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1

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for HVAC Renovations Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) Solar Water Heating (SWH) Biomass Passive Solar Heating Biomass Heating Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Federal building renovations that encompass the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in a facility provide a range of renewable energy opportunities. The primary technology option for HVAC renovations is geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Other options include leveraging a solar water heating (SWH) system to offset heating load or using passive solar heating or a biomass-capable furnace or boiler. Some facilities may also take

2

Ventilation and Solar Heat Storage System Offers Big Energy Savings  

Ventilation and Solar Heat Storage System Offers Big Energy Savings ... Heat is either reflected away from the building with radiant barriers, or heat is absorbed

3

Honda Smart Home to Include Berkeley Lab Ventilation Controller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Honda Smart Home to Include Berkeley Lab Ventilation Controller Honda Smart Home to Include Berkeley Lab Ventilation Controller Honda smart home October 2013 October-November Special Focus: Energy Efficiency, Buildings, and the Electric Grid Honda Motor Company Inc is proceeding with plans to build a Smart Home in Davis, California, to demonstrate the latest in renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency. The home is expected to produce more energy than is consumed, demonstrating how the goal of "zero net energy" can be met in the near term future. A ventilation controller developed by researchers at Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD) will be included in the smart home. EETD is currently working with the developers of the home control system to integrate its control algorithms.

4

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

5

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

Kyle, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, R.A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2013 - 2:56pm Addthis The following heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies are underutilized within the Federal sector. These technologies have been...

7

Intelligent Control of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposed a simulation-optimization energy saving strategy for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems' condenser water loop through intelligent control of single speed cooling towers' components. An analysis of system components ...

Patrick Low Kie; Lau Bee Theng

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Development of a Dedicated 100 Percent Ventilation Air Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using dedicated 100 percent ventilation makeup air conditioning units to meet indoor air quality standards is attractive because of the inherent advantages. However, it is challenging to design and build direct expansion unitary equipment for this purpose. EPRI teamed with ClimateMaster to develop and test a prototype of a vapor compression heat pump to advance the state of the art in such equipment. The prototype unit provides deep dehumidification and cooling of ventilation air in the su...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

9

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

Metzger, C.; Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cryostat including heater to heat a target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vesssel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism.

Pehl, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Malone, Donald F. (Oakland, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Cryostat including heater to heat a target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

12

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Revised fact sheet describes the transpired solar collector that was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

13

Radiative Heating Errors in Naturally Ventilated Air Temperature Measurements Made from Buoys*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiative heating errors in buoy-mounted, naturally ventilated air temperature sensors are examined. Data from sensors with multiplate radiation shields and collocated, fan-aspirated air temperature sensors from three buoy deployments ...

Steven P. Anderson; Mark F. Baumgartner

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

HVAC Technology Report: A Review of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technology and Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many of us, roughly 95 percent of our time is spent indoors. To enable humans to spend this much time inside, mechanical equipment is necessary to provide space conditioning to control the temperature (heating and cooling), ventilation, humidity, and indoor air quality. This report introduces the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry to EPRI member utility employees. The document describes the most common technologies and applications and provides an overview of industry statisti...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

15

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

17

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Specialist Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The people responsible for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) in the nuclear power industry are known by various titles--HVAC specialist, HVAC component engineer, HVAC system manager, and HVAC system engineer, to name a few. Although HVAC duties and responsibilities are often spread across several departments, such as maintenance, operations, engineering, and procurement, it is up to the HVAC specialist to ensure that HVAC system and component health and reliability are maintained. This re...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

18

Proposed Design for a Coupled Ground-Source Heat Pump/Energy Recovery Ventilator System to Reduce Building Energy Demand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work presented in this thesis focuses on reducing the energy demand of a residential building by using a coupled ground-source heat pump/energy recovery ventilation… (more)

McDaniel, Matthew Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Outdoor Air, Heat Wheels and JCPenney: A New Approach to Retail Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JCPenney Construction Services department is responsible for the construction of new stores, takeover of existing facilities to create a new store, repairs to existing JCPenney facilities and the expansion and modernization of stores across the nation and the world. Each year, JCPenney Construction Services handles approximately 50 projects along these lines. After the implementation of ASHRAE 62- 1989 by JCPenney and many major building codes, including BOCA, mechanical engineers at JCPenney noticed a sharp increase in the percentage of cooling capacity required to cool the outdoor ventilation air. In an effort to limit this impact, both in first cost and in operational costs, JCPenney is beginning to make an effort to use enthalpy heat wheels in the hot and humid climate areas where it is economically feasible. This paper discusses the efforts of JCPenney to implement this option to the treatment of outdoor air in a store in Baton Rouge, LA while maintaining indoor air quality requirements as stated in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 and maintaining energy efficiency. This paper also discusses the projected energy savings and operations of this alternative to the standard treatment of outdoor air.

Smith, C. S.; Bartlett, T. A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of weighted linguistic fuzzy rules in combination with a rule selection process to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the intelligent control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems concerning ... Keywords: BEMS, building energy management system, FLC, fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy logic controllers, GA, genetic algorithm, Genetic algorithms, HVAC systems, HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, KB, knowledge base, PMV, predicted mean vote index for thermal comfort, Rule selection, Weighted fuzzy rules

Rafael Alcalá; Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordón; Antonio González; Francisco Herrera

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Matrix heat exchanger including a liquid, thermal couplant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tube-to-tube heat exchanger is disclosed with a thermally conductive matrix between and around the tubes to define annuli between the tubes and matrix. The annuli are filled to a level with a molten metal or alloy to provide a conductive heat transfer path from one tube through the matrix to the second tube. A matrix heat exchanger of this type is particularly useful for heat transfer between fluids which would react should one leak into the second.

Fewell, Thomas E. (Chattanooga, TN); Ward, Charles T. (Chattanooga, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

How refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning service technicians learn from troubleshooting (Dissertation ABstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to understand how refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (RHVAC) service technicians (techs) learned from troubleshooting. This understanding resulted in instructional and curricular strategies designed to help community colleges prepare vocational students to learn more effectively from informal workplace learning. RHVAC techs were studied because they increasingly learn their trade skills through a combination of formal schooling and informal workplace learning, though many still learn their trade almost exclusively in the workplace. Even those with formal training require considerable workplace experience to become fully competent. Troubleshooting is a major job function for RHVAC service techs, and troubleshooting

Denis F. H. Green

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

designs of personalized ventilation, International Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Business reasons for utilizing renewable energy applications in facilities to assist in extending the life of the heating ventilation and air conditioning systems .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research is intended to discover business reasons for utilizing renewable energy applications in buildings to help extend the life of the heating, ventilation and… (more)

Thompson, Glendon Raymond

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

VENTILATION MODEL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses.

V. Chipman

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Speaker(s): Hwataik Han Date: July 10, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Heat recovery ventilators are frequently used to save heating/cooling loads of buildings for ventilation. There are several types of HRV's, including a parallel plate type, a rotary type, a capillary type, and a heat pipe type. The breathing HRV is a heat recovery ventilator of a new kind using the concept of alternating-current ventilation. The AC ventilation is the ventilation with the airflow directions reversed periodically. It has an advantage of using a single duct system, for both supply and exhaust purposes. In order to develop a breathing HRV system, the thermal recovery performance should be investigated depending on many parameters, such as

30

Numerical Simulation of a Displacement Ventilation System with Multi-heat Sources and Analysis of Influential Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation (DV) is a promising ventilation concept due to its high ventilation efficiency. In this paper, the application of the CFD method, the velocity and temperature fields of three-dimensional displacement ventilation systems with double heat sources are numerically simulated. The model is verified by experimental data. The results of the study show that thermal stratification characteristics exist in indoor temperature fields. The paper also analyzes the influence of different influential factors, e.g., the distance between heat sources, temperature of heat source, heat characteristics of the wall and outdoor temperature. It was found that the human requirement for comfort is satisfied easily when the distance between heat sources is long. Under the conditions simulated in this paper, when the distance was more than 0.8m, the temperature distribution tended to be average and steady, and it did not change as the distance changed. Second, the temperature change of the thermal current has a large influence on the indoor temperature. The rise in thermal current temperature makes the vertical temperature gradient in the room increase. The upper temperature of the room becomes higher, as does the height of the high temperature air level that lies in the upper part of the room. Finally, both the heat loss of the surrounding structure and the change in outdoor temperature have a large influence on indoor temperature. However, it does not influence the thermal stratification characteristics of DV. The only thing that has changed is the thermal stratification height.

Wu, X.; Gao, J.; Wu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for an effective tuning of fuzzy logic controllers in heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the use of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to develop smartly tuned fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, energy performance, stability and indoor comfort ... Keywords: Fuzzy logic controllers, Genetic tuning, HVAC systems, Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, Linguistic 2-tuples representation, Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, Rule selection

María José Gacto; Rafael Alcalá; Francisco Herrera

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Genetic lateral and amplitude tuning with rule selection for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we propose the use of a new post-processing method for the lateral and amplitude tuning of membership functions combined with a rule selection to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating ...

R. Alcalá; J. Alcalá-Fdez; F. J. Berlanga; M. J. Gacto; F. Herrera

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

34

Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

Wetter, Michael

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

35

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Standard (Trane) 14% York 12% Nordyne 12% Rheem 9% Lennox 9% Others 3% Total 100% Note(s): Source(s): 5,833,354 1) Does not include water-source or ground-source heat pumps....

36

Ventilation Model and Analysis Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

V. Chipman

2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Residential Boiler Efficiencies (1) Gas-Fired Boilers Oil-Fired Boilers Average shipped in 1985 (2): 74% AFUE Average shipped in 1985 (2): 79% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 81% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 86% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 96% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 89% AFUE Note(s): Source(s): 1) Federal appliance standards effective Jan. 1, 1992, require a minimum of 80% AFUE (except gas-fired steam boiler, which must have a 75% AFUE or higher). 2) Includes furnaces. GAMA, Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Residential Heating and Water Heating Equipment, Aug. 2005, p. 88 and 106 for best- available AFUE; and GAMA for 1985 average AFUEs; GAMA Tax Credit Eligible Equipment: Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers 95% AFUE or Greater, May 2007; and GAMA Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Heating and Water Heating Equipment, May 2007

38

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Title Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-57730 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Russell, Marion L., Max H. Sherman, and Armin F. Rudd Journal HVAC&R Research Volume 13 Start Page Chapter Pagination 325-348 Abstract This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings in North America and a few in Europe. The major technologies reviewed include a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. Key parameters that are related to each system include operating costs, installation costs, ventilation rates, heat recovery potential. It also examines related issues such as infiltration, duct systems, filtration options, noise, and construction issues. This report describes a wide variety of systems currently on the market that can be used to meet ASHRAE Standard 62.2. While these systems generally fall into the categories of supply, exhaust or balanced, the specifics of each system are driven by concerns that extend beyond those in the standard and are discussed. Some of these systems go beyond the current standard by providing additional features (such as air distribution or pressurization control). The market will decide the immediate value of such features, but ASHRAE may wish to consider modifications to the standard in the future.

39

Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits.

Im, Kwan H. (Naperville, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Burr Ridge, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Heat transfer mechanism with thin filaments including ceramic high temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiative heat transfer mechanism in a furnace is described having burners through which pulverized coal and air are burned producing combustion gases and contaminants. A plurality of elongated conduits are positioned inside the furnace proximate to the burners generally parallel to the flow of combustion gases in the furnace. A plurality of thin filaments are inside each of the elongated hollow conduits, the filaments having diameters in the range of from about 1 micrometer to about 1,000 micrometers and having an infrared radiation cross-section sufficient to cause the filaments to heat upon exposure to infrared radiation. Blower mechanism is associated with the elongated conduits for limiting the amount of soot and ash which deposit on the conduits to preserve the radiative and convective transfer of heat energy from the combustion gases to the conduits. 7 figs.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water. Quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. Included is a comparison of the proposed Solaron-Heat Pump and Solaron-Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, Installation Drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities from July 1, 1977 through November 9, 1977.

Not Available

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

U.S. Heating and Air-Conditioning System Manufacturer Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 2005 Value of 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010 Shipments Equipment Type (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) ($million) (7) Air-Conditioners (1) 5,346 6,472 4,508 3,516 3419 5,837 Heat Pumps 1,539 2,336 1,899 1,642 1,748 2,226 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps 1,339 2,114 1,899 1,642 1748 1,869 Water-Source Heat Pumps (2) 200 222 N.A. N.A. N.A. 357 Chillers 38 37 37 25 29 1,093 Reciprocating 25 24 30 20 24 462 Centrifugal/Screw 8 6 7 5 5 566 Absorption (3) 5 7 N.A. N.A. N.A. 64 Furnaces 3,681 3,624 2,866 2,231 2,509 2,144 Gas-Fired (4) 3,104 3,512 2,782 2,175 2453 2,081 Electric 455 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. Oil-Fired (5) 121 111 84 56 56 63 Boilers (6) 368 370 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. Note(s): Source(s): 1) Includes exports and gas air conditioners (gas units <10,000 units/yr) and rooftop equipment. Excludes heat pumps, packaged terminal air

43

VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

C.R. Gorrell

1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

44

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities conducted by Solaron Corporation from November 1977 through September 1978 are summarized and the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is covered. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

Williamson, R.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports, November 1976--June 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Authors Fisk, William J., Mark J. Mendell, Molly Davies, Ekaterina Eliseeva, David Faulkner, Tienzen Hong, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords absence, building s, carbon dioxide, demand - controlled ventilation, energy, indoor air quality, schools, ventilation Abstract This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included:  The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).  Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.

47

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) PTHP = Packaged Terminal Heat Pump, WLHP = Water Loop Heat Pump. 2) PTAC = Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume 1: Chillers, Refrigerant Compressors, and Heating Systems, Apr. 2001, Figure 5-5, p. 5-14 for cooling and Figure 5-10, p. 5-18 for heating

48

Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of integrated low-energy building design. In Cambridge, research was conducted at the BP Institute - which was set up in 1999 with an endowment from BP to research some of the fundamental scientific challenges that the oil industry encounters. In the CMI... in building design. Summary of Intended Outcomes: The objectives of the project will be to develop designs and technologies to: reduce energy costs of maintaining a comfortable environment with buildings through use of solar power, natural ventilation...

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

1 1 Main Residential Heating Equipment as of 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, and 2005 (Percent of Total Households) Equipment Type 1987 1993 1997 2001 2005 Natural Gas 55% 53% 53% 55% 52% Central Warm-Air Furnace 35% 36% 38% 42% 40% Steam or Hot-Water System 10% 9% 7% 7% 7% Floor/Wall/Pipeless Furnace 6% 4% 4% 3% 2% Room Heater/Other 4% 3% 4% 3% 3% Electricity 20% 26% 29% 29% 30% Central Warm-Air Furnace 8% 10% 11% 12% 14% Heat Pump 5% 8% 10% 10% 8% Built-In Electric Units 6% 7% 7% 6% 5% Other 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% Fuel Oil 12% 11% 9% 7% 7% Steam or Hot-Water System 7% 6% 5% 4% 4% Central Warm-Air Furnace 4% 5% 4% 3% 3% Other 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% Other 13% 11% 9% 8% 10% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Note(s): Source(s): Other equipment includes wood, LPG, kerosene, other fuels, and none. EIA, A Look at Residential Consumption in 2005, June 2008, Table HC2-4; EIA, A Look at Residential Energy Consumption in 2001, Apr. 2004, 'Table HC3-

50

Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning. It establishes functions of the fin structure parameters such as height,spacing and thickness of the fin when the volume of fin is the smallest under unit temperature difference and unit quantity of heat. It uses a genetic algorithm to optimize the model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe. The calculation result shows that the method of genetic algorithm is effective.

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Acoustical prediction methods for heating, ventilating, and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to compare and contrast various aspects of acoustical prediction methods for heating

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet) (Revised), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highlights Highlights System Size 300 ft 2 transpired solar collector Energy Production About 125 Btu/hr/ft 2 (400 W/m 2 ) of heat delivery under ideal conditions (full sun) Installation Date 1990 Motivation Provide solar-heated ventilation air to offset some of the heating with conventional electric resistance heaters Annual Savings 14,310 kWh (49 million Btu/yr) or about 26% of the energy required to heat the facility's ventilation air System Details Components Black, 300 ft 2 corrugated aluminum transpired solar collector with a porosity of 2%; bypass damper; two-speed 3000 CFM vane axial supply fan; electric duct heater; thermostat controller Storage None Loads 188 million Btu/year (55,038 kWh/year) winter average to heat 1,300 ft 2 Waste Handling Facility

53

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet) (Revised), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights Highlights System Size 300 ft 2 transpired solar collector Energy Production About 125 Btu/hr/ft 2 (400 W/m 2 ) of heat delivery under ideal conditions (full sun) Installation Date 1990 Motivation Provide solar-heated ventilation air to offset some of the heating with conventional electric resistance heaters Annual Savings 14,310 kWh (49 million Btu/yr) or about 26% of the energy required to heat the facility's ventilation air System Details Components Black, 300 ft 2 corrugated aluminum transpired solar collector with a porosity of 2%; bypass damper; two-speed 3000 CFM vane axial supply fan; electric duct heater; thermostat controller Storage None Loads 188 million Btu/year (55,038 kWh/year) winter average to heat 1,300 ft 2 Waste Handling Facility

54

Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control  

SciTech Connect

A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Cold Fronts in Clusters of Galaxies including Heat Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent Chandra observations of clusters of galaxies revealed the existence of a sharp ridge in the X-ray surface brightness where the temperature drops across the front. This front is called the cold front. We present the results of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the time evolution of a dense subcluster plasma moving in a cluster of galaxies. Anisotropic heat conduction along the magnetic field lines is included. In the models without magnetic fields, the numerical results indicate that the heat conduction from the hot ambient plasma heats the cold dense plasma of the subcluster and diffuses out the cold front. When magnetic fields exist in a cluster of galaxies, however, cold fronts can be maintained because the heat conduction across the magnetic field lines is suppressed. We found that, even when the magnetic fields in a cluster of galaxies are disordered, heat conduction across the front is restricted because the magnetic field lines are stretched along the front. Numerical results reproduced the X-ray intensity distribution observed in the A3667 cluster of galaxies.

Naoki Asai; Naoya Fukuda; Ryoji Matsumoto

2004-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Efficient Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multifamily Individual Heating Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Multifamily, affordable Builder: Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) www.merrimackvalleyhabitat.org Size: 840 to 1,170 ft 2 units Price Range: $125,000-$130,000 Date completed: Slated for 2014 Climate Zone: Cold (5A) PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: 48 to 63 Projected annual energy cost savings: $1,797 Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3,747 Incremental annual mortgage: $346 Annual cash flow: $1,451 Billing data: Not available The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley

57

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Commercial Equipment Efficiencies Equipment Type Chiller Screw COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.02 / 4.45 Scroll COP 2.80 / 3.06 2.96 / 4.40 N.A. Reciprocating COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.52 / 4.40 Centrifugal COP(full-load / IPLV) 5.0 / 5.2 6.1 / 6.4 7.3 / 9.0 Gas-Fired Absorption COP 1.0 1.1 N.A. Gas-Fired Engine Driven COP 1.5 1.8 N.A. Rooftop A/C EER 10.1 11.2 13.9 Rooftop Heat Pump EER (cooling) 9.8 11.0 12.0 COP (heating) 3.2 3.3 3.4 Boilers Gas-Fired Combustion Efficiency 77 80 98 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 80 84 98 Electric Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Furnace AFUE 77 80 82 Water Heater Gas-Fired Thermal Efficiency 78 80 96 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 79 80 85 Electric Resistance Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 77 84 89 Source(s): Parameter Efficiency

58

Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

8 8 Major Residential HVAC Equipment Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Equipment Type Central Air Conditioners 8 - 14 11 8 5,354 Heat Pumps 9 - 15 12 8 1,260 Furnaces Electric 10 - 20 15 11 N.A. Gas-Fired 12 - 17 15 11 2,601 Oil-Fired 15 - 19 17 N.A. 149 Gas-Fired Boilers (1) 17 - 24 20 17 204 Note(s): Source(s): Lifetimes based on use by the first owner of the product, and do not necessarily indicate that the product stops working after this period. A replaced unit may be discarded or used elsewhere. 1) 2005 average stock age is for gas- and oil-fired steam and hot water boilers. Appliance Magazine, U.S. Appliance Industry: Market Share, Life Expectancy & Replacement Market, and Saturation Levels, January 2010, p. 10 for service and average lifetimes, and units to be replaced; ASHRAE, 1999 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications, Table 3, p. 35.3 for boilers service lifetimes; and

62

R and D opportunities for commercial HVAC (heating, air conditioning, and ventilation) equipment  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize generic HVAC equipment research that will provide the best investment opportunities for DOE R and D funds. The prerequisites of a DOE research program include research efforts that are potentially significant in energy conservation impact and that are cost-effective, long-term, and high risk. These prerequisites form the basic guidelines for the R and D opportunities assessed. The assessment excludes the R and D areas that have potential or current private sector sponsors. Finally, R and D areas which are included in DOE programs generally are not addressed.

Chiu, S.A.; Zaloudek, F.R.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option  

SciTech Connect

The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort considerations and limitation of growth rates for dust mites and many bacteria. In addition it reports som

Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Demonstration of Demand Control Ventilation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) is one of the control strategies that can be used modulate the amount of ventilation air for space conditioning in commercial buildings. DCV modulates the amount of ventilation air introduced into the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system based on carbon dioxide levels sensed in the areas served. The carbon dioxide level is a proxy for the number of people within the space, from which the required quantity of ventilation air is determined. By using this ...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ventilation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings....

68

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Residential Furnace Efficiencies (Percent of Units Shipped) (1) AFUE Range 1985 AFUE Range 2006 AFUE Range 1985 Below 65% 15% 75% to 88% 64% Below 75% 10% 65% to 71% 44% 88% or More 36% 75% to 80% 56% 71% to 80% 10% Total 100% More Than 80% 35% 80% to 86% 19% Total 100% More than 86% 12% Total 100% Average shipped in 1985 (2): 74% AFUE Average shipped in 1985 (2): 79% AFUE Average shipped in 1995: 84% AFUE Average shipped in 1995: 81% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 85% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 85% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 97% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 95% AFUE Note(s): Source(s): Gas-Fired Oil-Fired 1) Federal appliance standards effective Jan. 1, 1992, require a minimum of 78% AFUE for furnaces. 3) Includes boilers. GAMA's Internet Home Page for 2006 AFUE ranges; GAMA News, Feb. 24, 1987, for 1985 AFUE ranges; LBNL for average shipped AFUE; GAMA,

69

Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies  

SciTech Connect

In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

The evolution of interstellar clouds in a streaming hot plasma including heat conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To examine the evolution of giant molecular clouds in the stream of a hot plasma we performed two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations that take full account of self-gravity, heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons. We use the thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma proposed by Spitzer and a saturated heat flux according to Cowie & McKee in regions where the mean free path of the electrons is large compared to the temperature scaleheight. Significant structural and evolutionary differences occur between simulations with and without heat conduction. Dense clouds in pure dynamical models experience dynamical destruction by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In static models heat conduction leads to evaporation of such clouds. Heat conduction acting on clouds in a gas stream smooths out steep temperature and density gradients at the edge of the cloud because the conduction timescale is shorter than the cooling timescale. This diminishes the velocity gradient between the...

Vieser, W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The evolution of interstellar clouds in a streaming hot plasma including heat conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To examine the evolution of giant molecular clouds in the stream of a hot plasma we performed two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations that take full account of self-gravity, heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons. We use the thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma proposed by Spitzer and a saturated heat flux according to Cowie & McKee in regions where the mean free path of the electrons is large compared to the temperature scaleheight. Significant structural and evolutionary differences occur between simulations with and without heat conduction. Dense clouds in pure dynamical models experience dynamical destruction by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In static models heat conduction leads to evaporation of such clouds. Heat conduction acting on clouds in a gas stream smooths out steep temperature and density gradients at the edge of the cloud because the conduction timescale is shorter than the cooling timescale. This diminishes the velocity gradient between the streaming plasma and the cloud, so that the timescale for the onset of KH instabilities increases, and the surface of the cloud becomes less susceptible to KH instabilities. The stabilisation effect of heat conduction against KH instability is more pronounced for smaller and less massive clouds. As in the static case more realistic cloud conditions allow heat conduction to transfer hot material onto the cloud's surface and to mix the accreted gas deeper into the cloud.

W. Vieser; G. Hensler

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that is certified to the Department; The timing of when the certification should be made relative to distribution in commerce; and Alterations to a basic model that would impact the certification.

74

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

75

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

76

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

77

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

78

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Simulation of tokamak SOL and divertor region including heat flux mitigation by gas puffing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2D), scrape-off layer (SOL)-divertor transport simulations are performed using the integrated plasma-neutral-impurity code KTRAN developed at Seoul National University. Firstly, the code is applied to reproduce a National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) discharge by using the prescribed transport coefficients and the boundary conditions obtained from the experiment. The plasma density, the heat flux on the divertor plate, and the D (alpha) emission rate profiles from the numerical simulation are found to follow experimental trends qualitatively. Secondly, predictive simulations are carried out for the baseline operation mode in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) to predict the heat flux on the divertor target plates. The stationary peak heat flux in the KSTAR baseline operation mode is expected to be 6.5 MW/m(2) in the case of an orthogonal divertor. To study the mitigation of the heat flux, we investigated the puffing effects of deuterium and argon gases. The puffing position is assumed to be in front of the strike point at the outer lower divertor plate. In the simulations, mitigation of the peak heat flux at the divertor target plates is found to occur when the gas puffing rate exceeds certain values, similar to 1.0 x 10(20) /s and similar to 5.0 x 10(18) /s for deuterium and argon, respectively. Multi-charged impurity transport is also investigated for both NSTX and KSTAR SOL and divertor regions.

Park, Jin Woo [Seoul National University, Seoul, S. Korea; Na, Y. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul, S. Korea; Hong, S. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon, South Korea; Ahn, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kim, D. K. [Agency Def Dev, Taejon, South Korea; Han, Hyunsun [National Fusion Research Institute, Taejon, South Korea; Shim, Seong Bo [Pusan National University, Busan, Korea; Lee, Hae June [Pusan National University, Busan, Korea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building. The system also depends on the WTB for normal electric power supply and the required supply of water for heating, cooling, and humidification. Interface with the Waste Treatment Building System includes the WTB fire protection subsystem for detection of fire and smoke. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air and key areas within the WTB, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of system operations, and the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System and Site Generated Hazardous, Non-Hazardous & Sanitary Waste Disposal System for routing of pretreated toxic, corrosive, and radiologically contaminated effluent from process equipment to the HEPA filter exhaust ductwork and air-cleaning unit.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

82

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Operational test report integrated system test (ventilation upgrade)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operational Final Test Report for Integrated Systems, Project W-030 (Phase 2 test, RECIRC and HIGH-HEAT Modes). Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks, including upgraded vapor space cooling and filtered venting of tanks AY101, Ay102, AZ101, AZ102.

HARTY, W.M.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

Facility HVAC System Conversion to Ground Source Heat Pump Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ventilators will utilize the hot water to "temper" outdoor air ventilation. Although the heat pump modules can provide both heating and cooling, the space requires heating only....

85

Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As new equipment, the channel wheel fresh air ventilator has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, when such equipment is operated under low ambient temperature in the freezing area in winter, the formation of frost on the outdoor waste air surface becomes problematic, leading to the degradation of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator's performance or even the shutdown of equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to have a detailed investigation on the operational characteristics of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator under frosting in order to guide its application. This paper first reports on the development of a detailed model for the channel wheel heat exchanger, which is the core part of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator under frosting conditions. The model developed, first seen in open literature, consists of a frosting sub-model and a channel wheel heat exchanger sub-model. This is followed by reporting an evaluation of the operational characteristics of a frosted channel wheel heat exchanger under different ambient conditions using the model developed. These include frost formation on the surface of the channel wheel heat exchanger, and impacts on the operational performance of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator. Furthermore, the interval of defrosting is obtained, which provides the basis for the adoption of effective defrosting measures, and thus increasing the channel wheel fresh air ventilator's energy efficiency and operating reliability.

Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controlling summer attic heat gain is important to reducing air conditioning energy use in homes in hot-humid climates. Both heat transfer through ceilings and t attic duct systems can make up a large part of peak cooling demand, Attic ventilation has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance.

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presenting Test Results Heat Exchanger Descriptions and Testof Residential Heat Exchangers Conclusions . . . . . . . .ventilation testing heat exchangers. system, a heat

Fisk, William J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

90

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

NONE

2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

Bulk Formulation of the Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes at the Air–Sea Interface, Including Nonmolecular Contributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of the air–sea sensible and latent heat fluxes is vital for nearly all applications of atmosphere and ocean models. Existing theories of heat transfer over rough surfaces provide a starting point, but they seem incomplete ...

James A. Mueller; Fabrice Veron

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Modeling study of ventilation, IAQ and energy impacts of residential mechanical ventilation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a simulation study of indoor air quality, ventilation and energy impacts of several mechanical ventilation approaches in a single-family residential building. The study focused on a fictitious two-story house in Spokane, Washington and employed the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal model CONTAM. The model of the house included a number of factors related to airflow including exhaust fan and forced-air system operation, duct leakage and weather effects, as well as factors related to contaminant dispersal including adsorption/desorption of water vapor and volatile organic compounds, surface losses of particles and nitrogen dioxide, outdoor contaminant concentrations, and occupant activities. The contaminants studied include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, fine and coarse particles, and volatile organic compounds. One-year simulations were performed for four different ventilation approaches: a base case of envelope infiltration only, passive inlet vents in combination with exhaust fan operation, an outdoor intake duct connected to the forced-air system return balanced by exhaust fan operation, and a continuously-operated exhaust fan. Results discussed include whole building air change rates, air distribution within the house, heating and cooling loads, contaminants concentrations, and occupant exposure to contaminants.

Persily, A.K.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. When creating an energy-efficient, airtight home through air sealing, it's very important to consider ventilation. Unless properly ventilated, an airtight home can seal in indoor air pollutants. Ventilation also helps control moisture-another important consideration for a healthy, energy-efficient home. Featured Whole-House Ventilation A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. Tight, energy-efficient homes require mechanical -- usually whole-house --

94

Floor-supply displacement ventilation system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process Heat Process Heat Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. These technologies include ventilation air preheating, solar process heating, and solar cooling. Space Heating Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. In cold climates, heating this air can use large amounts of energy. But a

96

The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

Kühnl-Kinel, J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Title Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5554E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., Max H. Sherman, and Darryl J. Dickerhoff Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, california title 24, residential ventilation, ventilation controller Abstract The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20%, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

98

Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation, external wind forcing and internal heat gains e.g. due to electrical equipment or building chloride, etc. Developing world: By-products of cooking or heating fires Ghiaus & Allard (2005) · Exposure-breeze, displacement ventilation dissipate internal heat gains e.g. from kitchen stove · Wintertime: Spaces filled

Flynn, Morris R.

100

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB Jump to: navigation, search Name Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne (VIB) Place Ploudalmezeau, France Zip 29839 Sector Geothermal energy, Solar Product Ploudalmezeau-based company producing and marketing energy efficient and ventilation products including air source heat pumps, geothermal water source heat pumps, efficient air filtration systems and solar products. Coordinates 48.540325°, -4.657904° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.540325,"lon":-4.657904,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

102

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems Title Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation...

103

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Title Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed Year of Publication 2012 Authors Bennett, Deborah H., William J. Fisk, Michael G. Apte, X. Wu, Amber L. Trout, David Faulkner, and Douglas P. Sullivan Journal Indoor Air Volume 22 Issue 4 Pagination 309-20 Abstract This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale.

104

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2005 Authors Apte, Michael G., Ian S. Buchanan, David Faulkner, William J. Fisk, Chi-Ming Lai, Michael Spears, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms

106

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes -- Update to Include Analyses of an Economizer Option and Alternative Winter Water Heating Control Option  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of an integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006). The present report is an update to that document. Its primary purpose is to summarize results of an analysis of the potential of adding an outdoor air economizer operating mode to the IHPs to take advantage of free cooling (using outdoor air to cool the house) whenever possible. In addition it provides some additional detail for an alternative winter water heating/space heating (WH/S

Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: New and

109

Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs  

SciTech Connect

The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper sets up a mathematical model of three-dimensional steady turbulence heat transfer in an air-conditioned room of multi-polluting heat sources. Numerical simulation helps identify key factors in displacement ventilation systems that affect air-quality in rooms of multi-polluting heat sources. Results show that it is very important to determine the suitable air-intemperature , air-inflow, and heat source quantity and dispersion, to obtain better displacement ventilation results.

Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

112

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

113

The Ventilated Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adiabatic theories of ocean circulation and density structure have a long tradition, from the concept of the ventilated thermocline to the notion that deep ocean ventilation is controlled by westerly winds over the Southern Ocean. This study ...

Patrick Haertel; Alexey Fedorov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST): Volume 2: Cases E300-E545.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents an additional set of mechanical system test cases that are planned for inclusion in ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 140. The cases test a program's modeling capabilities on the working-fluid side of the coil, but in an hourly dynamic context over an expanded range of performance conditions. These cases help to scale the significance of disagreements that are less obvious in the steady-state cases. The report is Vol. 2 of HVAC BESTEST Volume 1. Volume 1 was limited to steady-state test cases that could be solved with analytical solutions. Volume 2 includes hourly dynamic effects, and other cases that cannot be solved analytically. NREL conducted this work in collaboration with the Tool Evaluation and Improvement Experts Group under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 22.

Neymark J.; Judkoff, R.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ventilating Beta Plane Leases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of warm water lenses on beta planes is extended to include heat exchange between the lenses and their environment. The motivation for this study comes from recent observations of Gulf Stream warm core rings, which clearly show that ...

William K. Dewar

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

Sherman, Max

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation Max Sherman Energy Performance of Buildings Group IED/EETD Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory1 MHSherman@lbl.gov ASHRAE, the American of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R). ASHRAE has recently released a new

118

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Building Science - Ventilation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Joseph Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng, ASHRAE Fellow www.buildingscience.com Build Tight - Ventilate Right Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 2 Build Tight - Ventilate Right How Tight? What's Right? Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 3 Air Barrier Metrics Material 0.02 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Assembly 0.20 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Enclosure 2.00 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa 0.35 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.15 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 4 Getting rid of big holes 3 ach@50 Getting rid of smaller holes 1.5 ach@50 Getting German 0.6 ach@50 Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 5 Best As Tight as Possible - with - Balanced Ventilation Energy Recovery Distribution Source Control - Spot exhaust ventilation Filtration

120

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditioning Engineers. 2001. ASHRAE, “Indoor Air QualityABOUT/IAQ_papr01.htm ASHRAE. “Standard 62.2-2003:Ventilation Requirements. ” ASHRAE Journal, pp. 51- 55, June

Sherman, Max H.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measured. The local exhaust flows can be measured or can meet prescriptive ducting and fan labeling requirements that use ratings provided by the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI,...

122

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

Sherman, Max H.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rudd. 2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies.2009. EISG Final Report: Residential Integrated VentilationDesign and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proc.

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Solar ventilation preheating: FEMP fact sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Installing a ''solar wall'' to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. A solar wall can be designed as an integral part of a new building or it can be added in a retrofit project.

Clyne, R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Why We Ventilate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why We Ventilate Why We Ventilate Title Why We Ventilate Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-5093E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., Phillip N. Price, Max H. Sherman, and Brett C. Singer Conference Name Proceedings of the 2011 32nd AIVC Conference and 1st Tightvent Conference Date Published October 2011 Conference Location Brussels, Belgium Keywords indoor environment department, resave, ventilation and air cleaning Abstract It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of "good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

126

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Dianne Griffiths April 29, 2013 Presentation Outline * Basic Objectives * Exhaust Systems * Make-up Air Systems Two Primary Ventilation Objectives 1) Providing Fresh Air - Whole-House 2) Removing Pollutants - Local Exhaust Our goal is to find the simplest solution that satisfies both objectives while minimizing cost and energy impacts. Common Solution: Align local exhaust with fresh air requirements (Ex: 25 Bath + 25 Kitchen) Exhaust-Driven Fresh Air Design * Exhaust slightly depressurizes the units * Outside air enters through leaks, cracks, or planned inlets * Widely used in the North Multifamily Ventilation Best Practice * Step 1: Understand ventilation requirements * Step 2: Select the simplest design that can

127

Whole Building Ventilation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whole-Building Whole-Building Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Home Performance / Weatherization  Addressing ventilation is the exception  Max tightness, e.g. BPI's "Building Airflow Standard" (BAS)  References ASHRAE 62-89  BAS = Max [0.35 ACH, 15 CFM/person], CFM50 eq.  If BD tests show natural infiltration below BAS...  Ventilation must be recommended or installed.  SO DON'T AIR SEAL TO MUCH! © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Ventilation Requirements Ventilation systems for existing homes that are:

128

Shut-off mechanism for ventilation hose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shut-off mechanism to provide automatic closure of a ventilation hose when the operation of drawing air through the hose is terminated. The mechanism includes a tube of light gauge metal inside of which are mounted a plurality of louver doors positioned in the closed position due to gravity when the ventilation unit is not operational. When the unit is operational, air flowing into the unit maintains the doors in the open position. 5 figs.

Huyett, J.D.; Meskanick, G.R.

1989-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

TNKVNT: A model of the Tank 48 purge/ventilation exhaust system. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The waste tank purge ventilation system for Tank 48 is designed to prevent dangerous concentrations of hydrogen or benzene from accumulating in the gas space of the tank. Fans pull the gas/water vapor mixture from the tank gas space and pass it sequentially through a demister, a condenser, a reheater, and HEPA filters before discharging to the environment. Proper operation of the HEPA filters requires that the gas mixture passing through them has a low relative humidity. The ventilation system has been modified by increasing the capacity of the fans and changing the condenser from a two-pass heat exchanger to a single-pass heat exchanger. It is important to understand the impact of these modifications on the operation of the system. A hydraulic model of the ventilation exhaust system has been developed. This model predicts the properties of the air throughout the system and the flowrate through the system, as functions of the tank gas space and environmental conditions. This document serves as a Software Design Report, a Software Coding report, and a User`s Manual. All of the information required for understanding and using this code is herein contained: the governing equations are fully developed, the numerical algorithms are described in detail, and an extensively commented code listing is included. This updated version of the code models the entire purge ventilation system, and is therefore more general in its potential applications.

Shadday, M.A. Jr.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show that in Chicago, potential annual energy savings of $30M could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Additionally, peak power avoidance is estimated at 400 MW and the reduction in annual carbon emissions at 58 ktC. In Houston, the potential annual energy savings are estimated at $82M, with an avoidance of 730 MW in peak power and a reduction in annual carbon emissions of 170 ktC.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

131

Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show that in Chicago, potential annual energy savings of $30M could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Additionally, peak power avoidance is estimated at 400 MW and the reduction in annual carbon emissions at 58 ktC. In Houston, the potential annual energy savings are estimated at $82M, with an avoidance of 730 MW in peak power and a reduction in annual carbon emissions of 170 ktC.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

132

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

FEMP-FS--Solar Ventilation Preheating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Installing a "solar wall" to heat air before it enters a Installing a "solar wall" to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. The system works by heating outside air with a south-facing solar collector-a dark-colored wall made of sheet metal and perforated with tiny holes. Outdoor air is drawn through the holes and heated as it absorbs the wall's warmth. The warm air rises in the space between the solar wall and the building wall and is moved into the air-duct system, usually by means of a fan, to heat the building. Any additional heating needed at night or on cloudy days is supplied by the build- ing's conventional heating system. During summer months, intake air bypasses the solar collector,

134

Residential Ventilation & Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Residential Ventilation & Energy Figure 1: Annual Average Ventilation Costs of the Current U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock ($/year/house). Infiltration and ventilation in dwellings is conventionally believed to account for one-third to one-half of space conditioning energy. Unfortunately, there is not a great deal of measurement data or analysis to substantiate this assumption. As energy conservation improvements to the thermal envelope continue, the fraction of energy consumed by the conditioning of air may increase. Air-tightening programs, while decreasing energy requirements, have the tendency to decrease ventilation and its associated energy penalty at the possible expense of adequate indoor air quality. Therefore, more energy may be spent on conditioning air.

135

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(often required by building codes) will help to reduce your use of air conditioning, and attic fans may also help keep cooling costs down. Learn More Whole-House Ventilation...

136

Why We Ventilate  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Natural Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 7:56pm Addthis Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion What does this mean for me? If you live in a part of the country with cool nights and breezes, you may be able to cool your house with natural ventilation. If you're building a new home, design it to take advantage of natural ventilation. Natural ventilation relies on the wind and the "chimney effect" to keep a home cool. Natural ventilation works best in climates with cool nights and regular breezes. The wind will naturally ventilate your home by entering or leaving windows, depending on their orientation to the wind. When wind blows against your

138

Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M&O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

Yiming Sun

2001-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy Basics: Ventilation Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

building through the roof, walls, and windows. Heat-reflecting roofs, insulation, and energy efficient windows will help to reduce that heat conduction. Radiation is heat...

140

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

low ventilation rates and increase in health problems:rate. As ventilation rates increase, benefits gained fordetermined that increases in ventilation rates above 10 Ls -

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Related  to  Residential  Ventilation  Requirements”.  Rudd,  A.   2005.   “Review  of  Residential  Ventilation and  Matson  N.E. ,  “Residential  Ventilation  and  Energy 

Sherman, Max

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Design methods for displacement ventilation: Critical review.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement Ventilation. ASHRAE Research project-RP-949.displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transaction, 96 (1). Ar ???due to displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transaction, 96 (1).

Schiavon, Stefano

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System by being located within the WHB and by maintaining specific pressures, temperatures, and humidity within the building. The system also depends on the WHB for water supply. The system interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air; the Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System for detection of fire and smoke; the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for normal, emergency, and standby power; and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of the system.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Moisture and combustion products  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, moisture and combustion pollutants, are examined. A companion paper examines volatile organic compounds and radon. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. Moisture control puts significant restrictions on a ventilation system. The system should function continuously (averaged over days) and distribute ventilation throughout the habitable space. Combustion sources require task ventilation that functions reliably.

Hadlich, D.E.; Grimsrud, D.T.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Evaluation of design ventilation requirements for enclosed parking facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a new design approach to determine the ventilation requirements for enclosed parking garages. The design approach accounts for various factors that affect the indoor air quality within a parking facility, including the average CO emission rate, the average travel time, the number of cars, and the acceptable CO level within the parking garage. This paper first describes the results of a parametric analysis based on the design method that was developed. Then the design method is presented to explain how the ventilation flow rate can be determined for any enclosed parking facility. Finally, some suggestions are proposed to save fan energy for ventilating parking garages using demand ventilation control strategies.

Ayari, A.; Krarti, M.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A field demonstration of automatic restroom ventilation control to reduce energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the motion sensor evaluation task for the Hanford Energy Management Committee (HEMC) performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support the energy reduction mission. The study included installing automatic exhaust ventilation controls in the restrooms of the 1103 Building, 100N area. The goal of this task was to measure the benefit of automatically controlling exhaust ventilation in restrooms of an office building on the Hanford Site. The HEMC belief is that the value of controlling the fans is not limited to the power consumed by the fans, but also includes the value invested to condition (heat or cool) the makeup air. The air exhausted to the exterior of the building must ultimately be replaced by unconditioned air from the outside. This outside air must then by conditioned to maintain the comfort of building occupants. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Doggett, W.H.; Merrick, S.B.; Richman, E.E.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification J. Chris Stratton, Iain S. Walker, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5982E 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

148

association of companies and the Edison Electric Institute (1953). Their final report cites investigations from 1945 through 1953 and includes correlated information on coil data, heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the performance of the system used in this study is in the upper range of commercially available units elements of the system, the condenser and evaporator heat flows, and the monthly performance factor. System of four buried tanks, six earth coils, and six sealed vertical wells. A heating seasonal performance

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

149

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Title Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5889E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Max H. Sherman Journal Building and Environment Volume 59 Start Page 456 Pagination 456-465 Date Published 01/2013 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, filtration, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, ozone, simulation Abstract Elevated outdoor ozone levels are associated with adverse health effects. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone of outdoor origin would lower population exposures and might also lead to a reduction in ozone---associated adverse health effects. In most buildings, indoor ozone levels are diminished with respect to outdoor levels to an extent that depends on surface reactions and on the degree to which ozone penetrates the building envelope. Ozone enters buildings from outdoors together with the airflows that are driven by natural and mechanical means, including deliberate ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor---generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only the positive effects on removing pollutants of indoor origin but also the possibility that enhanced ventilation might increase indoor levels of pollutants originating outdoors. This study considers how changes in residential ventilation that are designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 might influence indoor levels of ozone. Simulation results show that the building envelope can contribute significantly to filtration of ozone. Consequently, the use of exhaust ventilation systems is predicted to produce lower indoor ozone concentrations than would occur with balanced ventilation systems operating at the same air---exchange rate. We also investigated a strategy for reducing exposure to ozone that would deliberately reduce ventilation rates during times of high outdoor ozone concentration while still meeting daily average ventilation requirements.

150

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A database of PFT ventilation measurements  

SciTech Connect

About five years ago, a method for measuring the ventilation flows of a building was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This method is based on the use of a family of compounds known as perfluorocarbon tracers or PFTs. Since 1982, BNL has measured ventilation in more than 4000 homes, comprising about 100 separate research projects throughout the world. This measurement set is unique in that it is the only set of ventilation measurements that acknowledge and measure the multizone characteristics of residences. Other large measurement sets assume that a home can be treated as a single well-mixed zone. This report describes the creation of a database of approximately half of the PFT ventilation measurements made by BNL over the last five years. The PFT database is currently available for use on any IBM PC or Apple Macintosh based personal computer system. In addition to its utility in modeling indoor pollutant dispersion, this database may also be useful to those people studying energy conservation, thermal comfort and heating system design in residential buildings. 2 refs.

D' Ottavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.; Spandau, D.J.; Dietz, R.N.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

The role of the US Department of Energy in indoor air quality and building ventilation policy development  

SciTech Connect

Building ventilation consumes about 5.8 exajoules of energy each year in the US The annual cost of this energy, used for commercial building fans (1.6 exajoules) and the heating and cooling of outside air (4.2 exajoules), is about $US 33 billion per year. Energy conservation measures that reduce heating and cooling season ventilation rates 15 to 35% in commercial and residential buildings can result in a national savings of about 0.6 to 1.5 exajoules ($US 3-8 billion) per year assuming no reduction of commercial building fan energy use. The most significant adverse environmental impact of reduced ventilation and infiltration is the potential degradation of the buildings indoor air quality. Potential benefits to the US from the implementation of sound indoor air quality and building ventilation reduction policies include reduced building-sector energy consumption; reduced indoor, outdoor, and global air pollution; reduced product costs; reduced worker absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased worker well-being and productivity; and increased product quality and competitiveness.

Traynor, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Talbott, J.M.; Moses, D.O. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a comfortable and energy-efficient air conditioning system, the application of floor radiant heating system is used increasingly greatly in the north of China. As a result, the feasibility of floor radiant cooling has gained more attention. To examine the thermodynamic performance of the floor radiant cooling system, we measured the operational conditions including the minimum floor surface temperature, the cooling capacity, and the indoor temperature field distribution under different outdoor temperatures in Beijing. Because the ground temperature changes with the mean temperature of the supplied and returned water and room temperature, the mean temperature of the supplied and retuned water was obtained. Finally, we analyzed the phenomenon of dewing and developed measures for preventing it. The dry air layer near the floor formed by a displacement ventilation system can effectively prevent dews on the surface of the floor in the wet and hot days in summer. In addition, for the sake of the displacement ventilation system, the heat transfer effect between floor and space is enhanced. Our analysis pointed out that floor radiant cooling system combined with displacement ventilation ensures good comfort and energy efficiency.

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Volatile organic compounds and radon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, volatile organic compounds and radon, are examined. A companion paper examines moisture and combustion pollutants. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. They should have the extra capacity available to reduce short bursts of pollution, be located close to the expected source of the contamination, and be inexpensive. Mitigation of radon is technically a major success using a form of task ventilation. Whole-house ventilation is, at best, a secondary form of control of excess radon in residences.

Grimsrud, D.T.; Hadlich, D.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased cost per unit of energy at times of peak demandminimizing energy costs and operation during peak timesenergy and cost impacts of ventilation vary with weather and time

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Enthalpy Wheels Come of Age: Applying Energy Recovery Ventilation to Hospitality Venues in Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy recovery ventilation systems, including rotary heat exchangers or enthalpy wheels, utilize mature technologies that are routinely applied in commercial buildings. Energy recovery is particularly important in buildings with significant outdoor air intake requirements and has recently become widely accepted in applications such as schools and theatres. Hospitality applications including restaurants, bars, casinos and similar settings also stand to benefit from application of the technology, however, there is a lack of experience and therefore of accepted guidance in these applications. Furthermore, the unique challenges inherent in the variety of hospitality venues may limit appropriate use of the technology. Applying energy recovery ventilation to hospitality venues in hot, humid climates need not be complex. This paper proposes guidelines that can facilitate application of the technology by specifiers or other construction professionals. These guidelines address evaluation of typical projects for the suitability of energy recovery, selection of appropriate energy recovery ventilation technology, and criteria for successful application of enthalpy wheels. Examples of applications developed for different mechanical systems and building types are provided. The literature describing the opportunities and limitations associated with enthalpy wheels is summarized and referenced. Installation, operation, and maintenance insights are presented, derived from the body of industry experience with enthalpy wheels.

Wellford, B. W.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Energy Crossroads: Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality Suggest a Listing Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) The AIVC fulfills its objectives by providing a range of services and facilities which include: Information, Technical Analysis, Technical Interchange, and Coordination. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) The ACGIH offers high quality technical publications and learning opportunities. Americlean Services Corp. (ASC) ASC is a certified SBA 8(a) engineering/consulting firm specializing in HVAC contamination detection, abatement, and monitoring. In addition to highly professional ductwork cleaning and HVAC cleaning services, ASC offers a wide range of other engineering/ consulting/ management services

159

Ventilation and Work Performance in Office Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A). When ventilation rate increases from V to V\\, the ratiowork when ventilation rates increase. Field studies withper 10 L/s person increase in ventilation rate and relative

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Lei, Q.H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE) A failure or shutdown of the ventilation system will be signaled by cessation of the audible background "rumbling" sound of the building's HVAC system. As building durations. NOTE: Due to unpredictable pressure differentials in and around the labs during an HVAC failure

Strynadka, Natalie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

while still providing ventilation for adequate indoor air quality. Various ASHRAE Standards (e.g., 62 to the ASHRAE Standard 119 levels while still providing adequate ventilation through infiltration or mechanical alternatives. Various ASHRAE Standards are used to assist us. ASHRAE Standard 119-19885 classifies the envelope

162

Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was written to describe an innovative “on-demand” industrial ventilation system for woodworking, metalworking, food processing, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. Having analyzed existing industrial ventilation in 130 factories, we found striking dichotomy between the classical “static” design of ventilation systems and constantly changing workflow and business demands. Using data from real factories, we are able to prove that classical industrial ventilation design consumes 70 % more energy than necessary. Total potential electricity saving achieved by using on-demand systems instead of classically designed industrial ventilation in the U.S. could be 26 billion kWh. At the average electricity cost of 7 cents per kWh, this would represent $1.875 billion. Eighty such systems are already installed in the USA and European Union.

Litomisky, A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Why We Ventilate - Recent Advances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WHY WE VENTILATE: WHY WE VENTILATE: Recent Advances Max Sherman BA Stakeholders meeting ASHRAE BIO  Distinguished Lecturer  Exceptional Service Award  Board of Directors; TechC  Chair of committees:  62.2; Standards Committee  TC 4.3; TC 2.5  Holladay Distinguished Fellow OVERVIEW QUESTIONS  What is Ventilation? What is IAQ?  What functions does it provide?  How much do we need? Why?  How should ventilations standards be made? LBL has working on these problems Who Are You?  Engineers (ASHRAE Members & not);  architects,  contractors,  reps,  builders,  vendors,  code officials WHAT IS VENTILATION  Medicine: To Exchange Air In the Lungs  Latin: Ventilare, "to expose to the wind"  Today: To Bring In Outdoor Air And Replace

164

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Title Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5795E Year of...

165

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing...

166

Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Photo of a dark brown perforated metal...

167

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim Report Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim...

168

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

air quality. There are four basic mechanical whole-house ventilation systems -- exhaust, supply, balanced, and energy recovery. Comparison of Whole-House Ventilation Systems...

169

RESIDENTIAL INTEGRATED VENTILATION ENERGY CONTROLLER - Energy ...  

A residential controller is described which is used to manage the mechanical ventilation systems of a home, installed to meet whole-house ventilation requirements, at ...

170

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses. ”Passive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses."

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Positive Pressure Ventilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to the fire and can increase the rate of heat and energy being released. ... of vents open were altered to examine capability and optimization of each. ...

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Airflow simulation in one ventilated room with radiant heating and natural ventilation has been carried out. Three cases are compared: the closed room, the room with full openings, and the room with small openings. The radiator heating room with small openings is recommended. The airflow and thermal comfort are discussed for the last case. It is suitable for two kinds of civil buildings, housing buildings and office buildings, which take up the largest part of all functional buildings.

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

OPTIMIZED CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR A TYPICAL WATER LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water Loop Heat Pump (WLHP) System has been widely utilized in the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) industry for several decades. There is no… (more)

Lian, Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, 2011 , 2011 Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 2:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 888-324-9601; Pass code: 5551971 Download the presentation at: www.buildingamerica.gov/meetings.html Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Building America: Introduction November 1, 2011 Cheryn Engebrecht Cheryn.engebrecht@nrel.gov Building Technologies Program Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote building science and systems engineering / integration approach * "Do no harm": Ensure safety, health and durability are maintained or improved * Accelerate adoption of high performance technologies

175

Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography Title Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6142E Year of Publication 2013 Authors J. Chris Stratton, and Craig P. Wray Keywords ASHRAE 62.2, commissioning, procedures, residential, standards, ventilation Abstract Beginning with the 2008 version of Title 24, new homes in California must comply with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007 requirements for residential ventilation. Where installed, the limited data available indicate that mechanical ventilation systems do not always perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. Commissioning such systems when they are installed or during subsequent building retrofits is a step towards eliminating deficiencies and optimizing the tradeoff between energy use and acceptable IAQ. Work funded by the California Energy Commission about a decade ago at Berkeley Lab documented procedures for residential commissioning, but did not focus on ventilation systems. Since then, standards and approaches for commissioning ventilation systems have been an active area of work in Europe. This report describes our efforts to collect new literature on commissioning procedures and to identify information that can be used to support the future development of residential-ventilation-specific procedures and standards. We recommend that a standardized commissioning process and a commissioning guide for practitioners be developed, along with a combined energy and IAQ benefit assessment standard and tool, and a diagnostic guide for estimating continuous pollutant emission rates of concern in residences (including a database that lists emission test data for commercially-available labeled products).

176

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Ventilation andleakage. The ASHRAE Handbook of fundamentals (ASHRAE 2009),

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Guide to Energy-Efficient Ventilation Methods for Acceptable Levels of Indoor Air Quality Levels in Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indoor air quality is important in commercial buildings to maintain employee health, well-being, and productivity and avoid employer liability. The most common method to improve indoor air quality in commercial buildings is to use outside ventilation air for dilution of the inside air. Unfortunately, the conditioning of outdoor ventilation air may result in increased energy use for cooling, dehumidification, and heating; and humid outdoor ventilation air also can degrade indoor air quality. Some commerci...

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

178

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms.

Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

DOE Solar Process Heat Program: FY1991 Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies Activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing fiat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc. for applications in industry, commerce, and government.

Russell Hewett; Price Microfiche A

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. TheIHPAC units were found to provide ventilation that meets both California State energy and occupational codes and the ASHRAE minimum ventilation requirements; the classrooms equipped with the 10 SEER equipment universally did not meet these targets. The IHPAC system provided a major improvement in indoor acoustic conditions. HVAC system generated background noise was reduced in fan-only and fan and compressor modes, reducing the nose levels to better than the design objective of 45 dB(A), and acceptable for additional design points by the Collaborative on High Performance Schools. The IHPAC provided superior ventilation, with indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations that showed that the Title 24 minimum ventilation requirement of 15 CFM per occupant was nearly always being met. The opposite was found in the classrooms utilizing the 10 SEER system, where the indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations frequently exceeded levels that reflect inadequate ventilation. Improved ventilation conditions in the IHPAC lead to effective removal of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, on average lowering the concentrations by 57 percent relative to the levels in the 10 SEER classrooms. The average IHPAC to 10 SEER formaldehyde ratio was about 67 percent, indicating only a 33 percent reduction of this compound in indoor air. The IHPAC thermal control system provided less variability in occupied classroom temperature than the 10 SEER thermostats. The average room temperatures in all seasons tended to be slightly lower in the IHPAC classrooms, often below the lower limit of the ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort band. State-wide and national energy modeling provided conservative estimates of potential energy savings by use of the IHPAC system that would provide payback a the range of time far lower than the lifetime of the equipment. Assuming electricity costs of $0.15/kWh, the perclassroom range of savings is from about $85 to $195 per year in California, and about $89 to $250 per year in the U.S., depending upon the city. These modelsdid not include the non-energy benefits to the classrooms including better air quality and acoustic conditions that could lead to improved health and learning in school. Market connection efforts that were part of the study give all indication that this has been a very successful project. The successes include the specification of the IHPAC equipment in the CHPS portable classroom standards, the release of a commercial product based on the standards that is now being installed in schools around the U.S., and the fact that a public utility company is currently considering the addition of the technology to its customer incentive program. These successes indicate that the IHPAC may reach its potential to improve ventilation and save energy in classrooms.

Michael G. Apte, Bourassa Norman, David Faulkner, Alfred T. Hodgson,; Toshfumi Hotchi, Michael Spears, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Duo Wang; Apte, Michael; Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

2008-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Title Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5796E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., William J. N. Turner, Iain S. Walker, and Brett C. Singer Date Published 06/2012 Abstract Changing the rate of airflow through a home affects the annual thermal conditioning energy.Large-scale changes to airflow rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the energy consumption of the residential energy sector. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models hampers the ability to estimate the impact of policy changes on a state or nationwide level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study was designed to combine the output of simple airflow models and a limited set of home characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modelers to use existing databases of home characteristics to determine the impact of policy on ventilation at a population scale. In this report, we describe the IVE model and demonstrate that its estimates of energy change are comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model when applied to homes with limited parameterization. Homes with extensive parameterization would be more accurately characterized by complex residential energy models. The demonstration included a range of home types, climates, and ventilation systems that cover a large fraction of the residential housing sector.

182

Effect of attic ventilation on the performance of radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the experiments was to quantify how attic ventilation would affect the performance of a radiant barrier. Ceiling heat flux and space cooling load were both measured. Results of side-by-side radiant barrier experiments using two identical 13.38 m[sup 2] (nominal) test houses are presented in this paper. The test houses responded similarly to weather variations. Indoor temperatures of the test houses were controlled to within 0.2 [degrees] C. Ceiling heat fluxes and space cooling load were within a 2.5 percent difference between both test houses. The results showed that a critical attic ventilation flow rate of 1.3 (1/sec)/m[sup 2] of the attic floor existed after which the percentage reduction in ceiling heat fluxes produced by the radiant barriers did not change with increasing attic airflow rates. The ceiling heat flux reductions produced by the radiant barriers were between 25 and 35 percent, with 28 percent being the percent reduction observed most often in the presence of attic ventilation. The space-cooling load reductions observed were between two to four percent. All results compiled in this paper were for attics with unfaced fiberglass insulation with a resistance level of 3.35 m[sup 2]K/W (nominal) and for a perforated radiant barrier with low emissivities (less than 0.05) on both sides.

Medina, M.A.; O'Neal, D.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Turner, W.D. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Coll. of Engineering)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fresh Way to Cut Combustion, Crop and Air Heating Costs Avoids Million BTU Purchases: Inventions and Innovation Combustion Success Story  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Success story written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new space heating method that uses solar energy to heat incoming combustion, crop, and ventilation air.

Wogsland, J.

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

184

Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this study. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation andV8doc.sas.com/sashtml. Classroom HVAC: Improving VentilationBerkeley, CA 94720. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation

Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Literature Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements”.A. 2005. “Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies”,M.H. and Matson N.E. , “Residential Ventilation and Energy

Sherman, Max H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Ventilation for an enclosure of a gas turbine and related method  

SciTech Connect

A ventilation scheme for a rotary machine supported on pedestals within an enclosure having a roof, end walls and side walls with the machine arranged parallel to the side walls, includes ventilation air inlets located in a first end wall of the enclosure; a barrier wall located within the enclosure, proximate the first end wall to thereby create a plenum chamber. The barrier wall is constructed to provide a substantially annular gap between the barrier wall and a casing of the turbine to thereby direct ventilation air axially along the turbine; one or more ventilation air outlets located proximate a second, opposite end wall on the roof of the enclosure. In addition, one or more fans are provided for pulling ventilating air into said plenum chamber via the ventilation air inlets.

Schroeder, Troy Joseph (Mauldin, SC); Leach, David (Simpsonville, SC); O' Toole, Michael Anthony (Greenfield Center, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Residential ventilation standards scoping study  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

Boggs, David Lee (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Baraszu, Daniel James (Plymouth, MI); Foulkes, David Mark (Erfstadt, DE); Gomes, Enio Goyannes (Ann Arbor, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Numerical heat transfer attic model using a radiant barrier system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, steady-state finite-element model was developed to simulate the thermal effects of the application of an attic radiant barrier system (ARBS) inside a ventilated residential attic. The attic is ventilated using the exhaust air from an evaporative cooler. The study uses a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulent model to describe the velocity and temperature distributions in the attic. The ambient temperature and solar isolation densities on the outside inclined attic surfaces are used as driving functions for the model. The model also included the appropriate heat exchange modes of convection and radiation on these outside surfaces. Several recirculation zones were visually observed in the attic flow pattern. Also, the use of the ARBS seems to lower the heat transfer through the ceiling by 25--30%, but this effect decreases significantly as the outside ventilation rates are increased through the attic space. The 2D model revealed some interesting temperature distributions along the attic surfaces that could not have been predicted by the one-dimensional models. The lower emissivity ARBS seems to raise the temperature of the inclined attic surfaces as well as the temperature of the exhausted ventilation air.

Moujaes, S.F.; Alsaiegh, N.T.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

1980-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

Midlevel Ventilation’s Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An idealized framework based ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 2:37pm Addthis A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. What does this mean for me? Whole-house ventilation is critical in an energy-efficient home to maintain adequate indoor air quality and comfort. The whole-house ventilation system you choose will depend upon your climate, budget, and the availability of experienced contractors in your area. Energy-efficient homes -- both new and existing -- require mechanical ventilation to maintain indoor air quality. There are four basic mechanical

194

Ventilation Controller for Improved Indoor Air Quality  

Iain Walker and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a dynamic control system for whole-house ventilation fans that provides maximal air quality while reducing by 18-44% the energy spent on ventilation. The system, the Residential Integrated ...

195

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. References ASHRAE.2009. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Ventilation andChapter. Atlanta GA: ASHRAE. ASHRAE. 2007. “Ventilation and

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 1999 LBNL - 42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STANDARD: EXEGESIS OF PROPOSED STANDARD 62 Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 April 1999 In January 1999 ASHRAE's Standard Project, approved ASHRAE's first complete standard on residential ventilation for public review

197

Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indoor Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2 Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor California Energy Commission Ventilation (ASHRAE 62.2) Minimum Best Practices Guide - Exhaust-Only Ventilation Introduction: The California Energy Commission has created the following guide to provide assistance in complying with ANSI/ASHRAE

198

Ventilation problems in heritage buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The control of indoor conditions in heritage buildings, such as castles or museums, is of paramount importance for the proper preservation of the artworks kept in. As heritage buildings are often not equipped with HVAC systems, it is necessary to provide ... Keywords: CO2 concentration, IAQ, heritage buildings, ventilation

S. Costanzo; A. Cusumano; C. Giaconia; S. Mazzacane

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

An overview of the TA-55, Building PF-4 ventilation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of the TA-55, Building PF-4 ventilation system is provided in the following sections. Included are descriptions of the zone configurations, equipment-performance criteria, ventilation support systems, and the ventilation-system evaluation criteria. Section 4.2.1.1 provides a brief discussion of the ventilation system function. Section 4.2.1.2 provides details on the overall system configuration. Details of system interfaces and support systems are provided in Section 4.2.1.3. Section 4.2.1.4 describes instrumentation and control needed to operate the ventilation system. Finally, Sections 4.2.1.5 and 4.2.1.6 describe system surveillance/maintenance and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) Limitations, respectively. Note that the numerical parameters included in this description are considered nominal; set points and other specifications actually fall within operational bands.

NONE

1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ventilation Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

is important in understanding cooling strategies for homes and buildings. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat is transferred to and from objects via three processes: conduction,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Title Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5517-5528 Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a floor area of 4,600 m2, was located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on seven days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature supporting the associations. Two vectors with high loadings of compounds including formaldehyde, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (d5 siloxane), and isoprene likely identified occupant-related sources. One vector likely represented emissions from building materials. Another vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which were likely associated with material sources, and d5 siloxane exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, the operation of the building and variations in pollutant generation and removal rates apparently combined to obscure the inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation. This result emphasizes the importance of utilizing source control measures, in addition to adequate ventilation, to limit concentrations of VOCs of concern in office buildings

202

Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the UnitedStates  

SciTech Connect

The first and only national norm for residential ventilation in the United States is Standard 62.2-2004 published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This standard does not by itself have the force of regulation, but is being considered for adoption by various jurisdictions within the U.S. as well as by various voluntary programs. The adoption of 62.2 would require mechanical ventilation systems to be installed in virtually all new homes, but allows for a wide variety of design solutions. These solutions, however, may have a different energy costs and non-energy benefits. This report uses a detailed simulation model to evaluate the energy impacts of currently popular and proposed mechanical ventilation approaches that are 62.2 compliant for a variety of climates. These results separate the energy needed to ventilate from the energy needed to condition the ventilation air, from the energy needed to distribute and/or temper the ventilation air. The results show that exhaust systems are generally the most energy efficient method of meeting the proposed requirements. Balanced and supply systems have more ventilation resulting in greater energy and their associated distribution energy use can be significant.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Energy Efficient Ventilation for Maintaining Indoor Air Quality in Large Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this paper was presented at the 3rd International Conference on Cold Climate Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning, Sapporo, Japan, November 2000 C. Y. Shaw Rsum Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada Achieving good indoor air quality in large residential and commercial buildings continues to be a top priority for owners, designers, building managers and occupants alike. Large buildings present a greater challenge in this regard than do smaller buildings and houses. The challenge is greater today because there are many new materials, furnishings, products and processes used in these buildings that are potential sources of air contaminants. There are three strategies for achieving acceptable indoor air quality: ventilation (dilution), source control and air cleaning/filtration. Of the three, the most frequently used strategy, and in most cases the only one available to building operators, is ventilation. Ventilation is the process of supplying outdoor air to an enclosed space and removing stale air from this space. It can control the indoor air quality by both diluting the indoor air with less contaminated outdoor air and removing the indoor contaminants with the exhaust air. Ventilation costs money because the outdoor air needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer. To conserve energy, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the ventilation system. In this regard, a number of factors come into play

C. Y. Shaw; C. Y. Shaw Résumé

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thermal behavior. Problems are encountered when the faade system includes a "massive baffle" (i.e. when baffle material is heavy and has high heat capacity) or a composite baffle...

206

Passive ventilation for residential air quality control  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration has long served the residential ventilation needs in North America. In Northern Europe it has been augmented by purpose-provided natural ventilation systems--so-called passive ventilation systems--to better control moisture problems in dwellings smaller than their North American counterparts and in a generally wetter climate. The growing concern for energy consumption, and the environmental impacts associated with it, has however led to tighter residential construction standards on both continents and as a result problems associated with insufficient background ventilation have surfaced. Can European passive ventilation systems be adapted for use in North American dwellings to provide general background ventilation for air quality control? This paper attempts to answer this question. The configuration, specifications and performance of the preferred European passive ventilation system--the passive stack ventilation (PSV) system--will be reviewed; innovative components and system design strategies recently developed to improve the traditional PSV system performance will be outlined; and alternative system configurations will be presented that may better serve the climatic extremes and more urban contexts of North America. While these innovative and alternative passive ventilation systems hold great promise for the future, a rational method to size the components of these systems to achieve the control and precision needed to meet the conflicting constraints of new ventilation and air tightness standards has not been forthcoming. Such a method will be introduced in this paper and an application of this method will be presented.

Axley, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Night-time naturally ventilated offices: Statistical simulations of window-use patterns from field monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates occupant behaviour of window-use in night-time naturally ventilated offices on the basis of a pilot field study, conducted during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Cambridge, UK, and then demonstrates the effects of employing night-time ventilation on indoor thermal conditions using predictive models of occupant window-use. A longitudinal field study shows that occupants make good use of night-time natural ventilation strategies when provided with openings that allow secure ventilation, and that there is a noticeable time of day effect in window-use patterns (i.e. increased probability of action on arrival and departure). We develop logistic models of window-use for night-time naturally ventilated offices, which are subsequently applied to a behaviour algorithm, including Markov chains and Monte Carlo methods. The simulations using the behaviour algorithm demonstrate a good agreement with the observational data of window-use, and reveal how building design and occupant behaviour collectively affect the thermal performance of offices. They illustrate that the provision of secure ventilation leads to more frequent use of the window, and thus contributes significantly to the achievement of a comfortable indoor environment during the daytime occupied period. For example, the maximum temperature for a night-time ventilated office is found to be 3 C below the predicted value for a daytime-only ventilated office. (author)

Yun, Geun Young [Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea); Steemers, Koen [Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge, 1-5 Scroope Terrace, Cambridge CB2 1PX (United Kingdom)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Analysis of Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scope of work for this project includes safe building design, vehicle leak in residential garage, continual slow leak, passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation (versus mechanical), and steady-state concentration of hydrogen versus vent size.

Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.; Ohi, J.; Hewett, R.

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

Available Technologies: Ventilation Controller for Improved Indoor ...  

Iain Walker and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a dynamic control system for whole-house ventilation fans that provides maximal air quality while reducing ...

210

Case Study 1 - Ventilation in Manufactured Houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ventilation in Manufactured Houses. ... fan operation, an outdoor air intake duct installed on the forced-air return, and whole house exhaust with and ...

211

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coils of commercial air-conditioning systems. Proceedings ofrefrigerating and air-conditioning engineers, inc. pp 601-for ventilation and air-conditioning systems - offices and

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 1994, ENTPE, Lyon. [CIBSE] Chartered Institution ofMixed-mode ventilation. CIBSE Applications Manual AM13.incorporated by the design. CIBSE, 2000 Mixed-mode

Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Indoor Air Quality & Ventilation Group Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Group Staff. Staff Listing. Dr. Andrew K. Persily, Leader, Supervisory Mechanical Engineer, 301-975-6418. ...

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ventilation measurements in large office buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation rates were measured in nine office buildings using an automated tracer gas measuring system. The buildings range in size from a two-story federal building with a floor area of about 20,000 ft/sup 2/ (1900 m/sup 2/) to a 26-story office building with a floor area of 700,000 ft/sup 2/ (65,000 m/sup 2/). The ventilation rates were measured for about 100 hours in each building over a range of weather conditions. The results are presented and examined for variation with time and weather. In most cases, the ventilation rate of a building is similar for hot and cold weather. In mild weather, outdoor air is used to cool the building and the ventilation rate increases. In the buildings where infiltration is a significant portion of the total ventilation rate, this total rate exhibits a dependence on weather conditions. The measured ventilation rates are discussed in relation to the outdoor air intake strategy in each building. The ventilation rates are also compared to the design rates in the buildings and ventilation rates based on the ASHRAE Standard 62-81. Some of the buildings are at times operated at lower ventilation rates than recommended in Standard 62-81.

Persily, A.K.; Grot, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Analysis of Demand Controlled Ventilation Technology and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The actual health, comfort, and productivity impacts of mechanical ventilation ... p strat i csp o ... in California and elsewhere is the impact of ambient air ...

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately. (WRF)

Swenson, D.G. (ed.)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

32%), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-0.85) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-29% as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

Fisk, William J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Review of Literature Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

typical existing house. Designed passive ventilation systemsPassive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses."House Ventilation Rates Local Exhaust Rates Air Distribution and Duct Leakage Infiltration Windows and Passive

McWilliams, Jennifer; Sherman, Max

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Controllability and invariance of monotone systems for robust ventilation automation in buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[2] and control [3] of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems leads to an improved on these matters [4]. Various paths have already been explored for the control of HVAC systems in intelligent and energy saving [7], a model-predictive strategy [8], or a fuzzy logic controller [9]. The notion of Robust

224

The Influence of Proposed Repository Thermal Load on Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Unsaturated Zone of Yucca Mountain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

two-phase zone, is the heat-pipe (i.e. , a zone of constant4a), when there is a heat pipe just above the emplacementduring ventilation, the heat-pipe signature is absent in

Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solar assisted heat pump system with volume solar collector. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The system uses the attic of the house with a large south facing window as the solar collector. An air-to-water heat pump uses the attic air as a heat source to heat a volume of storage water during the heating season. During the cooling season the attic is ventilated and the heat pump uses the attic air as a heat sink while cooling the storage water. The computer program was developed to include a heat exchanger in the attic which could by-pass the heat pump condenser cooling water, thus permitting direct heat exchange between the attic air and the storage water whenever a favorable temperature existed. The program also accounts for the effect of the incidence angle of insolation and the effect of the number of glass plates on the transmittance and absorptance of the collector and windows. Other refinements include: the use of a sophisticated nighttime setback thermostat, account of internal heat generation and infiltration loss. Among all of the parameter variations, the use of an attic heat exchanger resulted in the maximum savings in the heating/cooling energy consumption of the house. The use of double-glazed windows too, resulted in substantial energy savings. The total energy consumption was found to depend strongly on the infiltration rate. The program was also used to simulate the same system under weather conditions existing at several different geographic areas.

Sabnis, J.S.; Hickox, W.J.; Drucker, E.E.; Ucar, M.; LaGraff, J.E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

Not Available

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

228

Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Ventilation Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products

229

CO2 Monitoring for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Commercial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Monitoring for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Commercial Buildings Title CO2 Monitoring for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Commercial Buildings Publication Type Report Year...

230

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Title Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and...

231

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Title Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A...

232

Why We Ventilate Our Houses - An Historical Look  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The knowledge of how to ventilate buildings, and how much ventilation is necessary for human health and comfort, has evolved over centuries of trial and error. Humans and...

233

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification Title Measuring Residential Ventilation System...

234

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms Title Improving Ventilation and Saving...

235

Demand-Controlled Ventilation Using CO2 Sensors - Federal Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fresh air in a building can be a problem. Over ventilation results in higher energy usage and costs than are necessary with appropriate ventilation while potentially increasing...

236

Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary Title Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary Publication Type Conference Paper...

237

Report on Applicability of Residential Ventilation Standards in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but also because passive, whole-house ventilation systemsPassive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses",

Sherman, Max H.; McWilliam, Jennifer A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Gas heat pumps are coming: But by a different name  

SciTech Connect

Gas heat pumps are coming, but by a different name. The manufacturers have elected not to call these products {open_quote}heat pumps{close_quotes} because advertising by gas distributors has been so effective at associating the term {open_quote}air-source heat pump{close_quotes} with cold blowing air. Nonetheless, gas-fired air-source heat pumps of the engine-driven and absorption types will be marketed starting in 1994 and in 1997, respectively, according to current plans. This paper identifies the generic participants that have been and will be involved in the gas heat pump deployment effort, and it reviews the underlying forces that caused (or likely will cause) those participants to act as they do. The participants include technology developers; the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry; the utility industry; and state utility regulators. The driving forces include the drifting of unitary HVAC products toward a commodity-like status, the decline of the domestic component of global HVAC markets, the restructuring of the HVAC and gas utility industries, the anticipated restructuring of the electric utility industry, the strengths and weaknesses of gas distributors, and state utility regulation. Also reviewed are technology status, manufacturer commitments, and timetables for introducing products. The road to widespread domestic market acceptance of gas heat pumps will likely be very different from that experienced by electric heat pump manufacturers in the 1950s and 1960s.

Hughes, P.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are: a heat-pipe heat exchanger, heat-pipe heat exchanger freeze proofing, heat-pipe attic ventilation, transfer of light bulb heat via a heat pipe to heat water, heat recovery via heat pipe, cooling of oil in engines and transmissions via heat pipe, a tracking reflector, automatic sun tracker, single-stroke vacuum pump for heat-pipe manufacture, and heat pipe heat transfer from rock bed. (LEW)

Norman, R.M. Sr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Comparative performance of two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, October 1 1977-September 30 1978 (including 1974-1977 operating results comparisons)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been operated in space heating, cooling, and domestic hot water heating systems in Colorado State University Solar House I. An experimental collector from Corning Glass works supplied heat to the system from January 1977 through February 1978, and an experimental collector from the Phillips Research Laboratory, Aachen, which is currently in use, has been operating since August 1978. A flat absorber plate inside a single-walled glass tube is used in the Corning design, whereas heat is conducted through a single glass wall to an external heat exchanger plate in the Philips collector. The respective aperture areas are 50.0 m/sup 2/ and 44.7 m/sup 2/. Since system designs and conditions of operation were not identical, efficiencies and energy deliveries of the two evacuated tubular collectors should not be compared without recognition of these factors. But in comparison with conventional flat plate collectors, both types show substantially reduced heat losses and improved efficiency.

Loef, G.O.G.; Duff, W.S.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone.   Heat load from heat conduction through the room Total heat load from heat conduction through the room the heat gain from heat conduction through the room envelope

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

243

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition  

SciTech Connect

This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

simple, cost-effective techniques for providing fresh air throughout the home, including exhaust-only and central fan-integrated supply ventilation. Building America has refined simple whole-house ventilation systems that cost less than $350 to install. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.3 Assured Health, Safety, and Durability Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing As high-performance homes get more air-tight and better insulated, attention to good indoor air quality becomes essential. Building America has effectively guided the nation's home builders to embrace whole-house ventilation by developing low-cost options that adapt well to their production processes. When the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research teams began

245

Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan  

SciTech Connect

The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

DOE Solar Process Heat Program: FY1991 Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar Collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc. for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY 1991, six projects were selected for funding. As of August 31, 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

Hewett, R.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Residential space heating cost: geothermal vs conventional systems  

SciTech Connect

The operating characteristics and economies of several representative space heating systems are analyzed. The analysis techniques used may be applied to a larger variety of systems than considered herein, thereby making this document more useful to the residential developer, heating and ventilating contractor, or homeowner considering geothermal space heating. These analyses are based on the use of geothermal water at temperatures as low as 120/sup 0/F in forced air systems and 140/sup 0/F in baseboard convection and radiant floor panel systems. This investigation indicates the baseboard convection system is likely to be the most economical type of geothermal space heating system when geothermal water of at least 140/sup 0/F is available. Heat pumps utilizing water near 70/sup 0/F, with negligible water costs, are economically feasible and they are particularly attractive when space cooling is included in system designs. Generally, procurement and installation costs for similar geothermal and conventional space heating systems are about equal, so geothermal space heating is cost competitive when the unit cost of geothermal energy is less than or equal to the unit cost of conventional energy. Guides are provided for estimating the unit cost of geothermal energy for cases where a geothermal resource is known to exist but has not been developed for use in residential space heating.

Engen, I.A.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

249

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Ventilation | Building Energy Codes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation Ventilation The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on ventilation air; exhaust air; control strategies; carbon dioxide sensors; economizers. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_ventilation.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 Document type: AEDG Implementation Recommendations Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Contractor Engineer State: All States Contacts Web Site Policies

250

Scale model studies of displacement ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

Okutan, Galip Mehmet

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Midlevel Ventilation's Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

252

A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of ...

Tang, Brian

253

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

into the house to be filtered to remove pollen and dust or dehumidified to provide humidity control Supply ventilation systems work best in hot or mixed climates. Because they...

254

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.of Ventilation and Air Conditioning: Is CERN up to Date With

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with Equation  7.4 of the ASHRAE Design Guidelines for efficiency air diffusers. The ASHRAE method does not takeVentilation” Atlanta: ASHRAE. Jiang, Z. , Chen, Q. , and

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Ventilation of the Subtropical North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ventilation of the subtropical North Pacific is studied using a simple analytical model. The model is forced by winter mixed layer density and depth calculated from the Levitus climatology and wind stress curl from the Hellerman and ...

Rui Xin Huang; Sarah Russell

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Chlorofluorocarbon Constraints on North Atlantic Ventilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The North Atlantic Ocean vigorously ventilates the ocean interior. Thermocline and deep water masses are exposed to atmospheric contact there and are sequestered in two principal classes: Subtropical Mode Water (STMW: 26.5 ? ?? ? 26.8) and ...

Thomas W. N. Haine; Kelvin J. Richards; Yanli Jia

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

CFD Simulation of Airflow in Ventilated Wall System Report #9  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report was to examine air movements in vinyl and brick ventilation cavities in detail, using a state of the art CFD commercial modeling tool. The CFD activity was planned to proceed the other activities in order to develop insight on the important magnitudes of scales occurring during ventilation air flow. This information generated by the CFD model was to be used to modify (if necessary) and to validate the air flow dynamics already imbedded in the hygrothermal model for the computer-based air flow simulation procedures. A comprehensive program of advanced, state-of-the-art hygrothermal modeling was then envisaged mainly to extend the knowledge to other wall systems and at least six representative climatic areas. These data were then to be used to provide the basis for the development of design guidelines. CFD results provided timely and much needed answers to many of the concerns and questions related to ventilation flows due to thermal buoyancy and wind-driven flow scenarios. The relative strength between these two mechanisms. Simple correlations were developed and are presented in the report providing the overall pressure drop, and flow through various cavities under different exterior solar and temperature scenarios. Brick Rainscreen Wall: It was initially expected that a 50 mm cavity would offer reduced pressure drops and increased air flow compared to a 19 mm cavity. However, these models showed that the size of the ventilation slots through the wall are the limiting factor rather than the cavity depth. Of course, once the slots are enlarged beyond a certain point, this could change. The effects of natural convection within the air cavities, driven by the temperature difference across the cavity, were shown to be less important than the external wind speed (for a wind direction normal to the wall surface), when wind action is present. Vinyl Rainscreen Wall: The CFD model of the vinyl rainscreen wall was simpler than that for the brick wall. Constant wall temperatures were used rather than conjugate heat transfer. Although this is appropriate for a thin surface with little heat capacity, it does mean that an empirical correlation between solar radiation (and perhaps wind speed) and vinyl temperature is required to use these results appropriately. The results developed from this CFD model were correlated to weather parameters and construction details so that they can be incorporated into ORNL s advanced hygrothermal models MOISTURE- EXPERT.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Karagiozis, Achilles N [ORNL

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Energy Basics: Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of energy sources, including electricity, boilers, solar energy, and wood and pellet-fuel heating. Small Space Heaters Used when the main heating system is inadequate or when...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Tracer dating and ocean ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on dif•cult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. We use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. We define an idealized "ventilation age tracer " that is conservative with respect to mixing, and we explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters. 1.

G. Thiele; J. L. Sarmiento

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Residential Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Research Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The residential HVAC load contributes $23 billion to electric utility energy sales and significantly to peak demands. Participants at this 1986 workshop identified fifteen areas of research needed to improve HVAC components, systems, and applications.

1987-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

263

Laboratory Testing of the Heating Capacity of Air-Source Heat Pumps at Low Outdoor Temperature Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-source heat pump systems offer an alternative to the common heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) configuration of single split unitary air conditioners with gas heating. In simple terms, heat pumps are traditional air conditioning units with the added capability of running in reverse as required by the building load. Thus, where the traditional air conditioning unit has an indoor evaporator to remove heat from the space and an outdoor condenser to reject heat to the ambient environment, ...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means  

SciTech Connect

The heating apparatus for applying heat to the interior of a chamber includes a modular, removable, electrical, heat-producing unit and a heat pipe mountable in a wall of the chamber with one end of the pipe arranged to receive heat from the electrical heat producing unit exterior of the housing and with another end of the pipe constructed and arranged to apply heat to the medium within the chamber. The heat pipe has high conductivity with a low temperature differential between the ends thereof and the heat producing unit includes an electric coil positioned about and removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe. The electric coil is embedded in a high thermal conducitivity, low electrical conductivity filler material which is surrounded by a low thermal conductivity insulating jacket and which is received around a metal core member which is removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe.

Shutt, J.R.

1978-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

265

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Title Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5968E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Turner, William J. N., and Iain S. Walker Date Published 12/2012 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, california title 24, passive ventilation, residential ventilation, ventilation controller Abstract Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health, and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. At the same time we wish to reduce the energy use in homes and therefore minimize the energy used to provide ventilation. This study examined several approaches to reducing the energy requirements of providing acceptable IAQ in residential buildings. Two approaches were taken. The first used RIVEC - the Residential Integrated VEntilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. The second used passive and hybrid ventilation systems, rather than mechanical systems, to provide whole-house ventilation.

266

Energy Performance and Economic Evaluations of the Geothermal Heat Pump System used in the KnowledgeWorks I and II Buildings, Blacksburg, Virginia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) are not only one of the most energy consuming components in buildings but also contribute to green house… (more)

Charoenvisal, Kongkun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on Ventilated Attics in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results of side-by-side radiant barrier experiments using two identical 144 ft2 (nominal) test houses are presented. The test houses responded very similarly to weather variations prior to the retrofit. The temperatures of the test houses were controlled to within 0.3°F. Ceiling heat fluxes were within 2 percent for each house. The results showed that a critical attic ventilation flow rate (0.25 CFM/ft2 ) existed after which the percentage reduction produced by the radiant barrier systems was not sensitive to increased airflows. The ceiling heat flux reductions produced by the radiant barrier systems were between 25 and 34 percent, with 28 percent being the reduction observed most often in the presence of attic ventilation. All results presented in this paper were for attics with R-19 unfaced fiberglass insulation and for a perforated radiant barrier with low emissivities on both sides.

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Coupled urban wind flow and indoor natural ventilation modelling on a high-resolution grid: A case study for the Amsterdam ArenA stadium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind flow in urban environments is an important factor governing the dispersion of heat and pollutants from streets, squares and buildings. This paper presents a coupled CFD modelling approach for urban wind flow and indoor natural ventilation. A specific ... Keywords: Air exchange rate, Air quality, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Cross-ventilation, Full-scale measurements, Grid generation technique, Integrated model, Model validation and solution verification, Numerical simulation, Outdoor and indoor air flow, Sports stadium

T. van Hooff; B. Blocken

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

HOW THE LEED VENTILATION CREDIT IMPACTS ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GSHP SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a study on the impacts of increased outdoor air (OA) ventilation on the performance of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems that heat and cool typical primary schools. Four locations Phoenix, Miami, Seattle, and Chicago are selected in this study to represent different climate zones in the United States. eQUEST, an integrated building and HVAC system energy analysis program, is used to simulate a typical primary school and the GSHP system at the four locations with minimum and 30% more than minimum OA ventilation. The simulation results show that, without an energy recovery ventilator, the 30% more OA ventilation results in an 8.0 13.3% increase in total GSHP system energy consumption at the four locations. The peak heating and cooling loads increase by 20.2 30% and 14.9 18.4%, respectively, at the four locations. The load imbalance of the ground heat exchanger is increased in hot climates but reduced in mild and cold climates.

Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Test Plan to Evaluate the Relationship Among IAQ, Comfort, Moisture, and Ventilation in Humid Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This experimental plan describes research being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in coordinatation with Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Florida HERO, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to evaluate the impact of ventilation rate on interior moisture levels, temperature distributions, and indoor air contaminant concentrations. Specifically, the research team will measure concentrations of indoor air contaminants, ventilation system flow rates, energy consumption, and temperature and relative humidity in ten homes in Gainesville, FL to characterize indoor pollutant levels and energy consumption associated with the observed ventilation rates. PNNL and FSEC have collaboratively prepared this experimental test plan, which describes background and context for the proposed study; the experimental design; specific monitoring points, including monitoring equipment, and sampling frequency; key research questions and the associated data analysis approach; experimental logistics, including schedule, milestones, and team member contact information; and clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities of each team in support of project objectives.

Widder, Sarah H.; Martin, Eric

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Passive heating and cooling strategies for single family housing in Fresno, California: a case study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study focuses on the integration of passive heating, cooling, and ventilating techniques for detached single family housing in Fresno, California. The energy use and patterns of energy use were simulated for a typical tract house in Fresno, and serves as a case study, to which energy saving strategies were applied and evaluated using Ener-Win software. The effectiveness of each strategy was assessed based on the annual savings, the initial cost, and a life-cycle cost analysis. Specific areas of evaluation include: shading, improving the R-value and infiltration rate of the building envelope, thermal mass, natural ventilation, and evaporative cooling. The optimum strategies selected utilize only traditional building techniques. Evaporative cooling used in conjunction with an air conditioner was the most effective energy reducing strategy, but a combination of purely passive strategies yield competitive results. Although the typical Fresno home is already energy efficient, small alterations provide energy savings up to 75% for space conditioning.

Winchester, Nathan James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Quantitative troubleshooting of industrial exhaust ventilation systems  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes two troubleshooting tools that may allow precise and accurate assessment of changes to ventilation systems of any type. Both are useful in discovering and quantifying most modifications that affect the distribution of airflows among the branches and static pressures throughout the system. The approaches are derived from energy balance considerations, using power loss coefficients (X) computed for any contiguous section of the system from the duct velocities and static pressures measured at that section`s inlets and outlets. The value of X for a given portion of the system should be nearly constant with changes in airflow and with modifications to other portions of the system. Responsiveness to local modifications and insensitivity to changes elsewhere in the system - including gross changes in fan performance - make X coefficients a valuable troubleshooting tool. Static pressure ratios within a given branch are functionally related to ratios of X coefficients. Therefore, they vary with modifications to the branch and are highly insensitive to changes outside that branch. Unlike X coefficients, determination of static pressure ratios does not require velocity traverses, making them faster and easier to determine than X values. On the other hand, values of X are more universally applicable and have direct physical significance. Use of both static pressure ratios and X coefficients are described in a suggested troubleshooting procedure. Systematic measurement errors have surprisingly little impact on the usefulness of values of X or static pressure ratios. The major impediment to using either tool is the necessity for {open_quotes}baseline{close_quotes} measurements, which are often unavailable. On the other hand, a baseline for future comparisons can be created piecemeal, beginning at any time and extending over any period of time. 11 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Guffey, S.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Ventilated Building Speaker(s): Sezin Eren Ozcan Date: May 16, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Due to limited energy sources, countries are looking for alternative solutions to decrease energy needs. In that context, natural ventilation can be seen as a very attractive sustainable technique in building design. However, understanding of ventilation dynamics is needed to provide an efficient control. Ventilation rate has to be determined not only in terms of energy, but also for controlling indoor air quality and emissions. For these reasons, agricultural buildings (livestock houses, greenhouses, etc.), naturally ventilated industrial buildings, and residences require a reliable ventilation rate measuring technique. Measuring techniques suffer

275

Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at two outdoor air supply rates." Indoor Air 14 Suppl 8: 7-Miettinen (1995). "Ventilation rate in office buildings andAssociation of ventilation rates and CO 2 concentrations

Fisk, William J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Spot Ventilation: Source Control to Improve Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to employ spot ventilation in the home for comfort and safety.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Whole-House Ventilation Systems: Improved Control of Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to employ spot ventilation in the home for comfort and safety.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Project: Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Low-Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Low-Energy Buildings Project. Summary: NIST is developing tools and metrics to both ...

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

282

Solar heat collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heat collector is described that pre-heats water for a household hot water heating system, and also heats the air inside a house. The device includes solar heating panels set into an A-shape, and enclosing an area therein containing a water tank and a wristatic fan that utilize the heat of the enclosed air, and transmit the thermal energy therefrom through a water line and an air line into the house.

Sykes, A.B.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ventilation planning at Energy West's Deer Creek mine  

SciTech Connect

In 2004 ventilation planning was initiated to exploit a remote area of Deer Creek mine's reserve (near Huntington, Utah), the Mill Fork Area, located under a mountain. A push-pull ventilation system was selected. This article details the design process of the ventilation system upgrade, the procurement process for the new fans, and the new fan startup testing. 5 figs., 1 photo.

Tonc, L.; Prosser, B.; Gamble, G. [Pacific Corp., Huntington, UT (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of low-entropy air into the center of ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant cooling is credited with improving energy efficiency and enhancing the comfort level as an alternative method of space cooling in mild and dry climates, according to recent research. Since radiant cooling panels lack the capability to remove latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies the dehumidification processes of solid desiccant systems and investigates the factors that affect the humidity levels of a radiantly cooled space. Hourly indoor humidity is simulated at eight different operating conditions in a radiantly cooled test-bed office. The simulation results show that infiltration and ventilation flow rates are the main factors affecting indoor humidity level and energy consumption in a radiantly cooled space with relatively constant occupancy. It is found that condensation is hard to control in a leaky office operated with the required ventilation rate. Slightly pressurizing the space is recommended for radiant cooling. The energy consumption simulation shows that a passive desiccant wheel can recover about 50% of the ventilation load.

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Alabama Power - Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan Programs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama Power - Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan Alabama Power - Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan Programs Alabama Power - Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan Programs < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Windows: $350 Program Info State Alabama Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Not specified Provider Alabama Power Alabama Power offers low-interest loans to residential customers to purchase and install new heat pumps and a variety of weatherization measures. The loans require no money down and can be used to finance an air

290

SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A desiccant dehumidifier for electric vehicle heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicle heating requires a substantial amount of energy. Engines in conventional cars produce enough waste heat to provide comfort heating and defogging/defrosting, even under very extreme conditions. Electric vehicles (EVs), however, generate little waste heat. Using battery energy for heating may consume a substantial fraction of the energy storage capacity, reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters in determining EV acceptability. Water vapor generated by the vehicle passengers is in large part responsible for the high heating loads existing in vehicles. In cold climates, the generation of water vapor inside the car may result in water condensation on the windows, diminishing visibility. Two strategies are commonly used to avoid condensation on windows: windows are kept warm, and a large amount of ambient air is introduced in the vehicle. Either strategy results in a substantial heating load. These strategies are often used in combination, and a trade-off exists between them. If window temperature is decreased, ventilation rate has to be increased. Reducing the ventilation rate requires an increase of the temperature of the windows to prevent condensation. An alternative solution is a desiccant dehumidifier, which adsorbs water vapor generated by the passengers. Window temperatures and ventilation rates can then be reduced, resulting in a substantially lower heating load. This paper explores the dehumidifier heating concept. The first part shows the energy savings that could be obtained by using this technology. The second part specifies the required characteristics and dimensions of the system. The results indicate that the desiccant system can reduce the steady-state heating load by 60% or more under typical conditions. The reduction in heating load is such that waste heat may be enough to provide the required heating under most ambient conditions. Desiccant system dimensions and weight appear reasonable for packaging in an EV.

Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Operating experience review - Ventilation systems at Department of Energy Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Office of Special Projects (DP-35), formerly Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), analyzed occurrences caused by problems with equipment and material and recommended the following systems for an in-depth study: (1) Selective Alpha Air Monitor (SAAM), (2) Emergency Diesel Generator, (3) Ventilation System, (4) Fire Alarm System. Further, DP-35 conducted an in-depth review of the problems associated with SAAM and with diesel generators, and made several recommendations. This study focusses on ventilation system. The intent was to determine the causes for the events related to these system that were reported in the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), to identify components that failed, and to provide technical information from the commercial and nuclear industries on the design, operation, maintenance, and surveillance related to the system and its components. From these data, sites can develop a comprehensive program of maintenance management, including surveillance, to avoid similar occurrences, and to be in compliance with the following DOE orders.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management.

Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump System Performance Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extensive independent evaluation recently was completed of the Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump (MSHHP) system, a proprietary heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system developed by Meckler Systems Group. The MSHHP tests were conducted on a unique test bed designed and constructed by National Technical Systems (NTS) through a research and development grant program funded by Southern California Edison Company. This paper outlines testing methods and results, including evaluations of peak power and energy savings allowed by the innovative system. The main difference between the MSHHP and a conventional HVAC system is use of a chilled water "diversity" cooling loop interconnecting air to water coils (located at each water source heat pump unit) with a central chilled water storage tank. The MSHHP system uses significantly less energy than a conventional HVAC system, and lowers peak demand by shifting required electrical energy consumption to lower-cost, off-peak and mid-peak rates. Lower heat pump capacities are a main feature of the MSHHP. This is accomplished by pre-cooling return air from the zone space, a process that also allows the heat pump to operate at a higher Coefficient of Performance (COP), thereby contributing to further energy savings.

Meckler, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an interactive on-line package for calculation of energy and cost demands for residential infiltration and ventilation, with input and output data entry through a web browser. This is a unique tool. It represents a new kind of approach to developing software employing user (client) and server (package provider) computers. The main program, servicing {open_quotes}intelligent{close_quotes} CGI (Common Gateway Interface) calls, resides on the server and dynamically handles the whole package performance and the procedure of calculations. The {open_quotes}computing engine{close_quotes} consists of two parts: RESVENT - the previously existing program for ventilation calculations and ECONOMICS - for heating and cooling system energy and cost calculations. The user interface is designed in such a way, that it allows simultaneous access by many users from all over the world.

Forowicz, T.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

297

A learning agent for heat-pump thermostat control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are one of the biggest energy consumers around the world. With the efforts of moving to sustainable energy consumption, heat-pump based HVAC systems have gained popularity due to their high efficiency ... Keywords: control, energy savings, machine learning

Daniel Urieli, Peter Stone

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Microwave heating for adsorbents regeneration and oil sands coke activation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating has unique advantages compared to convection-radiation heating methods including fast heating rate and selective heating of objects. This thesis studied two applications of… (more)

Chen, Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

"Heat Resistant Alloys," in MMPDS-01 includes tensile data ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The latest handbook on superalloys, The Superalloys: Fundamentals and Applications, by Roger C. Reed of the University of Birmingham4 is now available from ...

300

Shallow, Intermediate, and Deep Overturning Components of the Global Heat Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ocean's overturning circulation and associated heat transport are divided into contributions based on water mass ventilation from 1) shallow overturning within the wind-driven subtropical gyres to the base of the thermocline, 2) overturning ...

Lynne D. Talley

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Geothermal heat pumps also use the waste heat ... including those required for plant ... including replacement. Includes ventilation (economizers; hea ...

302

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

303

Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Typer Lab Houses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Effectiveness Research Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Tyler Lab Houses Source Of Outside Air, Distribution, Filtration Armin Rudd Twin (almost) Lab Houses at UT-Tyler House 2: Unvented attic, House 1: Vented attic lower loads + PV Ventilation Effectiveness Research 30 April 2013 2 * 1475 ft 2 , 3-bedroom houses * House 2 was mirrored plan * 45 cfm 62.2 ventilation rate * Garage connected to house on only one wall * Access to attic via pull-down stairs in garage * Further access to House 2 unvented attic through gasket sealed door Ventilation Effectiveness Research 30 April 2013 3 Testing Approach  Building enclosure and building mechanical systems characterization by measurement of building enclosure air leakage, central air distribution system airflows, and ventilation system airflows.

304

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

air heat transmission due to thermal conductance and the difference in indoor and outdoor temperatures) was taken from ACM

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Building America Technical Review Meeting April 29-30, 2013 A Research Institute of the University of Central...

306

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5% of the total space conditioning) and the intermittentsupply lead to greater space conditioning energy use. AnnualkWh Distribution Ventilation Space Conditioning Leaky House

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bldg. 90 Due to limited energy sources, countries are looking for alternative solutions to decrease energy needs. In that context, natural ventilation can be seen as a very...

308

Section 4.1.3 Natural Ventilation: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in and through build- ings. These airflows may be used both for ventilation air and for passive cooling strategies. Natural ventila- tion is often strongly preferred by building...

309

Energy Impacts of Envelope Tightening and Mechanical Ventilation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or absolute standards along with mechanical ventilation throughout the U.S. housing stock. We used a physics-based modeling framework to simulate the impact of envelope...

310

Review of Literature Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerating, and Air -Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GRefrigerat ing, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Gof Ventilation and Air Conditioning: Is C E R N up to Date

McWilliams, Jennifer; Sherman, Max

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? What is the best practice to address ASHRAE 62.2 Addendum J (multifamily)? Why is exhaust only (with supply in hallway) the...

312

Characterization of air recirculation in multiple fan ventilation systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Booster fans, large underground fans, can increase the volumetric efficiency of ventilation systems by helping to balance the pressure and quantity distribution throughout a mine,… (more)

Wempen, Jessica Michelle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Case Study 3 - Energy Impacts of Infiltration and Ventilation in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the energy use in commercial buildings due to infiltration and ventilation airflows and to investigate the potential for energy savings that could be ...

314

Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces  

SciTech Connect

This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

Dickson, B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

ELECTRIC POWER AND VENTILATION SYSTEM OF SILOE  

SciTech Connect

The 15-kv electric power of Siloe is supplied from a central substation, which serves all the laboratories in the Center. The substation transforms primary 3-phase power from 15 kv to 380 to 220 v. Control installations are supplied from sets of rectifiers and batteries with 127 and 48 v direct current. If the normal electric power supply fails, a 12000 kva diesel driven generator is automatically started and in a very short time supplies power. The ventilation system supplies the whole building with conditioned air, holds the shell in negative pressure, and exhausts radioactive effluents. (auth)

Mitault, G.; Faudou, J.-C.

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Residential Attic Ventilation In A Hot And Humid Climate: Effects Of Increased Ventilation On Thermal Performance And Moisture Control.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The reality of the effect of natural ventilation in a residential attic cavity has been the topic of many debates and scholarly reports since… (more)

Atherton, Stanley Arthur

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experimental Evaluation of a Downsized Residential Air Distribution System: Comfort and Ventilation Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Good air mixing not only improves thermal comfort Human thermal comfort is the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment, according to ASHRAE Standard 55. Achieving thermal comfort for most occupants of buildings or other enclosures is a goal of HVAC design engineers. but also enhances ventilation effectiveness by inducing uniform supply-air diffusion. In general, the performance of an air distribution system in terms of comfort and ventilation effectiveness is influenced by the supply air temperature, velocity, and flow rate, all of which are in part dictated by the HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) In the home or small office with a handful of computers, HVAC is more for human comfort than the machines. In large datacenters, a humidity-free room with a steady, cool temperature is essential for the trouble-free system as well as the thermal load attributes. Any potential deficiencies associated with these design variables can be further exacerbated by an improper proximity of the supply and return outlets with respect to the thermal and geometrical characteristics of the indoor space. For high-performance houses, the factors influencing air distribution performance take on an even greater significance because of a reduced supply-air design flow rate resulting from downsized HVAC systems.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators Arnaud W. Thille,1 MD; Aissam Lyazidi,1 Biomed Eng MS; Jean-Christophe M

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation ...

Tang, Brian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Quantification of the association of ventilation rates with sick building syndrome symptoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

42%) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.0.85) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-29% as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

Fisk, William J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation induces cooling of the ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Solar space heating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Solar space heating (Redirected from - Solar Ventilation Preheat) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of solar space heating technology.)[1] Contents 1 Space Heating 2 Passive Solar Space Heating 3 Active Solar Space Heating 4 References Space Heating A solar space-heating system can consist of a passive system, an active system, or a combination of both. Passive systems are typically less costly and less complex than active systems. However, when retrofitting a building, active systems might be the only option for obtaining solar

324

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including air-source; geothermal; ductless, mini-split; and absorption heat pumps. Learn more about the different options and how to use your heat pump efficiently to save money and energy at home. Featured Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

325

Laundry heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A laundry heat recovery system includes a heat exchanger associated with each dryer in the system, the heat exchanger being positioned within the exhaust system of the dryer. A controller responsive to the water temperature of the heat exchangers and the water storage for the washer selectively circulates the water through a closed loop system whereby the water within the exchangers is preheated by the associated dryers. By venting the exhaust air through the heat exchanger, the air is dehumidified to permit recirculation of the heated air into the dryer.

Alio, P.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

326

Minimum Energy Ventilation for Fast Food Restaurant Kitchens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooking equipment exhaust systems have a significant impact on the energy consumption of fast food restaurants. This research investigated issues that relate to the energy performance of commercial kitchen ventilation systems and demonstrated that significant energy and cost savings can be achieved by reducing ventilation rates.

1996-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Absolute Glovebox Ventilation Filtration System with Unique Filter Replacement Feature  

SciTech Connect

A glovebox ventilation system was designed for a new plutonium-238 processing facility that provided 1) downdraft ventilation, 2) a leak tight seal around the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, and 3) a method for changing the filters internally without risk of contaminating the laboratory.

Freeman, S. S.; Slusher, W. A.

1975-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Heat pipe heat amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In a heat pipe combination consisting of a common condenser section with evaporator sections at either end, two working fluids of different vapor pressures are employed to effectively form two heat pipe sections within the same cavity to support an amplifier mode of operation.

Arcella, F.G.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

MassSAVE - HEAT Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MassSAVE - HEAT Loan Program MassSAVE - HEAT Loan Program MassSAVE - HEAT Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Solar Maximum Rebate $25,000 Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount HEAT (Micro Loan): $500 - $2,000 Heat (1-4 Unit, Owner Occupied): $2,000 - $25,000 Heat (1-4 Unit, Non-owner Occupied): $5,000 - $25,000 Provider MassSAVE Residential customers of Cape Light Compact, National Grid, NSTAR, Unitil and Western Massachusetts Electric Company may be eligible for zero-interest financing to help increase the energy efficiency of their

330

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Title Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Gregory Brunner, Jianshun(Jensen) Zhang, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 45 Start Page 3561 Issue 21 Pagination 3561-3568 Keywords commercial building ventilation & indoor environmental quality group, commercial building ventilation and indoor environmental quality group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, indoor environment department, indoor environment group

331

Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants Speaker(s): Alexander M. Zhivov Date: April 3, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Dr. Alexander Zhivov is currently the chairman of the International Task Force "Autovent International" focusing on environmental problems within the Automotive Industry. This Task Force was formed in 1997 to develop the "Ventilation Guide for Automotive Industry". The guide was to be seen as a building block within the EU sponsored "Industrial Ventilation Design Guide Book" project, covering both theory and applications. In his presentation, Dr. Zhivov will talk about his work with the automotive industry, describe major highlights from the "Ventilation Guide for Automotive Industry" and talk about building, process and HVAC

332

Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and Assessment of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and Assessment of Opaque Ventilated Facades - Performance Simulation Method and Assessment of Simulated Performance Speaker(s): Emanuele Naboni Date: May 29, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Opaque ventilated façade systems are increasingly used in buildings, even though their effects on the overall thermal performance of buildings have not yet been fully understood. The research reported in this presentation focuses on the modeling of such systems with EnergyPlus. Ventilated façade systems are modeled in EnergyPlus with module "Exterior Naturally Vented Cavity." Not all façade systems can be modeled with this module; this research defined the types of systems that can be modeled, and the limitations of such simulation. The performance of a ventilated façade

333

Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

L. C. Cadwallader

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

335

Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings: Laboratory Test and Model Validation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation is one approach to limiting hydrogen concentration. We explored the relationship between leak rate, ventilation design, and hydrogen concentrations.

Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic compounds in residences Title The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic...

337

Radiant Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat...

338

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Cross-cutting Research and Development Priorities Speaker(s): Sachin Nimbalkar Date: January 17, 2013 - 11:00am Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Waste heat is generated from several industrial systems used in manufacturing. The waste heat sources are distributed throughout a plant. The largest source for most industries is exhaust / flue gases or heated air from heating systems. This includes the high temperature gases from burners in process heating, lower temperature gases from heat treat, dryers, and heaters, heat from heat exchangers, cooling liquids and gases etc. The previous studies and direct contact with the industry as well as equipment suppliers have shown that a large amount of waste heat is not

339

Engineering study and conceptual design report for primary ventilation duct flow monitoring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this engineering study is to develop the preferred method and concepts for measurement of the primary exhaust ventilation flow rates in Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) on the hydrogen watch list. This includes tanks 101-AW, 103, 104, and 105-AN, and 103-SY. A systems engineering approach is utilized to weight the desired characteristics of the flow monitoring system, and then select the best alternative

Hertelendy, N.A.

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

HVAC Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) radial air bearing heat exchangers. Rotary air bearing heat exchanger technology simultaneously solves four long standing problems of conventional "fan-plus-finned-heat-sink" heat exchangers. Project Description This project seeks to design, fabricate, and test successive generations of prototype radial air bearing heat exchanger devices based on lessons learned and further insights into device optimization, computational fluid dynamic studies for parametric optimization and determination of scaling laws, and laboratory measurement of flow field and heat transfer

343

Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences  

SciTech Connect

Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kitchen Ventilation Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (not Optional) Brett C. Singer Residential Building Systems & Indoor Environment Groups Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Building America Technical Update Denver, CO April 30, 2013 Acknowledgements PROGRAM SUPPORT *U.S. Department of Energy - Building America Program *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Indoor Environments Division *U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development - Office of Healthy Homes & Lead Hazard Control *California Energy Commission - Public Interest Energy Research Program TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTIONS *Woody Delp, Tosh Hotchi, Melissa Lunden, Nasim Mullen, Chris Stratton, Doug Sullivan, Iain Walker Kitchen Ventilation Simplified PROBLEM: * Cooking burners & cooking produce odors, moisture

345

Test report of evaluation of primary exhaust ventilation flowmeters for double shell hydrogen watch list tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document reports the results of testing four different flowmeters for use in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of Double Shell Tanks on the hydrogen watch list that do not already have this capability. This currently includes tanks 241-AW-101,241-AN- 103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105 and 241-SY-103. The anticipated airflow velocity in these tanks range from 0.25 m/s(50 ft/min) to 1/78 m/s (350 ft/min). Past experiences at Hanford have forced the evaluation and selection of instruments to be used at the low flow and relatively high humidity conditions found in these tanks. Based on the results of this test, a flow meter has been chosen for installation in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of the above mentioned waste tanks.

Willingham, W.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

346

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

347

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Murphy, Richard W. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fundamental heat transfer experiments of heat pipes for turbine cooling  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental heat transfer experiments were carried out for three kinds of heat pipes that may be applied to turbine cooling in future aero-engines. In the turbine cooling system with a heat pipe, heat transfer rate and start-up time of the heat pipe are the most important performance criteria to evaluate and compare with conventional cooling methods. Three heat pipes are considered, called heat pipe A, B, and C, respectively. All heat pipes have a stainless steel shell and nickel sintered powder metal wick. Sodium (Na) was the working fluid for heat pipes A and B; heat pipe C used eutectic sodium-potassium (NaK). Heat pipes B and C included noncondensible gas for rapid start-up. There were fins on the cooling section of heat pipes. In the experiments, an infrared image furnace supplied heat to the heat pipe simulating turbine blade surface conditions. In the results, heat pipe B demonstrated the highest heat flux of 17 to 20 W/cm{sup 2}. The start-up time was about 6 minutes for heat pipe B and about 6 minutes for heat pipe A. Thus, adding noncondensible gas effectively reduced start-up time. Although NaK is a liquid phase at room temperature, the start-up time of heat pipe C (about 7 to 8 minutes) was not shorter than the heat pipe B. The effect of a gravitational force on heat pipe performance was also estimated by inclining the heat pipe at an angle of 90 deg. There was no significant gravitational dependence on heat transport for heat pipes including noncondensible gas.

Yamawaki, S. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, T.; Taki, M.; Mimura, F. [National Aerospace Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Applied heat transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

Ganapathy, V.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Ventilation Rates Estimated from Tracers in the Presence of Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intimate relationship among ventilation, transit-time distributions, and transient tracer budgets is analyzed. To characterize the advective–diffusive transport from the mixed layer to the interior ocean in terms of flux we employ a ...

Timothy M. Hall; Thomas W. N. Haine; Darryn W. Waugh; Mark Holzer; Francesca Terenzi; Deborah A. LeBel

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation and Energy Saving in Auto Manufacturing Plants Speaker(s): Alexander M. Zhivov Date: April 3, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Dr. Alexander Zhivov is currently the...

353

Issue #9: What are the Best Ventilation Techniques? | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

do we address ventilation in all climates? What is the best compromise between occupant health and safety and energy efficiency? issue9recommendashrae.pdf issue9ashrae622vent...

354

Evaluation of Existing Technologies for Meeting Residential Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) ........................................................................... 9 5. Central Fan Integrated (CFI) Supply with air inlet in return and continuously operating exhaust................................................................................................ 10 7. CFI with 7% Outside Air (OA), without continuous exhaust ­ not 62.2 compliant Ventilation from ACM........................................................................ 11

355

Simulations of Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Impacts of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... lighting load from ASHRAE Standard 90.1 (ANSI/ASHRAE ... with a nonzero base ventilation rate, such ... and C-T24, will help to temper such exposure. ...

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

356

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air Temperature Speaker(s): Henry Willem Date: July 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

357

Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

large numbers of houses using passive monitoring techniques.rates by passive techniques in 61 occupied houses, half ofhouses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive

Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Heat pump apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

Deborah Kosmack

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Heat and mass exchanger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Heating Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...are used in many varied applications--from small household appliances to large industrial process heating systems and furnaces. In appliances or industrial process heating, the heating elements are usually either open

364

Laboratory Evaluation of Energy Recovery Ventilators  

SciTech Connect

As deep retrofit measures and new construction practices are realizing lower infiltration levels in increasingly tighter envelopes, performance issues can arise with water vapor intrusion in building envelopes and the operation of exhaust only appliances in a depressurized home. Unbalancing (reducing exhaust airflows) of an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) can provide a means to supply makeup air and reduce the level of home depressurization to mitigate these issues, helping realize exhaust-only appliance rated performance, achieve safe atmospherically vented combustion, and/or improve envelope durability. ERV balanced flow operation is well documented, but there is not public domain information available that empirically establishes the effect of unbalanced flow on sensible and latent exchange, especially in the now dominant membrane type ERV used in residential applications. This laboratory evaluation focused on unbalanced flow performance of a membrane type ERV delivering 200 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM )of supply air. The dataset generated yielded a limited set of curve fit algorithms for unbalanced flow performance that can be used to supplement current modeling approaches in simulation tools like EnergyPlus. Building America BA teams can then utilize such models to analyze whole house effects and determine best practices associated with unbalanced ERV operations.

Kosar, D.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy  

SciTech Connect

Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A variety of heating technologies are available today. In addition to heat pumps, which are discussed separately, many homes and buildings use the following approaches:

367

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

Information Center

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

369

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable ClassroomField Study Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This report presents an interim status update and preliminary findings from energy and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) measurements in sixteen relocatable classrooms in California. The field study includes measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions. Ten of the classrooms were equipped with a new HVAC technology and six control classrooms were equipped with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters have been monitored continuously, while unoccupied acoustic measurements were measured in one of four planned seasonal measurement campaigns. Continuously monitored data are remotely accessed via a LonWorks{reg_sign} network and stored in a relational database at LBNL. Preliminary results are presented here.

Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Hotchi,Toshifumi; Spears,Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

GHPs Save Heating Cost and Improve Air Quality in Poultry Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: 40-50' wide, 400-500' length § Bird density: 1 square foot/bird, 20,000 birds1 GHPs Save Heating Cost and Improve Air Quality in Poultry Farm per house § Heating and cooling required § Intensive ventilation to maintain air

371

Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

Crea, B.A.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

372

Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Hewett, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, R.; May, K. [Industrial Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Optimized Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) optimized heat exchangers. The information generated in this study will demonstrate performance improvements that can be achieved through optimization of refrigerant circuitry for non-uniform inlet air distribution. The tubing circuitry on fin-tube heat exchangers used in residential space-conditioning systems is typically designed assuming uniform airflow through the finned passageways. However, the air flow in installed systems is highly non-uniform, resulting in mismatched refrigerant-air heat transfer that reduces the capacity of the heat exchanger and efficiency of

374

Indoor environmental quality and ventilation in U.S. office buildings: A view of current issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much of the current focus on indoor environmental quality and ventilation in US office buildings is a response to sick building syndrome and occupant complaints about building-related health symptoms, poor indoor air quality, and thermal discomfort. The authors know that serious ``sick-building`` problems occur in a significant number of US office buildings and that a significant proportion of the occupants in many normal (non-sick) buildings report building-related health symptoms. Concerns about the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke have also focused attention on the indoor environment. The major responses of industry and governments, underway at the present time, are to restrict smoking in offices, to attempt to reduce the emissions of indoor pollutants, and to improve the operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Better air filtration, improved HVAC commissioning and maintenance, and increased provisions for individual control of HVAC are some of the improvements in HVAC that are currently being, evaluated. In the future, the potential for improved productivity and reduced airborne transmission of infectious disease may become the major driving force for improved indoor environments.

Fisk, W.J.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values Title Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5969E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Turner, William J. N., Jennifer M. Logue, and Craig P. Wray Date Published 07/2012 Keywords commissioning, energy, health, indoor air quality, residential, valuation, ventilation Abstract Due to changes in building codes, whole-house mechanical ventilation systems are being installed in new California homes. Few measurements are available, but the limited data suggest that these systems don't always perform as code and forecasts predict. Such deficiencies occur because systems are usually field assembled without design specifications, and there is no consistent process to identify and correct problems. The value of such activities in terms of reducing energy use and improving indoor air quality (IAQ) is poorly understood. Commissioning such systems when they are installed or during subsequent building retrofits is a step towards eliminating deficiencies and optimizing the tradeoff between energy use and IAQ.

376

Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses  

SciTech Connect

A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Microsoft Word - Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation_Final2.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 1 Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation Jennifer M. Logue, William J. N. Turner, Iain S. Walker, and Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division June 2012 LBNL-5796E LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor

378

Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Agency, Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, (2003).through the IEA solar heating and cooling programme, Task

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Prediction Speaker(s): Malcolm Cook Date: February 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter Malcolm's presentation will cover both his research and consultancy activities. This will cover the work he has undertaken during his time spent working with architects on low energy building design, with a particular focus on natural ventilation and passive cooling strategies, and the role computer simulation can play in this design process. Malcolm will talk about the simulation techniques employed, as well as the innovative passive design principles that have led to some of the UK's most energy efficient buildings. In addition to UK building projects, the talk will

380

Building Air Quality & Ventilation Models: Review - Evaluation - Proposals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Air Quality & Ventilation Models: Review - Evaluation - Proposals Building Air Quality & Ventilation Models: Review - Evaluation - Proposals Speaker(s): James Axley Date: March 12, 1999 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Developments in mathematical models for building air quality and ventilation analysis have changed the way we idealize buildings for purposes of analysis, the way we form system equations to effect the analysis, and the way we solve these equations to realize the analysis. While much has been achieved more is possible. This presentation will review the current state of the art - the building idealizations used, the system equations formed, and the solution methods applied - critically evaluate the completeness, complexity and utility of the most advanced models, and present proposals for future development

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation-Air Methane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture and use of Coal Mine Capture and use of Coal Mine Ventilation - air Methane Background Methane emissions from coal mines represent about 10 percent of the U.S. anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Methane-the second most important non-water greenhouse gas-is 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in its global warming potential. Ventilation-air methane (VAM)-the exhaust air from underground coal mines-is the largest source of coal mine methane, accounting for about half of the methane emitted from coal mines in the United States. Unfortunately, because of the low methane concentration (0.3-1.5 percent) in ventilation air, its beneficial use is difficult. However, oxidizing the methane to CO 2 and water reduces its global warming potential by 87 percent. A thermal

382

Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative humidity conditions Title Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative humidity conditions Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed Year of Publication 2013 Authors Sidheswaran, Meera A., Wenhao Chen, Agatha Chang, Robert Miller, Sebastian Cohn, Douglas P. Sullivan, William J. Fisk, Kazukiyo Kumagai, and Hugo Destaillats Journal Environmental Science and Technology Date Published 04/18/2013 Abstract A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is

383

Ventilation/Perfusion Mismatch Caused by Positive Pressure Ventilatory Support  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a patient with lobar atelectasis who was on positive pressure ventilatorysupport, ventilationand perfusion images showed absent ventilationand normal perfusion (reverse mismatch) in the region of the atelectasis and normal ventilation and decreased perfusion (true mismatch) not caused by pulmonaryembolism in another lung zone. We report this case to emphasize that the lung scan findingsin patients on positive pressure ventilatorySUppOrt be carefullyinterpreted for the diagnosis of pulmonaryemboli. J NuciMed30:1268—1270, 1989 ulmonary embolism (PE) is often difficult to diag nose because the symptoms and signs can be nonspe cific or subtle. Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scm tigraphy is the principal noninvasive imaging modality for its diagnosis. We report a case demonstrating both classical V/P mismatch (false positive for PE in this case) and reverse V/P mismatch (absent ventilation and normal perfusion, therefore negative for PE) in a patient

Chun K. Kim; Sydney Heyman

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different MechanicalVentilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of dilution depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on work being done to both model the impact of different systems and measurements using a new multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The ultimate objective of this project is to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Natural vs. mechanical ventilation and cooling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cant and well-docu- mented. ASHRAE Standard 55 prescribes aless comfortable. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 includes an “adap-and standards, includ- ing ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Mechanical

Brager, Gail; Alspach, Peter; Nall, Daniel H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Ocean’s Memory of the Atmosphere: Residence-Time and Ventilation-Rate Distributions of Water Masses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptually new approach to diagnosing tracer-independent ventilation rates is developed. Tracer Green functions are exploited to partition ventilation rates according to the ventilated fluid’s residence time in the ocean interior and ...

François W. Primeau; Mark Holzer

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF{sub 6} by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF{sub 6}, indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour.

Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

Page, Steven J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Mal, Thomas (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Handbook of heat transfer applications (2nd edition)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The applications of heat transfer in engineering problems are considered. Among the applications discussed are: mass transfer cooling; heat exchangers; and heat pipes. Consideration is also given to: heat transfer in nonNewtonian fluids; fluidized and packed beds; thermal energy storage; and heat transfer in solar collectors. Additional topics include: heat transfer in buildings; cooling towers and ponds; and geothermal heat transfer.

Rohsenow, W.M.; Hartnett, J.P.; Ganic, E.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Water-heating dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator ...

391

Heat Conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Differential equations for heat conduction in solids...conduction in solids General form with variable thermal properties General form with constant thermal properties General form, constant properties, without heat

392

Flat plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

A lightweight flat plate heat exchanger comprised of two or more essentially parallel flat plates which are formed and arranged to provide fluid flow passages between the plates. New combinations of plastic plates include the usage of transparent plastic foam and honeycomb structures. Improved shapes of flow passages include the usage of flow nozzles, flow diffusers, and jet pumps to increase fluid flow and heat transfer. The invention includes the usage of transparent plastic foam plates which are shaped to concentrate solar energy onto plastic tubes. Clear plastic tubes containing black heat transfer fluid are included. The invention includes the usage of spiral flow channels within plastic foam plates. Six different embodiments of the invention are included. Five of the embodiments could be used as efficient lightweight solar collectors.

Berringer, R.T.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

393

Numerical study of a ventilated facade panel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy-saving facade panel for non-residential buildings has been numerically investigated. Structured like a composite Trombe-Michel wall, the panel consists of a glazing, an absorber plate and insulation and contains a dead air space between glazing and absorber, as well as a convection channel between absorber and insulation. The influence of convection channel spacing on both recovery of solar energy during sunshine periods and on heat losses during night hours has been assessed. Two different options have been considered. First, the total panel thickness was maintained, which involves an increase of channel spacing having to be compensated by a corresponding decrease of the insulation thickness. Then, this constraint was removed so that an increase in channel spacing was allowed to entail an equivalent increase of the total panel thickness. The results indicate that large spacing favors energy recovery during sunshine periods for both options and reduces, although only slightly, heat losses during night hours for the second option. In the case of the first option, however, these losses tend to grow when channel spacing increases. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Mootz, F.; Bezian, J.J. [Centre d`Energetique de l`Ecole des Mines de Paris (France)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Methodology for the evaluation of natural ventilation in buildings using a reduced-scale air model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commercial office buildings predominantly are designed to be ventilated and cooled using mechanical systems. In temperate climates, passive ventilation and cooling techniques can be utilized to reduce energy consumption ...

Walker, Christine E. (Christine Elaine)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Beyond blue and red arrows : optimizing natural ventilation in large buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our growing understanding of technology and environment has expanded the complexities of producing large naturally ventilated buildings. While it may be argued that designing for natural ventilation is a straightforward, ...

Meguro, Wendy (Wendy Kei)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

An Overview of Residential Ventilation Activities in the Building America Program (Phase I)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of issues involved in residential ventilation; provides an overview of the various ventilation strategies being evaluated by the five teams, or consortia, currently involved in the Building America Program; and identifies unresolved technical issues.

Barley, D.

2001-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Benefits and costs of increasing ventilation rates in U.S. offices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Benefits and costs of increasing ventilation rates in U.S. offices Title Benefits and costs of increasing ventilation rates in U.S. offices Publication Type Conference Paper Year...

398

Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evaluating the performance of natural ventilation in buildings through simulation and on-site monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural ventilation in buildings is capable of reducing energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable indoor at the same time. It is important that natural ventilation is taken into consideration in the early design ...

Cheng, Haofan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

Daman, Ernest L. (Westfield, NJ); McCallister, Robert A. (Mountain Lakes, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

402

Calculation note: project W-320 primary ventilation air flowrequirements for mitigation of steady state flammable gasconcentrations in the headspaces of tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This calculation note analyzes headspace concentrations of hydrogen dependent upon assumed ventilation flow rates provided for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The analyses are based on measured or estimated steady state hydrogen release rates. Tank 241-C-106 is analyzed prior to sluicing; tank 241-AY-102 is analyzed both prior to and after completion of sluicing. Specific analyses, using both best estimated and bounding hydrogen generation rates, include the minimum primary ventilation flow rates required in the tanks to ensure that the steady state hydrogen concentration in the respective tank headspace does not exceed 25% and 100% of the LFL. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of time as well as the time required to reach 25% and 100% of LFL upon complete loss of active ventilation, starting from the steady state hydrogen concentration based on a 200 CFM minimum flow rate in tank 241-C-106 and a 100 CFM minimum flow rate in tank241-AY-102. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of thee following partial loss of active ventilation (i.e., step changes to l60, l20, 80, and 40 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-C-106, staffing from a 200 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 200 CFM flow rate. The headspace hydrogen concentration as a function of the following partial loss of active ventilation i.e., step changes to 80, 60, 40, and 20 CFM ventilation flow rates) in tank 241-AY-102, starting from a 100 CFM flow rate and the corresponding steady state hydrogen concentration based on the 100 CFM flow rate.

Estey, S.D.

1997-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

404

Computer Modeling VRF Heat Pumps in Commercial Buildings using EnergyPlus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are increasingly used in commercial buildings in the United States. Monitored energy use of field installations have shown, in some cases, savings exceeding 30% compared to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A simulation study was conducted to identify the installation or operational characteristics that lead to energy savings for VRF systems. The study used the Department of Energy EnergyPlus? building simulation software and four reference building models. Computer simulations were performed in eight U.S. climate zones. The baseline reference HVAC system incorporated packaged single-zone direct-expansion cooling with gas heating (PSZ-AC) or variable-air-volume systems (VAV with reheat). An alternate baseline HVAC system using a heat pump (PSZ-HP) was included for some buildings to directly compare gas and electric heating results. These baseline systems were compared to a VRF heat pump model to identify differences in energy use. VRF systems combine multiple indoor units with one or more outdoor unit(s). These systems move refrigerant between the outdoor and indoor units which eliminates the need for duct work in most cases. Since many applications install duct work in unconditioned spaces, this leads to installation differences between VRF systems and conventional HVAC systems. To characterize installation differences, a duct heat gain model was included to identify the energy impacts of installing ducts in unconditioned spaces. The configuration of variable refrigerant flow heat pumps will ultimately eliminate or significantly reduce energy use due to duct heat transfer. Fan energy is also studied to identify savings associated with non-ducted VRF terminal units. VRF systems incorporate a variable-speed compressor which may lead to operational differences compared to single-speed compression systems. To characterize operational differences, the computer model performance curves used to simulate cooling operation are also evaluated. The information in this paper is intended to provide a relative difference in system energy use and compare various installation practices that can impact performance. Comparative results of VRF versus conventional HVAC systems include energy use differences due to duct location, differences in fan energy when ducts are eliminated, and differences associated with electric versus fossil fuel type heating systems.

Raustad, Richard

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

406

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 222 194 17...

407

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,100...

408

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,928 1,316...

409

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

410

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

411

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

412

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

413

A thermal comfort levels investigation of a naturally ventilated and air-conditioned office  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate thermal comfort levels of a naturally ventilated and air-conditioner office. Field experiments conducted in an office room in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) used survey questionnaires and physical measurements. ... Keywords: PMV, mechanically ventilation, naturally ventilated, neutral temperature, objective study, subjective approach, thermal comfort

R. Daghigh; N. M. Adam; K. Sopian; A. Zaharim; B. B. Sahari

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

SURVEY OF THE EXISTING APPROACHES TO ASSESS AND DESIGN NATURAL VENTILATION AND NEED FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ventilation CIBSE (1986) proposes two analytical expressions for the calculation of the airflow rate for wind-sided ventilation: o Warren (1985) o Phaff & De Gids (1982) o Larsen (2006) Cross ventilation: o CIBSE (1986 and handbooks, as Allard (1996) and CIBSE (2005). Etheridge (2001) proposes the use of graphs and non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings Tom Rogg REU Student to assist HVAC has the potential to significantly reduce life cycle cost and energy consumption and electrical system that will tie thermostats to controlled valves in the actual HVAC system. Based on results

Mountziaris, T. J.

416

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-264 ­ 1.278. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, DC. 14. Gusdorf, J., Swinton, MLBNL 62341 Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker Environmental Energy Technologies Division February 2007 This work was supported

417

702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

Winkelman, W.D.

1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

418

Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Feedbacks between Eddy Heat Fluxes and Radiative Heating in an Energy-Balance Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of midlatitude temperature structure to changes in radiative forcing is examined in an analytical energy-balance model that includes parameterized eddy heat fluxes and linear radiative heating. The characteristics of heat-...

Lee E. Branscome; Enda O'Brien

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Heat Management Strategy Trade Study  

SciTech Connect

This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Title Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Refereed LBNL Report Number LBNL-6259E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Mendell, Mark J., Ekaterina Eliseeva, Morris G. Davies, Michael Spears, Agnes B. Lobscheid, William J. Fisk, and Michael G. Apte Journal Indoor Air Keywords carbon dioxide, Illness absence, indoor environmental quality, schools, ventilation Abstract Limited evidence associates inadequate classroom ventilation rates (VRs) with increased illness absence (IA). We investigated relationships between VRs and IA in Californiaelementary schools over two school years in 162 3rd-5th grade classrooms in 28 schools in three school districts: South Coast (SC), Bay Area (BA), and Central Valley (CV). We estimated relationships between daily IA and VR (estimated from real-time carbon dioxide) in zero-inflated negative binomial models. We also compared IA benefits and energy costs of increased VRs. All school districts had median VRs below the 7.1 L/sec-person California standard. For each additional 1 L/sec-person of VR, IA was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in models for combined districts (-1.6%) and for SC (-1.2%), and non-significantly for districts providing less data: BA (-1.5%) and CV (-1.0%). Assuming associations were causal and generalizable, increasing classroom VRs from the California average (4 L/sec-person) to the State standard would decrease IA by 3.4%, increase attendance-linked funding to schools by $33 million annually, and increase costs only $4 million. Further increasing VRs would provide additional benefits. These findings, while requiring confirmation, suggest that increasing classroom VRs above the State

422

Solar heated building structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heated building structure comprises an exterior shell including side walls and a roof section with the major portion of the roof section comprised of light transmitting panels or panes of material to permit passage of sunlight into the attic section of the building structure. The structure is provided with a central vertical hollow support column containing liquid storage tanks for the circulation and collection of heated water from a flexible conduit system located on the floor of the attic compartment. The central column serves as a heating core for the structure and communicates by way of air conduits or ducts with the living areas of the structure. Fan means are provided for continuously or intermittently circulating air over the hot water storage tanks in the core to transfer heat therefrom and distribute the heated air into the living areas.

Rugenstein, R.W.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

423

Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

°C) and 2 heat load and occupancy profiles (see Figure 2 andof the heat load and occupancy profiles (“A” for the profileequipment heat load followed, the profile shown in Figure 2.

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Engineering work plan and design basis for 241-SY ventilation improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are three tanks in the 241-SY tank farm. Tank 241-SY101 and 241-SY-103 are flammable gas watch list tanks. Tank 241-SY-102 is included in the ventilation improvement process in an effort to further control air flow in the tank farm. This tank farm has only one outlet ventilation port for all three tanks. Flammable gas is released (may be steady and/or periodic) from the waste in the primary tank vapor space. The gas is removed from the tank by an active ventilation system. However, maintaining consistent measurable flow through the tank can be problematic due to the poor control capabilities of existing equipment. Low flow through the tank could allow flammable gas to build up in the tank and possibly exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL), prevent the most rapid removal of flammable gas from the tank after a sudden gas release, and/or cause high vacuum alarms to sound. Using the inlet and outlet down stream butterfly valves performs the current method of controlling flow in tank farm 241-SY. A filter station is installed on the inlet of each tank, but controlling air flow with its 12 inch butterfly valve is difficult. There is also in-leakage through pump and valve pits. Butterfly valves on the downstream side of each tank could also be used to control air flow. However, their large size and the relatively low air velocity make this control method also ineffective. The proposed method of optimizing tank air flow and pressure control capability is to install an air flow controller on the inlet of each existing filter station in SY farm, and seal as best as practical all other air leakage paths. Such air flow controllers have been installed on 241-AN and 241-AW tanks (see drawing H-2-85647).

Andersen, J.A.

1997-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

425

Variable conductance heat pipe enhancement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heat pipe. It comprises a tubular hollow heat pipe having an evaporator end and an opposite condenser end, the heat pipe having a cross-sectional area and having a condenser length extending from the condenser end the condenser length including an active length where evaporated fluid condenses; an evaporatable and condensable fluid in the heat pipe for evaporating when receiving heat near the evaporation end and for condensing when giving up heat in the active length; a noncondensable gas near the condenser end and in the condenser length of the heat pipe; a restriction member fixed in the heat pipe near the condenser end, the restriction member extending only along a portion of the condenser length and being spaced away from the evaporation end of the heat pipe, the restriction member having a varied cross-sectional area along the length of the restriction member which is less than the cross-sectional area of the heat pipe for confining the gas and a portion of the fluid in the active condenser length, to an area around the restriction member and in the heat pipe; and a fixed ligament connected between the restriction member and the heat pipe for fixing the restriction member in the heat pipe, the ligament being fixed between the condenser end of the heat pipe end and an end of the restriction member which is closest to the condenser end.

Kneidel, K.E.

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

426

Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect

During the course of this project, an affordable and high performance ductwork system to directly address the problems of thermal losses, poor efficiency, and air leakage was designed. To save space and enable direct connections between different floors of the building, the ductwork system was designed in such a way that it occupied interior or exterior frame wall cavities. The ductwork system satisfied building regulations for structural support when bridging multiple floors, the spread of fire and smoke, and insulation to reduce the heat flow into or out of the building. Retrofits of urban residential buildings will be the main focus for the application of this ductwork system. Highly reflective foils and insulating materials were used to aid in the increase of the overall R-value of the ductwork itself and the wall assembly. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of the HVAC system and the thermal resistance of the building envelope. The performance of the proposed ductwork design was numerically evaluated in a number of different ways. Our results indicate that the duct method is a very cost attractive alternative to the conventional method.

Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect

During the course of this project, an affordable and high performance ductwork system to directly address the problems of thermal losses, poor efficiency, and air leakage was designed. To save space and enable direct connections between different floors of the building, the ductwork system was designed in such a way that it occupied interior or exterior frame wall cavities. The ductwork system satisfied building regulations for structural support when bridging multiple floors, the spread of fire and smoke, and insulation to reduce the heat flow into or out of the building. Retrofits of urban residential buildings will be the main focus for the application of this ductwork system. Highly reflective foils and insulating materials were used to aid in the increase of the overall R-value of the ductwork itself and the wall assembly. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of the HVAC system and the thermal resistance of the building envelope. The performance of the proposed ductwork design was numerically evaluated in a number of different ways. Our results indicate that the aerogel duct method is a very cost attractive alternative to the conventional method.

Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pump Heating Gas Wall Heater Electric Wall Heater Wood stovepump Heating, Gas Wall Heater, Electric Wall He ater, Woodheating, sources of organic chemicals (VOCs) such as pressed wood

Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Solar heat regulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heat regulating device is described for selectively heating with sunlight the air inside a building having a window and shielding and insulating the air inside the building from the heat of sunlight outside the building including: a frame for mounting the solar heat regulating device inside the building and adjacent to the window; a plurality of hollow vanes, each of the vanes having at least one passageway for passing air therethrough; the vanes having a heat absorptive surface on a first side thereof which allows solar radiation impinging on the heat absorptive surface to heat the air contained in the one passageway of the vanes; the vanes having a heat reflective surface on a second side of the vanes which reflects the solar radiation impinging on the second side of the vanes and shields the inside of the building from solar radiation impinging on the vanes; and the vanes having side portions extending between the first and second sides of the vanes, the side portions, and the first and second sides forming the one passageway through each of the vanes, the side portions and the first and second sides of the vanes terminating in top end and bottom end portions.

Boynton, S.L.

1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

430

Stirling engine heating system  

SciTech Connect

A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

On-Line Analysis of Heating Value  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating value, also called heat content or calorific value, is perhaps the most important coal quality index because it is a direct measure of heat released during combustion. It is a basic coal combustion property and, as such, is included in even the most basic purchasing specifications. This technology review details heating value and its variation. An overview of methods to derive heating value is included, as well as a review of existing and emerging technologies for the determination of the ash con...

1999-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

432

Heat Rate Program Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant facilities with performance or heat rate improvement programs perform better than those that do not have those programs. A heat rate improvement program typically provides sufficient information for decision making with respect to timely maintenance actions and/or operational adjustments. Monitoring the performance of any power plant component includes the trending of parameters that also describe the performance of other plant components, providing insight and information on improving ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Study on Energy Saving of the Interlayer Ventilation Walla Used in Clean Operation Rooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recovery energy of the exhaust in air conditioning is very important to clean operating rooms. In disinfected operating rooms, we often use completely fresh air conditioning system in order to maintain cleanliness. All the return air of the air conditioning must be discharged. For recovering the exhaust energy, whole heat exchangers are used, and they may bring cross-infection in clean operating rooms. Cross-infection would negatively affect cleanness. This paper puts forward an air layer inside of a building's external wall that acts as a passageway for air conditioning exhaust, and also providing a place for the thermal exchange of the air conditioning exhaust. This kind of envelope is named an interlayer ventilation wall. There are two advantages. First, it will recover and reutilize the energy that the air conditioning exhaust takes, avoid cross-infection between the fresh air and the exhaust. Second, it will lower the energy loss of the heat exchange through the envelope. The energy saving effect will be very significant in clean operating rooms.

Feng, J.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Heat transfer. [heat transfer roller employing a heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A heat transfer roller embodying a heat pipe is disclosed. The heat pipe is mounted on a shaft, and the shaft is adapted for rotation on its axis.

Sarcia, D.S.

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

Heat Stroke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms ■ High body temperature ■ Confusion ■ Loss of coordination ■ Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating ■ Throbbing headache ■ Seizures, coma First Aid ■ Request immediate medical assistance. ■ Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. ■ Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms ■ Rapid heart beat ■ Heavy sweating ■ Extreme weakness or fatigue ■

436

Heat reclaimer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A device for reclaiming heat from stove pipes and the like. A semi-circular shaped hollow enclosed housing with a highly thermal-conductive concave surface is mounted contactingly to surround approximately one-half of the circumference of the stove pipe. The concave surface is formed to contact the pipe at a maximum number of points along that surface. The hollow interior of the housing contains thin multi-surfaced projections which are integral with the concave surface and conductively transfer heat from the stove pipe and concave surface to heat the air in the housing. A fan blower is attached via an air conduit to an entrance opening in the housing. When turned on, the blower pushes the heated interior air out a plurality of air exit openings in the ends of the housing and brings in lower temperature outside air for heating.

Parham, F.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

437

Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building Energy Analysis Tools, Comparative Evaluation Tests, IEA—International Energy Agency, Solar Heating

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening Process and Results Srinandini Parthasarathy, Thomas E. McKone, Michael G. Apte Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 April 29, 2111 Prepared for the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Energy Related Environmental Research Program Legal Notice The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a national laboratory of the DOE managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract Number DE-AC02- 05CH11231. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Sponsor and pursuant to an M&O Contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the

439

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commissioning Residential Ventilation Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values William J.N. Turner, Jennifer M. Logue, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division July 2012 LBNL-5969E Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

440

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air Temperature Speaker(s): Henry Willem Date: July 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Max Sherman (THIS SEMINAR TO BE RESCHEDULED.) Sustainability of the built-environment must be achieved in parallel with the sustenance of occupants' health and comfort. Actions to conserve energy and resources require much forethought and careful consideration due to possible consequences on the human aspects. Thus, many extensive works in the recent decades have focused on identifying the associations between indoor environment and human responses. Results have shown moderate to strong implications of thermal and indoor air quality factors on the prevalence and intensity of sick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Dry Transfer Facility #1 - Ventilation Confinement Zoning Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to establish the preliminary Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) for the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF). The results of this document is used to determine the air quantities for each VCZ that will eventually be reflected in the development of the Ventilation Flow Diagrams. The calculations contained in this document were developed by D and E/Mechanical-HVAC and are intended solely for the use of the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department in its work regarding the HVAC system for the Dry Transfer Facility. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department should be consulted before use of the calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or used by individuals other than authorized personnel in D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department.

K.D. Draper

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well

443

Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Mobile zone, spray booth ventilation system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This concept endeavors to reduce the volume of air (to be treated) from spray paint booths, thereby increasing efficiency and improving air pollution abatement (VOC emissions especially). Most of the ventilation air is recycled through the booth to maintain laminar flow; the machinery is located on the supply side of the booth rather than on the exhaust side. 60 to 95% reduction in spray booth exhaust rate should result. Although engineering and production prototypes have been made, demand is low.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

445

Energy Conservation Through Improved Industrial Ventilation in Small and Medium-Sized Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial ventilation that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADQ to small and medium-sized industries in Texas. The projects recommended include reducing blower operating time/speed and static pressure for dust collectors, installing radiation shield on ovens, and using outside air for cooling. The projects were recommended to different kinds of industries including wood fabrication, frozen food, primary metals, plastics and insulation products. These projects are predicted to save up to 8% of the plants' utility bills with average simple payback periods of less than three years. Projects that involved blowers (fans) speed/operation time reduction resulted in most savings.

Saman, N. F.; Nutter, D. W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Open-loop heat-recovery dryer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

448

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Heat...

449

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

450

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Conversion and Replacements of Centrifugal CFC Chillers Total Pre-1995 2,304 7,208 9,512 12% 1995 1,198 3,915 5,113 18% 1996 1,311 3,045 4,356 24% 1997 815 3,913 4,728 30% 1998 905 3,326 4,231 35% 1999 491 3,085 3,576 39% 2000 913 3,235 4,148 45% 2001 452 3,324 3,776 49% 2002 360 3,433 3,793 54% 2003 334 2,549 2,883 55% 2004 165 2,883 3,048 59% 2005 (2) 155 2,674 2,829 62% 2006 (2) 130 2,860 2,990 66% 2007 (2) 108 3,002 3,110 70% Total 9,641 Note(s): Source(s): 1) In 1992, approximately 80,000 centrifugal CFC chillers were in service, 82% of which used CFC-11, 12% CFC-12, and 6% CFC-113, CFC- 114, or R-500. 2) Projected. ARI, Replacement and Conversion of CFC for a Decade Chillers Slower Than Expected Assuring Steady Demand for Non-CFC Units, Apr. 25, 2005; ARI, New Legislation Would Spur Replacement of CFC Chillers, Mar. 31, 2004; ARI, Economy Affects CFC Chiller Phase-out, Apr. 2, 2003; ARI, Half way Mark in

453

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 6 Estimated U.S. Emissions of Halocarbons, 1987-2001 (MMT CO2 Equivalent) Gas 1987 1990 1992 1995 1998 2000 2001 Chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 391 246 207 167 115 105 105 CFC-12 1,166 1,194 853 549 223 182 226 CFC-113 498 158 103 52 0 0 0 CFC-114 N.A. 46 29 16 1 N.A. N.A. CFC-115 N.A. 30 27 22 19 N.A. N.A. Bromofluorocarbons Halon-1211 N.A. 1 1 1 1 N.A. N.A. Halon-1301 N.A. 12 12 12 13 N.A. N.A. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-22 116 136 135 123 128 134 137 HCFC-123 N.A. 0 0 0 0 N.A. N.A. HCFC-124 0 0 0 3 4 N.A. N.A. HCFC-141b N.A. 0 0 14 19 4 4 HCFC-142b N.A. 0 2 18 22 26 26 Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-23 48 36 36 28 41 31 22 HFC-125 N.A. 0 1 2 4 5 6 HFC-134a N.A. 1 1 19 35 44 41 Total 2,219 1,861 1,408 1,024 624 532 566 Source(s): Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Jan. 2001, Table 3, p. 47 for GWPs; EIA, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2001, Dec. 2002, Table 29, p. 71 and Table D2, p. D-5 for 1990-2001 emissions; EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

454

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 4 Halocarbon Environmental Coefficients and Principal Uses 100-Year Global Ozone Depletion Warming Potential Potential (ODP) Compound (CO2 = 1) (Relative to CFC-11) Principal Uses Chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 1.00 Blowing Agent, Chillers CFC-12 (1) 1.00 Auto A/C, Chillers, & Blowing Agent CFC-113 0.80 Solvent CFC-114 1.00 Solvent CFC-115 (2) 0.60 Solvent, Refrigerant Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-22 (2) 0.06 Residential A/C HCFC-123 0.02 Refrigerant HCFC-124 0.02 Sterilant HCFC-141b 0.11 CFC Replacement HCFC-142b 0.07 CFC Replacement Bromofluorocarbons Halon-1211 3.00 Fire Extinguishers Halon-1301 10.00 Fire Extinguishers Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-23 0.00 HCFC Byproduct HFC-125 0.00 CFC/HCFC Replacement HFC-134a 0.00 Auto A/C, Refrigeration HFC-152a (1) 0.00 Aerosol Propellant HFC-227ea 0.00 CFC Replacement

455

Aero?acoustic predictions of automotive dashboard HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air?conditioning ducts).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow?induced noisegenerated by automotive climate control systems is today emerging as one of the main noisesources in a vehicle interior. Numerical simulation offers a good way to analyze these mechanisms and to identify the aerodynamic noisesources in an industrial context driven by permanent reduction in programs timing and development costs

Stephane Detry; Julien Manera; Yves Detandt; Diego d'Udekem

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Buildings Technologies Reference Case, Second Edition (Revised), Sept. 2007, p. 26-31. Efficiency U.S. Average Best-Available Parameter Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency...

457

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2005 Natural Gas 56% 57% 55% 46% 45% 45% 45% Electricity 8% 18% 26% 36% 42% 42% 43% Fuel Oil 14% 10% 7% 5% 2% 2% 2% LPG 5% 3% 2% 5% 6% 8% 8% Other (1) 17% 12% 10% 8% 4% 3% 2% Total...

458

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Lifetimes and Ages Median Equipment Type Lifetime Air Conditioners Through-the-Wall 15 Water-CooledPackage 24 (1) Roof-Top 15 Chillers Reciprocating 20 Centrifugal 25 (1)...

459

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

7 2008 Gas Furnace Manufacturer Market Shares (Percent of Products Produced) Company Market Share (%) Total Units Shipped: UTCCarrier 32% Goodman (Amana) 15% Lennox 13% American...

460

Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

six buildings had cooling towers, of which 46 were cleanedor poor condition of cooling tower was associated with aunscheduled cleaning of cooling towers was associated with

Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include heating ventilation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for reclaiming heat from the discharge gas from a combustion fuel heating unit, which has: inlet and outlet sections; an expansion section whose circumference gradually increases in the direction of flow, thereby providing an increased area for heat transfer; flow splitter plates which lie within and act in conjunction with the expansion section wall to form flow compartments, which flow splitter plates and expansion section wall have a slope, with respect to the centroidal axis of the flow compartment not exceeding 0.1228, which geometry prevents a separation of the flow from the enclosing walls, thereby increasing heat transfer and maintaining the drafting function; and a reduction section which converges the flow to the outlet section.

Horkey, E.J.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z