Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills May 31,...

2

EETD Assists in Analysis of Microwave Oven Energy Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EETD Assists in Analysis of Microwave Oven Energy Efficiency Standard June 2013 The Department of Energy recently announced new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens....

3

Open Ended Microwave Oven for Packaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel open waveguide cavity resonator is presented for the combined variable frequency microwave curing of bumps, underfills and encapsulants, as well as the alignment of devices for fast flip-chip assembly, direct chip attach (DCA) or wafer-scale level packaging (WSLP). This technology achieves radio frequency (RF) curing of adhesives used in microelectronics, optoelectronics and medical devices with potential simultaneous micron-scale alignment accuracy and bonding of devices. In principle, the open oven cavity can be fitted directly onto a flip-chip or wafer scale bonder and, as such, will allow for the bonding of devices through localised heating thus reducing the risk to thermally sensitive devices. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) heating and curing of an idealised polymer load is numerically simulated using a multi-physics approach. Electro-magnetic fields within a novel open ended microwave oven developed for use in micro-electronics manufacturing applications are solved using a de icated Yee sche...

Sinclair, K I; Desmulliez, M Y P; Goussetis, G; Bailey, C; Parrott, K; Sangster, A J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

5

Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Mills, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Polymer Surface Modification Using Microwave-Oven-Generated Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, diameter 160 mm) are from Fisher Scientific. Compressed oxygen and ethanol (100%) are from Air Products a Barnstead EASYpure UV unit. Plasma is generated with a 1100-W countertop microwave oven (Amana, ACM2160AB.Afterrinsing,thesamples are dried with compressed air and placed on a glass microscope slide. The slide is then positioned

Steinbock, Oliver

7

Rapid determination of wood fuel moisture content using a microwave oven for drying  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining moisture content (MC) of wood fuel using a microwave oven for drying the wood was evaluated by drying paired samples of five different wood fuel types in a microwave oven and a conventional oven. When compared to the conventional oven drying method, the microwave technique produces consistently lower MC determinations, although the differences are less than 1 percent. The advantage of the microwave technique is the speed at which MC determinations can be determined (less than 15 minutes). Schedules for drying five wood fuel types are presented. (Refs. 7).

Harris, R.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Modeling of Microwave Ovens with Perforated Metal Walls Erin M. Kiley and Vadim V. Yakovlev  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engineers developing new microwaveable products. This can be explained by the particularly complex nature, modeling. I. INTRODUCTION While historically, technological progress in microwave power engineering has microwave ovens - the most widespread microwave heating devices - have not yet been notably adopted by food

Yakovlev, Vadim

9

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills May 31, 2013 - 3:26pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030. Over the next 30 years, it will dramatically reduce harmful carbon pollution, equivalent to taking over 12 million new cars off the road for one year. "Appliance efficiency standards represent a huge opportunity to help families save money by saving energy, while still delivering high quality

10

Electromagnetic and Heat Transfer Modeling of Microwave Heating in Domestic Ovens.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave (MW) ovens are used extensively for heating a variety of not-ready-to-eat food products. It is vital to achieve target temperature uniformly throughout the food… (more)

Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Modeling Infrared and Combination Infrared-Microwave Heating of Foods in an Oven .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A quantitative, model-based understanding of heat exchange in infrared and combined infrared-microwave heating of food inside an oven is developed. The research is divided into… (more)

Frangipani Almeida, Marialuci

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Created March 2009 Microwave ovens are located throughout Swinburne University campuses in both staff & students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as when sealed containers are heated they may explode and damage the oven rendering it unsafe. · Use glass containers designed for microwaves to cook high-fat foods, as additives from plastic are more likely

Liley, David

13

Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level. 2 figs.

White, T.L.

1990-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

14

Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solar oven  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar oven. It comprises: an oven chamber having an open end and defining an interior cooking chamber; means providing a flat-back interior surface on the cooking chamber for absorbing sunlight and converting the absorbed sunlight into heat; an oven door hingedly mounted over the open end and movable between open and closed positions relative to the open end; means for pivotably supporting the oven chamber about a first substantially horizontal pivot axis; user-actuable latch means for selectively retaining the oven chamber in selected positions around the first horizontal axis, the user-actuable latch means including a user releasable ratchet mechanism including a plurality of ratchet teeth formed on the oven chamber and ratchet pawl pivoted to the support means in a position to engage selective ones of the ratchet teeth to retain the over chamber in selected orientations around the horizontal axis, the latch means further including means for pivoting the pawl into and out of the path of movement of the ratchet teeth to thereby achieve the selective positioning; a tray disposed within the interior cooking chamber for supporting foodstuffs during coking; pivot means for pivotally mounting the tray within the interior cooking chamber for movement around a second substantially horizontal pivot axis such that the tray can be positioned so as to maintain the foodstuffs in a substantially level position independently of the position of the oven chamber around the first pivot axis.

Burns, T.J.; Burns, C.L.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, foldable solar oven is provided wherein the basic construction material is ordinary cardboard, some surfaces of which are coated with a reflective material. The portable oven doubles as an insulated container for keeping refrigerated foodstuffs cold while being transported to a distant site for cooking.

Golder, J.C.

1981-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

18

Solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a solar oven. It includes in combination: a rectangular cooking pan with a bottom and four side walls, open at the upper end, an exterior casing having a bottom and four side walls and having an outer coating to lower the heat absorption, a body of insulation in between the cooking pan and the exterior casing, the top edge of the insulation, casing, and cooking pan all being coplanar to provide a rectangular shelf, a glass-supporting frame enclosing and protecting a sheet of low-iron, heat-conductive glass, the glass having an iron content of only about 0.04% and a transmittance of heat about 83%, a mirror-supporting frame having a solid top portion and top sheet for supporting a mirror combination below the sheet, hinges connecting the mirror supporting frame to the casing, a support arm pivoted to the side of the glass frame and having a series of openings therethrough, and a mirror-support projection secured to the mirror-supporting frame for engaging one of the openings through the support arm for enabling the mirror to be supported at any of a plurality of positions at various angles relative to the shelf and the glass sheet. The glass and its glass-supporting frame being unattached to the cooking pan, casing, and body for free manipulation by hand.

Ghatak, R.N.

1989-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

19

Demountable solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A demountable solar oven includes a principal base upon which is mounted a secondary supporting base collar which contains the essential operating parts and which supports two removable arms at their base whose upper end form diametrically opposed pivots for receiving the appropriately disposed pivots of the cooking chamber. The food basket provided with similarly diametrically opposed pivots is disposed interiorly of the cooking chamber and by virtue of a weight disposed at the bottom thereof the wire basket always maintains a horizontal position irrespective of the angle of the oven itself. A transparent hemispherical cover including a shadow box indicator is disposed over the oven in the direction of the sun and a series of individual plate reflectors are hinged together by means of pins, a certain number of which pins are utilized to attach the reflectors to the oven rim. Adjustable feet are disposed at the bottom of the supporting base for adjusting the vertical position of the oven and a level indicator as well as rotationally directional indicators are provided for determining the position of the oven as desired. The disassembled parts occupy a minimum space and various of the parts can be disposed together for the disassembled unit to occupy a very small space.

Erwin, S.F.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

20

Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Microwave Off-gas srnlTechBriefp1  

Microwave energy combines with infrared heating ... A modified retail microwave oven requires little space, is compatible with existing electrical ...

22

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oven Oven Addthis Description Saving energy saves you money. Buy energy-saving light bulbs. (Ad Council PSA) Duration 0:33 Topic Energy Efficiency Heating & Cooling Home...

23

MICROWAVE HEATING SIMULATION OF METALS AND DIELECTRIC CERAMICS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The research objectives proposed to study metal processing using a modular industrial microwave oven. The intent of the oven was to perform casting for metal… (more)

Warren, Brian C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Preparation of Hydroxyapatite by Microwave Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HAP powders were successfully prepared in a 2.45 GHz - 900W multimode home model microwave oven. The HAP powder was prepared by microwave heating ...

25

Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens Colorado Academic Standards: Standard 3: Earth Systems Science Kindergarten: Concepts and skills students master: 1. The Sun provides heat and light to...

26

Flat plate solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

Parikh, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking  

SciTech Connect

The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

Gregerson, J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Spiral track oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

Drobilisch, Sandor

1998-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Rapid Baking of Friction Material with Microwaves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The curing is followed by baking in electrical oven with multistage heating for ... Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave Power under

30

Investigation on Microstructural Characterization of Microwave ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... substrate have been developed through home microwave oven at frequency ... On the Interrelationship of Applied Fields and Heating Rates during Electric ...

31

Continuous flow microwave heating : evaluation of system efficiency and enzyme inactivation kinetics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A continuous flow microwave heating system was set up by using one domestic microwave oven (1000W nominal output at 2450MHz). Water was run through the… (more)

Lin, Man Guang, 1966-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Supercomputers Take a Cue From Microwave Ovens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to accomplishing this," says Shalf. "Today we look at the motherboard as a canvas for building a supercomputer, but in the embedded market the canvas is the chip." He notes that...

33

Bake Oven Design and Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production: Bake Oven Design and ... from shaft calciners is recovered for heating coal tar pitch and power ...

34

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

35

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Oven wall panel construction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

Ellison, Kenneth (20 Avondale Cres., Markham, CA); Whike, Alan S. (R.R. #1, Caledon East, both of Ontario, CA)

1980-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

Goldin, I.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

Nee, Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 22, 2011 - 11:45am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of: Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of: Moon Choe...

40

New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

One temperature model for effective ovens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most of the thermodynamic analysis of ovens are focused on efficiency, but they need to behaves under real-life conditions, then the effectiveness of the ovens plays a crucial role in their design. In this paper we present a thermodynamical model able to describe the temperature evolution in ovens, furnaces or kilns to harden, burn or dry different products and which provides a methodology to design these heating devices. We use the required temperature evolution for each product and process as main ingredient in the methodology and procedure to design ovens and we place in the right role the efficiency criteria. We use global energy balance equation for the oven under transient situation as the thermodynamic starting point for developing the model. Our approach is able to consider different configurations for these heating devices, or recirculating or open situations, etc.

Tapia, Saul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Microwave sintering of boron carbide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

44

Method for processing coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

45

Theoretical Modeling Approach for a Common Residential Electrically Heated Oven and Proposed Oven Design Modification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current research has developed a fully predictive model of an electrically heated common residential oven. This system was modeled using a fully explicit approach and,… (more)

Breen, Mark Allan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency...

47

Numerical and experimental modelling of microwave applicators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

area of use is for the processing of food, the tempering of fruit, meat, fish and dairy produce, for the heating and cooking of meals and for sterilisation and pasteurisation. The domestic microwave oven is now a common household appliance throughout... the world and many food producers are turning to microwave heating as a means of achieving the high quality products demanded by todays consumers. The sizes of these systems can range from a few hundred watts for a domestic oven to over 250 kilowatts for a...

Dibben, David

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

48

Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Modelling Microwave Plasmas for Deposition Purposes : Exploring the Freedom in Space and Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

those in microwave ovens and indeed the Solar 1000 was so constructed. The bulb was rotated the successful application of models of industrial interest" [9]. A secondary goal of this work is to address

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

50

Reducing Energy Consumption on Process Ovens & Oxidation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the uncertain cost of energy, optimizing the use of air in process dryers, ovens and air pollution control systems is critical to your bottom line. The revived emphasis on air management through the entire process, from plant make-up air heating systems to pollution control system exhaust, provides many opportunities to save energy and cut operating costs. This presentation includes an overview of good air management practices used to optimize energy use in your process and plant. One of the most important benefits of the more stringent air pollution control regulations throughout the world is the focus on better use and conservation of our natural resources. Through the efforts of many of the world's finest engineers and scientists the world is now realizing the benefits of an environmentally friendly approach to manufacturing. These benefits, which include more efficient process operation, less waste generation and reduced emissions, have produced the unforeseen benefit of reduced production costs and higher quality products. Process dryers and ovens are used in the manufacture of a wide variety of products produced by the companies represented at the Industrial Energy Technology Conference. This equipment is installed and operating in facilities that produce printed materials, packaging materials, adhesive tapes, pharmaceutical diagnostic materials, coated papers & films, foil laminations, electronic media, and photographic & x-ray films. They are also used extensively in the food industry. The products manufactured include baked goods, cereals, pet food, tobacco, and many other products. Ovens are used to bake and cure surface coated materials. Such as building siding, window frames, window blinds, automotive parts, wood products, and miscellaneous metal parts. More stringent environmental regulations are also impacting the design and operation of coating and food processes. Today air pollution control devices are used on many of the above applications to control the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and odors. As emission limits have decreased, the use of permanent total enclosures PTE's are becoming a standard part of the process line design. These enclosures are used to obtain 100% capture of the solvents used in the process. In addition, concerns over solvent concentrations in ovens along with concerns over exposure limits to employees have combined to drive process exhaust flows ever higher. Increasing process exhaust flows has been the common approach to addressing process and environmental issues. This increase in exhaust flows has resulted in significant increases in energy use and operating costs.

Worachek, C.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

53

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

54

Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

A modified concentrating type solar oven for outdoor cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar cookers offer a partial solution to many problems for the poor developing areas of the world. In these regions energy used for cooking sometimes comprises four fifths of the total energy demand. Solar cookers are generally four catagories: direct focusing, oven, ovenfocusing and indirect types. The direct focusing types failed to boil water under windy conditions due to excessive convection losses from the bare cooking pot placed at the concentrator focus. The oven type cookers, such as Telkes oven, observe the rules of energy conservation and thus are more efficient and less affected by windy weather. However, this oven suffers from two major problems. First, tilting the oven could cause food spillage unless a hinged support is used for the pot. This adds complication to the design of Telkes oven. Second, the solar radiation is added to the pot from the top for high solar altitude angles. This leads to poor heat transfer to the food inside the pot. The advantages of concentrating and oven cookers can be obtained by widding of a point focus concentrator to a new oven type receiver. In this paper the concept and design details of such an oven are introduced. Theoretical and experimental analyses of the developed cooker are given.

Khalifa, A.M.A.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

57

Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 15, 2011 - 11:56am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Moon Choe EERE Summer Intern The first time I ever saw solar cookers was on the news in the summer of 2009 (though that would make it their winter, as I was living in Chile at the time), as part of a development project in the north, which is mostly desert. I had no idea solar cookers were so markedly simple in all various facets, such as appearance, use, and construction, and ever since then, it always remained on my to-do list to make one of my own. Another added benefit that I was unaware of is that a solar cooker works at any time of year, so long as it's receiving direct sunlight (i.e. not

59

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 15, 2011 - 11:56am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Moon Choe EERE Summer Intern The first time I ever saw solar cookers was on the news in the summer of 2009 (though that would make it their winter, as I was living in Chile at the time), as part of a development project in the north, which is mostly desert. I had no idea solar cookers were so markedly simple in all various facets, such as appearance, use, and construction, and ever since then, it always remained on my to-do list to make one of my own. Another added benefit that I was unaware of is that a solar cooker works at any time of year, so long as it's receiving direct sunlight (i.e. not

60

A modular phase change heat exchanger for a solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular energy storing heat exchanger designed to use pentaerythritol for thermal storage (solid-solid phase change at 182 C) is tested in an oven by circulating heat transfer oil which is electrically heated in a manner to simulate a concentrating solar collector. Three efficiencies for heating the system under controlled and measured power input are determined - the heat exchanger efficiency, the efficiency of the heater with distribution lines, and the total system efficiency. Thermal energy retention times and cooking extraction times are determined, and along with the efficiencies, are compared with the results previously reported for a nonmodular heat exchanger. The modular configuration provides a highly improved extraction rate for cooking due to its wrap-around character and its increased surface-to-volume ratio. A full scale glass model of the copper tubing of the system is described and flow observations reported demonstrating how uniformly the parallel pumping branches perform and how trapped air pockets affect pumping power. A technique for measuring pumping power is described and its application to the system is quantified to show that less than 1 watt is required to circulate the heat transfer oil even when the system includes the solar collector and its longer connecting tubes.

Bushnell, D.L.; Sohi, M. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

Moss, T.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

64

Coupled Electromagnetic and Thermal Modeling of Microwave Tissue Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study deals with 3D finite element modeling of microwave tissue processing using Comsol software 4.0. Maxwell’s equations are coupled with heat conduction equation to determine electromagnetic field distribution and temperature profile within tissue sample in a reagent inside a domestic microwave oven. The microwave power generation term is calculated. Also, temperature distribution obtained is compared with experimental point measurements recorded in the centre of the tissue using a shielded K type thermocouple. Good agreement is found between numerical and experimental data. The effect of size of both reagent and tissue as well as tissue type on microwave heating patterns within tissue sample is investigated. Studies shows that the reagent volume has greater effect than other factors. The results of the study is considered as a basic foundation for development of coupled electromagnetic thermal models of microwave heating of tissue specimens. The model assists in choosing appropriate process parameters for achieving uniform temperature distribution within tissue specimen.

Osama A Hassan; Ahmed H K; Il Ences; Ahmed M El Bialy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Synthesis and characterization of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) using microwave irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure using microwave irradiation was studied to develop a fast and reliable method for synthesizing pyrite. Pyrite was successfully synthesized within a few minutes via reaction of ferric iron and hydrogen sulfide under the influence of irradiation by a conventional microwave oven. The SEM-EDX study revealed that the nucleation and growth of pyrite occurred on the surface of elemental sulfur, where polysulfides are available. Compared to conventional heating, using microwave energy results in rapid (<1 min) formation of smaller particulates of pyrite. Higher levels of microwave power can form pyrite even faster, but faster reaction can lead to the formation of pyrite with defects.

Kim, Eun Jung, E-mail: ekim229@uwo.ca [Department of Civil Engineering Texas A and M University, 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Batchelor, Bill [Department of Civil Engineering Texas A and M University, 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Microwave detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

1985-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

67

Microwave detector  

SciTech Connect

A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Microwave fluid flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

Billeter, Thomas R. (Richland, WA); Philipp, Lee D. (Richland, WA); Schemmel, Richard R. (Lynchburg, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Standard test method for determination of "microwave safe for reheating" for ceramicware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method determines the suitability of ceramicware for use in microwave re-heating applications. Microwave ovens are mainly used for reheating and defrosting frozen foods. Severe thermal conditions can occur while reheating foods. Typical reheating of foods requires one to five min. in the microwave at the highest power settings. Longer periods than five minutes are considered cooking. Cooking test methods and standards are not addressed in this test method. Most ceramicware is minimally absorbing of the microwave energy and will not heat up significantly. Unfortunately there are some products that absorb microwave energy to a greater extent and can become very hot in the microwave and pose a serious hazard. Additionally, the nature of microwave heating introduces radiation in a non-uniform manner producing temperature differentials in the food being cooked as well as the ceramic container holding it. The differential may become great enough to thermal shock the ware and create dangerous condition...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

INEXPENSIVE, OFF THE SHELF HYBRID MICROWAVE SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid-heating microwave oven provides the energy to heat small 10-gram samples of spent metal tritide storage bed material to release tenaciously held decay product {sup 3}He. Complete mass balance procedures require direct measurement of added or produced gases on a tritide bed, and over 1100 C is necessary to release deep trapped {sup 3}He. The decomposition of non-radioactive CaCO{sub 3} and the quantitative measurement of CO{sub 2} within 3% of stoichiometry demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus to capture generated (released) gases.

Walters, T; Paul Burket, P; John Scogin, J

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

72

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee's Sun Oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160 o C (320 o F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80 o C, (175 o F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted. ii 1 The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories evaluated a Sun Oven from Burns-Milwaukee at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque NM. It was designed for single family household cooking. It is targeting developing countries' alternative energy markets where conventional fuels are not available and wood is the primary fuel used for cooking. Because of the wide variety and types of solar...

Moss Solar Thermal; T. A. Moss

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy  

SciTech Connect

An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

DeFreitas, Dennis Michael (Oxford, NY); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

Moss, T.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources in the Upper Ovens River Valley.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Regression analysis produced equations for relating Ovens River levels to groundwater levels with a high correlation. These equations can relate stream flow objectives to corresponding… (more)

Lovell, Daniel Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process  

SciTech Connect

The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

Plenderleith, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Variational Assimilation of Global Microwave Rainfall Retrievals: Physical and Dynamical Impact on GEOS Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global microwave rainfall retrievals from a five-satellite constellation, including the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager, Special Sensor Microwave Imager from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F13, F14, and F15, and ...

Xin Lin; Sara Q. Zhang; Arthur Y. Hou

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A prototype system for measuring microwave frequency reflections from the breast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave imaging of the breast is of interest for monitoring breast health, and approaches to active microwave imaging include tomography and radar-based methods. While the literature contains a growing body of work related to microwave breast imaging, ...

J. Bourqui; J. M. Sill; E. C. Fear

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets  

SciTech Connect

Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

Zemblevskii, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Model reference adaptive temperature control of the electromagnetic oven process in manufacturing process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nowadays, the electromagnetic ovens are used for heating the component assembly of electronic manufacturing. The control systems of the electromagnetic ovens are feedback control system and PID controller are used to control their temperature. This process ... Keywords: control theory, response optimization and model reference adaptive system

Jiraphon Srisertpol; Supot Phungphimai

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Organic Sulphur Transfers in Coke Oven Gas via Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic sulfur transformation was studied during coke oven gas to produce syngas via noncatalytic partial oxidation. The concentration of CS2 and thiophene was examined in syngas by sulfide detector. For comparison, the sulfur transfer was also studied ... Keywords: Organic sulfur transfer, Coke oven gas, CS2, thiophene

Guojie Zhang; Yongfa Zhang; Xianglan Li; Hongcheng Cao

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process  

SciTech Connect

The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

Knight, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

86

A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

Marco Schioppo; Nicola Poli; Marco Prevedelli; Stephan Falke; Christian Lisdat; Uwe Sterr; Guglielmo Maria Tino

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

87

A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

Schioppo, Marco; Prevedelli, Marco; Falke, Stephan; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe; Tino, Guglielmo Maria

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Microwave Tokamak Experiment: Overview and status  

SciTech Connect

The Microwave Tokamak Experiment, now under construction at the Laboratory, will use microwave heating from a free-electron laser. The intense microwave pulses will be injected into the tokamak to realize several goals, including a demonstration of the effects of localized heat deposition within magnetically confined plasma, a better understanding of energy confinement in tokamaks, and use of the new free-electron laser technology for plasma heating. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Developing indicators for the assessment and proper management of the different levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s generally associated with coke-oven workers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke ovens may occur in the aluminium, steel, graphite, electrical, and construction industries. In the work area coke-oven workers may be exposed to various chemical… (more)

Wang, Tianyuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH  

SciTech Connect

Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%  

SciTech Connect

Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately$54,000. With a total project cost of$136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

Not Available

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Study of federal microwave standards  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

David, L.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kitchen Ranges and Ovens Kitchen Ranges and Ovens Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products Manufacturers have been required to comply with the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy conservation standards for residential kitchen ranges and ovens since 1990. Residential kitchen ranges and ovens include conventional ranges, conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens, and microwave/conventional ranges, known collectively as cooking products. Cooking products cook or heat food by means of gas, electricity, or microwave energy. These products are used primarily in homes and apartments. Kitchen ranges and ovens do not include portable or countertop ovens that use electric resistance heating or are designed to use an electrical supply of approximately 120 volts. For information about microwave ovens, go to microwave ovens.

94

Testing of the Sunstove Organization's Sunstove Solar Oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Sunstove Organization's Sunstove was tested at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115 o C (240 o F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80 o C (175 o F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted. ii 1 The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories evaluated a Sunstove from the Sunstove Organization, at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque NM. It was designed for single family household cooking. It is targeting developing countries' alternative energy markets where conventional fuels are not available and wood is the primary fuel used for cooking. Because of the wide vari...

Moss Solar Thermal; T. A. Moss

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Additional Steam Traps Increase Production of a Drum Oven at a Petroleum Jelly Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional steam traps were installed on the drum oven at a petroleum jelly production facility at an ExxonMobil plant in Nigeria. The installation improved heat transfer and saved energy.

Not Available

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (Oak Ridge, TN)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

98

Trials and Tribulations of Ancient Starch Research: An Investigation of Contamination and Earth Ovens at Fort Hood, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, earth ovens have been used to provide direct evidence of ancient plant use through the recovery of charred macrobotanical remains and indirectly by means of experimental archaeology and the ethnographic record. Experiments suggest that direct evidence of ancient starch-rich plant use can be obtained through the recovery of starch granules deposited on fire-cracked-rock (FCR) during cooking episodes even in regions where macrobotanical remains are scarcely preserved. Starch contamination, however, can enter into the archaeological record providing “background noise.” Therefore, this study analyzes the results of the Paluxy Sand Geophyte Project to determine if archaeological starch (starch that is both cultural and ancient in origin) can be differentiated from contamination using FCR recovered from heating elements in well-preserved earth ovens at Fort Hood, Texas. FCR, non-cultural rock control samples (RCS), and air control samples (ACS) were processed and analyzed from 27 earth ovens at 6 sites. Contamination control measures were used, including the use of a clean bench, powder-free latex gloves, washing samples prior to processing, spot sampling, and comparisons between starch granule assemblages recovered from FCR and control samples. Laboratory and field equipment were processed and analyzed for contamination. Only one feature (Feature 4 from 41CV984) yielded starch granules that are unambiguously archaeological in origin, rather than the result of contamination, whereas starch assemblages from the other sites could be archaeological or contamination in origin. Small sample sizes, differential preservation, and/or the cooking of non-starch-rich plants could account for the lack of differences between FCR and RCS samples. Finally, maize (Zea mays) starch granules were recovered from all sample types suggesting that maize starch, most likely from “powder-free” gloves and air-fall is a significant source of starch contamination.

Laurence, Andrew

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas and electric ovens in the production of polymer bearings and components. Tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of natural gas and electric ovens in the process of sintering billets which are made from a broad range of materials such as PTFE and other fluoropolymers, elastomers, themosets, themoplastics and composites. The purpose of this study was to compare the process parameters under similar conditions for industrial applications where electric ovens have predominant use. Tests were performed to obtain the process efficiency and examine cost savings potential in converting electric ovens to natural gas. Preliminary results show that, for the plat studied, cost savings of about $10,000 per oven can be achieved, with a simple payback period of less than two years. The results also show that additional energy savings will be realized if the oven size and exhaust flow are carefully selected. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calculate process efficiency. Design features and environmental issues are discussed.

Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Microwave-assisted synthesis of calcium phosphate nanowhiskers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

phosphate (TCP), and biphasic HA-TCP] nanowhiskers and/or powders were produced by using a novel microwave-assisted “combustion synthesis (auto ignition)/molten salt synthesis ” hybrid route. This work is an example of our “synergistic processing” philosophy combining these three technologies while taking advantage of their useful aspects. Aqueous solutions containing NaNO 3, Ca(NO 3) 2·4H 2O and KH 2PO 4 (with or without urea) were irradiated in a household microwave oven for 5 min at 600 watts of power. The as-synthesized precursors were then simply stirred in water at room temperature for 1htoobtain the nanowhiskers or powders of the desired calcium phosphate bioceramics. I.

Sahil Jalota; A. Cuneyt Tas; Sarit B. Bhaduri

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Microwave-assisted synthesis of sensitive silver substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive silver substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is synthesized under multimode microwave irradiation. The microwave-assisted synthesis of the SERS-active substrate was carried out in a modified domestic microwave oven of 2450 MHz, and the reductive reaction was conducted in a polypropylene container under microwave irradiation with a power of 100 W for 5 min. Formaldehyde was employed as both the reductant and microwave absorber in the reductive process. The effects of different heating methods (microwave dielectric and conventional) on the properties of the SERS-active substrates were investigated. Samples obtained with 5 min of microwave irradiation at a power of 100 W have more well-defined edges, corners, and sharper surface features, while the samples synthesized with 1 h of conventional heating at 40 deg. C consist primarily of spheroidal nanoparticles. The SERS peak intensity of the {approx}1593 cm{sup -1} band of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid adsorbed on silver nanoparticles synthesized with 5 min of microwave irradiation at a power of 100 W is about 30 times greater than when it is adsorbed on samples synthesized with 1 h of conventional heating at 40 deg. C. The results of quantum chemical calculations are in good agreement with our experimental data. This method is expected to be utilized for the synthesis of other metal nanostructural materials.

Xia Lixin; Wang Haibo; Wang Jian; Gong Ke; Jia Yi; Zhang Huili [College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Sun Mengtao [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) Global Gridded Products Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) Global Gridded Products Dataset Summary Description The SSM/I products are useful for evaluating the mean climate state, it's interannual and seasonal variations, and the detection of anomalies associated with ENSO and regional climatic variations. The Hydrology Team has assembled a time series of the entire SSM/I archive, now entering it's 16th year, which includes data from July 1987 to the present. Monthly average products are produced for precipitation, cloud liquid water, total precipitable water, snow cover, sea-ice cover, and oceanic surface wind speed.

103

Boiling Water in Microwave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boiling Water in Microwave A 26-year old man decided to have a cup of coffee. He took a cup of water and put it in the microwave to heat it up (something that he had done numerous...

104

Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

1985-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

Morris, VR

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Microwave heating for adsorbents regeneration and oil sands coke activation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating has unique advantages compared to convection-radiation heating methods including fast heating rate and selective heating of objects. This thesis studied two applications of… (more)

Chen, Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Gigatron microwave amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

McIntyre, Peter M. (611 Montclair, College Station, TX 77840)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Gigatron microwave amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

McIntyre, P.M.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

110

The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Efficient preparation of nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} and V/TiO{sub 2} thin layers using microwave drying and/or microwave calcination technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has demonstrated that the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} and V/TiO{sub 2} thin layers may be significantly improved and extended if microwave energy is employed during the drying and/or calcination step. Thin nanoparticulate titania layers were prepared via the sol-gel method using titanium n-butoxide as a precursor. As prepared films were then analyzed by means of various characterization techniques (Raman spectroscopy, UV/Vis, AFM, XPS) in order to determine their functional properties. The photocatalytic activities of prepared layers were quantified by the decoloring rate of Rhodamine B. All thermal treatments in microwave field were done in the same manner, by using an IR pyrometer in the microwave oven and monitoring the temperature of the heating. Nevertheless the microwave and thermally prepared materials were different. This in turn may lead to differences in their functional and also photocatalytic properties. - Graphical abstract: This study has demonstrated that the synthesis of thin layers may be improved and extended if microwave energy is employed during the preparation process. Microwave processing has the potential to reduce the time, cost and energy input for the production of thin layers.

Zabova, H., E-mail: zabova@icpf.cas.c [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sobek, J.; Cirkva, V.; Solcova, O. [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kment, S. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Hajek, M. [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process  

SciTech Connect

The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Microwave combustion and sintering without isostatic pressure  

SciTech Connect

In recent years interest has grown rapidly in the application of microwave energy to the processing of ceramics, composites, polymers, and other materials. Advances in the understanding of microwave/materials interactions will facilitate the production of new ceramic materials with superior mechanical properties. One application of particular interest is the use of microwave energy for the mobilization of uranium for subsequent redeposition. Phase III (FY98) will focus on the microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration tests for mobilization and redeposition of radioactive species in the mixed sludge waste. Uranium hexachloride and uranium (IV) borohydride are volatile compounds for which the chemical vapor infiltration procedure might be developed for the separation of uranium. Microwave heating characterized by an inverse temperature profile within a preformed ceramic matrix will be utilized for CVI using a carrier gas. Matrix deposition is expected to commence from the inside of the sample where the highest temperature is present. The preform matrix materials, which include aluminosilicate based ceramics and silicon carbide based ceramics, are all amenable to extreme volume reduction, densification, and vitrification. Important parameters of microwave sintering such as frequency, power requirement, soaking temperature, and holding time will be investigated to optimize process conditions for the volatilization of uranyl species using a reactive carrier gas in a microwave chamber.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

Not Available

1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

116

Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Performance Report: Electric Combination Oven Under Wall-Mounted Canopy Hood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents testing of ventilation requirements for an electric combination oven under an exhaust-only canopy hood. This appliance and hood combination is one of a series undertaken to provide electric utilities and the foodservice industry with data to optimize the design of commercial kitchen ventilation systems and integrate exhaust requirements with space conditioning design.

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Performance Report: Gas Combination Oven Under Wall-Mounted Canopy Hood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents testing of ventilation requirements for a gas combination oven under an exhaust-only canopy hood. This appliance and hood combination is one of a series undertaken to provide electric utilities and the foodservice industry with data to optimize the design of commercial kitchen ventilation systems and integrate exhaust requirements with space conditioning design.

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

118

WELL BEING WEDNESDAY Oven Baked Chicken Tandoori with Side Salad, Fresh Lime &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WELL BEING WEDNESDAY Low Fat Oven Baked Chicken Tandoori with Side Salad, Fresh Lime & Homemade with a reduced Fat Tomato Sauce HM V £3.80 Jacket Potato Fillings Low Fat Cottage Cheese Deli Style Coleslaw with Low Fat Mayonnaise Lean Mince Chilli Con Carne Grated Welsh Cheddar Tuna Mayonnaise ­ (responsibly

Davies, Christopher

119

Microwave Processing of Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Furthermore, lower energy consumption is another aspect that the world should consider to cope with this matter. Microwave processing of materials is a clean, ...

120

Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a variable frequency microwave heating apparatus designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus includes a microwave signal generator and a high-power microwave amplifier or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A power supply is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator or microwave amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 10 figs.

Johnson, A.C.; Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Markunas, R.J.

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Modelling and optimisation of an industrial bread baking oven.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In bread-making, the baking process is one of the key steps to produce the final product quality attributes including texture, color and flavor, as a… (more)

Therdthai, Nantawan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

Varma, Ravi (Hinsdale, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook Evaluation of a New Multi-Frequency Microwave Radiometer for Measuring the Vertical Distribution of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Cloud...

124

Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 3, Appendix sections 8--14: Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains no text. It consists entirely of numerical data: Coke oven wastewater treatment performance; Ammonia still effluents to equalization tank; Stack gas analysis of coke oven batteries; CoaL consumption; Coke production; Supplemental OSHA employee exposure monitoring(hydrocarbons,ammonia, hydrogen sulfide); operating data; chemical products and coke oven gas production.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

126

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... kitchens; cooking appliances; cooking tops; energy consumption; energy efficiency; kitchen appliances; microwave ovens; ovens; ranges; test ...

127

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY Office of Housing, Meal Plan, and I.D. Card Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditioners, dishwashers, roasting ovens, and other major appliances are also prohibited. A microwave oven

Raina, Ramesh

128

Build an oven, cook a meal: How solar energy empowered women in Costa Rica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot solar cooking project in the hot, northern province of Guanacaste promises to serve as a model for community groups wanting to build their own solar ovens. An $8,000 (US) grant has been awarded by the Canadian Embassy in Costa Rica to take the Guanacaste project into a second stage in 1990-91. Two construction workshops, with twelve participants in each, are planned in communities near Oriente. Three women from the Oriente group will have paid jobs as organizational facilitators and workshop supervisors. In popular education this is called the multiplier effect - the users of solar cookers construct the ovens themselves, and then instruct others to do the same. 3 refs.

Blankenship, J. (Canadian Univ. Service Organization, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries  

SciTech Connect

A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti [Technical University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Microwaves and Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwaves and Bacteria Microwaves and Bacteria Name: mike Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Do the microwaves in a microwave kill bacteria or is it the heat that kills the bacteria? I am wondering this because i have a science fair project and i am searching for a project dealing with bacteria. Replies: As far as I'm aware it is the heat that kill bacteria in a microwave, and they need quite some time to be dead. The spores that some kind of bacteria make to survive harsh conditions do not contain much water and they might survive microwaves. I'm not sure what bacteria do that can survive high dosis of radiation, like Deinococcus radiodurans. They can do this by a very efficient repair system for their DNA. My guess is that they would also be killed by the heat generated in a microwave but I haven't found any data on this.

131

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

SciTech Connect

The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology  

SciTech Connect

Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

Lynch, P.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Microwave coupler and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

Holcombe, C.E.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

135

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cosmic Microwave Background Project at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

138

Microwave-Induced Chemical Synthesis Initiative Strategic Research 1994-1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Microwave-Induced Chemical Synthesis Initiative focuses on the questions and opportunities associated with the effect of microwaves on chemical reactions, particularly catalytic reactions. This compendium of report and conclusions from the initiative contains a variety of new findings, including the results of seven research programs and two microwave conferences.

1998-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

139

Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Emitron: microwave diode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

1982-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High power microwave generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

Ekdahl, C.A.

1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

142

High power microwave generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

Ekdahl, Carl A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Schaich, Charles R. (Lenoir City, TN); Foster, Jr., Don (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

Varma, R.

1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Microwave-enhanced chemical processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400{degree}C. In the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

Varma, R.

1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Microwaves in Biology, Environmental Studies and Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 30, 2013... using Microwaves, Electric and Magnetic Fields, Ultrasound, Lasers, ... Power under Microwave Irradiated Cultivation: Wataru Nagayoshi1; ...

148

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

149

Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

1987-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

150

Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking  

SciTech Connect

1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Toward a Global Microwave Standard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Weather and climate uses for microwave remote sensing measurements ... Sensing in PML's Electromagnetics Division, "new data coming from ...

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Microwave | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Microwave Microwave Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

154

Overland Precipitation Estimation from TRMM Passive Microwave Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Procedures for passive microwave precipitation estimation over land are investigated based on a large database of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations. The procedures include components for rain area delineation, convective/...

Mircea Grecu; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

Problem of sludge formation in benzol division solar oil and ''carbonization'' in coke oven gas compressor systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion is presented on the problem and possible causes of sludge formation in the return solar oil in benzene recovery units and on the problem of deposits in the pipe systems after coke oven gas compressors. The possible entrainment of fine particles of coal charge in the solar oil was also discussed. Sedimentation of the sludge was recommended with daily removal of the settled sludge. A chemical analysis of the deposits in the piping system of the coke oven gas and the coal charge revealed that the deposits were not caused by entrained coal particles. (JMT)

Rezunenko, Y.I.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities  

SciTech Connect

Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Abstract--The paper reviews solutions being explored to face the supply problems faced in the Chilean electricity market oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas demand in Chile and Argentina, determining the expected behavior of natural gas producers in the Chilean electricity market oven recent years, given unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Investment in generation came to a stall, given uncertainties in natural gas supply and the risk

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

160

In situ noncombustive microwave processing of oil shale. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A unified analytical examination of the products of microwave oil shale has been completed. A sample of subituminous Colorado coal was also included. Analysis systems have been planned, constructed and placed into operation so as to provide a definitive profile of the composition of gases, oil, and water released by the microwave heated oil shale and coal samples. In a previous NSF study, it was reported that microwave retorted oil shale produced large quantities of high BTU content gas. In the data presented in this report, using a modular microcoulometric analysis system, a definitive profile of the composition of the gases, oil, and water, released by the microwave retorted oil shale and coal show that the previous results are confirmed.

Wall, E.T.

1979-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Development of A Microwave Assisted Particulate Filter Regeneration System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The need for active regeneration of diesel particulate filters and the advantages of microwave assisted regeneration are discussed. The current study has multiple objectives, which include developing a microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system for future generation light-duty diesel applications, including PNGV type applications. A variable power 2.0 kW microwave system and a tuned waveguide were employed. Cavity geometry is being optimized with the aid of computational modeling and temperature measurements during microwave heating. A wall-flow ceramic-fiber filter with superior thermal shock resistance, high filtration efficiency, and high soot capacity was used. The microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system has operated for more than 100 hours in an engine test-cell with a 5.9-liter diesel engine with automated split exhaust flow and by-pass flow capabilities. Filter regeneration was demonstrated using soot loads up to 10 g/liter and engine exhaust at idling flow rates as the oxygen source. A parametric study to determine the optimal combination of soot loading, oxidant flow rate, microwave power and heating time is underway. Preliminary experimental results are reported.

Popuri, Sriram

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

162

Microwave sintering of multiple articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Microwave sintering of multiple aritcles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Epitaxial synthesis of diamond layers on a monocrystalline diamond substrate in a torch microwave plasmatron  

SciTech Connect

The epitaxial growth of a diamond single-crystal film in a torch microwave discharge excited by a magnetron of a domestic microwave oven with the power of {<=}1 kW in an argon-hydrogen-methane mixture with a high concentration of methane (up to 25% with respect to hydrogen) at atmospheric pressure on a sub-strate of a synthetic diamond single crystal (HPHP) with the orientation (100) and 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 mm in size is obtained. A discharge with the torch diameter of {approx}2 mm and the concentration of the microwave power absorbed in the torch volume of >10{sup 3} W/cm{sup 3} is shown to be effective for epitaxial enlargement of a single crystal of synthetic diamond. The structure of the deposited film with the thickness up to 10 {mu}m with high-quality morphology is investigated with an optical microscope as well as using the methods of the Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy.

Sergeichev, K. F., E-mail: kserg@fpl.gpi.ru; Lukina, N. A. [Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

Alton, Gerald D. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

Manos, Dennis M. (Williamsburg, VA); Diggs, Jessie (Norfolk, VA); Ametepe, Joseph D. (Roanoke, VA)

2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

169

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

170

Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Differential Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background Laboratory Policy and Evaluation (LPE) LPE Home Staff M&O Contracts SC Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Work for Others in the Office of Science Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) DOE's Philosophy on LDRD Frequently Asked Questions Success Stories Brochures Additional Information LDRD Program Contacts Technology Transfer DOE National Laboratories Contact Information Laboratory Policy and Evaluation U.S. Department of Energy SC-32/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5447 F: (202) 586-3119 Success Stories Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page

171

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Conditions from Oven-Dry to Full Saturation  

SciTech Connect

Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to the capillary force only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which the water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified measurements. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but underestimate the conductivity. The extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

Zhang, Z. F.

2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

173

VALIDATION OF MICROWAVE HEATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF Salmonella spp. IN MICROWAVEABLE FOODS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating instructions for three products (chicken nuggets, turkey pot-pies and mashed potato) were developed and validated based on end point temperatures using two microwave… (more)

Valenzuela, Carol J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Microwave emissions from police radar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate police officers exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units at the ocular and testicular level. Additionally, comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna face of those units. Four different speed enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided fifty four different radar units for evaluation. Of those units, nine dash mounted. five rear mounted, and three hand held models were included. During this study, only four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the American National Standards Institute(ANSI) limit of 5 MW/CM2 , and none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists(ACGIH), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers(IEEE), or Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA) standard of 10 MW/CM2 . None of the 812 measurements taken at the officers seated ocular and testicular positions exceeded .04 MW/CM2. In fact, the highest reading observed in the drivers' position was .034 MW/CM2 taken at the 5th percentile testicular level, less than 1% of the lowest current safety standard. Because of the confusion that exists in the medical and scientific communities concerning non-ionizing radiation, the extent of health risks associated with long term exposure to police radar is not yet known. Until science has indisputably proven that long term, low power exposure is not harmful, it is recommended that police departments take steps to limit officer exposure. There are several ways that police departments can limit exposure cheaply and with minimal effort. The purchasing department should first consider radar units with the lowest published maximum power densities. New hand held radar units should not be purchased because they leave open the opportunity for operators to place their bodies in the radar beam path. Purchasing units whose antennae mount outside the patrol vehicle will also lower exposure to microwaves. Finally, training that stresses the importance of using the radar units' stand-by mode when not actually monitoring traffic will further limit exposure.

Fink, John Michael

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Electric and Magnetic Fields, Ultrasound, Lasers, and Mechanical Work. ... of Bacterium against Microwave Power under Microwave Irradiated Cultivation.

176

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

177

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hot in place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair of cracks, joints between lanes and shoulders, wheel tracks, bridge decks, strip patching, and eventually in-place of full lanes of asphalt highways. The ability of microwave energy to heat pavements rapidly and fairly uniformly to depths of up to 6 inches make this new method uniquely suitable for repair and restoration of bridges, roads and highways, and also for the construction of new paved roads in places where hot-mix plants are not available.

Jeppson, M.R.; Smith, F.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Microwave methods enable energy savings in restoration of highway pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavement by a method which utilizes microwave energy in combination with hot-engine exhaust gases has been demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible. The process saves both energy and materials compared with conventional hot-mix recycling methods involving removal of old paving and reprocessing at hot-mix plants. Applications for microwave pavement heating include repair of cracks, joints between lanes and shoulders, wheel tracks, bridge decks, strip patching, and eventually in-place recycling of full lanes of asphalt highways. The ability of microwave energy to heat pavements rapidly and fairly uniformly to depths of up to 6 inches make this new method uniquely suitable for repair and restoration of bridges, roads and highways, and also for the construction of new paved roads in places where hot-mix plants are not available.

Jeppson, M.R.; Smith, F.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatic driver through the surface albedo's role in energy and water budgets [e.g., Yeh et al., 1983Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation Jiarui Dong,1 due to complicating effects, including distance to open water, presence of wet snow, and presence

Houser, Paul R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Microwave Augmented Fabrication and Evaluation of CNT ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Biological Materials Science. Presentation Title, Microwave Augmented ...

182

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

183

Using X-ray mammograms to assist in microwave breast image interpretation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current clinical breast imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the ubiquitous X-ray mammography. Microwave imaging, which takes advantage of differing electromagnetic properties to obtain image contrast, shows potential ...

Charlotte Curtis; Richard Frayne; Elise Fear

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Folz, Diane C. (Gainesville, FL)

2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

185

RF & Microwave Systems Group The RF & Microwave Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Technology Transfer. Tagging, Tracking, and Locating Systems TTL technologies are on the verge and development (R&D) geared toward supplying robust communications for extreme environments; global tagging, tracking, and locating (TTL) systems; and RF- and microwave- based measurement and processing systems

186

Scanning tip microwave near field microscope  

SciTech Connect

A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Wei, Tao (Albany, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Microwave scattering from laser spark in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, microwave Mie scattering from a laser-induced plasma in atmospheric air is computed. It shows that the scattered microwave transitions from coherent Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering based on the relative transparency of the laser-induced plasma at the microwave frequency. The microwave penetration in the plasma alters from total transparency to partial shielding due to the sharp increase of the electron number density within the avalanche ionization phase. The transition from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering is verified by both the temporal evolution of the scattered microwave and the homogeneity of polar scattering plots.

Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang Zhili [Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Shneider, Mikhail N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Controlled zone microwave plasma system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

189

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

microwave ovens are available in countertop or over-the-range configurations. The Standards and Test Procedures for this product are related to Rulemaking for Microwave Ovens...

190

Trends in the cost of efficiency for appliances and consumer electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equipment: Residential Dishwashers (Direct Final Rule),dryers, clothes washers, dishwashers, and microwave ovens (and Dryers Microwave Ovens Dishwashers Series Name Household

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Microwave Treatment as a Pesticide Alternative for Stored-Products  

SciTech Connect

This CRADA was a continuation of earlier work with Micro-Grain, Inc. to develop power, high frequency microwave treatment process to treat insect infested grain. ORNLs role was as a subcontractor to Micro-Grain's Phase II SBIR project funded by the US Department of Agriculture. The primary objective was to develop a commercial scale prototype unit capable of treating infested grain at flow rates approaching 1 kg/sec, which is required to be viable in the grain handling industry. A flow rate of {approx} 0.12 Kg/second was demonstrated at 20 kW microwave power level with 100% kill rate. The system is capable of 200 kW however waveguide arcing due to grain dust in the waveguide limited the power to 20 kW during the tests. Development tasks performed during the project included modification of an existing high-power microwave exposure facility to uniformly process large grain samples at high flow rates and improved instrumentation to detect grain flow and uniformity. Microwave processing tasks include a series of controlled exposure tests using infested grain samples provided and analyzed by the University of Oklahoma. Grain samples were infested with red flour beetles which proved the most difficult to kill in earlier tests. Most of the samples processed resulted in quite successful kill rates and a maximum grain temperature of 46 C. The facilities utilized at ORNL are located in the Fusion Energy building (9201-2 at Y-12) and include the 28 GHz 200 kW CW high power microwave facility and microwave test equipment associated with the FED Microwave Development Laboratory in 9201-2. An improved microwave exposure chamber and grain flow control and handling equipment were designed and build as a joint effort between Micro-Grain and ORNL. A number of insect infested grain tests were successfully performed although the higher power, higher flow rates were limited by arcing in the microwave waveguide and damage to the gyrotron output window. Test results and the overall performance of the applicator system are very favorable for continued development of the concept. Further tests were performed in a large high power 2.45 GHz microwave applicator in batches. These samples were also quite effectively treated which supports the concept that a lower cost, lower frequency microwave system might be more successful due to the improved economics and simpler operation and maintenance of the low frequency system. Follow-on work is still possible however the untimely death of Steve Halverson, founder of Micro-grain, has essentially brought the development work to a close for now. Micro-Grain is being run by relatives at a low level who are not actively pursuing further funding.

Bigelow, T.S.; Forrester, S.C.; Halverson, S.; Halverson, B.; Phillips, T.

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

192

Hybrid Microwave Cavity Heat Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose and analyze the use of hybrid microwave cavities as quantum heat engines. A possible realization consists of two macroscopically separated quantum dot conductors coupled capacitively to the fundamental mode of a microwave cavity. We demonstrate that an electrical current can be induced in one conductor through cavity-mediated processes by heating up the other conductor. The heat engine can reach Carnot efficiency with optimal conversion of heat to work. When the system delivers the maximum power, the efficiency can be a large fraction of the Carnot efficiency. The heat engine functions even with moderate electronic relaxation and dephasing in the quantum dots. We provide detailed estimates for the electrical current and output power using realistic parameters.

Christian Bergenfeldt; Peter Samuelsson; Björn Sothmann; Christian Flindt; Markus Büttiker

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

193

From Microwave Anisotropies to Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluctuations in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background have now been detected over a wide range of angular scales, and a consistent picture seems to be emerging. This article describes some of the implications for cosmology. Analysis of all the published detections suggests the existence of a peak on degree scales of height 2.4 to 10 (90%CL) relative to the amplitude of the power spectrum at large angular scales. This result confirms an early prediction, implies that the universe did in fact recombine, and limits theories of structure formation. Illustrative examples are provided of how the comparison of microwave background and large-scale structure data will be a potentially powerful means of answering fundamental questions about the universe.

Douglas Scott; Joe Silk; Martin White

1995-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Koizumi, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Togo, Hiroyoshi [Microsystem Integration Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Morinosato, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Kuninaka, Hitoshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Intercalibrated Passive Microwave Rain Products from the Unified Microwave Ocean Retrieval Algorithm (UMORA)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Unified Microwave Ocean Retrieval Algorithm (UMORA) simultaneously retrieves sea surface temperature, surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, columnar cloud water, and surface rain rate from a variety of passive microwave radiometers ...

K. A. Hilburn; F. J. Wentz

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

White, T.L.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

197

Microwave assisted hard rock cutting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Microwave Application to Environmental Problems : Model ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave Power under ... Sintering and Plastic Deformation of Ceramics under Pulsed Electric Current.

199

Application of Microwave Heating for Reduction of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave Power under ... Sintering and Plastic Deformation of Ceramics under Pulsed Electric Current.

200

Process for microwave sintering boron carbide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Innovative Microwave Technology - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hadron Technologies, Inc. has signed an exclusive license for a Hybrid Microwave and Off-Gas Treatment System ... within the commercial and ... Buildi ...

202

Microwave Spectra of Molecules of Astrophysical Interest. ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Microwave Spectra of Molecules of Astrophysical Interest. XXVI. Acetic Acid „CH3COOH… ... 100 3. Acetic Acid Spectral Tables. . . . . ...

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Microwave gaseous electrode development. Final report. [Plasma torch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A microwave plasma torch was developed and tested at bench scale using power inputs of up to 400 W at 2.45 GHz. The bench scale tests included: characterization of the plasma torch operating characteristics as gas composition, gas flow rate, and power input were varied; measuring the effects of magnetic fields on the plasma torch operation; measuring the effects on the plasma torch operation of an aerodynamic flow field past the exit of the torch (cold flow tests); and measurements were made to characterize the plasma gas temperature and electron temperature. Following these tests, the microwave plasma torch was installed in the anode wall of the RMC diagonal conducting wall MHD generator. Hot flow tests were conducted in the channel using unseeded combustion products. These were followed by MHD power generation tests using subsonic and supersonic flows seeded with up to 1.5 w/o potassium and magnetic fields up to 3.8 Tesla. For one series of tests the magnetic field was reversed so that the surface containing the microwave plasma torch operated as a cathode. Following the MHD generator tests, another concept using a microwave slot radiator to produce plasma in the MHD boundary layer was tested at the bench scale. Measurements were made of the parameters necessary to sustain a discharge with the slot radiator open, similar to the microwave plasma torch, with argon flowing through the slots; and with the slots closed with a castable ceramic, the argon flowing past the outside of the slot. The latter tests were extended to a slot configuration appropriate for use in a slagging channel which incorporated water cooling passages in the surface which would be in contact with the MHD channel working fluid. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

Jones, M.S. Jr.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Mallavarpu, R.; Thiagarajan, V.

1980-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Near-Instantaneous Microwave Heating and Cooling for Microfluidic ...  

home \\ technologies \\ microwave heating of microfluidics. Technologies: Ready-to-Sign Licenses: Software: Patents: Near-Instantaneous Microwave Heating and Cooling ...

205

NERSC Continues Tradition of Cosmic Microwave Background Data...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tradition of Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis with the Planck Cluster NERSC Continues Tradition of Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis with the Planck...

206

Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm.sup.2 at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance.

Tsai, Chin-Chi (Oak Ridge, TN); Haselton, Halsey H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm[sup 2] at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance. 4 figures.

Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

2001 TMS Annual Meeting Exhibitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminium Extrusion - including log heaters and shears, ageing ovens, automatic ageing oven basket handling systems and die ovens. Aluminium Heat ...

209

Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.

Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes in microwaves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electromagnetic (EM) response of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) prepared by chemical vapor decomposition (CVD) method has been analyzed in the microwave frequency range. EM absorption properties of MWCNT depend on their medium diameter related ... Keywords: carbon nanotube, coating, electromagnetic absorption, microwave

S. Moseenkov; V. Kuznetsov; A. Usoltseva; I. Mazov; A. Ischenko; T. Buryakov; O. Anikeeva; A. Romanenko; P. Kuzhir; D. Bychenok; K. Batrakov; S. Maksimenko

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Microwave-triggered laser switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Microwave-triggered laser switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

Piltch, M.S.

1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

213

Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Microwave Emission at High Galactic Latitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) 4-year sky maps to model Galactic microwave emission at high latitudes (|b| > 20 deg). Cross-correlation of the DMR maps with Galactic template maps detects fluctuations in the high-latitude microwave sky brightness with the angular variation of the DIRBE far-infrared dust maps and a frequency dependence consistent with a superposition of dust and free-free emission. We find no significant correlations between the DMR maps and various synchrotron templates. On the largest angular scales (e.g., quadrupole), Galactic emission is comparable in amplitude to the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The CMB quadrupole amplitude, after correction for Galactic emission, has amplitude $Q_{rms}$ = 10.7 uK with random uncertainty 3.6 uK and systematic uncertainty 7.1 uK from uncertainty in our knowledge of Galactic microwave emission.

A. Kogut; G. Hinshaw; A. J. Banday; C. L. Bennett; K. Gorski; G. F. Smoot; E. L. Wright

1996-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

215

A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

216

Assessing the Relative Performance of Microwave-Based Satellite Rain-Rate Retrievals Using TRMM Ground Validation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spaceborne microwave sensors provide critical rain information used in several global multisatellite rain products, which in turn are used for a variety of important studies, including landslide forecasting, flash flood warning, data assimilation,...

David B. Wolff; Brad L. Fisher

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Planar slot coupled microwave hybrid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A symmetrical 180.degree. microwave hybrid is constructed by opening a slot line in a ground plane below a conducting strip disposed on a dielectric substrate, creating a slot coupled conductor. Difference signals propagating on the slot coupled conductor are isolated on the slot line leaving sum signals to propagate on the microstrip. The difference signal is coupled from the slot line onto a second microstrip line for transmission to a desired location. The microstrip branches in a symmetrical fashion to provide the input/output ports of the 180.degree. hybrid. The symmetry of the device provides for balance and isolation between sum and difference signals, and provides an advantageous balance between the power handling capabilities and the bandwidth of the device.

Petter, Jeffrey K. (Williston, VT)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Satellite Microwave Surface Observations in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea surface estimates of local winds, waves, and rain-rate conditions are crucial to complement infrared/visible satellite images in estimating the strength of tropical cyclones (TCs). Satellite measurements at microwave frequencies are thus key ...

Yves Quilfen; Bertrand Chapron; Jean Tournadre

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Laia, J.R.; Barbero, R.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Beamfilling Errors in Passive Microwave Rainfall Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are currently large numbers of rainfall retrieval algorithms based upon passive microwave radiances. Most of these algorithms are physically based in that they use explicit physical assumptions to derive relationships between brightness ...

Christian Kummerow

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Detection of contraband using microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

Toth, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Solar PV Sec. Chu Online Town Hall Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps Why Cool Roofs? Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future...

223

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kill-a-Watt Competition at University of Central Florida Faces of the Recovery Act: Sun Catalytix Investing in Clean, Safe Nuclear Energy Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010...

224

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Transforming the American Economy Through Innovation Linac Coherent Light Source Overview Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power...

225

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pledge? Conversation on the Future of the Wind Industry Science Lecture: Talking the Higgs Boson with Dr. Joseph Incandela Bill Gates and Deputy Secretary Poneman Discuss the...

226

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Future of Biofuels The Climate Challenge... and What's at Stake Sec. Chu Announces the First Auto Loans for Advanced Technologies...

227

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security & Safety -Emergency Response & Procedures or Search Energy.gov Search Clear Filters All Videos ARPA-E 2011 Keynote: Ray Mabus, Secretary of the Navy Electrofuels:...

228

Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

229

Microwave Tokamak Experiment: An overview of the construction and checkout phase  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we constructed and presently operate the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) to demonstrate the feasibility of using microwave pulses produced from a free electron laser (FEL) to provide electron cyclotron heating (ECH) for use in tokamaks, particularly high-field machines. The MTX consists primarily of the ALCATOR C tokamak and power supplies that were documented and disassembled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and shipped to LLNL in April 1987. We made many additions, including a new primary power system from the magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) substation, a new commutation system, substantially upgraded seismic support system for earthquake loading, a fast controls system for use with the FEL, a new data-acquisition system, and a new vault facility. We checked out these systems and put them into operation in October 1988; we achieved the first plasma in November 1988. We have also constructed and installed the microwave transmission system and the local microwave system to be used with the FEL. These systems transmit the microwaves to MTX quasi-optically through an evacuated tube. The ongoing plasma operations, both with and without FEL heating, are described in a companion paper. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Lang, L.L.; Bell, H.H.

1989-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

Parametric Rainfall Retrieval Algorithms for Passive Microwave Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology is described to construct fully parametric rainfall retrieval algorithms for a variety of passive microwave sensors that exist today and are planned for the future. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (...

Dong-Bin Shin; Christian Kummerow

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

A Statistical Modeling Approach to Passive Microwave Rainfall Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new empirical algorithm for retrieving rainfall rates from passive microwave (particularly Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) data is presented. Errors caused by spatial and temporal variation of surface temperature, emissivity, and atmospheric ...

Douglas M. Smith; Dominic R. Kniveton; Eric C. Barrett

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

An Improved Microwave Radiative Transfer Model for Tropical Oceanic Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In preparation for the launch of TRMM, new algorithms must be created that take advantage of the combined data from radar and microwave radiometers that will be on board the satellite. A microwave radiative transfer algorithm with a one-...

Jeffrey R. Tesmer; Thomas T. Wilheit

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Microwave quantum logic spectroscopy and control of molecular ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general method for rotational microwave spectroscopy and control of polar molecular ions via direct microwave addressing is considered. Our method makes use of spatially varying ac Stark shifts, induced by far off-resonant, ...

Drewsen, M

234

Satellite Rainfall Estimation Using Combined Passive Microwave and Infrared Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a combined infrared and passive microwave satellite rainfall estimation technique is outlined. Infrared data from geostationary satellites are combined with polar-orbiting passive microwave estimates to provide 30-min rainfall ...

Chris Kidd; Dominic R. Kniveton; Martin C. Todd; Tim J. Bellerby

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Method for Combining Passive Microwave and Infrared Rainfall Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave observations of rainfall offer the ability to obtain very accurate instantaneous estimates of rainfall. Because passive microwave instruments are confined to polar-orbiting satellites, however, such estimates must interpolate ...

Christian Kummerow; Louis Giglio

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ice Water Path Estimation and Characterization Using Passive Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave emission emerging from a precipitating cloud top and lying in a radiometer's field of view represents the culmination of a complex interaction between emitted microwave radiation and its ongoing extinction through overlapping regions of ...

J. Vivekanandan; J. Turk; V. N. Bringi

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A Passive Microwave Algorithm for Tropical Oceanic Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study discusses a rainfall algorithm utilizing six channels of microwave radiance data from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer. The algorithm is intended for short-term climate studies over the ocean at low latitudes. ...

Barry B. Hinton; William S. Olson; David W. Martin; Brian Auvine

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Some Comments on Passive Microwave Measurement of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is argued that because microwave radiation interacts much more strongly with hydrometeors than with cloud particles, microwave measurements from space offer a significant chance of making global precipitation estimates. Over oceans, passive ...

Thomas T. Wilheit

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Passive-Microwave-Enhanced Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formulation and testing of an enhanced Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) using new predictors derived from passive microwave imagery is presented. Passive microwave imagery is acquired for tropical cyclones in the ...

Thomas A. Jones; Daniel Cecil; Mark DeMaria

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

An Observationally Generated A Priori Database for Microwave Rainfall Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combination of active and passive microwave sensors on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite have been used to construct observationally constrained databases of precipitation profiles for use in passive microwave ...

Christian D. Kummerow; Sarah Ringerud; Jody Crook; David Randel; Wesley Berg

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Microwave Heating, Energy and Environment - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2013 ... Microwave Reflection Loss of Ferric Oxide: Zhiwei Peng1; ... heat rapidly by microwave (MW) irradiation generating plasma during oxidation of surfaces. .... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low ...

242

Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

244

A Novel Microwave Assisted Phosphate Coating Process for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Characteristics of Nano Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride and Titanium Ions · Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Nano Hydroxyapatite ...

245

Microwave Brazing of Gas Turbine Components - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microwave Brazing of Gas Turbine Components ... A Breakthrough Application of Electricity at High Temperature for Steel Production: Molten ...

246

Processing and Performance of Materials using Microwaves, Electric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Rustum Roy Memorial Symposium: Processing and Performance of Materials using Microwaves, Electric and Magnetic Fields, Ultrasound, Lasers, ...

247

Microwave Effect on Densification Kinetics during the Sintering of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Rustum Roy Memorial Symposium: Processing and Performance of Materials using Microwaves, Electric and Magnetic Fields, Ultrasound, Lasers, ...

248

Mechanism of Microwave Heating of Dielectric and Magnetic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Saccharification Process of Cellulosic Biomass by Microwave Irradiation · Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels · Raman Spectroscopy for ...

249

Reduction Behavior of TiO 2 during Microwave Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Saccharification Process of Cellulosic Biomass by Microwave Irradiation · Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels · Raman Spectroscopy for ...

250

Microwave Heating Of Copper Powders in a Single Mode Cavity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Saccharification Process of Cellulosic Biomass by Microwave Irradiation · Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels · Raman Spectroscopy for ...

251

An Explanation of Microwave Effects by Expansion of Transit State ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... State Theories with Disturbed Velocity Distributions by Microwave. Author(s), Motoyasu Sato, Jun Fukushima, kyouichiro Kashimura, Sadatugu Takayama.

252

The Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Permitivity and Microwave ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dielectric property and microwave absorption property of anthracite were measured ... Effect of Continuous Cooling Rate on Microstructural Transformation of ...

253

Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

256

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Introduction During September to October 2000, a water vapor intensive operational period (WVIOP) was conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and

257

Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power, Televisions, Electric Ovens, Space Heating and WaterHeating Equipment  Dishwashers  DVD Players and Recorders  External Power Supplies  Furnaces  Furnace Fans  Microwave Ovens  

Bojda, Nicholas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens) http:energy.govnepadownloadsea-1662-final-environmental...

260

Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

Berry, L.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

History of the Pulsed Power, Beams, and Microwaves Laboratory The Directed Energy Microwave Laboratory is a 4100 square foot facility located in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

History of the Pulsed Power, Beams, and Microwaves Laboratory The Directed Energy Microwave of the Directed Energy Microwave Laboratory is to: · educate MS and PhD scientists and engineers

Sen, Pradeep

263

Interaction of high power microwave with plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental proposal to investigate the physics of interaction of extremely intense (eEem/m?c ? 1) microwave in an overdense plasma is discussed. The output from a VIRCATOR (2 -- 10 GHz, ? 1 -- 3 GW) based pulse (?30 ns) powered ...

V. P. Anitha; Amita Das; Y. C. Saxena; Anurag Shyam; P. K. Kaw

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Microwave instabilities in Booster and AGS  

SciTech Connect

Microwave instabilities is evaluated for the Booster and AGS for the preparation of the relativistic heavy ion collider. We found that the Booster may require feedback system for the transverse instability at the high intensity proton operation. The coherent instability is not important for the nominal RhIC operational intensity.

Lee, S.Y.; Zhao, X.F.

1987-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

265

Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co?mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Planar controlled zone microwave plasma system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxvlle, TN)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

268

Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent tc the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

270

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

271

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

OBSERVATIONAL SCAN-INDUCED ARTIFICIAL COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY  

SciTech Connect

Reliably detecting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is of great importance in understanding the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the difficulties in CMB experiments is the domination of measured CMB anisotropy maps by the Doppler dipole moment from the motion of the antenna relative to the CMB. For each measured temperature, the expected dipole component has to be calculated separately and then subtracted from the data. A small error in dipole direction, antenna pointing direction, sidelobe pickup contamination, and/or timing synchronism can introduce a significant deviation in the dipole-cleaned CMB temperature. After a full-sky observational scan, the accumulated deviations will be structured with a pattern closely correlated with the observation pattern with artificial anisotropies, including artificial quadrupole, octupole, etc., on large scales in the final CMB map. Such scan-induced anisotropies on large scales can be predicted by the true dipole moment and observational scan scheme. Indeed, the expected scan-induced quadrupole pattern of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission is perfectly in agreement with the published WMAP quadrupole. With the scan strategy of the Planck mission, we predict that scan-induced anisotropies will also produce an artificially aligned quadrupole. The scan-induced anisotropy is a common problem for all sweep missions and, like the foreground emissions, has to be removed from observed maps. Without doing so, CMB maps from COBE, WMAP, and Planck are not reliable for studying the CMB anisotropy.

Liu Hao; Li Tipei, E-mail: liuhao@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: litp@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Chemical transformations are essential to all living organisms--and also to the manufacture of many products including fuels,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interests include plasma waste gasification, plasma torches, spectroscopy, plasma medicine, and holographic2512 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008 Experimental Investigation-power microwave breakdown based on measured laser breakdown observations. Comparison of 193-nm laser

Kemner, Ken

275

Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

Factors influencing the microwave pulse duration in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we analyze the factors that affect the microwave pulse duration in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO), including the diode voltage, the guiding magnetic field, the electron beam collector, the extraction cavity, and the gap between the electron beam and the slow wave structure (SWS). The results show that the microwave pulse duration increases with the diode voltage until breakdown occurs on the surface of the extraction cavity. The pulse duration at low guiding magnetic field is generally 5-10 ns smaller than that at high magnetic field due to the asymmetric electron emission and the larger energy spread of the electron beam. The electron beam collector can affect the microwave pulse duration significantly because of the anode plasma generated by bombardment of the electron beam on the collector surface. The introduction of the extraction cavity only slightly changes the pulse duration. The decrease of the gap between the electron beam and the SWS can increase the microwave pulse duration greatly.

Xiao Renzhen; Zhang Xiaowei; Zhang Ligang; Li Xiaoze; Zhang Lijun [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High Power Microwave, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity  

SciTech Connect

We report the preliminary results on plasma generation in a 5-cell CEBAF superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity for the application of cavity interior surface cleaning. CEBAF currently has {approx}300 of these five cell cavities installed in the Jefferson Lab accelerator which are mostly limited by cavity surface contamination. The development of an in-situ cavity surface cleaning method utilizing a resonant microwave discharge could lead to significant CEBAF accelerator performance improvement. This microwave discharge is currently being used for the development of a set of plasma cleaning procedures targeted to the removal of various organic, metal and metal oxide impurities. These contaminants are responsible for the increase of surface resistance and the reduction of RF performance in installed cavities. The CEBAF five cell cavity volume is {approx} 0.5 m2, which places the discharge in the category of large-volume plasmas. CEBAF cavity has a cylindrical symmetry, but its elliptical shape and transversal power coupling makes it an unusual plasma application, which requires special consideration of microwave breakdown. Our preliminary study includes microwave breakdown and optical spectroscopy, which was used to define the operating pressure range and the rate of removal of organic impurities.

J. Mammosser, S. Ahmed, K. Macha, J. Upadhyay, M. Nikoli, S. Popovi, L. Vuakovi

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

279

Ground-based Microwave Cloud Tomography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwave Cloud Tomography Microwave Cloud Tomography Experiment, SGP, May 15-June 15, 2009 Lead Scientist Dong Huang, BNL Co-Investigators Al Gasiewski, UC Boulder Maria Cadeddu, ANL Warren Wiscombe, BNL Radiation Processes Working Group March 30, 2009 multiple radiometers All good cloud radiation modelers should close their airplane window shades so as not to be corrupted by the spectacle of real 3D clouds. - Roger Davies In case you forget to do this, you see 3/30/2009 ARM RPWG 2 Effects of cloud structure on radiation 3/30/2009 ARM RPWG 3 Typical climate model - Cloud fraction & mean water content - Horizontally uniform clouds, no side radiation - Assumption on overlap Courtesy of Bernhard Mayer Cloud structure important to radiation - Cumulus (Benner & Evans 2001, Pincus et al. 2005), deep convection (DiGiuseppe &

280

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating Dryer Range/oven Pool heating Spa heating TotalWater heating Space heating Range/oven Dryer Pool/spa Water heating Outdoor lighting Microwave Range/oven Clothes 

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Applications for Microwave Generators in the Process Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microwaves find widespread use in radar applications, in telephonic communications, and in the generation of thermal energy for heating. It is this last use that is of interest here. The use of microwave generators to dry heat-sensitive materials and regenerate beds of solid adsorbents is currently being investigated at The University of Texas. This paper summarizes the first phase of this program, which involves microwave drying of various types of polymers. Future research goals and programs are also presented.

Humphrey, J. L.; Vasilakos, N. P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Spatial Variability of Summer Florida Precipitation and Its Impact on Microwave Radiometer Rainfall-Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional radar data for three summer Florida storm are used as input to a microwave radiative transfer model. The model simulates microwave brightness observations by a 19-GHz, nadir-pointing, satellite-borne microwave radiometer.

B. J. Turner; G. L. Austin

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Rainfall Estimation over Oceans from SMMR and SSM/I Microwave Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave measurements made by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reveal information about rain and precipitation-sized ice in the field of view (FOV) of the instruments. ...

C. Prabhakara; G. Dalu; G. L. Liberti; J. J. Nucciarone; R. Suhasini

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/pdf/tr_microwaveoven.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/product-standards-microwaves-japan Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Industry Codes & Standards Regulations: Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling This Energy Conservation Center Japan (ECCJ) document was created as a guide in response to its newly established set of standards and labelling

285

Microwave Sintering of CaO Stabilized Nature Baddeleyite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave sintering could fast heating and sintering. ... Characterization of Burrows from Mining District of Pachuca - Real Del Monte, in Hidalgo State and ...

286

Low Cost Processing: Plasma, Microwave, Laser, Melting and Casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Cost Affordable Titanium IV: Low Cost Processing: Plasma, ... obtained by using microwave energy as the consolidation method of Mg-Ti alloys.

287

Understanding Non-thermal Microwave Effects in Materials Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave Power under ... Sintering and Plastic Deformation of Ceramics under Pulsed Electric Current.

288

Exchange of Cs Ion in Clay Minerals by Microwave Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave Power under ... Sintering and Plastic Deformation of Ceramics under Pulsed Electric Current.

289

206 Preparation of Porous Mullite Composite by Microwave Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the microwave sintering, an insulation structure based on hybrid heating mode was well designed with the wall of mullite and the aided heaters of SiC ...

290

WIRELESS MICROWAVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR SYSTEM FOR CONDITION MONITORING...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WIRELESS MICROWAVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR SYSTEM FOR CONDITION MONITORING IN POWER PLANT ENVIRONMENTS Project DE-FE0007379TDD NETL, Morgantown, WV, March 14, 2012. DOE NETL Program:...

291

System to Continuously Produce Carbon Fiber via Microwave-Assisted ...  

ORNL 2011-G00246/jcn UT-B ID 200501518 09.2011 System to Continuously Produce Carbon Fiber via Microwave-Assisted Plasma Processing Technology Summary

292

Microwave Brazing, An Energy Efficient Method for Joining ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, microwave brazing methods for joining ceramics to metals, with the ... Air Brazing of Nicrofer-6025HT to BSCF for Oxygen Separation Membranes.

293

Dramatic Structuring of Water using Polarized Microwave and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopy reveals that liquid water treated with 2.45 GHz polarized microwave and 13.56 MHz radiofrequency radiation undergoes dramatic ...

294

Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu Department of Meteorology Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction A better...

295

A Continuous Flow Microwave Reactor for Organic Synthesis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave reactors are important tools in chemical synthesis, as they can lead to unprecedented reductions in reaction times and improved reaction yields. In order to… (more)

Sauks, Jennifer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Session Papers Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations During the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, J. H. Churnside, and J. B....

297

Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations During the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, J. H. Churnside, and J. B....

298

Influence of Microwave Radiation on Phosphorus-removal Process ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave radiation on the ore fines was carried out using MW-HS ... A Pilot- plant Scale Test on DRI Preparation from High-alumina Limonite Ore by ...

299

System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave ...  

A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in ...

300

Using Microwave Radiation for Removing Heavy Metal Ions and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Using Microwave Radiation for Removing Heavy Metal Ions and Producing Biofuels. Author(s), Aharon Gedanken. On-Site Speaker (Planned ) ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Nano Hydroxyapatite from Avian ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Nano Hydroxyapatite from Avian Eggshell Biowaste for Tissue Engineering. Author(s), Kajal K Mallick.

302

Micro Microwave Does Pinpoint Cooking for Miniaturized Labs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and ... Based on classical theory of how microwave energy is absorbed ...

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

303

Microwave-assisted solvent extraction and gas chromatography ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 17, 2006 ... sistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in marine sedi- ment was ... variables microwave power, extraction time and tempera- ture, amount of ...

304

Investigation on a Microwave High-Temperature Air Heat Exchanger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In present paper, an energy efficient air heat exchanger, based on accumulation of the heat generated by microwave absorbing materials is presented according  ...

305

Synthesis of Divalent Sn Compounds under Microwave Non ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Hirotsugu Takizawa, Nozomi Sato, Jun Fukushima, Yamato Hayashi. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Hirotsugu Takizawa. Abstract Scope, Microwave ...

306

2300 °C Ultra-high Temperature Microwave Assist Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design is based on a traditional graphite furnace with graphite insulation and heating elements. A microwave transition was specially designed to deliver the ...

307

Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique for microwave field imaging using alkali atoms in a vapor cell. The microwave field to be measured drives Rabi oscillations on atomic hyperfine transitions, which are detected in a spatially resolved way using a laser beam and a CCD camera. Our vapor cell geometry enables single-shot recording of two-dimensional microwave field images with 350 {\\mu}m spatial resolution. Using microfabricated vapor cell arrays, a resolution of a few micrometers seems feasible. All vector components of the microwave magnetic field can be imaged. Our apparatus is simple and compact and does not require cryogenics or ultra-high vacuum.

Böhi, Pascal

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique for microwave field imaging using alkali atoms in a vapor cell. The microwave field to be measured drives Rabi oscillations on atomic hyperfine transitions, which are detected in a spatially resolved way using a laser beam and a camera. Our vapor cell geometry enables single-shot recording of two-dimensional microwave field images with 350 {\\mu}m spatial resolution. Using microfabricated vapor cell arrays, a resolution of a few micrometers seems feasible. All vector components of the microwave magnetic field can be imaged. Our apparatus is simple and compact and does not require cryogenics or ultra-high vacuum.

Pascal Böhi; Philipp Treutlein

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

NIST Prototype 'Optics Table on a Chip' Places Microwave ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... E. Zakka-Bajjani, F. Nguyen, M. Lee, LR Vale, RW Simmonds and J. Aumentado. Quantum superposition of a single microwave ...

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

Rapid Microwave Preparation of Highly Efficient Ce[superscript 3+]-Substituted Garnet Phosphors for Solid State White Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Ce{sup 3+}-substituted aluminum garnet compounds of yttrium (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and lutetium (Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) - both important compounds in the generation of (In,Ga)N-based solid state white lighting - have been prepared using a simple microwave heating technique involving the use of a microwave susceptor to provide the initial heat source. Carbon used as the susceptor additionally creates a reducing atmosphere around the sample that helps stabilize the desired luminescent compound. High quality, phase-pure materials are prepared within a fraction of the time and using a fraction of the energy required in a conventional ceramic preparation; the microwave technique allows for a reduction of about 95% in preparation time, making it possible to obtain phase pure, Ce{sup 3+}-substituted garnet compounds in under 20 min of reaction time. It is estimated that the overall reduction in energy compared with ceramic routes as practiced in the lab is close to 99%. Conventionally prepared material is compared with material prepared using microwave heating in terms of structure, morphology, and optical properties, including quantum yield and thermal quenching of luminescence. Finally, the microwave-prepared compounds have been incorporated into light-emitting diode 'caps' to test their performance characteristics in a real device, in terms of their photon efficiency and color coordinates.

Birkel, Alexander; Denault, Kristin A.; George, Nathan C.; Doll, Courtney E.; Héry, Bathylle; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Birkel, Christina S.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (Mitsubishi)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Microwave-Assisted Heterogeneous Catalytic Transesterification of Soybean Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biodiesel, as a renewable bioenergy, recently has been researched in regard to biodiesel products. In this study, soybean oil was converted to biodiesel with methanol using several heterogeneous catalysts, furthermore, the process by means of microwave ... Keywords: Biodiesel, Transesterification, Microwave, Heterogeneous

Ming-Chien Hsiao; Pei-Hung Liao; Hsiu-Ling Hsu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

GIMS-based method for vegetation microwave monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is threefold: (1) To present a working methodology for the combined use of modeling technology and microwave remote-sensing measurements in the assessment of attenuation of electromagnetic waves by the vegetation cover; (2) ... Keywords: GIMS, Microwave, Remote sensing, Vegetative cover

Vladimir F. Krapivin; Anatolij M. Shutko; Alexander A. Chukhlantsev; Sergei P. Golovachev; Gary W. Phillips

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Preliminary Design of an Industrial/Commercial Microwave Clothes Dryer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drying fabrics with microwave energy can reduce both the drying time and the drying temperature. This process provides a new level of fabric care to make all fabrics last longer and look better. The purpose of designing a 125-pound commercial/industrial microwave dryer was to perform cost exercises and calculate payback periods.

1997-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

314

Microwave measurement of water content in flowing crude oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave method and a microwave device for measurement of water content in flowing crude oil are proposed. The method is based on measuring power of electromagnetic waves propagated through a transmission line and reflected from the load that is a ...

Yu. V. Makeev; A. P. Lifanov; A. S. Sovlukov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Theoretical Overview of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The theoretical basis for the prediction of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background is very well developed. Very low amplitude density and temperature perturbations produce small gravitational effects, leading to an anisotropy that is a combination of temperature fluctuations at the surface of last scattering and gravitational redshifts both at last scattering and along the path to the observer. All of the primary anisotropy can be handled by linear perturbation theory, which allows a very accurate calculation of the predicted anisotropy from different models of the Universe.

E. L. Wright

2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

318

Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis The invention apparatus can also be used to monitor for the presence of halogens, sulfur and silicon. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis There has been invented a process for analyzing ambient air in a microwave induced plasma without use of an additional carrier gas. There has also been invented an apparatus for analyzing ambient air, other sample gas, or nebulized and desolvated liquids wherein a novel arrangement of plasma gas and sample gas conduits is used to enhance dependability of the plasma. This apparatus embodiment of the invention has a concentric arrangement of

319

Characteristics and potential applications of an ORNL microwave ECR multicusp plasma ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source that has two ECR plasma production regions and uses multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasma over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2} and could be scaled up to produce uniform plasma over 700 cm{sup 2} or larger. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The working gases used were argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of the discharge parameters. The discharge characteristics and a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source are described and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam sources for manufacturing advanced microelectronics, for space electric propulsion, and for fusion research, are discussed. 10 refs., 10 figs.

Tsai, C.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Potential applications of a new microwave ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) multicusp plasma ion source  

SciTech Connect

A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source using two ECR plasma production regions and multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasmas over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2}. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of discharge parameters. Together with the discharge characteristics observed, a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source is reported and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam processing for manufacturing advanced microelectronics and for space electric propulsion, are discussed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Tsai, C.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Science Accelerator content now includes multimedia  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Science Accelerator content now includes multimedia Science Accelerator has expanded its suite of collections to include ScienceCinema, which contains videos produced by the U.S....

322

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts

323

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Petroleum > Analysis > Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) ...

324

MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED THERMAL-ACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Maria Cadeddu

326

Demand for Electric Vehicles in Hybrid Households: An Exploratory Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating coffee or cooking any of hundreds of products which have been specifically repackaged for microwave ovens.

Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Tom; Sperling, Daniel

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

After-hours power status of office equipment and energy use of miscellaneous plug-load equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industrial refrigerator, S freezer incandescent tracklight, 50 lamps each phone/PBX centrex system coffee maker, residential model microwave oven

Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret; Busch, John F.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Microwave processing improvements for methane conversion to ethylene  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project`s objective was to investigate microwave enhanced catalysis. Published work by others had demonstrated improved selectivity in microwave-driven catalytic conversion of 2-methylpentane to its isomers. We reproduced their experiment, discovering that there is no improvement in selectivity using microwaves. The selectivity at a given conversion was the same for both microwave heated and conventionally heated catalyst beds. Meetings with the authors of the previously published work led to the conjecture that their catalyst was not being prepared properly, leading to anomalously low selectivity for their conventional heating runs. An optical temperature diagnostic suitable for use on a microwave applicator was developed and characterized in this project. This pyrometer can measure the temperature of small scale features on the catalyst bed, and it has a fast response that can follow the rapid heating often encountered in a microwave processing system. The behavior of the microwave applicator system was studied, and theoretical models were developed to yield insight about the stability and control of the system.

Stringfield, R.; Ott, K.; Nelson, E.; Anderson, G.; Chen, Dye-Zone; Dyer, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thomas, J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Central symmetry and antisymmetry of the microwave background inhomogeneities on Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We performed a visual and numeric analysis of the deviation of the microwave background temperature on WMAP maps. We proved that the microwave background inhomogeneities possess the property of the central symmetry resulting from the two kinds of central symmetry of the opposite signs. After the computer modeling we have established the relation between the coefficient of the central symmetry and the values of the symmetrical and antisymmetrical components of the deviation of the temperature. The obtained distribution of the symmetry coefficient on the map of the celestial sphere in Mollweide projection testifies on a contribution of both kinds of central symmetry which is approximately equal on the average in absolute magnitude but opposite by sign and where one kind of the central symmetry prevails on some sections of the celestial sphere and another kind - on the others. The average resulting value of the symmetry coefficient on the sections with angular measures less than 15-200 varies within the range fr...

Kudriavtcev, Iurii

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The MW Technology and Activities in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... it possible for system design from existing fire furnaces and microwave ovens. ... Continuous Microwave Furnaces for Industrial-Scale Sintering, Calcining and ...

332

Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Self-consistent microwave plasma heating rates  

SciTech Connect

Under conditions within a hot overdense plasma corona where the field frequency is much less than the electron plasma frequency and the field period is much less than the hydrodynamic expansion time it is shown that electron field reversal heating can exceed the combined classical heating rates due to inverse bremsstrahlung (skin effect) and field pressure (PdV) by a factor approximately v/ sub e//2v/sub i/ (half the ratio of electron and ion thermal velocities). In particular this rate can exceed the inertial expansion cooling rate at a collisionless corona density of approximately 1 percent solid core density and could be realized experimentally at core temperatures approximately 3--5 keV and microwave field intensities approximately 1 MG. (auth)

Ensley, D.L.; White, R.H.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

335

L4, Ultrafast Microwave-Stimulated Sculpting and Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of sulfur doped, Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 by microwave-stimulation. ... which acts as both a shape-mediating agent as well as for dopant delivery.

336

Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

337

Ground-Based Passive Microwave Profiling during Dynamic Weather Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short-period (1–5 min) temperature and humidity soundings up to 10-km height are retrieved from ground-based 12-channel microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) observations. In contrast to radiosondes, the radiometric retrievals provide very high ...

K. R. Knupp; T. Coleman; D. Phillips; R. Ware; D. Cimini; F. Vandenberghe; J. Vivekanandan; E. Westwater

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

High-precision optical and microwave signal synthesis and distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, techniques for high-precision synthesis of optical and microwave signals and their distribution to remote locations are presented. The first topic is ultrafast optical pulse synthesis by coherent superposition ...

Kim, Jung-Won, 1976-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Field Performance of a Spinning-Reflector Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the winter of 1986, two microwave radiometers were operated side by side at a high-altitude weather observation site in the central Sierra Nevada for the purpose of comparing measurements in a variety of ambient weather conditions. The ...

Belay B. Demoz; Arlen W. Huggins; Joseph A. Warburton; Richard L. Smith

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Frontal Rainfall Observation by a Commercial Microwave Communication Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel approach for reconstruction of rainfall spatial–temporal dynamics from a wireless microwave network is presented. It employs a stochastic space–time model based on a rainfall advection model, assimilated using a Kalman filter. The ...

Artem Zinevich; Hagit Messer; Pinhas Alpert

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Evaluation of Passive Microwave Precipitation Algorithms in Wintertime Midlatitude Situations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second intercomparison project of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project examined the estimation of midlatitude, cool-season precipitation. As part of that effort, the authors report here on the results of two microwave techniques the ...

Andrew J. Negri; Eric J. Nelkin; Robert F. Adler; George J. Huffman; Christian Kummerow

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Correcting Microwave Precipitation Retrievals for near-Surface Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper compares two methods for correcting passive or active microwave surface precipitation estimates based on hydrometeors sensed aloft that may evaporate before landing. These corrections were derived using two years ...

Surussavadee, Chinnawat

343

Temperature Profiling with Neural Network Inversion of Microwave Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A neural network is used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature from microwave radiometer data. The overall rms error in the retrieved profiles of a test dataset was only about 8% worse than the overall error using an optimized statistical ...

James H. Churnside; Thomas A. Stermitz; Judith A. Schroeder

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Degradation of Radar Reflectivity by Cloud Attenuation at Microwave Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main object of this paper is to emphasize that clouds—the nonprecipitating component of condensed atmospheric water—can produce a strong attenuation at operational microwave frequencies, although they present a low reflectivity preventing ...

Olivier Pujol; Jean-François Georgis; Laurent Féral; Henri Sauvageot

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidi...

Issadore, David; Brown, Keith A; Sandberg, Lori; Weitz, David; Westervelt, Robert M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Title Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Publication Type Journal...

347

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured SnC Composite Thin-Film anodes for Li-ion Battteries Title Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured SnC...

348

Heterogeneous breast phantom development for microwave imaging using regression models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As new algorithms for microwave imaging emerge, it is important to have standard accurate benchmarking tests. Currently, most researchers use homogeneous phantoms for testing new algorithms. These simple structures lack the heterogeneity of the dielectric ...

Camerin Hahn; Sima Noghanian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

A plasma source for system for microwave plasma experiments (SYMPLE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system "SYMPLE" is being developed at our laboratory to investigate the interaction of high power microwave and plasma. A brief account on the development of a plasma source that satisfies the prerequisites required for SYMPLE is discussed.

V. P. Anitha; Renu Bahl; Priyavandna J. Rathod; Jayesh Raval; Y. C. Saxena

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Tomographic Reconstruction of Rainfall Fields through Microwave Attenuation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented for estimating the space-time rainfall intensity distribution at ground level over a limited area. This is based on a tomographic technique that exploits the relationship between microwave attenuation and rainfall ...

D. Giuli; A. Toccafondi; G. Biffi Gentili; A. Freni

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Development of a Microwave Clothes Dryer: Interim Report I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a microwave clothes dryer has the potential to bring significant consumer benefits to this appliance. Efficient, short drying cycles are possible for both normal and delicate fabrics. The first year of development is described here.

1993-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

352

Retrieval of Ice Cloud Parameters Using a Microwave Imaging Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the radiative transfer theory, the microwave radiance emanating from ice clouds at arbitrary viewing angles is expressed as an analytic function of the cloud ice water path (IWP), the particle effective diameter (De), and the particle ...

Fuzhong Weng; Norman C. Grody

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

A Dual-Frequency Microwave Technique for Measuring Rainwater Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While there are many microwave techniques for estimating the rainfall rate, there are presently few if any for accurately determining the rainwater content (W). This study shows that the dual-frequency (38, 25 GHZ) differential attenuation (A38?...

A. R. Jameson

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our EMI problem, it is becoming very urgent to design and fabricate the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC

Wang, Wei Hua

355

On the forward scattering of microwave breast imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave imaging for breast cancer detection has been of significant interest for the last two decades. Recent studies focus on solving the imaging problem using an inverse scattering approach. Efforts have mainly been focused on the development of ...

Hoi-Shun Lui; Andreas Fhager; Mikael Persson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A Bayesian Approach to Microwave Precipitation Profile Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multichannel passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm is developed. Bayes theorem is used to combine statistical information from numerical cloud models with forward radiative transfer modeling. Amultivariate lognormal prior ...

K. Franklin Evans; Joseph Turk; Takmeng Wong; Graeme L. Stephens

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide by Microwave Solid State Method and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, titanium dioxide was synthetized by microwave solid-state ... Properties of Low-Carbon High-strength and Low-yield Ratio Bainitic Steels ... New Methodology of Enhancing Etching Factor of Copper Pattern for Advanced Packages.

358

Hydrometeor Retrieval Accuracy Using Microwave Window and Sounding Channel Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The retrieval errors of cloud and precipitation hydrometeor contents from spaceborne observations are estimated at microwave frequencies in atmospheric windows between 18 and 150 GHz and in oxygen absorption complexes near 50–60 and 118 GHz. The ...

Peter Bauer; Emmanuel Moreau; Sabatino Di Michele

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Surface wave multipath signals in near-field microwave imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These ...

Paul M. Meaney; Fridon Shubitidze; Margaret W. Fanning; Maciej Kmiec; Neil R. Epstein; Keith D. Paulsen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Using the Special Sensor Microwave Imager to Monitor Surface Wetness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frequencies flown on the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are sensitive to liquid water near the earth's surface. These frequencies are primarily atmospheric window channels, which receive the majority of their radiation from the ...

Alan Basist; Claude Williams Jr.; Thomas F. Ross; Matthew J. Menne; Norman Grody; Ralph Ferraro; Samuel Shen; Alfred T. C. Chang

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Constraining Microwave Brightness Temperatures by Radar Brightband Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multichannel microwave sensors make it possible to construct physically based rainfall retrieval algorithms. In these schemes, errors arising from the inaccuracy of the physical modeling of the cloud system under observation have to be accounted ...

A. Battaglia; C. Kummerow; Dong-Bin Shin; C. Williams

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Estimating the Uncertainty in Passive-Microwave Rain Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current passive-microwave rain-retrieval methods are largely based on databases built offline using cloud models. Since the vertical distribution of hydrometeors within the cloud has a large impact on upwelling brightness temperatures, a forward ...

Dorothée Coppens; Ziad S. Haddad; Eastwood Im

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

A Screening Methodology for Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The success of any passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm relies on the proper identification of rain areas and the elimination of surface areas that produce a signature similar to that of precipitation. A discussion on the impact of ...

Ralph R. Ferraro; Eric A. Smith; Wesley Berg; George J. Huffman

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures as Proxies for Hailstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been used to infer distributions of intense thunderstorms. Besides the lightning measurements from TRMM, the radar reflectivities and passive microwave brightness temperatures have been ...

Daniel J. Cecil

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Quantifying Global Uncertainties in a Simple Microwave Rainfall Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While a large number of methods exist in the literature for retrieving rainfall from passive microwave brightness temperatures, little has been written about the quantitative assessment of the expected uncertainties in these rainfall products at ...

Christian Kummerow; Wesley Berg; Jody Thomas-Stahle; Hirohiko Masunaga

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Neural network microwave precipitation retrievals and modeling results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a simulation methodology used to develop and validate precipitation retrieval algorithms for current and future passive microwave sounders with emphasis on the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational ...

Leslie, R. Vincent

367

Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Duewer, Fred (Albany, CA); Yang, Hai Tao (Albany, CA); Lu, Yalin (Chelmsford, MA)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

368

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

369

Effects of localized microwave exposure on the dog thyroid  

SciTech Connect

The effects of localized microwave (2.45 GHz, CW) exposure of the dog thyroid gland were investigated. A dielectrically loaded waveguide applicator was designed and fabricated which efficiencly couples microwave energy to a small (2.54 cm x 5.08 cm) area of biological tissue. The function of the thyroid gland was assessed by the measurement of total plasma thyroxine (T4) using a radioimmunoassay.

Magin, R.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Method and device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave sintering system and method are provided for extremely uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shaped ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing through an overmoded waveguide arrangement which acts in conjunction with a mode promoter within the cavity to achieve unexpected field uniformity. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200.degree. C./min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent of non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered.

Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

1987-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Uniform bulk Material Processing using Multimode Microwave Radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE{sub 10}-mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE{sub 11}-, TE{sub 01}- and TM{sub 01}-cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

Varma, Ravi; Vaughan, Worth E.

1999-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

373

Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

Varma, Ravi (Los Alamos, NM); Vaughn, Worth E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

Temporal Variations of Land Surface Microwave Emissivities over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface microwave emissivities are important geophysical parameters for atmospheric, hydrological, and biospheric studies. This study estimates land surface microwave emissivity using an atmospheric microwave radiative transfer model and a ...

Bing Lin; Patrick Minnis

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The Impact of Spatial Resolution Enhancement of SSM/I Microwave Brightness Temperatures on Rainfall Retrieval Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of spatial resolution enhancement on estimates of tropical typhoon rainfall based on SSM/1 (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) measurements is evaluated with six different microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms. Passive microwave ...

Michael R. Farrar; Eric A. Smith; Xuwu Xiang

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Generating Single Microwave Photons in a Circuit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electromagnetic signals in circuits consist of discrete photons, though conventional voltage sources can only generate classical fields with a coherent superposition of many different photon numbers. While these classical signals can control and measure bits in a quantum computer (qubits), single photons can carry quantum information, enabling non-local quantum interactions, an important resource for scalable quantum computing. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip single photon source in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture, with a microwave transmission line cavity that collects the spontaneous emission of a single superconducting qubit with high efficiency. The photon source is triggered by a qubit rotation, as a photon is generated only when the qubit is excited. Tomography of both qubit and fluorescence photon shows that arbitrary qubit states can be mapped onto the photon state, demonstrating an ability to convert a stationary qubit into a flying qubit. Both the average power and voltage of the photon source are characterized to verify performance of the system. This single photon source is an important addition to a rapidly growing toolbox for quantum optics on a chip.

A. A. Houck; D. I. Schuster; J. M. Gambetta; J. A. Schreier; B. R. Johnson; J. M. Chow; J. Majer; L. Frunzio; M. H. Devoret; S. M. Girvin; R. J. Schoelkopf

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

378

Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers April 24, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the American Institute of Physics Resources. Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the

379

Transmission line including support means with barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Central symmetry and antisymmetry of the microwave background inhomogeneities on Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We performed a visual and numeric analysis of the deviation of the microwave background temperature on WMAP maps. We proved that the microwave background inhomogeneities possess the property of the central symmetry resulting from the two kinds of central symmetry of the opposite signs. After the computer modeling we have established the relation between the coefficient of the central symmetry and the values of the symmetrical and antisymmetrical components of the deviation of the temperature. The obtained distribution of the symmetry coefficient on the map of the celestial sphere in Mollweide projection testifies on a contribution of both kinds of central symmetry which is approximately equal on the average in absolute magnitude but opposite by sign and where one kind of the central symmetry prevails on some sections of the celestial sphere and another kind - on the others. The average resulting value of the symmetry coefficient on the sections with angular measures less than 15-200 varies within the range from -50% to +50% with some prevalence of the antisymmetry - the average coefficient of the central symmetry for the whole celestial sphere is -4 +/- 1%. (antisymmetry 4%). Small scale structure of the distribution indicates that it is the result of the combined action of the mechanisms of the central symmetry and central antisymmetry, close to 100%.

Iurii Kudriavtcev; Dmitry A. Semenov

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

DISASTER POLICY Including Extreme Emergent Situations (EES)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the ACGME website with information relating to the ACGME response to the disaster. 3. The University-specific Program Requirements. Defined Responsibilities Following the Declaration of a Disaster or Extreme EmergentPage 123 DISASTER POLICY Including Extreme Emergent Situations (EES) The University of Connecticut

Oliver, Douglas L.

382

Role of nanoscale AlN and InN for the microwave characteristics of AlGaN/(Al,In)N/GaN-based HEMT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new AlGaN/GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is proposed and its micro-wave characteristics are discussed by introducing a nanoscale AlN or InN layer to study the potential improvement in their high frequency performance. The 2DEG transport mechanism including various sub-band calculations for both (Al,In) N-based HEMTs are also discussed in the paper. Apart from direct current characteristics of the proposed HEMT, various microwave parameters such as transconductance, unit current gain (h{sub 21} = 1) cut-off frequency (f{sub t}), high power-gain frequency (f{sub max}). Masons available/stable gain and masons unilateral gain are also discussed for both devices to understand its suitable deployment in microwave frequency range.

Lenka, T. R., E-mail: trlenka@gmail.com; Panda, A. K., E-mail: akpanda62@hotmail.com [National Institute of Science and Technology (India)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Reversible and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Converting low-frequency electrical signals into much higher frequency optical signals has enabled modern communications networks to leverage both the strengths of microfabricated electrical circuits and optical fiber transmission, allowing information networks to grow in size and complexity. A microwave-to-optical converter in a quantum information network could provide similar gains by linking quantum processors via low-loss optical fibers and enabling a large-scale quantum network. However, no current technology can convert low-frequency microwave signals into high-frequency optical signals while preserving their fragile quantum state. For this demanding application, a converter must provide a near-unitary transformation between different frequencies; that is, the ideal transformation is reversible, coherent, and lossless. Here we demonstrate a converter that reversibly, coherently, and efficiently links the microwave and optical portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. We use our converter to transfer classical signals between microwave and optical light with conversion efficiencies of ~10%, and achieve performance sufficient to transfer quantum states if the device were further precooled from its current 4 kelvin operating temperature to below 40 millikelvin. The converter uses a mechanically compliant membrane to interface optical light with superconducting microwave circuitry, and this unique combination of technologies may provide a way to link distant nodes of a quantum information network.

R. W. Andrews; R. W. Peterson; T. P. Purdy; K. Cicak; R. W. Simmonds; C. A. Regal; K. W. Lehnert

2013-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

In the past {approx}7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future.

Myrabo, Leik N. [Lightcraft Technologies, Inc., Bennington, VT (United States)

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Buildings Included on EMS Reports"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports" "Site","Property Name","Property ID","GSF","Incl. in Water Baseline (CY2007)","Water Baseline (sq. ft.)","Water CY2008 (sq. ft.)","Water CY2009 (sq. ft.)","Water Notes","Incl. in Energy Baseline (CY2003)","Energy Baseline (sq. ft.)","CY2008 Energy (sq. ft.)","CY2009 Energy (sq. ft.)","Energy Notes","Included as Existing Building","CY2008 Existing Building (sq. ft.)","Reason for Building Exclusion" "Column Totals",,"Totals",115139,,10579,10579,22512,,,3183365,26374,115374,,,99476 "Durango, CO, Disposal/Processing Site","STORAGE SHED","DUD-BLDG-STORSHED",100,"no",,,,,"no",,,,"OSF","no",,"Less than 5,000 GSF"

386

Power generation method including membrane separation  

SciTech Connect

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Advanced Rain/No-Rain Classification Methods for Microwave Radiometer Observations over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seto et al. developed rain/no-rain classification (RNC) methods over land for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI). In this study, the methods are modified for application to other microwave radiometers. The ...

Shinta Seto; Takuji Kubota; Nobuhiro Takahashi; Toshio Iguchi; Taikan Oki

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Intercalibrating Microwave Satellite Observations for Monitoring Long-Term Variations in Upper- and Midtropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the growing archive of 183-GHz water vapor absorption band measurements from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on board polar-orbiting satellites and document adjustments ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden; Viju O. John

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Observational Analyses of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones from NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellite Microwave Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave observations from the current NOAA series of polar-orbiting satellites of a large sample of North Atlantic tropical cyclones are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Microwave observations can penetrate the cloud cover ...

Christopher S. Velden

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

False-Color Display of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Displays of multi-frequency passive microwave data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) flying on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft are presented. Observed brightness temperatures at 85.5 GHz (vertical and ...

Andrew J. Negri; Robert F. Adler; Christian D. Kummerow

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Simulation of Microwave Brightness Temperatures of an Evolving Hailstorm at SSM/I Frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation of the appearance of an intense hailstorm in the passive microwave spectrum is conducted in order to characterize the vertical sources of radiation that contribute to the top-of-atmosphere microwave brightness temperatures (TB) which ...

Alberto Mugnai; Harry J. Cooper; Eric A. Smith; Gregory J. Tripoli

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Aircraft Multifrequency Passive Microwave Observations of Light Precipitation over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft passive microwave observations at 18, 37, 92, and 183 GHz of light oceanic precipitation are studied in conjunction with visible and infrared observations and ground-based radar data. Microwave signatures for clear, cloudy, and ...

Robert F. Adler; Ida M. Hakkarinen

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Quantitative Measurements of Path-Integrated Rain Rate by an Airborne Microwave Radiometer over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data on the airborne microwave radiometer, which is one of the sensors of the airborne microwave rain-scatterometer/radiometer (AMRS) system, are analyzed to infer path-integrated rain rate measured from topside. The equation of radiative ...

Masaharu Fujita; Ken'ichi Okamoto; Harunobu Masuko; Takeyuki Ojima; Nobuyoshi Fugono

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Relationships between Evaporative Fraction and Remotely Sensed Vegetation Index and Microwave Brightness Temperature for Semiarid Rangelands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the microwave brightness temperature (TB) with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were made on selected days during the MONSOON 90 field campaign. The PBMR is an L-band ...

W. P. Kustas; T. J. Schmugge; K. S. Humes; T. J. Jackson; R. Parry; M. A. Weltz; M. S. Moran

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Improved Passive Microwave Retrievals of Rain Rate over Land and Ocean. Part II: Validation and Intercomparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new passive microwave rainfall retrieval algorithm for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) that relies on an a priori database derived from matchups between TMI brightness temperatures and precipitation radar (...

Grant W. Petty; Ke Li

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Microwave Radiative Transfer Studies Using Combined Multiparameter Radar and Radiometer Measurements during COHMEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical calculations of the upwelling microwave radiances from clouds containing layers of rain, ice, and a melting region were performed at frequencies of 18, 37, and 92 GHz. These frequencies coincide with high-resolution microwave ...

J. Vivekanandan; J. Turk; G. L. Stephens; V. N. Bringi

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer Data and an Antecedent Precipitation Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear ...

Gregory D. Wilke; Marshall J. McFarland

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

A New Shipborne Microwave Refractometer for Estimating the Evaporation Flux at the Sea Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After a brief description of humidity measurement and a short presentation of methods of microwave refractometry for evaporation flux, a new X-band refractometer system is presented. Based on a new design and a new material for the microwave ...

J.-Y. Delahaye; C. Guerin; J. P. Vinson; H. Dupuis; A. Weill; H. Branger; L. Eymard; J. Lavergnat; G. Lachaud

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Passive Microwave Structure of Severe Tornadic Storms on 16 November 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave observations using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager are presented for severe tornadic storms in the lower midwestern United States on 16 November 1987. These measurements are compared with Geostationary Operational ...

Gerald M. Heymsfield; Richard Fulton

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A Method for Combined Passive?Active Microwave Retrievals of Cloud and Precipitation Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional tropical squall-line simulations from the Goddard cumulus ensemble (GCE) model are used as input to radiative computations of upwelling microwave brightness temperatures and radar reflectivities at selected microwave sensor ...

William S. Olson; Christian D. Kummerow; Gerald M. Heymsfield; Louis Giglio

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Passive Microwave Observations of the Stratiform Regions of Two Tropical Oceanic Mesoscale Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution passive microwave observations within the stratiform regions of two different tropical oceanic mesoscale convective systems are investigated in detail. The observations were obtained from the Advanced Microwave Precipitation ...

Gary McGaughey; Edward J. Zipser

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Heating Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1 ? QR) where Q1 is the apparent ...

Mircea Grecu; William S. Olson; Chung-Lin Shie; Tristan S. L’Ecuyer; Wei-Kuo Tao

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Improved Passive Microwave Retrievals of Rain Rate Over Land and Ocean. 2. Validation and Intercomparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new passive microwave rainfall retrieval algorithm for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) has been developed that relies on a prior database derived from matchups between TMI brightness temperatures and ...

Grant W. Petty; Ke Li

406

On-orbit radiometric validation and field-of-view calibration of spaceborne microwave sounding instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two calibration/validation efforts planned for current and future spaceborne microwave sounding instruments will be presented. First, the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed-Microwave (NAST-M) airborne sensor is used to directly ...

Blackwell, William J.

407

Microwave Enhanced Rapid Solid State Synthesis of LiFePO4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Saccharification Process of Cellulosic Biomass by Microwave Irradiation · Novel Lamination Method for Large Armor Panels · Raman Spectroscopy for ...

408

Microwave tomography for breast cancer detection on Cell broadband engine processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave tomography (MT) is a safe screening modality that can be used for breast cancer detection. The technique uses the dielectric property contrasts between different breast tissues at microwave frequencies to determine the existence of abnormalities. ... Keywords: Breast cancer detection, Cell BE processor, Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), Microwave tomography (MT)

Meilian Xu; Parimala Thulasiraman; Sima Noghanian

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Microwave whispering gallery resonator for efficient optical up-conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conversion of microwave radiation into the optical range has been predicted to reach unity quantum efficiency in whispering gallery resonators made from an optically nonlinear crystal and supporting microwave and optical modes simultaneously. In this work we theoretically explore and experimentally demonstrate a resonator geometry that can provide the required phase matching for such a conversion at any desired frequency in the sub-THz range. We show that such a ring-shaped resonator not only allows for the phase matching, but also maximizes the overlap of the interacting fields. As a result, unity-efficient conversion is expected in a resonator with feasible parameters.

D. V. Strekalov; H. G. L. Schwefel; A. A. Savchenkov; A. B. Matsko; L. J. Wang; N. Yu

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

410

Microwave heating effect on the dog thyroid gland  

SciTech Connect

Dog thyroid glands were exposed in vivo to 2450 MHz, CW microwave fields for 2 h using a dielectrically loaded waveguide applicator. Specific absorption rates of 58, 131, and 190 W/kg in the center of the thyroid gland resulted in temperatures of 38 to 39/sup 0/C, 40 to 42/sup 0/C, and 44 to 46/sup 0/C, respectively. An increase in the heated gland's thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), release rate was observed. This result demonstrates that the dog thyroid gland can be directly stimulated by microwave heating.

Magin, R.L.; Lu, S.T.; Michaelson, S.M.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Apparatus for mounting a diode in a microwave circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for mounting a diode in a microwave circuit for making electrical contact between the circuit and ground and for dissipation of heat between the diode and a heat sink. The diode, supported on a thermally and electrically conductive member, is resiliently pressed in electrical contact with the microwave circuit. A tapered collar on the member is elastically deformably wedged into a tapered aperture formed in a heat sink. The wedged collar tightens firmly around the member establishing good thermal and electrical conduction from the diode to the heat sink and ground. Disassembly is facilitated because of the elastically deformed collar.

Liu, Shing-gong (Princeton, NJ)

1976-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

414

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet. 7 figs.

Ury, M.; Sowers, F.; Harper, C.; Love, W.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

416

Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet.

Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD); Sowers, Frank (Frederick, MD); Harper, Curt (Wheaton, MD); Love, Wayne (Olney, MD)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Theory of Microwave Instability and Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Electron Storage Rings  

SciTech Connect

Bursting of coherent synchrotron radiation has been observed and in fact used to generate THz radiation in many electron storage rings. In order to understand and control the bursting, we return to the study of the microwave instability. In this paper, we will report on the theoretical understanding, including recent developments, of the microwave instability in electron storage rings. The historical progress of the theories will be surveyed, starting from the dispersion relation of coasting beams, to the work of Sacherer on a bunched beam, and ending with the Oide and Yokoya method of discretization. This theoretical survey will be supplemented with key experimental results over the years. Finally, we will describe the recent theoretical development of utilizing the Laguerre polynomials in the presence of potential-well distortion. This self-consistent method will be applied to study the microwave instability driven the impedances due to the coherent synchrotron radiation. Over the past quarter century, there has been steady progress toward smaller transverse emittances in electron storage rings used for synchrotron light sources, from tens of nm decades ago to the nm range recently. In contrast, there is not much progress made in the longitudinal plane. For an electron bunch in a typical ring, its relative energy spread {sigma}{sub {delta}} remains about 10{sup -3} and its length {sigma}{sub z} is still in between 5 mm to 10 mm. Now the longitudinal emittance ({sigma}{sub {delta}}{sigma}{sub z}) becomes a factor of thousand larger than those in the transverse dimensions. In this paper, we will address questions of: How short a bunch can be? What is the fundamental limit? If there is a limit, is there any mitigation method? Since the synchrotron radiation is so fundamental in electron storage rings, let us start with the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR).

Cai, Y.; /SLAC

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

418

Models of Procyon A including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed models of Procyon A based on new asteroseismic measurements by Eggenberger et al (2004) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including shellular rotation and atomic diffusion. By combining all non-asteroseismic observables now available for Procyon A with these seismological data, we find that the observed mean large spacing of 55.5 +- 0.5 uHz favours a mass of 1.497 M_sol for Procyon A. We also determine the following global parameters of Procyon A: an age of t=1.72 +- 0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.290 +- 0.010, a nearly solar initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0234 +- 0.0015 and a mixing-length parameter alpha=1.75 +- 0.40. Moreover, we show that the effects of rotation on the inner structure of the star may be revealed by asteroseismic observations if frequencies can be determined with a high precision. Existing seismological data of Procyon A are unfortunately not accurate enough to really test these differences in the input physics of our models.

P. Eggenberger; F. Carrier; F. Bouchy

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

419

2172 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 45, NO. 12, DECEMBER 1997 1997 IMS Technical Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the themes: Millimeter Waves over Fiber Systems, Microwave Applications of Silicon Carbide, Electromagnetic

Popovic, Zoya

420

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of II-VI Semiconductor Micro- and Nanoparticles towards Sensor Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering particles at the nanoscale demands a high degree of control over process parameters during synthesis. For nanocrystal synthesis, solution-based techniques typically include application of external convective heat. This process often leads to slow heating and allows decomposition of reagents or products over time. Microwave-assisted heating provides faster, localized heating at the molecular level with near instantaneous control over reaction parameters. In this work, microwave-assisted heating has been applied for the synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals namely, ZnO nanopods and CdX (X = Se, Te) quantum dots (QDs). Based on factors such as size, surface functionality and charge, optical properties of such nanomaterials can be tuned for application as sensors. ZnO is a direct bandgap semiconductor (3.37 eV) with a large exciton binding energy (60 meV) leading to photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach allows the use of sub-5 nm ZnO zero-dimensional nanoparticles as seeds for generation of multi-legged quasi one-dimensional nanopods via heterogeneous nucleation. ZnO nanopods, having individual leg diameters of 13-15 nm and growing along the [0001] direction, can be synthesized in as little as 20 minutes. ZnO nanopods exhibit a broad defect-related PL spanning the visible range with a peak at ~615 nm. Optical sensing based on changes in intensity of the defect PL in response to external environment (e.g., humidity) is demonstrated in this work. Microwave-assisted synthesis was also used for organometallic synthesis of CdX(ZnS) (X = Se, Te) core(shell) QDs. Optical emission of these QDs can be altered ased on their size and can be tailored to specific wavelengths. Further, QDs were incorporated in Enhanced Green-Fluorescent Protein – Ultrabithorax (EGFP-Ubx) fusion protein for the generation of macroscale composite protein fibers via hierarchal self-assembly. Variations in EGFP- Ubx·QD composite fiber surface morphology and internal QD distribution were studied with respect to (i) time of QD addition (i.e., pre or post protein self-assembly) and (ii) QD surface charge — negatively charged QDs with dihydrolipoic acid functionalization and positively charged QDs with polyethyleneimine coating. Elucidating design motifs and understanding factors that impact the protein-nanoparticle interaction enables manipulation of the structure and mechanical properties of composite materials.

Majithia, Ravish

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Microwave methods for paving. Final report, Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to attempt to identify important highway pavement maintenance and rehabilitation needs and to propose microwave methods and equipment that could be profitably used for this work. As a starting point it is already perceived and accepted that the major emphasis in the US paving indu

Jeppson, M.E.

1984-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Moisture Analysis from Radiosonde and Microwave Spectrometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for analysis of the horizontal and vertical distributions of the moisture field utilizing satellite, upper air and surface data is proposed in this paper. A brief overview of the microwave sensors on board Nimbus 5 and 6 is also ...

Kenneth J. Haydu; T. N. Krishnamurti

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Quantum nondemolition detection of a propagating microwave photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to detect the presence of a single, travelling photon without destroying it has been a long standing project in optics and is fundamental for applications in quantum information and measurement. The realization of such a detector has been complicated by the fact that photon- photon interactions are very weak at optical frequencies. At microwave frequencies, very strong photon-photon interactions have been demonstrated. Here however, the single-photon detector has been elusive due to the low energy of the microwave photon. In this article, we present a realistic proposal for quantum nondemolition measurements of a single propagating microwave photon. The detector design is built on a of chain of artificial atoms connected through circulators which break time-reversal symmetry, making both signal and probe photons propagate in one direction only. Our analysis is based on the theory of cascaded quantum systems and quantum trajectories which takes the full dynamics of the atom-field interaction into account. We show that a signal-to-noise ratio above one can be realized with current state of the art microwave technology.

Sankar R. Sathyamoorthy; L. Tornberg; Anton F. Kockum; Ben Q. Baragiola; Joshua Combes; C. M. Wilson; Thomas M. Stace; G. Johansson

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

425

Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

Cadeddu, MP

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

426

SPS ionosphere/microwave beam interactions: Arecibo experimental studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this program is to determine the environmental impacts associated with the operation of the proposed SPS microwave power transmission system. It is expected that thermal effects will provide the dominant force driving the nonlinear ionosphere/microwave beam interactions. Collisional damping of radio waves, producing ohmic heating of the ionospheric plasma, depends inversely on the square of the radio wave frequency. Therefore, equivalent heating and equivalent thermal forces can be generated at lower radiated power densities by using lower radio wave frequencies. This principle is fundamental to a large part of the experimental program. An understanding of the physics of the specific interactions excited by the SPS microwave beam is also an important part of the assessment program. This program is designed to determine instability thresholds, the growth rates and spatial extent of the resultant ionospheric disturbances, and the frequency and power dependences of the interactions. How these interactions are affected by variations in the natural ionospheric conditions, how different instabilities occurring simultaneously may affect each other, and how distinct microwave beams might mutually interact are studied. Status of the program is described. (WHK)

Duncan, L.M.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

428

Severe Storm Observations Using the Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microwave sounding unit (MSU) aboard the NOAA polar orbiting satellites contains four channels in the oxygen band, at 50.30, 53.74, 54.96 and 57.95 GHz, which receive thermal radiation originating primarily from four regions ranging from the ...

Norman C. Grody

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program (CDEP). [Microwave and non-microwave health and ecological assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the satellite power system (SPS), satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted to electricity. This SPS environmental assessment considers the microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and effects on electromagnetic systems. No environmental problem has been identified that would preclude the continued study of SPS technology. To increase the certainty of the assessment, some research has been initiated and long-term research is being planned.

Valentino, A.R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

AMI OBSERVATIONS OF THE ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of the known anomalous microwave emission region, G159.6-18.5, in the Perseus molecular cloud at 16 GHz performed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array. These are the highest angular resolution observations of G159.6-18.5 at microwave wavelengths. By combining these microwave data with infrared observations between 5.8 and 160 {mu}m from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we investigate the existence of a microwave-infrared correlation on angular scales of {approx}2'. We find that the overall correlation appears to increase toward shorter infrared wavelengths, which is consistent with the microwave emission being produced by electric dipole radiation from small, spinning dust grains. We also find that the microwave-infrared correlation peaks at 24 {mu}m (6.7{sigma}), suggesting that the microwave emission is originating from a population of stochastically heated small interstellar dust grains rather than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Tibbs, C. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scaife, A. M. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Watson, R. A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grainge, K. J. B., E-mail: ctibbs@ipac.caltech.edu [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

431

A Novel Technology for the Reduction of NOx on Char by Microwaves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The emphasis on reduction of NOx as a precursor to street level ozone has increased the need for technologies capable of reducing NOx (>95%) to very low levels in major metropolitan areas from a wide variety of sources. Technology offerings available today may not always be appropriate for every desired application in the utility and industrial sectors. This paper will discuss a new technology under development that has promise to address many of the specialized needs of some of these applications. The technology is directed at NOx reduction but may also address other pollutants like SO2. The technology employees char, a heat treated and devolitilized form of coal, to adsorb NOx from the flue (or waste) gas. Adsorption of greater than 99% has been demonstrated on a lab scale and appears very feasible for scale-up. Microwave energy properly applied to the char loaded with NOx converts the NOx via carbon reduction to nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The role of microwave energy in the efficient destruction of the NOx selectively to nitrogen and CO2 differentiates this technology from other technologies that may generate significant byproducts like CO or N2O. The basic principles of the technology, applications where it is appropriate, and a comparison to other NOx technologies are included in the paper as well as the developmental status and plans.

Buenger, C.; Peterson, E.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

CANCELLED Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for anAccelerator-Driven Neut ron Source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm{sup 2} and with atomic fraction > 90% was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D{sup +} beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create {approx} 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. They observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations.

Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt,B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

Behavior of an Inversion-Based precipitation Retrieval Algorithm with High-Resolution AMPR Measurements Including a Low-Frequency 10.7-GHz Channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer(AMPR) flown on ANASA ...

E. A. Smith; X. Xiang; A. Mugnai; R. E. Hood; R. W. Spencer

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Microwave Radiometer Calibration on Decadal Time Scales Using On-Earth Brightness Temperature References: Application to the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described to calibrate a satellite microwave radiometer operating near 18–37 GHz on decadal time scales for the purposes of climate studies. The method uses stable on-earth brightness temperature references over the full dynamic range ...

Shannon Brown; Shailen Desai; Stephen Keihm; Wenwen Lu

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES  

SciTech Connect

We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

437

Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed manner and determine scaling properties of surface soil moisture using passive microwave remote sensing. The study was divided into two parts. For the first study, a root zone soil moisture assessment tool (SMAT) was developed in the ArcGIS platform by fully integrating a one-dimensional vadose zone hydrology model (HYDRUS-ET) with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation capability. The tool was tested with dataset from the Southern Great Plain 1997 (SGP97) hydrology remote sensing experiment. Results demonstrated that SMAT displayed a reasonable capability to generate soil moisture distribution at the desired resolution at various depths of the root zone in Little Washita watershed during the SGP97 hydrology remote sensing experiment. To improve the model performance, several outstanding issues need to be addressed in the future by: including "effective" hydraulic parameters across spatial scales; implementing subsurface soil properties data bases using direct and indirect methods; incorporating appropriate hydrologic processes across spatial scales; accounting uncertainties in forcing data; and preserving interactions for spatially correlated pixels. The second study focused on spatial scaling properties of the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR)-based remotely sensed surface soil moisture fields in a region with high row crop agriculture. A wavelet based multi-resolution technique was used to decompose the soil moisture fields into larger-scale average soil moisture fields and fluctuations in horizontal, diagonal and vertical directions at various resolutions. The specific objective was to relate soil moisture variability at the scale of the PSR footprint (800 m X 800 m) to larger scale average soil moisture field variability. We also investigated the scaling characteristics of fluctuation fields among various resolutions. The spatial structure of soil moisture exhibited linearity in the log-log dependency of the variance versus scale-factor, up to a scale factor of -2.6 (6100 m X 6100 m) irrespective of wet and dry conditions, whereas dry fields reflect nonlinear (multi-scaling) behavior at larger scale-factors.

Das, Narendra N.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Water is used for many purposes, includ-ing growing crops, producing copper,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WATER USES Water is used for many purposes, includ- ing growing crops, producing copper, generating electricity, watering lawns, keeping clean, drinking and recreation. Bal- ancing the water budget comes down of the water budget. Reducing demand involves re- ducing how much water each person uses, lim- iting the number

439

Continuous measurement of a microwave-driven solid state qubit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the dynamics of a continuously observed, damped, microwave driven solid state charge qubit. The qubit consists of a single electron in a double well potential, coupled to an oscillating electric field, and which is continuously observed by a nearby point contact electrometer. The microwave field induces transitions between the qubit eigenstates, which have a profound effect on the detector output current. We show that useful information about the qubit dynamics, such as dephasing and relaxation rates, and the Rabi frequency, can be extracted from the DC detector conductance and the detector output noise power spectrum. We also demonstrate that these phenomena can be used for single shot electron \\emph{spin} readout, for spin based quantum information processing.

S. D. Barrett; T. M. Stace

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

Moschler, William W [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hanson, Gregory R [ORNL

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Porosity level estimation in polymer composites using microwaves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of microwaves to monitor variations in porosity level of composite samples is studied. Measurements of several carefully prepared samples with different air volume fractions are performed at the frequency range of 8.2--18 GHz. The measurement results indicated that there is an excellent sensitivity to small differences in porosity level. A two-phase mixing model used for predicting the dielectric properties as a function of porosity level shows good agreement with the measured results. This model may be used to closely predict the amount of air content from measured dielectric properties. Changes in clustered (local) porosity are studied experimentally as well. Microwave scan of specially prepared samples with about 5% change in air content (local porosity variation) are also presented.

Gray, S.; Ganchev, S.; Qaddoumi, N.; Beauregard, G.; Radford, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Zoughi, R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Observational Constraints on Microwave Anisotropy from Point Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applying basic physical principles to recent observational results, we derive upper and lower limits on microwave anisotropy from point sources over the range of frequencies 10-1000 GHz. We examine the level of noise in the observations as a possible indication of source confusion at subarcminute scales. We also derive an upper limit on microwave anisotropy caused by the sources responsible for the Far-Infrared Background radiation detected in FIRAS data. Our upper limit on point source confusion of DeltaT/T=10^{-5} for a 10' beam at 100 GHz would cause severe foreground contamination for CMB anisotropy observations, although the actual contamination level is probably much lower. This upper limit constrains the long-feared possibility of an undetected population of sources with emission peaking near 100 GHz. Source detections closer to 100 GHz are needed to improve our knowledge of galaxy evolution at high redshift and to predict the level of point source confusion.

Eric Gawiser; Andrew Jaffe; Joseph Silk

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

Proposal for a coherent quantum memory for propagating microwave photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a multi-mode quantum memory for propagating microwave photons that combines a solid-state spin ensemble resonantly coupled to a frequency tunable single-mode microwave cavity. We first show that high efficiency mapping of the quantum state transported by a free photon to the spin ensemble is possible both for strong and weak coupling between the cavity mode and the spin ensemble. We also show that even in the weak coupling limit unit efficiency and faithful retrieval can be obtained through time reversal inhomogeneous dephasing based on spin echo techniques. This is possible provided that the cavity containing the spin ensemble and the transmission line are impedance matched. We finally discuss the prospects for an experimental implementation using a rare-earth doped crystal coupled to a superconducting resonator.

M. Afzelius; N. Sangouard; G. Johansson; M. U. Staudt; C. M. Wilson

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

444

Superluminal tunneling of microwaves in smoothly varying transmission lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tunneling of microwaves through a smooth barrier in a transmission line is considered. In contrast to standard wave barriers, we study the case where the dielectric permittivity is positive, and the barrier is caused by the inhomogeneous dielectric profile. It is found that reflectionless, superluminal tunneling can take place for waves with a finite spectral width. The consequences of these findings are discussed, and an experimental setup testing our predictions is proposed.

Shvartsburg, A B; Brodin, G; Stenflo, L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

Marcinek, Marek (Warszawa, PL); Kostecki, Robert (Lafayette, CA)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

446

Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Investigation of Microwave Instability on Electron Storage Ring TLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the planned installation of a superconducting rf system, the new operation mode of TLS, the electron storage ring at NSRRC, is expected to double the beam intensity. Several accelerator physics topics need to be examined. Beam instability of single-bunch longitudinal microwave instability is one of these topics. We consider two approaches to measure the effective broad band impedance. We compare these measurement results with each other and to old data [Ref.1]. We calculate the threshold current of microwave instability with a mode-mixing analysis code written by Dr. K. Oide of KEK [Ref.2]. We also develop a multi-particle tracking code to simulate the instability. The results of simulation and measurement are compared and discussed. We conclude that doubling of beam current from 200 mA (1.5 mA/bunch) to 400 mA (3 mA/bunch) will not trigger the microwave instability even without a Landau cavity to lengthen the bunch. The benefit of Landau cavity is mainly for beam life time.

Wang, M.-H.; /NSRRC, Taiwan; Chao, A.; /SLAC

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

448

Localized electrical fine tuning of passive microwave and radio frequency devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the localized electrical fine tuning of passive multiple element microwave or RF devices in which a nonlinear dielectric material is deposited onto predetermined areas of a substrate containing the device. An appropriate electrically conductive material is deposited over predetermined areas of the nonlinear dielectric and the signal line of the device for providing electrical contact with the nonlinear dielectric. Individual, adjustable bias voltages are applied to the electrically conductive material allowing localized electrical fine tuning of the devices. The method of the present invention can be applied to manufactured devices, or can be incorporated into the design of the devices so that it is applied at the time the devices are manufactured. The invention can be configured to provide localized fine tuning for devices including but not limited to coplanar waveguides, slotline devices, stripline devices, and microstrip devices.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

449

Microwave proton source development for a high-current linac injector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Powerful CW proton linear accelerators (100-mA at 0.5--1.0 GeV) are being proposed for spallation neutron-source applications. A 75-keV, 110-mA dc proton injector using a microwave ion source is being tested for these applications. It has achieved 80-keV, 110-mA hydrogen-ion-beam operation. Video and dc beam-current toroid diagnostics are operational, and an EPICS control system is also operational on the 75-keV injector. A technical base development program has also been carried out on a 50-keV injector obtained from Chalk River Laboratories, and it includes low-energy beam transport studies, ion source lifetime tests, and proton-fraction enhancement studies. Technical base results and the present status of the 75-keV injector will be presented.

Sherman, J.; Bolme, G.; Geisik, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Accelerator Operations and Technology Div.] [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Costs and Benefits of Home-Based Telecommuting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bulb Microwave Oven Cooling – Air Conditioning Heating – GasOven Rangetop Burner – Electric Rangetop Burner – Gas Cooling – Fan Cooling – Window System Cooling – Air Conditioning (3-ton) Portable Heater Heating –

Shafizadeh, Kevan R.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Salomon, Ilan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

space heating, steam applications and in the curing ovens ofovens, there is significant heat input during the heating upOven type Infrared paint curing UV paint curing Microwave heating

Galitsky, Christina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Temperature and pore pressure distribution in a concrete slab during the microwave decontamination process  

SciTech Connect

As an application of microwave engineering, the new technology of concrete decontamination and decommissioning using microwave energy has been recently developed. The temperature and pore pressure within the concrete are studied theoretically in this paper. The heat and mass transfer within the porous concrete, coupled with temperature dependent dielectric property are investigated. The effects of microwave frequency (f), microwave power intensity (Q{sub 0,ave}), concrete porosity ({phi}) on the temperature and pore pressure distributions and their variations are fully discussed. The effects of the variation of complex dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}) and presentation of different steel reinforcements are also illustrated.

Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; White, T.L.; Grubb, R.G.; Foster, D. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Development of a Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and con- rity, non-proliferation, and nuclear safeguards5 · 10 11 n/s in non-proliferation applica- tions. Microwave

Waldmann, Ole

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

A conceptual scheme for focusing of high power microwaves in SYMPLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conceptual Scheme of Focusing the High pulsed microwave power generated by "VIRCATOR" on plasma produced in "SYMPLE", using Plasma Lens, is discussed.

Renu Bahl; K. Sathyanarayna; V. P. Anitha; Priyavandna J. Rathod; Y. C. Saxena

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

J-13: Effect of Co Substitution on Microwave Absorption of BaFe12O19  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, J-13: Effect of Co Substitution on Microwave Absorption of ... Energy Harvesting and Cooling with Flexible and Light-Weight Organic ...

456

Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

457

Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS Reports Office of Legacy Management Buildings Included on EMS...

458

Radiative Transfer Simulations Using Mesoscale Cloud Model Outputs: Comparisons with Passive Microwave and Infrared Satellite Observations for Midlatitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Real midlatitude meteorological cases are simulated over western Europe with the cloud mesoscale model Méso-NH, and the outputs are used to calculate brightness temperatures at microwave frequencies with the Atmospheric Transmission at Microwave (...

Ingo Meirold-Mautner; Catherine Prigent; Eric Defer; Juan R. Pardo; Jean-Pierre Chaboureau; Jean-Pierre Pinty; Mario Mech; Susanne Crewell

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Remote three-dimensional temperature sensing using planar laser induced fluorescence : development and applications to microwave heated liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microwave heating is an important technology that has been hampered in application by difficulties in measuring temperatures and temperature distributions during the microwave heating process. This thesis describes the ...

Finegan, Timothy Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Satellite-Based Tropical Cyclone Intensity Estimation Using the NOAA-KLM Series Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-borne passive microwave radiometers, such as the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA polar-orbiting series, are well suited to monitor tropical cyclones (TCs) by virtue of their ability to assess changes in tropospheric ...

Kurt F. Brueske; Christopher S. Velden

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Construction of the Remote Sensing Systems V3.2 Atmospheric Temperature Records from the MSU and AMSU Microwave Sounders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements made by microwave sounding instruments provide a multidecadal record of atmospheric temperature change. Measurements began in late 1978 with the launch of the first Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and continue to the present. In 1998, ...

Carl A. Mears; Frank J. Wentz

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

An Example of Temperature Structure Differences in Two Cyclone Systems Derived from the Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) has better horizontal resolution and vertical temperature sounding abilities than its predecessor, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU). Those improved capabilities are demonstrated with observations of ...

John A. Knaff; Raymond M. Zehr; Mitchell D. Goldberg; Stanley Q. Kidder

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Microwave Emission Brightness Temperature Histograms (METH) Rain Rates for Climate Studies: Remote Sensing Systems SSM/I Version-6 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite microwave emission brightness temperature histograms (METH) technique has been applied to Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data taken on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and preprocessed by ...

Long S. Chiu; Roongroj Chokngamwong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Contribution of Mesoscale Convective Complexes to Rainfall in Sahelian Africa: Estimates from Geostationary Infrared and Passive Microwave Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution of mesoscale convective complexes to the July–September rainfall in Sahelian Africa is assessed using passive microwave data from the Special Sensor Microwave Image and infrared (IR) data from the European Geostationary ...

Arlene G. Laing; J. Michael Fritsch; Andrew J. Negri

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Intercalibrating microwave satellite observations for monitoring long-term variations in upper and mid-tropospheric water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the growing archive of 183 GHz water vapor absorption band measurements from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) onboard polar orbiting satellites and document adjustments necessary to use ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden; Viju O. John

466

SMALL-SCALE MICROWAVE BURSTS IN LONG-DURATION SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Solar small-scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow-band type III bursts, are characterized by very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares that occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 January 14-21. Especially for long-duration flares, the SMBs occurred not only in the early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase and even after the end of the flare. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperatures of at least 8.18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}-1.92 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} K, very short lifetimes of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7%-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), such SMBs should be individual, independent strong coherent bursts related to some non-thermal energy release and the production of energetic particles in a small-scale source region. These facts show the existence of small-scale strong non-thermal energy releasing activities after the flare maxima, which is meaningful for predicting space weather. Physical analysis indicates that a plasma mechanism may be the most favorable candidate for the formation of SMBs. From the plasma mechanism, the velocities and kinetic energy of fast electrons can be deduced and the region of electron acceleration can also be tracked.

Tan Baolin, E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

467

Inference of Cloud Temperature and Thickness by Microwave Radiometry from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Seasat and Nimbus-7 satellite measured microwave radiation at 6.6, 10.69, 18.0, 21.0 and 37.0 GHz with both horizontal and vertical polarizations. Numerical simulations have been ...

P. C. Pandey; E. G. Njoku; J. W. Waters

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Radiative Transfer to Space through a Precipitating Cloud at Multiple Microwave Frequencies. Part I: Model Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a two-part study we investigate the impact of time-dependent cloud microphysical structure on the transfer to space of passive microwave radiation at several frequencies across the EHF and lower SHF portions of the microwave spectrum in order ...

Alberto Mugnai; Eric A. Smith

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Li-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thick film interdigital capacitors for microwave applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave properties of Li-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO"3 thick film interdigital capacitors have been investigated. According to the reported papers, BaSrTiO"3 materials, paraelectric state at the room temperature, have high dielectric permittivity (>500 @ 1MHz) ... Keywords: BST, Microwave properties, Screen printing, Thick film, Tunability

Se-Ho Kim; Jung-Hyuk Koh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques  

SciTech Connect

A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

Fryer, Michael O. (Roberts, ID); Hills, Andrea J. (Iowa City, IA); Morrison, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2 Chang Liu,2 Dale E. Gary,2 Gelu, we study solar microflares using the coordinated hard X-ray and microwave observations obtained the time derivative of soft X-rays and 14­20 keV hard X-rays, i.e., the Neupert effect, in about one

472

Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

473

Imprint of Sterile Neutrinos in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos is suggested by the current status of solar and atmospheric neutrinos together with the LSND experiment. In typical four-flavor scenarios, neutrinos would contribute to a cosmic hot dark matter component and to an increased radiation content at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. These effects leave their imprint in sky maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) and may thus be detectable with the precision measurements of the upcoming MAP and PLANCK missions.

Steen Hannestad; Georg Raffelt

1998-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

474

Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO[sub 2] as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.

Eastman, J.A.; Sickafus, K.E.; Katz, J.D.

1991-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Combination biological and microwave treatments of used rubber products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds altered by biotreatment with thermophillic microorganisms selected from natural isolates from hot sulfur springs. Following the biotreatment, microwave radiation is used to further treat the surface and to treat the bulk interior of the crumb rubber. The resulting combined treatments render the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels and sizes of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures and good properties obtained from the new recycled products.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

High-Power Microwave Switch Employing Electron Beam Triggering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-power active microwave pulse compressor is described that modulates the quality factor Q of the energy storage cavity by a new means involving mode conversion controlled by a triggered electron-beam discharge through a switch cavity. The electron beam is emitted from a diamond-coated molybdenum cathode. This report describes the principle of operation, the design of the switch, the configuration used for the test, and the experimental results. The pulse compressor produced output pulses with 140 - Ã?Â?165 MW peak power, power gain of 16 - 20, and pulse duration of 16 - 20 ns at a frequency of 11.43 GHz.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

477

A detection of bright features in the microwave background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the characterization of bright, compact features in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) detected during the June 1992 and June 1994 balloon flights of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM1-92 and MSAM1-94, respectively). Spectral flux densities are determined for each feature at 5.7, 9.3, and 16.5 cm^{-1}. No viable counterparts for these features were found in source catalogs at 5 GHz or at 100 \\mum. The measured spectrum of each feature is consistent with a temperature fluctuation in the CMBR. The existence of these features is consistent with adiabatic fluctuation models of anisotropy in the CMBR.

Kowitt, M S; Cottingham, D A; Fixsen, D J; Inman, C A; Meyer, S; Page, L A; Puchalla, J L; Ruhl, J E; Silverberg, R F

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Microsoft PowerPoint - Microwave Off-gas srnlTechBriefp1.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwave Off-Gas Treatment Microwave Off-Gas Treatment System at a glance  simple design  compact and portable  easy to operate  can be remotely operated  low cost, low maintenance  scalable for large and small volume operations  U.S. patent 6,534,754 The Microwave Off-Gas Treatment System uses microwave energy and high temperatures to treat off- gas emissions to reduce contaminants to acceptable or nondetectable levels. This allows the treated gaseous waste stream to be safety discharged to the atmosphere. New method Scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), working with colleagues from the University of Florida (UF), have invented a unique system to treat off-gas emissions from safe discharge into the atmosphere. The compact and portable Microwave Off-Gas Treatment System is designed to

480

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 2, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include microwave ovens" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE MICROWAVE EMISSION OF SOLAR FLARES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of the microwave data, obtained in the 17 GHz channel of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph during the M1.6 flare on 2010 November 4, revealed the presence of 12.6 minute oscillations of the emitting plasma density. The oscillations decayed with the characteristic time of about 15 minutes. Similar oscillations with the period of about 13.8 minutes and the decay time of 25 minutes are also detected in the variation of EUV emission intensity measured in the 335 A channel of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed properties of the oscillations are consistent with the oscillations of hot loops observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) in the EUV spectra in the form of periodic Doppler shift. Our analysis presents the first direct observations of the slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the microwave emission of a solar flare, complementing accepted interpretations of SUMER hot loop oscillations as standing slow magnetoacoustic waves.

Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K. [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: sjkim@nro.nao.ac.jp [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

482

MAXIMA: A balloon-borne cosmic microwave backgroundexperiment  

SciTech Connect

We describe the Millimeter wave Anisotropy eXperiment IMaging Array (MAXIMA), a balloon-borne experiment which measured the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 10(minutes) to 5 degrees. MAXIMA mapped the CMB using 16 bolometric detectors in spectral bands centered at 150, 240, and 410 GHz, with 10(minutes) resolution at all frequencies. The combined receiver sensitivity to CMB anisotropy was similar to 40 mu K root s. The bolometric detectors, which were cooled to 100 mK, were a prototype of the detectors which will be used on the Planck Surveyor Satellite of the European Space Agency. Systematic parasitic contributions were controlled by using four uncorrelated spatial modulations, thorough cross-linking, multiple independent CMB observations, heavily baffled optics, and strong spectral discrimination. Pointing reconstruction was accurate to 1(minute), and absolute calibration was better than 4 percent. Two MAXIMA flights with more than 8.5 h of CMB observations have mapped a total of 300deg(2) of the sky in regions of negligible known foreground emission. MAXIMA results have been released in previous publications and shown to be consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. MAXIMA Imaps, power spectra, and correlation matrices are publicly available at http://cosmology.berkeley.edu/maxima.

Rabii, B.; Winant, C.D.; Collins, J.S.; Lee, A.T.; Richards,P.L.; Abroe, M.E.; Hanany, S.; Johnson, B.R.; Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock,J.J.; Borrill, J.; Stompor, R.; Boscaleri, A.; Pascale, E.; de Bernardis,P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hristov, V.V.; Lange, A.E.; Jaffe, A.H.; Netterfield,C.B.; Smoot, G.F.; Wu, J.H.P.

2004-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

483

Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX  

SciTech Connect

A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

484

COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND CONSTRAINTS OF DECAYING DARK MATTER PARTICLE PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect

If a component of cosmological dark matter is made up of massive particles-such as sterile neutrinos-that decay with cosmological lifetime to emit photons, the reionization history of the universe would be affected, and cosmic microwave background anisotropies can be used to constrain such a decaying particle model of dark matter. The optical depth depends rather sensitively on the decaying dark matter particle mass m{sub dm}, lifetime {tau}{sub dm}, and the mass fraction of cold dark matter f that they account for in this model. Assuming that there are no other sources of reionization and using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year data, we find that 250 eV {approx}< m{sub dm} {approx}< 1 MeV, whereas 2.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr {approx}< {tau}{sub dm}/f {approx}< 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} yr. The best-fit values for m{sub dm} and {tau}{sub dm}/f are 17.3 keV and 2.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} yr, respectively.

Yeung, S.; Chan, M. H.; Chu, M.-C., E-mail: mcchu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

485

Signatures of Cosmic Strings in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a search for signatures of cosmic strings in the the Cosmic Microwave Background data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We used a digital filter designed to search for individual cosmic strings and found no evidence for them in the WMAP CMB anisotropies to a level of $\\Delta T/T \\sim 0.29$ mK. This corresponds to an absence of cosmic strings with $ G\\mu \\ga 1.07 \\times 10^{-5}$ for strings moving with velocity $v = c/\\sqrt{2}$. Unlike previous work, this limit does not depend on an assumed string abundance. We have searched the WMAP data for evidence of a cosmic string recently reported as the CSL-1 object, and found an ``edge'' with 2$\\sigma$ significance. However, if this edge is real and produced by a cosmic string, it would have to move at velocity $\\ga$ 0.94c. We also present preliminary limits on the CMB data that will be returned by the PLANCK satellite for comparison. With the available information on the PLANCK satellite, we calculated that it would be twice as sensitive to cosmic strings as WMAP.

Amy S. Lo; Edward L. Wright

2005-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

486

Property:Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Property Type Number Retrieved from "http:...

487

Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices...

488

White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and household solar water heating systems. The MinimumGrades for Household Solar Water Heating Systems (GB 26969-microwave ovens, solar water heating systems; (2) Lighting

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Acceptable Materials for Recycling at Colorado State University Mixed Paper -Acceptable Items  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acceptable Materials for Recycling at Colorado State University Mixed Paper - Acceptable Items - Acceptable Items Refrigerators Microwave ovens Electrical Equipment: computers, monitors, TV's, etc. Remember

490

Controlled Processing of Mesoporous ??Fe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The liquid mixtures were processed into amorphous solid foams in a microwave oven under controlled sensor heating process. Based on TGA/DSC experiments

491

JOM: The Member Journal of TMS - JOM Monthly - Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 19, 2010 ... Introducing the self-assembly process to industrial semiconductor ... heat usually used in self-assembly research with a microwave oven.

492

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

1 2008 Microwave Oven Manufacturer Market Shares (Percent of Products Produced) Company Market Share (%) LG Electronics (Goldstar) 33% Sharp 15% Samsung 15% Daewoo 7% Matsushita...

493

Reducing Leaking Electricity to 1 Watt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as refrigerators, dishwashers, and ranges. Ranging fromappliances, from VCRs to dishwashers, from remote-controlledSpeakers Receiver Tuner Dishwasher Microwave Oven Range

Meier, A.K.; Huber, Wolfgang; Rosen, Karen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Residential Housing Survey  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PCs, Modems and Laser Printers: Main Heating Fuels: Household PC Usage : Use of Central Heating Systems: Stoves, Ovens and Microwaves: Main Central ...

495

RECS Trends - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PCs, Modems, and Laser Printers ; Household PC Usage ; Stoves, Ovens, and Microwaves ; Laundry Equipment ; Contact: Chip Berry Survey Manager Phone: (202) 586-5543

496

Time to Celebrate: NIST Radio Station WWVB Logs 50 Years ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... such as refrigerators, microwave ovens and thermostats, motor vehicles, as well as ... get the time signal to original equipment manufacturers, and get ...

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

497

Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Wisconsin (Million Cubic Feet)

498

A New Microwave Temperature Profiler Â… First Measurements in Polar Regions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwave Temperature Profiler - First Microwave Temperature Profiler - First Measurements in Polar Regions E. N. Kadygrov, A. V. Koldaev, and A. S. Viazankin Central Aerological Observatory Moscow, Russia A. Argentini, and A. Conidi Institute of Atmospheric Physics CNR, Italy Introduction Temperature inversions are a ubiquitous feature of the high latitude atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In Polar Regions, the temperature inversion is a complicated phenomenon involving interactions between surface radiative cooling, subsidence and warm air advection. In the period 1997-2002, several microwave temperature profilers were used to measure temperature inversion parameters at one of the three sites of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

499

Charting the New Frontier of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background are a gold mine for cosmology and fundamental physics. ESA's Planck satellite should soon extract all information from the temperature vein but will be limited concerning the measurement of the degree of polarization of the anisotropies. This polarization information allows new independent tests of the standard cosmological paradigm, improves knowledge of cosmological parameters and last but not least is the best window available for constraining the physics of the very early universe, particularly the expected background of primordial gravitational waves. But exploiting this vein will be a challenge, since the sensitivity required is {\\em at least} 10 times better than what Planck might achieve at best, with the necessary matching level of control of all systematics effects, both instrumental and astrophysical (foregrounds). We here recall the cosmological context and the case for CMB polarization studies. We also briefly introduce the SAMPAN project, a des...

Bouchet, F R; Camus, P; Désert, F X; Piat, M; Ponthieu, N; Camus, Ph.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis technique for blind component separation to polarised astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarised signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foregrounds and instrumental noise. We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated accordingly to the nominal performances of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the Planck satellite; the sky signal is modeled as a superposition of CMB, generated by a Gaussian, nearly scale invariant cosmological perturbation spectrum, and the existing simulated polarisation templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$ modes can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while $B$ modes can be detected, up to their turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$ if cosmological tensor amplitude...

Baccigalupi, C; De Zotti, G; Smoot, G F; Burigana, C; Maino, D; Bedini, L; Salerno, E

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z