engine having a cylinder including a high compression space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agama, Jorge R.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.; Clarke, John M.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogeneous charge compression engines. In these engines, fuel is injected upstream or directly into the cylinder when the power piston is relatively close to its bottom dead center position. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder as the power piston advances to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the power piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. Thus, the present invention divides the homogeneous charge between a controlled volume higher compression space and a lower compression space to better control the start of ignition.

  20. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  1. Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

    2005-09-01

    The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

  2. Revisions included in HUD Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2, 1977 edition: solar heating and domestic hot-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This addendum to a 1977 HUD publication contains revisions and additions to the existing intermediate minimum property standards supplment for solar heating and cooling systems. Building design revisions cover fire protection, penetrations, and roof coverings. Changes to guidelines for materials, such as those for thermal and ultraviolet stability and moisture resistance, are detailed. Flash points of toxic and combustive fluids, chemical and physical compatibility, and flame spread and resistance of insulation materials are also explained. Construction standards were revised for hail loads; waterproofing insulated exterior storage containers, pipes, and ducts; and for passive systems. Standards also were revised for power-operated protection, dust and dirt prevention, and chimney and vent heights. Radiation temperature, draft control, and thermal energy storage and loss standards were deleted. Other standards for insulation values for thermal devices, lighting protection, and sealing and testing air distribution systems were added. Appended materials contain revisions to calculation procedures for determining the thermal performance of active, solar space heating, and domestic hot water systems. A revised materials list for properties of typical cover materials, absorptive coatings, thermal storage unit containers, and heat-transfer liquids is provided. Revisions to acceptable engineering practice standards are also included.

  3. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance | Department of Energy Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance This presentation is included in the July 16, 2014, webinar and discusses various control strategies to improve hydronic space heating

  4. "Table HC10.4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating

  5. "Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Main Space Heating

  6. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  8. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bons, Jeffrey; Ameri, Ali

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling. The new deposition model was implemented into the CFD model as a wall boundary condition, with various particle sizes investigated in the simulation. Simulations utilizing a steady mixing plane formulation and an unsteady sliding mesh were conducted and the flow solution of each was validated against experimental data. Results from each of these simulations, including impact and capture distributions and efficiencies, were compared and potential reasons for differences discussed in detail. The inclusion of a large range of particle sizes allowed investigation of trends with particle size, such as increased radial migration and reduced sticking efficiency at the larger particle sizes. The unsteady simulation predicted lower sticking efficiencies on the rotor blades than the mixing plane simulation for the majority of particle sizes. This is postulated to be due to the preservation of the hot streak and cool vane wake through the vane-rotor interface (which are smeared out circumferentially in the mixing-plane simulation). The results reported here represent the successful implementation of a novel deposition model into validated vane-rotor flow solutions that include a non-uniform inlet temperature profile and simulated vane cooling.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a possible CO{sub 2}-laser plant included in a heat engine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisio, G.; Rubatto, G.

    1998-07-01

    In these last years, several plants have been realized in some industrialized countries to recover pressure exergy from various fluids. That has been done by means of suitable turbines in particular for blast-furnace top gas and natural gas. Various papers have examined the topic, considering pros and cons. High-power CO{sub 2}-lasers are being more and more widely used for welding, drilling and cutting in machine shops. In the near future different kinds of metal surface treatments will probably become routine practice with laser units. The industries benefiting most from high power lasers will be: the automotive industry, shipbuilding, the offshore industry, the aerospace industry, the nuclear and the chemical processing industries. Both degradation and cooling problems may be alleviated by allowing the gas to flow through the laser tube and by reducing its pressure outside this tube. Thus, a thermodynamic analysis on high-power CO{sub 2}-lasers with particular reference to a possible energy recovery is justified. In previous papers the critical examination of the concept of efficiency has led one of the present authors to the definition of an operational domain in which the process can be achieved. This domain is confined by regions of no entropy production (upper limit) and no useful effects (lower limit). On the basis of these concepts and of what has been done for pressure exergy recovery from other fluids, exergy investigations and an analysis of losses are performed for a cyclic process including a high performance CO2 laser. Thermodynamic analysis of flow processes in a CO{sub 2}-laser plant shows that the inclusion of a turbine in this plant allows us to recover the most part of the exergy necessary for the compressor; in addition, the water consumption for the refrigeration in the heat exchanger is reduced.

  10. Heat transfer of R-134a in single-tube spray evaporation including lubricant effects and enhanced surface results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Huebsch, W.W.; Pate, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Single-tube spray evaporation experimental tests were conducted in order to evaluate the average wall heat transfer coefficients for seven different commercially available tubes. Liquid film supply rates were held constant in order to evaluate the effects of the enhancement on shell-side heat transfer under similar conditions. Because the spray evaporation phenomenon is so different from pool boiling, both condensation-type and evaporation-type enhanced surfaces were evaluated. A comparison of the results for all of the tubes showed that the enhanced condensation surfaces performed better than the enhanced boiling surfaces. In addition, the 26-fpi surface tested marginally better than the 40-fpi surface. Small concentrations of a polyol-ester lubricant cause a foaming effect that increases the heat transfer performance. This tendency was seen with both 32-cs and 68-cs polyol-ester oils. The 68-cs lubricant was tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 with the W-40 fpi and Tu-Cii surfaces. Results with this lubricant show the performance continues to increase through the 3% concentration for most of the heat flux range tested At the upper end of the range tested, the 1.0% mass fraction yielded the best performance. The 32-cs lubricant generated trends similar to those of the 68-cs lubricant. Lubricant concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were evaluated with plain, W-40 fpi, and Tu-Cii surfaces. The 2.0% concentration, not the 1.0 %, generated the best performance at the highest heat flux tested. This difference must be attributed to the difference in the lubricant viscosity.

  11. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating-Field Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, the NorthernSTAR team analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating.

  12. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  13. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  14. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  15. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Poeth

    2005-12-09

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that {sup 10}B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights.

  16. "Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes"

  17. "Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  18. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkus, P.; Tuluca, A.

    1993-06-01

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  19. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  20. Geothermal space heating applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Final report, August 20, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birman, J.H.; Cohen, J.; Spencer, G.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a first-stage evaluation of the overall feasibility of utilizing geothermal waters from the Madison aquifer in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana for space heating are reported. A preliminary assessment of the resource characteristics, a preliminary design and economic evaluation of a geothermal heating district and an analysis of environmental and institutional issues are included. Preliminary investigations were also made into possible additional uses of the geothermal resource, including ethanol production. The results of the resource analysis showed that the depth to the top of the Madison occurs at approximately 5,500 feet at Poplar, and the Madison Group is characterized by low average porosity (about 5 percent) and permeability (about 0.004 gal/day-ft), and by hot water production rates of a few tens of gallons per minute from intervals a few feet thick. The preliminary heating district system effort for the town of Poplar included design heat load estimates, a field development concept, and preliminary design of heat extraction and hot water distribution systems. The environmental analysis, based on current data, indicated that resource development is not expected to result in undue impacts. The institutional analysis concluded that a Tribal geothermal utility could be established, but no clear-cut procedure can be identified without a more comprehensive evaluation of legal and jurisdistional issues. The economic evaluation found that, if the current trend of rapidly increasing prices for fossil fuels continues, a geothermal heating district within Poplar could be a long-term, economically attractive alternative to current energy sources.

  1. Contaminant and heat removal effectiveness and air-to-air heat/energy recovery for a contaminated air space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, D.R.; Simonson, C.J.; Saw, K.Y.; Besant, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    Measured contaminant and heat removal effectiveness data are presented and compared for a 3:1 scale model room, which represents a smoking room, lounge, or bar with a two-dimensional airflow pattern. In the experiments, heat and tracer gases were introduced simultaneously from a source to simulate a prototype smoking room. High-side-wall and displacement ventilation schemes were investigated, and the latter employed two different types of ceiling diffuser,low-velocity slot and low-velocity grille. Results show that thermal energy removal effectiveness closely follows contaminant removal effectiveness for each of the ventilation schemes throughout a wide range of operating conditions. The average mean thermal and contaminant removal effectiveness agreed within {+-}20%. Local contaminant removal effectiveness ranged from a low of 80% for a high-wall slot diffuser to more than 200% for a low-velocity ceiling diffuser with displacement ventilation. Temperature differences between the supply and the indoor air were between 0.2 C (0.36 F) and 41.0 C (73.8 V) and ventilation airflow rates ranged from 9.2 to 36.8 air changes per hour at inlet conditions. For small temperature differences between supply and exhaust air, all three ventilation schemes showed increased contaminant removal effectiveness near the supply diffuser inlet with decreasing values toward the exhaust outlet. For the high-side-wall slot diffuser, effectiveness was up to 140% near the inlet and 100% near the exhaust, but for the second displacement scheme (low-velocity grille) the effectiveness was more than 200% near the inlet and 110% near the exhaust. This paper also shows a potential significant reduction in cooling load for a 50-person-capacity smoking lounge that utilizes an air-to-air heat/energy exchanger to recover heat/energy from the exhaust air.

  2. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show that in Chicago, potential annual energy savings of $30M could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Additionally, peak power avoidance is estimated at 400 MW and the reduction in annual carbon emissions at 58 ktC. In Houston, the potential annual energy savings are estimated at $82M, with an avoidance of 730 MW in peak power and a reduction in annual carbon emissions of 170 ktC.

  3. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norbert, Massie A. (San Ramon, CA); Yale, Oster (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  4. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norbert, M.A.; Yale, O.

    1992-04-28

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 15 figs.

  5. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  6. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  7. "Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Buildings with Cooling ......",56940,55188,15562,30808,2836,4147 "Buildings with Water Heating .",56478,55154,14429,31026,3539,4095 "Buildings with Cooking ......",22237,21725,5...

  8. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed

  9. Commissioning of a Soft X-ray Beamline PF-BL-16A with a Variable-Included-Angle Varied-Line-Spacing Grating Monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amemiya, Kenta; Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kosuge, Takashi; Nigorikawa, Kazuyuki; Sumii, Ryohei; Ito, Kenji

    2010-06-23

    The design and commissioning of a new soft X-ray beamline, BL-16A, at the Photon Factory is presented. The beamline consists of a pre-focusing mirror, an entrance slit, a variable-included-angle varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, and a post-focusing system as usual, and provides circularly and linearly polarized soft X rays in the energy range 200-1500 eV with an APPLE-II type undulator. The commissioning procedure for the beamline optics is described in detail, especially the check of the focal position for the zero-th order and diffracted X rays.

  10. "Table B22. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Buildings with Cooling ......",3560,3400,1058,1883,192,58 "Buildings with Water Heating .",3239,3087,867,1759,205,70 "Buildings with Cooking ......",857,798,210,438,58,13 ...

  11. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes -- Update to Include Analyses of an Economizer Option and Alternative Winter Water Heating Control Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2006-12-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of an integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006). The present report is an update to that document. Its primary purpose is to summarize results of an analysis of the potential of adding an outdoor air economizer operating mode to the IHPs to take advantage of free cooling (using outdoor air to cool the house) whenever possible. In addition it provides some additional detail for an alternative winter water heating/space heating (WH/SH) control strategy briefly described in the original report and corrects some minor errors.

  12. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating: Field Assessment Minneapolis, Minnesota PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating: Field Assessment Location: Minneapolis, MN Partners: Center for Energy and Environment, www.mncee.org/ Sustainable Resources Center, www.src-mn.org/ University of Minnesota, www.bbe.umn.edu/index.htm NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership Building Component: HVAC Application: Retrofit; single family Year Tested: 2012 Climate

  13. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Space The Lab has explored space for more than 50 years and prompted many discoveries. Climb aboard our newest instruments and learn more about the planets and stars Curious about Mars and if life ever existed on the planet? Now you can learn all about the Red Planet and the Los Alamos technologies on board the Curiosity rover exploring Mars. Travel to Mars Curious about Mars and if life ever existed on the planet? Now you can learn all about the Red Planet and the Los Alamos technologies

  14. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  15. Effects of installing economizers in boilers used in space heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Medina, M.A.; Schruben, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses how the performance of a boiler can be improved by adding an economizer to preheat the boiler's feedwater. An energy analysis was applied to a boiler and then to both a boiler and an economizer (water pre-heater) to evaluate the benefits of heat recovery. Exergy rates calculated for both the boiler and the economizer determined that the temperature of the stack gases had primary effects on the performance of a boiler. The results from this study showed that 57% of the heat rejected at the boiler's stack could be recovered by installing an economizer to preheat the feedwater. As a result, the average cost savings that would be realized for a 36,400 kg/h (80,000 lbm/h) boiler averages US$8 per hour. The cost savings to steam production averaged US$0.20 per 455 kg (1,000 lbm) of steam and the ration between the cost savings to stack temperature averaged $0.02 per C (1.8 F). For this case, the fuel and the cost savings realized from using an economizer were averaged at 3.8% and 3.7%, respectively. These results translated to total cost savings, for an eight-day period considered, of US$940.

  16. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  17. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  19. Building America Case study: Advanced Controls Improve Performance of Combination Space and Water Heating Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Improve Performance of Combination Space- and Water-Heating Systems Minneapolis, Minnesota PROJECT INFORMATION Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance Location: Minneapolis, MN Partners: University of Minnesota and The Energy Conservatory Center for Energy and Environment, mncee.org NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership Building Component: Space conditioning and water heating Application: New and retrofit; single-family Year Tested: 2011-2014 Applicable

  20. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 50.0 2.6 7.1 5.2 1.9 17.7 0.3 5.7 1.2 2.4 5.8 Other Excluding Electricity ... 52.4 1.3 6.4 7.9 (*) 20.5 0.4 6.2 1.0 2.7 6.0 Bldgs without Water...

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 147 7 20 20 3 64 1 5 3 7 16 Principal Building Activity Education ... 109 4 22 24 3 33 (*) 5 1 9 6 Food Sales...

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    units displayed. QData withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    89.8 34.0 6.7 5.9 6.9 17.6 2.6 5.5 1.0 2.3 7.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 98.9 30.5 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.7 7.1 20.2 1.2 1.7 8.1 5,001 to...

  5. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  7. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  8. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  9. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4oC and 21.7oC, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  10. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-02-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

  11. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  12. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, Paul R.; McLennan, George A.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  13. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  14. List of Geothermal Heat Pumps Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat...

  15. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA Report No. 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engen, I.A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effort assesses the conversion of Colorado School District 50 facilities - a high school and gym, and a middle school building - at Pagosa Springs, Colorado to geothermal space heating. A preliminary cost-benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 150/sup 0/F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system-compatible components would be used for the building modifications. Asbestos-cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates. In view of the favorable economics and the uncertain future availability and escalating cost of natural gas, the conversion appears economicaly feasible and desirable.

  16. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  17. Atoms for space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig.

  18. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless

  19. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  20. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  1. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control ...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Activity Education ... 342 322 11 Q Q 0.18 0.17 0.01 Q (*) Food Sales ... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Food Service...

  3. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fagan, Jr., Thomas J. (Penn HIlls, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Humphrey, Joseph R. (Grand Rapids, MI)

    1984-01-01

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  4. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  5. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  6. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  7. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  8. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  9. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  10. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes geothermal activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-95. It describes 92 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research activities are summarized on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low temperature resource assessment and ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct heat Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  11. Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including

  12. Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats Thermostats Save money on heating by automatically setting back your thermostat when you are asleep or away. Read more Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood

  13. Heat transfer probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  14. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  15. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  16. Heat exchange assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  17. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  18. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  19. Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Systems » Active Solar Heating Active Solar Heating This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography, NREL This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating

  20. Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Active Solar Heating Active Solar Heating This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography, NREL This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary

  1. Heating element support clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawyer, William C. (Salida, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum.

  2. Heating element support clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-08-15

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum. 6 figs.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore,

  4. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems | Department of Energy presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. PDF icon Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) More Documents & Publications Energy Systems Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Seven Ways to Optimize Your Process Heat System

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  8. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Heating and Cooling with Mini-Splits in the Northeast Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

  9. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  10. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  11. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaHaye, Paul G. (Kennebunk, ME); Rahman, Faress H. (Portland, ME); Lebeau, Thomas P. E. (Portland, ME); Severin, Barbara K. (Biddeford, ME)

    1998-01-01

    A tube containment system. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture.

  12. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaHaye, P.G.; Rahman, F.H.; Lebeau, T.P.; Severin, B.K.

    1998-06-16

    A tube containment system is disclosed. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture. 6 figs.

  13. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  14. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  15. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric

  16. Engineering design for geothermal commerical and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zocholl, J.R.; Meyer, R.T.

    1981-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) is being evaluated for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado, located approximately five miles east. The prospective energy use includes domestic space heating and hot water, commercial space heating and hot water for motels, restaurants, greenhouses, and swimming pools, and industrial space and process heat requirements for existing and future facilities. The objective of the engineering design is to use the full flow capacity of the resource and to provide for the future development of the commercial and industrial sectors of Salida. The engineering evaluation has included significant design features, including cascaded uses of the hot water, conversion of chicken waste, warm water fish hatching, pipeline crossing of a river, and geothermal fluid cooling and discharge to the Arkansas River. Engineering feasibility of the geothermal well supply and of selected user facility retrofits has been demonstrated.

  17. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  18. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Systems Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Like your refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space to a warm space,

  19. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Geo-Heat Center provides technical assistance on geothermal direct heat applications to developers, consultants and the public which could include: data and information on low-temperature (< 1500 C) resources, space and district heating, geothermal heat pumps, greenhouses, aquaculture, industrial processes and other technologies. This assistance could include preliminary engineering feasibility studies, review of direct-use project plans, assistance in project material and equipment selection, analysis and solutions of project operating problems, and information on resources and utilization. The following are brief descriptions of technical assistance provided during the second quarter of the program.

  20. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for integration into selected waste heat recovery applications. PDF icon fleurial.pdf More Documents & Publications High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

  1. [Waste water heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  2. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Sandia-developed rotating heat exchanger

  3. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  4. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  5. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hundal, Rolv (Greensburg, PA); Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  6. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  7. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  8. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  9. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  10. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  11. Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

  12. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  13. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  14. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  15. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-97 (July--September 1997). It describes 213 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps, geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, acquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, and industrial applications. Research activities include the completion of a Comprehensive Greenhouse Developer Package. Work accomplished on the revision of the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 3), dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses, and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  16. Tennessee: Ground-Source Heat Pump Receives Innovation Award...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The new Trilogy 40 Q-Mode(tm) series, a highly efficient ground-source heat pump that has the capability of providing all the space heating, cooling, and water heating requirements ...

  17. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings and Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Focusing on affordable housing including new and existing multifamily buildings WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?  ~14 million units in the U.S. use steam or hot water heatingSpace heating the largest energy use in mixed and cold climate buildings  Overheating study found nearly all apartments overheated most of the time: average heating season temp. 76.2°F Long-term temperature data from ~100 apartments in 18 buildings:  Almost all apartments overheated most of the time  Average heating

  18. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  19. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  20. GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING Dr. John W. Lund, PE Emeritus Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DISTRICT HEATING Dr. John W. Lund, PE Emeritus Director Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology Klamath Falls, OR GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING/COOLING Geothermal resource supplying thermal energy to a group of buildings, providing: *Space heating and cooling *Domestic hot water heating *Industrial process heat Could be a hybrid system augmented by: *Heat Pump to boost temperature *Conventional boiler for peaking MAJOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS 1. Heat Production - well field(s) * Production wells

  1. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  2. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  3. Waste heat: Utilization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving this heat and energy is covered, including technical aspects and potential applications. Illustrations demonstrate that recovery methods have become economical due to recent refinements. The book includes theory and practice concerning waste heat management and utilization.

  4. Check Heat Transfer Services; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #4 (Fact Sheet).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 * September 2005 Industrial Technologies Program Check Heat Transfer Surfaces Industrial process heating systems use various methods to transfer heat to the load. These include direct heat transfer from the flame or heated gases to the load and indirect heat transfer from radiant tubes, muffles, or heat exchangers. Indirect heating systems that use fuel firing, steam, or hot liquids to supply heat are discussed in this tip sheet. In each case, clean heat transfer surfaces can improve system

  5. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  6. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  7. Modular heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giardina, Angelo R. [Marple Township, Delaware County, PA

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelpiped tube bundle moldules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending therethrough, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattice, each of which is situate d in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattice extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates.

  8. Modular heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giardina, A.R.

    1981-03-03

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is described having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelepiped tube bundle modules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending there through, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattices, each of which is situated in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattices extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates. 12 figs.

  9. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  10. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  11. Geothermal technology transfer for direct heat applications: Final report, 1983--1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a geothermal technology transfer program, performed by Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, used to aid in the development of geothermal energy for direct heat applications. It provides a summary of 88 technical assistance projects performed in 10 states for space heating, district heating, green-houses, aquaculture, industrial processing, small scale binary electric power generation and heat pump applications. It describes an inventory compiled for over 100 direct heat projects that contains information on project site, resource and engineering data. An overview of information services is provided to users of the program which includes; advisory, referrals, literature distribution, geothermal technology library, quarterly Bulletin, training programs, presentations and tours, and reporting of activities for the USDOE Geothermal Progress Monitor.

  12. Residential Multi-Function Gas Heat Pump: Efficient Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Engine-Driven Heat Pump for the Residential Sector Introduction Building on previous work on an 11-ton packaged natural gas heat pump, this project will develop hardware and software for engine and system controls for a residential gas heat pump system that will provide space cooling, heating, and hot water. Various electric heat pump systems are used to provide heating and cooling for a wide range of buildings, from commercial fa- cilities to single family homes. The market for heat pumps is

  13. Heat and Cool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Saver » Heat and Cool Heat and Cool Programmable thermostats and apps make it easy to control the temperature of your home and save energy and money. Programmable thermostats and apps make it easy to control the temperature of your home and save energy and money. Space heating and cooling account for almost half of a home's energy use, while water heating accounts for 18%, making these some of the largest energy expenses in any home. Space Heating and Cooling A variety of technologies

  14. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the refrigeration system have been investigated as well. One approach is to use heat pumps to recover refrigeration waste heat and raise it to a sufficient level to provide for store heating needs. Another involves use of combined heating and power (CHP) or combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems to integrate the refrigeration, HVAC, and power services in stores. Other methods including direct recovery of refrigeration reject heat for space and water heating have also been examined.

  15. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a Knudsen heat capacity as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  16. Heat pipe with improved wick structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An improved planar heat pipe wick structure having projections formed by micromachining processes. The projections form arrays of interlocking, semi-closed structures with multiple flow paths on the substrate. The projections also include overhanging caps at their tops to increase the capillary pumping action of the wick structure. The capped projections can be formed in stacked layers. Another layer of smaller, more closely spaced projections without caps can also be formed on the substrate in between the capped projections. Inexpensive materials such as Kovar can be used as substrates, and the projections can be formed by electrodepositing nickel through photoresist masks.

  17. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-97. It describes 176 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on well pumping in commercial groundwater heat pump systems. A memorandum of understanding between the GHC and EIA is described. Work accomplishments on the Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  18. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  19. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  20. Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.; Eschbach, E.A.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus for decontaminating ground areas where toxic chemicals are buried includes a plurality of spaced electrodes located in the ground and to which a voltage is applied for bringing about current flow. Power delivered to the ground volatilizes the chemicals that are then collected and directed to a gas treatment system. A preferred form of the invention employs high voltage arc discharge between the electrodes for heating a ground region to relatively high temperatures at relatively low power levels. Electrodes according to the present invention are provided with preferentially active lower portions between which current flows for the purpose of soil heating or for soil melting and vitrification. Promoting current flow below ground level avoids predominantly superficial treatment and increases electrode life. 15 figs.

  1. Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Oma, Kenton H. (Mount Juliet, TN); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for decontaminating ground areas where toxic chemicals are buried includes a plurality of spaced electrodes located in the ground and to which a voltage is applied for bringing about current flow. Power delivered to the ground volatilizes the chemicals that are then collected and directed to a gas treatment system. A preferred form of the invention employs high voltage arc discharge between the electrodes for heating a ground region to relatively high temperatures at relatively low power levels. Electrodes according to the present invention are provided with preferentially active lower portions between which current flows for the purpose of soil heating or for soil melting and vitrification. Promoting current flow below ground level avoids predominantly superficial treatment and increases electrode life.

  2. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  3. Heat exchanger and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  4. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  5. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  6. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  7. Heat exchanger for reactor core and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Jay S. (Del Mar, CA); Kissinger, John A. (Del Mar, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A compact bayonet tube type heat exchanger which finds particular application as an auxiliary heat exchanger for transfer of heat from a reactor gas coolant to a secondary fluid medium. The heat exchanger is supported within a vertical cavity in a reactor vessel intersected by a reactor coolant passage at its upper end and having a reactor coolant return duct spaced below the inlet passage. The heat exchanger includes a plurality of relatively short length bayonet type heat exchange tube assemblies adapted to pass a secondary fluid medium therethrough and supported by primary and secondary tube sheets which are releasibly supported in a manner to facilitate removal and inspection of the bayonet tube assemblies from an access area below the heat exchanger. Inner and outer shrouds extend circumferentially of the tube assemblies and cause the reactor coolant to flow downwardly internally of the shrouds over the tube bundle and exit through the lower end of the inner shroud for passage to the return duct in the reactor vessel.

  8. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  9. Guide to Home Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Get the most out of your heating and cooling systems, including types, how to choose, and performing maintenance.

  10. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  11. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-29

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  12. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-05-30

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  13. MHK technology developments include current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology developments include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, for example, hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering, design, and analysis of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high- performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  14. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  15. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the circulation of

  16. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    The foundation heat exchanger, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new concept for a cost-effective horizontal ground heat exchanger that can be connected to water-to-water or water-to-air heat pump systems for space conditioning as well as domestic water heating.

  18. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategies for Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings The webinar on July 16, 2014, focused on improving the performance of central space conditioning systems in multifamily buildings. Presenters discussed hydronic heating strategies and the evaluation of thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs).

  19. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burch, Steven D. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  20. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  1. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  4. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI`s High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed in this paper is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing - culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engines (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor - the design, fabrication, test and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE). The SSE will operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal; to be used in conjunction with the SP-100 reactor. The approach to this goal is in three temperature steps. However, this paper concentrates on the first two phases of this program - the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE.

  5. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  6. Stirling and Vuilleumier heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurm, J.

    1990-01-01

    The book discuses the design, application, and performance evaluation of integrated engine-refrigerator heat pumps and provides an overview of heat pump theory, including a unique comparative analysis of six integrated Stirling and Vuilleumier heat pumps and their advantages in applications. It also evaluates the effect of key components on performance; lists and documents computer programs for comparative analysis; and summarizes current hardware development programs.

  7. Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office of Public Affairs Space heating is likely the largest energy expense in your home, accounting for about 45 percent of the average American family's energy bills. That...

  8. Heat and Cool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    apps make it easy to control the temperature of your home and save energy and money. Space heating and cooling account for almost half of a home's energy use, while water...

  9. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  10. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems.

  11. Absorption Heat Pump Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps.

  12. Methodology for the evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.; White, D.L.; Huang, H.L.

    1998-03-01

    The US Army and a private energy service company are developing a comprehensive energy efficiency project to upgrade the family housing at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The project includes converting the space conditioning systems of more than 4,000 housing units to geothermal (or ground-source) heat pumps (GHPs). This interim report describes the methodology of the evaluation associated with this project, including the field monitoring that has been conducted at the base.

  13. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Keefe, Andrew C; Alexander, Paul W; Sarosi, Peter Maxwell; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan

    2013-12-17

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulled spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes first spring coil and a first fiber core within the first spring coil. A timing cable is disposed about disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  14. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  15. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  16. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  17. Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Systems » Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps Ductless, mini-split-system heat pumps (mini splits) make good retrofit add-ons to houses with "non-ducted" heating systems, such as hydronic (hot water heat), radiant panels, and space heaters (wood, kerosene, propane). They can also be a good choice for room additions where extending or installing distribution ductwork is not feasible, and very efficient new homes that require only a small space

  18. Heat treating of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-22

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material is disclosed. The system typically includes an insulating vessel placed within a microwave applicator chamber. A moderating material is positioned inside the insulating vessel so that a substantial portion of the exterior surface of each component for heat treating is in contact with the moderating material.

  19. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  20. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  1. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  2. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  3. NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential

  4. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  5. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

    1993-04-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  6. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  7. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  8. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grid or in areas with high electricity prices. Hydronic systems can use a wide variety of energy sources to heat the liquid, including standard gas- or oil-fired boilers,...

  9. Geothermal Heat Pump Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The definition of geothermal heat pump property does not include swimming pools, hot tubs, or any other energy storage device that has a primary function other than storage. In addition, systems...

  10. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  12. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  13. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  14. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  15. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  16. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  17. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  18. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2007-12-20

    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  19. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I: Heating and Cooling with Mini-Splits in the Northeast | Department of Energy I: Heating and Cooling with Mini-Splits in the Northeast Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Heating and Cooling with Mini-Splits in the Northeast This presentation, Heating and Cooling with Mini-Splits in the Northeast, was delivered by Kohta Ueno, Building Science Corporation. Kohta will discuss BSC's research on ductless heat pumps versus mini-splits being used in

  20. Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2008-10-14

    A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

  1. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  2. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  3. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  4. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  5. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1980-04-24

    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  6. A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    depths less than 2000 m and about 50% are Bottom Hole Temperatures (BHT). Heat-flow density distribution models can be expanded to include estimates of heat flow derived from...

  7. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  8. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  9. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V. Bogy, David B.

    2014-02-10

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  10. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  11. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  12. Status of NASA`s Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

  13. Intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, J.; Hofler, T.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-07-01

    Certain thermoacoustic effects are described which form the basis for a heat engine that is intrinsically irreversible in the sense that it requires thermal lags for its operation. After discussing several acoustical heating and cooling effects, including the behavior of a new structure called a ''thermoacoustic couple,'' we discuss structures that can be placed in acoustically resonant tubes to produce both substantial heat pumping effects and, for restricted heat inputs, large temperature differences. The results are analyzed quantitatively using a second-order thermoacoustic theory based on the work of Rott. The qualities of the acoustic engine are generalized to describe a class of intrinsically irreversible heat engines of which the present acoustic engine is a special case. Finally the results of analysis of several idealized intrinsically irreversible engines are presented. These suggest that the efficiency of such engines may be determined primarily by geometry or configuration rather than by temperature.

  14. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-29

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  15. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  16. Semantic Space Analyst

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-04-15

    The Semantic Space Analyst (SSA) is software for analyzing a text corpus, discovering relationships among terms, and allowing the user to explore that information in different ways. It includes features for displaying and laying out terms and relationships visually, for generating such maps from manual queries, for discovering differences between corpora. Data can also be exported to Microsoft Excel.

  17. Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, Charles P.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

  18. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  19. Evolution of small-space plasma in a microthruster designed for small spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farahat, A. M., E-mail: farahata@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Applied and Supporting Studies (Saudi Arabia); Ramadan, E. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Information and Computer Science (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma and gas particle dynamics in atmospheric pressure helium-filled small volume are investigated using a two-dimensional model. The model includes the conservation equations for the plasma and the neutral gas. In this paper, results are presented from simulation of the interaction between gas and charged species, which in turn causes heating and thrust generation for this microengine. Gas heating and neutral depletion initiations are observed, highlighting the close interaction between gas and charged species in governing the evolution of the small-space plasma inside a microthruster designed for microsatellites.

  20. 1-MWe heat exchangers for OTEC. Final acceptance document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, J.E.

    1980-06-19

    Acceptance documents for major units of 1 MWe OTEC heat exchangers, including condensers and evaporators, are provided. Included are a transportation plan for the heat exchangers and design specifications for the phase separator. (LEW)

  1. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows,

  2. Heat transport system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  3. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heating Applications Only | Department of Energy Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable

  4. Energy Saver 101: Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Space heating is likely the largest energy expense in your home, accounting for about 45 percent of the average American family's energy bills. That means making smart decisions about your home's heating system can have a big impact on your energy bills. Our Energy Saver 101 infographic lays out everything you need to know about home heating -- from how heating systems work and the different types on the market to what to look for when replacing your system and proper maintenance. Download

  5. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  6. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Johnson, Tim; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  7. [Waste water heat recovery system]. Final report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  8. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  9. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  10. Energy Saver 101: Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Saver 101: Home Heating Energy Saver 101: Home Heating Space heating is likely the largest energy expense in your home, accounting for about 45 percent of the average American family's energy bills. That means making smart decisions about your home's heating system can have a big impact on your energy bills. Our Energy Saver 101 infographic lays out everything you need to know about home heating -- from how heating systems work and the different types on the market to what to look for

  11. Nuclear reactor heat transport system component low friction support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A support column for a heavy component of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor heat transport system which will deflect when the pipes leading coolant to and from the heavy component expand or contract due to temperature changes includes a vertically disposed pipe, the pipe being connected to the heavy component by two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles and the pipe being supported through two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles, each of the cylindrical surfaces bearing on a flat and horizontal surface.

  12. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  13. Heat transfer analysis in Stirling engine heat input system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, W.; Kim, S.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major factor in commercialization of Stirling engine is mass productivity, and the heat input system including tubular heater is one of the obstacles to mass production because of its complexity in shape and difficulty in manufacturing, which resulted from using oxidation-resistant, low-creep alloys which are not easy to machine and weld. Therefore a heater heat exchanger which is very simple in shape and easy to make has been devised, and a burner system appropriate to this heater also has been developed. In this paper specially devised heat input system which includes a heater shell shaped like U-cup and a flame tube located in the heater shell is analyzed in point of heat transfer processes to find optimum heat transfer. To enhance the heat transfer from the flame tube to the heater shell wall, it is required that the flame tube diameter be enlarged as close to the heater shell diameter as possible, and the flame tube temperature be raised as high as possible. But the enlargement of the flame tube diameter should be restricted by the state of combustion affected by hydraulic resistance of combustion gas, and the boost of the flame tube temperature should be considered carefully in the aspects of the flame tube`s service life.

  14. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  15. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  18. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to 2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the...

  19. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Craig Messmer, craig@unicosystem.com Unico, Inc. The Unico Story * FAMILY OWNED U.S. MANUFACTURING BUSINESS in St. Louis, Missouri. * Largest SDHV manufacturer in the world with over 200,000 SQUARE FEET OF MANUFACTURING space. * Partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy to develop the next generation of HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE HVAC systems. 2 The Unico Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) * In

  20. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Craig Messmer, craig@unicosystem.com Unico, Inc. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 The Unico Story * FAMILY OWNED U.S. MANUFACTURING BUSINESS in St. Louis, Missouri. * Largest SDHV manufacturer in the world with over 200,000 SQUARE FEET OF MANUFACTURING space. * Partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy to develop the next generation of HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE HVAC systems. 3 The Unico Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) * In

  1. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  2. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  3. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  4. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s):

  6. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  8. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

  9. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others. Natural convection can also be used to reduce the number of auxiliary heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures are predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Experimental results are summarized based on the monitoring of 15 passive solar buildings which employ a wide variety of geometrical configurations including natural convective loops.

  10. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, S.R.

    1999-07-27

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

  11. Computer Modeling VRF Heat Pumps in Commercial Buildings using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are increasingly used in commercial buildings in the United States. Monitored energy use of field installations have shown, in some cases, savings exceeding 30% compared to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A simulation study was conducted to identify the installation or operational characteristics that lead to energy savings for VRF systems. The study used the Department of Energy EnergyPlus? building simulation software and four reference building models. Computer simulations were performed in eight U.S. climate zones. The baseline reference HVAC system incorporated packaged single-zone direct-expansion cooling with gas heating (PSZ-AC) or variable-air-volume systems (VAV with reheat). An alternate baseline HVAC system using a heat pump (PSZ-HP) was included for some buildings to directly compare gas and electric heating results. These baseline systems were compared to a VRF heat pump model to identify differences in energy use. VRF systems combine multiple indoor units with one or more outdoor unit(s). These systems move refrigerant between the outdoor and indoor units which eliminates the need for duct work in most cases. Since many applications install duct work in unconditioned spaces, this leads to installation differences between VRF systems and conventional HVAC systems. To characterize installation differences, a duct heat gain model was included to identify the energy impacts of installing ducts in unconditioned spaces. The configuration of variable refrigerant flow heat pumps will ultimately eliminate or significantly reduce energy use due to duct heat transfer. Fan energy is also studied to identify savings associated with non-ducted VRF terminal units. VRF systems incorporate a variable-speed compressor which may lead to operational differences compared to single-speed compression systems. To characterize operational differences, the computer model performance curves used to simulate cooling operation are also evaluated. The information in this paper is intended to provide a relative difference in system energy use and compare various installation practices that can impact performance. Comparative results of VRF versus conventional HVAC systems include energy use differences due to duct location, differences in fan energy when ducts are eliminated, and differences associated with electric versus fossil fuel type heating systems.

  12. TANK SPACE ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TURNER DA; KIRCH NW; WASHENFELDER DJ; SCHAUS PS; WODRICH DD; WIEGMAN SA

    2010-04-27

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  13. Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith (Boulder, CO)

    2002-01-01

    The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

  14. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    among the most effcient and comfortable heating and cooling technologies available because they use the earth's natural heat to provide heating, cooling, and often, water heating. ...

  15. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  16. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  17. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  18. Topic A Note: Includes STEPS Subtopic

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Topic A Note: Includes STEPS Subtopic 33 Total Projects Developing and Enhancing Workforce Training Programs

  19. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  20. Power module packaging with double sided planar interconnection and heat exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Zhenxian; Marlino, Laura D.; Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei

    2015-05-26

    A double sided cooled power module package having a single phase leg topology includes two IGBT and two diode semiconductor dies. Each IGBT die is spaced apart from a diode semiconductor die, forming a switch unit. Two switch units are placed in a planar face-up and face-down configuration. A pair of DBC or other insulated metallic substrates is affixed to each side of the planar phase leg semiconductor dies to form a sandwich structure. Attachment layers are disposed on outer surfaces of the substrates and two heat exchangers are affixed to the substrates by rigid bond layers. The heat exchangers, made of copper or aluminum, have passages for carrying coolant. The power package is manufactured in a two-step assembly and heating process where direct bonds are formed for all bond layers by soldering, sintering, solid diffusion bonding or transient liquid diffusion bonding, with a specially designed jig and fixture.

  1. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermodynamic cycle simulation was used to evaluate low temperature combustion in systematic and sequential fashion to base engine design.

  2. Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps, Sharon, Connecticut (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  3. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D. (Shelly, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  4. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  5. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  6. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PDF icon PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified Business Operations General Support

  7. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  8. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less

  9. Introduction of heat map to fidelity assessment of compressed CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyunna; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook; Park, Seongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Kil Joong; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to introduce heat map, a graphical data presentation method widely used in gene expression experiments, to the presentation and interpretation of image fidelity assessment data of compressed computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The authors used actual assessment data that consisted of five radiologists' responses to 720 computed tomography images compressed using both Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG2000) 2D and JPEG2000 3D compressions. They additionally created data of two artificial radiologists, which were generated by partly modifying the data from two human radiologists. Results: For each compression, the entire data set, including the variations among radiologists and among images, could be compacted into a small color-coded grid matrix of the heat map. A difference heat map depicted the advantage of 3D compression over 2D compression. Dendrograms showing hierarchical agglomerative clustering results were added to the heat maps to illustrate the similarities in the data patterns among radiologists and among images. The dendrograms were used to identify two artificial radiologists as outliers, whose data were created by partly modifying the responses of two human radiologists. Conclusions: The heat map can illustrate a quick visual extract of the overall data as well as the entirety of large complex data in a compact space while visualizing the variations among observers and among images. The heat map with the dendrograms can be used to identify outliers or to classify observers and images based on the degree of similarity in the response patterns.

  10. Inline CBET Model Including SRS Backscatter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, David S.

    2015-06-26

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. Using the CBET gains derived in this paper, we show how to implement these equations in a ray-based laser source for a rad-hydro code.

  11. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  12. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  13. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  14. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  15. Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

  16. Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:04am Addthis Ductless, mini-split-system heat pumps (mini splits), as their name implies, do not have ducts. Therefore, they make good retrofit add-ons to houses or buildings with "non-ducted" heating systems, such as hydronic (hot water heat), radiant panels, and space heaters (wood, kerosene, propane). They can also be a good choice for room additions, where extending or installing

  17. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Shaw, John Andrew; Churchill, Christopher Burton; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P; Alexander, Paul W; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan; Brown, Jeffrey W

    2014-09-30

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulley spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes a first wire, a second wire, and a matrix joining the first wire and the second wire. The first wire and the second wire are in contact with the pulleys, but the matrix is not in contact with the pulleys. A timing cable is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  18. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  19. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat...

  20. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  1. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  2. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  3. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, J.J.; Reichert, P.

    1992-01-14

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing. 11 figs.

  4. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, James J. (San Jose, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing.

  5. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  6. Building America Expert Meeting: Multifamily Hydronic and Steam Heating

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Controls and Distribution Retrofits | Department of Energy Multifamily Hydronic and Steam Heating Controls and Distribution Retrofits Building America Expert Meeting: Multifamily Hydronic and Steam Heating Controls and Distribution Retrofits This expert meeting was conducted on July 13, 2011 by the ARIES Collaborative in New York City. The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family

  7. Fouling of HVAC fin and tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Carey, Van P.

    2001-07-01

    Fin and tube heat exchangers are used widely in residential, commercial and industrial HVAC applications. Invariably, indoor and outdoor air contaminants foul these heat exchangers. This fouling can cause decreased capacity and efficiency of the HVAC equipment as well as indoor air quality problems related to microbiological growth. This paper describes laboratory studies to investigate the mechanisms that cause fouling. The laboratory experiments involve subjecting a 4.7 fins/cm (12 fins/inch) fin and tube heat exchanger to an air stream that contains monodisperse particles. Air velocities ranging from 1.5-5.2 m/s (295 ft/min-1024 ft/min) and particle sizes from 1--8.6 {micro}m are used. The measured fraction of particles that deposit as well as information about the location of the deposited material indicate that particles greater than about 1 {micro}m contribute to fouling. These experimental results are used to validate a scaling analysis that describes the relative importance of several deposition mechanisms including impaction, Brownian diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The analysis is extended to apply to different fin spacings and particle sizes typical of those found in indoor air.

  8. How Do You Use a Space Heater Efficiently? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    explored the question of space heaters and found that there are many factors to consider when deciding whether to use a space heater or central heating system. How do you use a...

  9. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  10. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  11. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the...

  12. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the...

  13. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the...

  14. Invariant distributions on compact homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbatsevich, V V

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we study distributions on compact homogeneous spaces, including invariant distributions and also distributions admitting asub-Riemannian structure. We first consider distributions of dimension 1 and 2 on compact homogeneous spaces. After this, we study the cases of compact homogeneous spaces of dimension 2, 3, and 4 in detail. Invariant distributions on simply connected compact homogeneous spaces are also treated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  15. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  16. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  17. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  18. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  19. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  20. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  1. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsHeat Index Calculations Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to estimate how hot it actually feels. The human body cools off through perspiration, which removes heat from

  2. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  3. Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by LED lighting). Long term markets include building-scale air conditioners and heat pumps (total potential energy savings estimated to be 0.5 quads). Impact of Project: 1. ...

  4. Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latham, Wayne Meredith (Forest, VA); Hancock, Jimmy Wade (Lynchburg, VA); Grut, Jayne Marie (Madison Heights, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

  5. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  6. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3.

  8. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  9. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  10. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  11. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  12. Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers April 24, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the American Institute of

  13. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimummore » combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.« less

  14. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  15. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Initial tests of thermoacoustic space power engine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, S. N.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (Wikg). Thennoacoustic engines at the -1-kW scale have converted high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, thennoacoustic engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thennoacoustic engine to a low mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Conversion efficiency data will be presented on a demonstration thennoacoustic engine designed for the 1 00-Watt power range.

  17. Thermoacoustic power systems for space applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, S. N.; Tward, E.; Pedach, M.

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (W/kg). Thermoacoustic engines can convert high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, these engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thermoacoustic engine to a low-mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Data will be presented on the first tests of a demonstration thermoacoustic engine designed for the 100-Watt power range.

  18. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  19. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    techniques that can make your air conditioner operate more efficiently. PATH Technology Inventory: Mini-Duct Air Distribution System Partnership for Advancing Technology in...

  20. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...