National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for include distillate fuel

  1. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate ...

  2. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate ...

  3. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity Presentation given at 2007 ...

  4. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  5. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  7. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ...tchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ...

  8. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  9. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable Distillate Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  11. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  12. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  13. ,"New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Total Distillate SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel SalesDeliveries to Off-Highway ...

  14. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.24;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,," " ,,"Total Amount of ","Total Amount of","Equipment is Not","Switching","Unavailable ",,"Long-Term","Unavailable",,"Combinations of " "NAICS"," ","Distillate Fuel Oil","Unswitchable

  16. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  17. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ,"

  18. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected" " Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day) " ,,,,," Input for Heat,",,," Primary" " ",," Consumption for All Purposes",,,"Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," Consumption for Nonfuel Purposes ",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"

  19. Evaluation of Exxon donor solvent full-range distillate as a utility boiler fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, J.; Folsom, B.; Jones, F.

    1984-03-01

    The use of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) as a utility boiler fuel was evaluated at Southern California Edison Company's Highgrove Unit 4, a Combustion Engineering 44.5 net Mw wall-fired boiler. The EDS evaluated was a full range solvent oil produced at the Exxon Coal-Liquefaction Pilot Plant in Baytown, Texas. This evaluation involved modifying the boiler equipment and operating procedures for EDS, and then firing 4500 barrels of EDS in the boiler. The resulting boiler performance and emissions with EDS were compared to those with a blended low-sulfur petroleum distillate similar to No. 4 fuel oil and with natural gas. The boiler was operated over a range of load and excess air conditions during the tests. The potential for NO/sub x/ reduction with a burner out of service (BOOS) was also evaluated. Boiler performance, including excess air requirements, maximum load, thermal efficiency and heat rate efficiency was similar to that with oil. The NO/sub x/ emissions with EDS were about 12 percent higher than with oil. NO/sub x/ reduction with BOOS was about 20 percent with both oil and EDS. EDS use did not result in an increase in particulate emissions. Submicron particulate, however, was increased with EDS. Required equipment modifications at Highgrove primarily involved material compatibility with EDS, fuel system capacity, and the burner nozzles. The use of EDS required the implementation of health and safety procedures due to the adverse health effects that could result from prolonged exposure to the fuel. The results of the evaluation demostrated that EDS can be used in a utility boiler designed for oil with only minor modifications.

  20. Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andile B. Mzinyati

    2007-09-15

    The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of LPG dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.; Penick, J.E.; Socha, R.F.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing distillates of lubes from paraffins, which comprise: (a) a dehydrogenation reactor including means for passing a paraffinic feedstock stream into a dehydrogenation zone at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert the paraffins to an olefin rich effluent stream comprising at least one of the group consisting of propylene and butylene; (b) a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the olefin rich effluent stream in a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert olefins to a first reactor effluent stream rich in liquid olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons; (c) a first means for separating the first reactor effluent stream to form a substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream and a C/sub 4/- rich stream; (d) means for passing the C/sub 5/+ rich stream to a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone; (e) a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream in the high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of temperature and pressure selected to produce a second reactor effluent stream which is rich in distillate; (f) second means for separating the second reactor effluent stream to recover an olefinic gasoline stream and a distillate stream; and (g) a hydrotreating reactor including means for contacting the distillate stream with hydrogen in a hydrotreating unit to produce a hydrotreated distillate stream comprising lube range hydrocarbons.

  2. Cryogenic distillation: a fuel enrichment system for near-term tokamak-type D-T fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, B.; Davis, J.F.

    1980-02-01

    The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.

  3. DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts | Department of Energy Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts February 17, 2016 - 3:03pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has released a Request for Information (RFI) on critical materials in the energy sector, including fuel cell platinum group metal catalysts. The RFI

  4. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  5. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  6. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Total Distillate Adj SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. No 2 Diesel Adj SalesDeliveries to Off-Highway ...

  7. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supercritical transesterification processing permits efficient fuel system and combustion chamber designs to optimize fuel utilization in diesel engines.,

  8. Conversion of lpg hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of lpg dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. D.; Penick, J. E.; Socha, R. F.

    1985-09-17

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing distillate and/or lubes which employ integrating catalytic (or thermal) dehydrogenation of paraffins with MOGDL. The process feeds the product from a low temperature propane and/or butane dehydrogenation zone into a first catalytic reactor zone, which operates at low pressure and contains zeolite oligomerization catalysts, where the low molecular weight olefins are reacted to primarily gasoline range materials. These gasoline range materials can then be pressurized to the pressure required for reacting to distillate in a second catalytic reactor zone operating at high pressure and containing a zeolite oligomerization catalyst. The distillate is subsequently sent to a hydrotreating unit and product separation zone to form lubes and other finished products.

  9. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons into distillate fuels using an integral LPG dehydrogenation-MOGD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, H.; Zahner, J.C.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for converting lower paraffinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising propane and/or butane into heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: feeding the paraffinic feedstock to a dehydrogenation zone under conversion conditions for dehydrogenating at least a portion of the feedstock; recovering a first dehydrogenation gaseous effluent stream comprising propene and/or butene; contacting the first gaseous effluent steam with a liquid lean oil sorbent stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ hydrocarbons under sorption conditions to produce a C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream and a light gas stream; sequentially pressurizing, heating and passing the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream to an oligomerization reactor zone at elevated temperature and pressure; contacting the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich stream with oligomerization catalyst in the oligomerization reactor zone for conversion of at least a portion of lower olefins to heavier hydrocarbons under oligomerization reaction conditions to provide a second reactor effluent stream comprising gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons; flash separating the second reactor effluent stream into a separator vapor stream comprising a major portion of the hydrocarbons which later form the lean oil stream, and a major portion of the C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a separator liquid stream comprising the gasoline and distillate boiling range materials produced in the oligomerization reactor zone; fractionating the separator liquid stream in a first product debutanizer tower into a first debutanizer overhead vapor stream comprising C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a product debutanizer liquid bottoms stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  10. Table 5.6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil ...

  11. Table 5.2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel ...

  12. FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The fuel cell subtopic includes novel, durable supports for low-platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The hydrogen delivery ...

  13. FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 FOA Released: Includes Fuel Cell...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 FOA Released: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and Hydrogen Delivery FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 FOA Released: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and Hydrogen ...

  14. SBIR/STTR Release 2 Topics Announced-Includes Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Topics Announced-Includes Hydrogen and Fuel Cells SBIR/STTR Release 2 Topics Announced-Includes Hydrogen and Fuel Cells October 31, 2014 - 12:05pm Addthis The 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 2 topics have been released and include two hydrogen and fuel cell related topics: fuel cell-battery electric hybrid trucks and in-line quality control devices for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel

  15. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  16. Table 5.5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate ...

  17. Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate ...

  18. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F8: Distillate Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures ... Where shown, (s) Expenditure value less than 0.05. Notes: Distillate fuel oil estimates ...

  19. SBIR/STTR FY16 Phase 1 Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Four for Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Membrane Development | Department of Energy 6 Phase 1 Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Four for Fuel Cell Membrane Development SBIR/STTR FY16 Phase 1 Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Four for Fuel Cell Membrane Development January 28, 2016 - 12:36pm Addthis The Energy Department has announced the 2016 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 Awards, including four projects focused on durable and inexpensive polymer

  20. FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and Hydrogen Delivery FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and Hydrogen Delivery July 21, 2016 - 1:22pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced the 2017 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 topics, including two subtopics focused on hydrogen and fuel

  1. SBIR/STTR FY15 Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Fuel Cell...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Fuel Cell Catalyst and Hydrogen Contamination Detection R&D SBIR... DOE's key hydrogen objectives are to reduce the cost of producing and ...

  2. AMO Issues Request for Information on Clean Energy Manufacturing Topics, Including Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AMO seeks information on mid-Technology Readiness Level R&D needs, market challenges, supply chain challenges, and shared facility needs addressing clean energy manufacturing topics, including the fuel cell and hydrogen sectors.

  3. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  4. SBIR/STTR Phase I Release 2 Technical Topics Announced for FY14 Fuel Cell Topics Included

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phase I Release 2 technical topics include prototype fuel cell-battery electric hybrid trucks for waste transportation and novel membranes and non-platinum group metal catalysts for direct methanol as well as hydrogen fuel cells.

  5. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  6. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  7. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  8. SBIR/STTR Release 2 Topics Announced-Includes Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and in-line quality control devices for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. ... for PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (MEA) component manufacturing processes. ...

  9. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Announced-Includes Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    measurement of fuel cell membrane thickness. US Hybrid Corporation of Torrance, California, will develop and demonstrate polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell-battery ...

  10. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  13. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    153,155 151,196 153,135 153,257 154,753 158,135 1982-2016 PADD 1 58,175 60,720 61,919 61,846 63,491 63,077 1990-2016 New England 10,627 11,547 11,412 11,329 11,828 11,763 1990-2016 Central Atlantic 34,602 35,869 37,219 37,396 37,908 37,951 1990-2016 Lower Atlantic 12,946 13,304 13,288 13,122 13,754 13,363 1990-2016 PADD 2 30,637 30,058 29,641 29,668 30,209 31,542 1990-2016 PADD 3 46,763 43,491 44,527 44,536 43,558 45,155 1990-2016 PADD 4 3,515 3,565 3,342 3,267 3,076 3,256 1990-2016 PADD 5

  14. Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    93 96 184 92 224 128 1982-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 83 89 169 64 159 113 2004-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 0 0 2 3 2 1 2004-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2016 West Coast (PADD 5) 10 7 14 25 63 13

  15. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  16. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Announced—Includes Fuel Cell-Battery Electric Hybrid Truck and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Quality Control Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 2 Awards, including projects demonstrating fuel cell-battery electric hybrid trucks and developing a real-time, in-line optical detector for the measurement of fuel cell membrane thickness.

  17. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity

  18. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  19. Energy Department Announces Advanced Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Technologies Funding Opportunity, Includes Alternative Fuels Workplace Safety Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced more than $55 million in funding for vehicle technology advancements while touring the newest vehicle technologies at the Washington Auto Show last week. One specific topic is focused on the development of alternative fuel vehicle workplace safety programs.

  20. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  1. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  2. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  3. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  4. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click ... Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly"...

  5. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click ... Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly"...

  6. SBIR/STTR Phase II Release 1 Award Winners Announced, Includes Two Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently announced the FY 2014 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase II Release 1 award winners, including two hydrogen and fuel cell projects in Colorado and New Jersey.

  7. SBIR/STTR Phase I Release 1 Award Winners Announced, Includes Four Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently announced the FY 2014 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 award winners, including four hydrogen and fuel cell projects in Arizona, Massachusetts, and South Carolina.

  8. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  9. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  10. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  11. FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 FOA Released: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OPENING GUIDANCE | Department of Energy 6 SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE (SES) AND SENIOR PROFESSIONAL (SP) PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OPENING GUIDANCE FY 2016 SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE (SES) AND SENIOR PROFESSIONAL (SP) PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OPENING GUIDANCE FY 2016 performance appraisal cycle for both SES and SP members, which includes Senior Level (SL) and Scientific or Professional (ST) employees, concludes on December 15, 2015. These documents provide a detailed overview of

  12. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  13. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

  14. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Developing Kinetic Mechanisms for New Fuels and Biofuels, Including CFD Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about...

  16. Fuel cell system including a unit for electrical isolation of a fuel cell stack from a manifold assembly and method therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley; Dana A. , Farooque; Mohammad , Davis; Keith

    2007-10-02

    A fuel cell system with improved electrical isolation having a fuel cell stack with a positive potential end and a negative potential, a manifold for use in coupling gases to and from a face of the fuel cell stack, an electrical isolating assembly for electrically isolating the manifold from the stack, and a unit for adjusting an electrical potential of the manifold such as to impede the flow of electrolyte from the stack across the isolating assembly.

  17. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " ","

  18. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " ","

  19. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " ","

  20. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " ","

  1. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " ","

  2. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " ","

  3. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Gillett, James E.

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  4. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal

  5. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","...

  6. American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distillation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Distillation Inc. Place: Leland, North Carolina Zip: 28451 Product: Biodiesel producer in North Carolina. References:...

  7. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated...

  8. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  9. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maine 1,487 2,852 1,506 1,071 1,058 2,482 1984-2014 Massachusetts 500 343 3,101 466 329 453 1984-2014 New Hampshire 1,480 490 253 104 90 257 1984-2014 Rhode Island 1,643 903 900 ...

  10. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  11. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  12. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,103,881 3,930,517 3,625,747 3,473,310 3,536,111 3,802,848 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,670,994 3,545,676 3,274,963 3,183,878 3,240,215 3,501,957 1984-2014 New England (PADD...

  13. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Farm Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    660,024 2,928,175 2,942,436 3,031,878 3,026,611 3,209,391 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 333,748 454,160 375,262 382,639 404,799 401,686 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 13,909...

  14. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Railroad Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,759,140 2,974,641 3,121,150 3,118,150 3,369,781 3,670,338 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 459,324 482,929 514,418 492,156 460,066 480,024 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 43,763...

  15. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,159,428 2,045,164 2,179,953 2,325,503 2,271,056 2,417,898 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 597,048 560,403 568,024 568,997 559,886 600,949 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 60,994...

  16. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Commercial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    785,246 2,738,304 2,715,335 2,557,543 2,471,897 2,543,778 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1,565,353 1,528,778 1,433,828 1,286,053 1,295,125 1,348,704 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A)...

  17. Distillate Fuel Oil Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Changes to proved reserves of U.S. natural gas by source, 2013-14 trillion cubic feet Year-end 2013 2014 Year-end 2014 proved 2014 revisions and 2014 proved Source of natural gas reserves Discoveries other changes production reserves Coalbed methane 12.4 0.4 4.3 -1.4 15.7 Shale 159.1 37.8 16.2 -13.4 199.7 Other U.S. natural gas Lower 48 onshore 166.0 11.4 -8.4 -11.7 157.2 Lower 48 offshore 9.1 0.8 0.8 -1.3 9.4 Alaska 7.4 0.1 -0.4 -0.3 6.8 U.S. TOTAL 354.0 50.5 12.4 -28.1 388.8 Note: Lower 48

  18. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.77 2.81 3.07 2.74 2.51 1990's 3.10 2.59 2.25 2.59 2.50 2.39 2.97 3.02 2.45 2.61 2000's 4.10 4.19 3.41 5.54 6.09 7.59 6.83 6.92 8.58 4.47 2010's 5.02 4.64 3.25 4.08 5.51 3.07

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.69 2.40 2.40 2.33 2.44 2.57 2.54 2.48 2.41 2.56 2.71 2.79 1990 3.11 2.94 2.42 2.95 2.51 2.75 2.95 2.79 2.82 2.71 2.74 4.23 1991 3.61 3.08 2.76 2.87 2.14 2.19 2.36 2.53 2.32 2.27

  19. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  20. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  1. Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  3. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  4. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 2 Release 2 Awards Announced—Includes Projects to Increase Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase II Release 2 Awards, including projects focused on fuel cell durability, performance, and efficiency with the ultimate goal of lowering costs.

  5. SBIR/STTR FY15 Release 1 Awards Announced—Includes Fuel Cell Catalyst and Hydrogen Contamination Detection R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 Awards, including projects focusing on non-platinum catalysts for fuel cells and detection of contaminants in hydrogen.

  6. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  7. Literature search for the non-aqueous separation of zinc from fuel rod cladding. [After dissolution in liquid metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandvig, R. L.; Dyer, S. J.; Lambert, G. A.; Baldwin, C. E.

    1980-06-21

    This report reviews the literature of processes for the nonaqueous separation of zinc from dissolved fuel assembly cladding. The processes considered were distillation, pyrochemical processing, and electrorefining. The last two techniques were only qualitatively surveyed while the first, distillation, was surveyed in detail. A survey of available literature from 1908 through 1978 on the distillation of zinc was performed. The literature search indicated that a zinc recovery rate in excess of 95% is possible; however, technical problems exist because of the high temperatures required and the corrosive nature of liquid zinc. The report includes a bibliography of the surveyed literature and a computer simulation of vapor pressures in binary systems. 129 references.

  8. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  9. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  10. ITP Chemicals: Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybrid SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research ...

  11. ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research ...

  12. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  13. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  14. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  15. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  16. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG

  17. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG

  18. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  19. Farm alcohol fuel project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmel, D.

    1981-11-15

    The Small Energy Project is a research and demonstration effort designed to assist small farmers in the utilization of energy conservation techniques on their farms. The Farm Alcohol Project was designed to demonstrate the production of alcohol fuels on small farms in order to reduce purchased liquid fuel requirements. The Project considered the use of on-farm raw materials for process heat and the production of fuel grade, low prood ethanol in volumes up to 10,000 gallons per year. The fuel would be used entirely on the farm. The approach considered low-cost systems the farmer could build himself from local resources. Various crops were considered for ethanol production. The interest in farm alcohol production reached a peak in 1980 and then decreased substantially as farmers learned that the process of alcohol production on the farm was much more complicated than earlier anticipated. Details of Alcohol Project experiences in ethanol production, primarily from corn, are included in this report. A one-bushel distillation plant was constructed as a learning tool to demonstrate the production of ethanol. The report discusses the various options in starch conversion, fermentation and distillation that can be utilized. The advantages and disavantages of atmospheric and the more complicated process of vacuum distillation are evaluated. Larger farm plants are considered in the report, although no experience in operating such plants was gained through the Project. Various precautions and other considerations are included for farm plant designs. A larger community portable distillery is also evaluated. Such a plant was considered for servicing farms with limited plant equipment. The farms serviced would perform only fermentation tasks, with the portable device performing distillation and starch conversion.

  20. ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel ...

  1. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf (517.32 KB) ...

  2. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G.; Kister, H.Z.; Lockett, M.J.; Fair, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  3. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  4. Do-it-yourself guideline for constructing a solar alcohol distillation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, B.W.

    1982-07-27

    The development and testing of a solar powered distillation system are described. The system consists of a parabolic dish collector, a two axis sun tracking stand, sun tracking solar cell system, condenser, fermentation tanks, and continuous distillation still. The assembly instructions for the parabolic dish are included as well as the basic steps to follow in mashing and fermenting of corn meal. 15 figures. (DMC)

  5. Recent developments at the cathode processor for spent fuel treatment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B. R.; Vaden, D.; Hua, T. Q.; Willit, J. L.; Laug, D. V.

    2002-07-29

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a molten salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides with minor amounts of fission product chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation called cathode processing. Described in this paper are recent developments, both equipment and process-related, at the cathode processor during the treatment of blanket-type spent fuel. For the equipment developments, the installation of a new induction heating coil has produced significant improvements in equipment performance. The process developments include the elimination of a process step and the study of plutonium in the uranium product.

  6. U.S. diesel fuel price forecast to be 1 penny lower this summer at $3.94 a gallon

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    diesel fuel price forecast to be 1 penny lower this summer at $3.94 a gallon The retail price of diesel fuel is expected to average $3.94 a gallon during the summer driving season that which runs from April through September. That's close to last summer's pump price of $3.95, according to the latest monthly energy outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Demand for distillate fuel, which includes diesel fuel, is expected to be up less than 1 percent from last summer. Daily

  7. This Week In Petroleum Distillate Section

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    On-highway diesel fuel prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Regional U.S. on-highway diesel fuel prices graph Regional on-highway diesel fuel prices graph On-highway diesel fuel prices ...

  8. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  9. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  10. Compression-ignition fuel properties of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suppes, G.J.; Terry, J.G.; Burkhart, M.L.; Cupps, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    Fischer-Tropsch conversion of natural gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuel typically includes Fischer-Tropsch synthesis followed by refining (hydrocracking and distillation) of the syncrude into mostly diesel or kerosene with some naphtha (a feedstock for gasoline production). Refining is assumed necessary, possibly overlooking the exception fuel qualities of syncrude for more direct utilization as a compression-ignition (CI) fuel. This paper evaluates cetane number, viscosity, cloud-point, and pour-point properties of syncrude and blends of syncrude with blend stocks such as ethanol and diethyl ether. The results show that blends comprised primarily of syncrude are potentially good CI fuels, with pour-point temperature depression being the largest development obstacle. The resulting blends may provide a much-needed and affordable alternative CI fuel. Particularly good market opportunities exist with Environmental Policy Act (EPACT) applications.

  11. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  12. Table N1.1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... oil converted to residual and distillate" "fuel oils) are excluded." " NFNo applicable ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  13. Fuel alcohol: the road to independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the production of ethanol using an on-farm fuel alcohol still. Directions are given in lay-language, easily understandable to novices in the field of fermentation. Preparation of the mash, fermentation, and distillation are discussed along with some basic background information on these processes. The design and construction of the still is presented. Off-the-shelf equipment was used in the construction. Vats, pumps, and testing equipment used in the processing are described. Diagrams and a glossary are included. The alcohol produced is used for space heating of a house and greenhouse. (DMC)

  14. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  15. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  16. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  17. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for All Other Uses

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Maine 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Massachusetts 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 New Hampshire 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Rhode Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Vermont 0 0 ...

  18. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Connecticut 12 2 0 3 4 0 1984-2014 Maine 0 438 238 0 0 0 1984-2014 Massachusetts 0 871 965 887 0 0 1984-2014 New Hampshire 0 997 0 2 0 27 1984-2014 Rhode Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...

  19. East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ghana 1995-2003 Gibralter 2012-2012 Greece 9 1995-2016 India 24 1995-2016 Ireland 1995-2003 Israel 1995-2003 Italy 1995-2014 Ivory Coast 2014-2014 Jamaica 2012-2012 Japan 2006-2011 ...

  20. Texas Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vessel Bunkering 198,625 323,153 306,887 210,408 208,962 281,626 1984-2014 On-Highway 3,711,173 3,849,991 4,114,193 4,375,991 4,672,287 5,210,804 1984-2014 Military 28,385 33,020 ...

  1. Florida Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vessel Bunkering 84,718 118,991 142,198 131,685 126,464 124,343 1984-2014 On-Highway 1,322,703 1,340,494 1,329,312 1,340,337 1,394,235 1,420,204 1984-2014 Military 4,370 5,481 ...

  2. Louisiana Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    514,474 1,744,771 1,873,769 1,488,986 1,405,392 1,375,580 1984-2014 Residential 1,036 140 34 53 84 89 1984-2014 Commercial 59,689 38,695 39,659 36,840 17,590 21,197 1984-2014 Industrial 21,826 26,063 20,770 33,052 31,744 33,670 1984-2014 Oil Company 243,789 319,394 364,261 245,303 183,801 178,810 1984-2014 Farm 42,624 44,027 49,985 48,462 40,785 46,134 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,775 5,464 2,733 4,610 4,826 1984-2014 Railroad 18,345 25,425 32,515 28,110 39,578 45,790 1984-2014 Vessel

  3. Mississippi Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    835,855 800,065 771,577 830,756 806,396 819,763 1984-2014 Residential 5 5 4 7 7 8 1984-2014 Commercial 26,641 23,713 26,383 26,386 24,019 28,803 1984-2014 Industrial 21,853 18,362 15,450 20,153 21,186 19,595 1984-2014 Oil Company 3,955 4,262 4,058 6,226 7,450 6,419 1984-2014 Farm 41,080 57,087 52,559 81,878 84,753 79,443 1984-2014 Electric Power 3,796 3,393 2,019 1,674 2,223 1,921 1984-2014 Railroad 24,727 17,936 37,741 29,848 32,550 35,578 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 141,302 93,384 58,285 58,505

  4. New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    09,709 554,352 574,557 608,490 621,430 669,923 1984-2014 Residential 55 46 37 27 72 53 1984-2014 Commercial 11,030 9,435 9,609 9,145 9,112 12,114 1984-2014 Industrial 33,804 24,429 27,110 31,316 32,029 32,917 1984-2014 Oil Company 9,871 1,705 2,127 5,857 11,218 27,016 1984-2014 Farm 11,278 14,821 10,955 12,816 15,784 11,752 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,000 1,689 5,155 4,816 3,826 1984-2014 Railroad 245 1,780 1,707 19,123 38,543 45,446 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014

  5. Alabama Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    987,571 1,038,133 1,094,359 1,132,711 1,047,981 1,027,777 1984-2014 Residential 3,971 4,895 432 750 639 722 1984-2014 Commercial 39,802 46,009 48,475 46,654 30,536 27,874 1984-2014 Industrial 90,659 77,542 81,120 120,347 77,119 65,322 1984-2014 Oil Company 0 328 1,035 2,640 2,929 2,985 1984-2014 Farm 17,882 19,881 24,518 24,503 24,651 20,459 1984-2014 Electric Power 8,276 10,372 22,490 9,375 6,514 10,071 1984-2014 Railroad 44,546 42,465 97,177 125,439 63,570 56,873 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering

  6. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,856.4 26,071.0 56,502.9 1,351.8 60,057.4 April ... 1,030.8 157.5 20,855.8 21,528.9 3,655.2 25,184.0 46,039.8 817.2 48,045.3 May...

  7. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    165,833.6 February ... 7,190.5 4,192.4 55,685.0 76,234.8 22,030.8 98,265.6 153,950.6 2,265.8 167,599.4 March ... 3,741.4...

  8. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    December ... 3,872.6 4,684.1 35,790.4 88,601.0 20,217.6 108,818.6 144,609.0 1,089.2 154,255.0 1998 Average ... 2,643.4 1,854.8...

  9. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  10. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  11. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Off-Highway Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,985,592 2,148,677 2,070,260 2,088,157 2,063,319 2,014,184 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 605,884 615,812 634,470 621,261 584,856 604,093 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 81,453...

  12. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Vessel Bunkering Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,912,984 2,002,834 2,133,395 1,768,324 1,675,521 1,593,398 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 276,013 259,319 296,947 283,254 274,142 289,674 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 45,147...

  13. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4,918 4,940 4,739 4,939 4,849 4,973 1982-2016 PADD 1 320 348 301 348 357 358 1990-2016 PADD 2 1,091 1,090 988 987 1,073 1,121 1990-2016 PADD 3 2,781 2,727 2,741 2,841 2,626 2,687 1990-2016 PADD 4 185 188 176 173 178 190 1990-2016 PADD 5 542 589 533 590 616 618 1990

  14. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and Under

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    132,482 132,347 130,397 131,457 131,718 133,666 2004-2016 PADD 1 48,923 46,750 48,286 49,440 49,186 51,086 2004-2016 New England 5,713 5,479 5,820 5,827 5,734 6,024 2004-2016 Central Atlantic 31,119 29,742 30,218 31,411 31,392 32,339 2004-2016 Lower Atlantic 12,091 11,529 12,249 12,201 12,060 12,724 2004-2016 PADD 2 28,720 29,395 28,836 28,371 28,446 28,898 2004-2016 PADD 3 39,119 40,396 37,775 38,050 38,502 37,824 2004-2016 PADD 4 3,574 3,285 3,352 3,122 3,014 2,804 2004-2016 PADD 5 12,147

  15. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11,431 11,494 11,351 12,031 11,757 11,381 1993-2016 PADD 1 5,157 5,148 5,505 5,651 5,642 5,604 1993-2016 New England 1,516 1,458 1,668 1,668 1,609 1,762 1993-2016 Central Atlantic 2,888 2,588 3,204 3,316 3,376 3,134 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic 753 1,102 632 667 657 707 1993-2016 PADD 2 677 815 783 862 813 884 1993-2016 PADD 3 4,414 4,239 4,137 4,547 4,220 3,808 1993-2016 PADD 4 93 98 77 93 116 129 1993-2016 PADD 5 1,090 1,193 848 878 966 956

  16. PACKAGE INCLUDES:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PACKAGE INCLUDES: Airfare from Seattle, 4 & 5 Star Hotels, Transfers, Select Meals, Guided Tours and Excursions DAY 01: BANGKOK - ARRIVAL DAY 02: BANGKOK - SIGHTSEEING DAY 03: BANGKOK - FLOATING MARKET DAY 04: BANGKOK - AT LEISURE DAY 05: BANGKOK - CHIANG MAI BY AIR DAY 06: CHIANG MAI - SIGHTSEEING DAY 07: CHIANG MAI - ELEPHANT CAMP DAY 08: CHIANG MAI - PHUKET BY AIR DAY 09: PHUKET - PHI PHI ISLAND BY FERRY DAY 10: PHUKET - AT LEISURE DAY 11: PHUKET - CORAL ISLAND BY SPEEDBOAT DAY 12: PHUKET

  17. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  18. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  19. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  20. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  1. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  2. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  3. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  4. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  5. Catalytic hydroprocessing of petroleum and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oballa, M.C.; Shih, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    There is a strong push for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and/or residue, which carries with it some problems. These are connected with obtaining state-of-the-art technologies at reasonable capital and operating costs to the refiner. Then there are problems associated with choosing the best catalyst--one specially designed to lower considerably the high content of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and metals (V, Ni, Fe). To address the above considerations, engineers and scientists working in the processing of petroleum and distillates from different parts of the world presented papers covering different facets of residue upgrading and distillate hydrotreating. This book is a compilation of most of the papers presented in the five sessions of the symposium. The editors have broadly classified the papers in terms of content into the following four categories: catalyst deactivation; upgrading of heavy oils and residue; hydrotreating of distillates; and general papers. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    fuels, including distillate fuel (used as both heating oil and diesel fuel) and propane. Following last winters mild weather, inventories of both distillate fuel oil and...

  7. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  8. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  9. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  10. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  11. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes | Department of Energy Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf (517.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of Method and Algorithms To Identify Easily Implementable Energy-Efficient Low-Cost Multicomponent Distillation Column Trains With Large Energy Savings For Wide Number of Separations CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP

  12. Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Paper explores the potential for U.S. refiners to create more distillate and less gasoline without major additional investments beyond those already planned.

  13. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  14. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  15. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  16. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in California (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in California (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun ...

  17. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Minnesota (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minnesota (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Minnesota (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun ...

  18. U.S. Fuel Consumed at Refineries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,404 1,291 1,521 1,311 2,305 3,009 1986-2015 Distillate Fuel Oil 440 483 539 475 309 364 1986-2015 Residual Fuel Oil 980 759 540 443 413 395 1986-2015 ...

  19. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  20. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some

  1. Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

  2. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuel Distributor and Vehicle Manufacturer Liability Protection Renewable fuel refiners, suppliers, terminals, wholesalers, distributors, retailers, and motor vehicle manufacturers and dealers are not liable for property damages related to a customer's purchase of renewable fuel, including blends, if the consumer selected the fuel for use. Motor fuel blended with any amount of renewable fuel will not be considered a defective product provided the fuel compiles with motor fuel quality

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    For the purpose of the credit, alternative fuels vehicles include dedicated or bi-fuel natural gas, propane, and hydrogen vehicles. Through December 31, 2016, purchased or leased ...

  5. A Method to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium This white paper outlines a method for the removal of tritium and deuterium from liquid lithium. The method is based on rapid or flash ...

  6. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  7. Correlations estimate volume distilled using gravity, boiling point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, A.; Consuelo Perez de Alba, M. del; Manriquez, L.; Guardia Mendoz, P. de la

    1995-10-23

    Mathematical nd graphic correlations have been developed for estimating cumulative volume distilled as a function of crude API gravity and true boiling point (TBP). The correlations can be used for crudes with gravities of 21--34{degree} API and boiling points of 150--540 C. In distillation predictions for several mexican and Iraqi crude oils, the correlations have exhibited accuracy comparable to that of laboratory measurements. The paper discusses the need for such a correlation and the testing of the correlation.

  8. ITP Chemicals: Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction | Department of Energy Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction hybrid_separation.pdf (315.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 Membrane Technology W

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Labeling Requirements Alternative fuel dispensers must be labeled with information to help consumers make informed decisions about fueling a vehicle, including the name of the fuel and the minimum percentage of the main component of the fuel. Labels may also list the percentage of other fuel components. This requirement applies to, but is not limited to, the following fuel types: methanol, denatured ethanol, and/or other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more by volume of

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition and Specifications Alternative fuels include biofuel, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, electricity, natural gas, propane gas, or a synthetic transportation fuel. Biofuel is defined as a renewable, biodegradable, combustible liquid or gaseous fuel derived from biomass or other renewable resources that can be used as transportation fuel, combustion fuel, or refinery feedstock and that meets ASTM specifications and federal quality requirements for

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Tax Exemption and Refund for Government Fleet Vehicles State excise tax does not apply to special fuels, including gaseous special fuels, when used in state or federal government owned vehicles. Special fuels include compressed and liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, and fuel suitable for use in diesel engines. In addition, state excise tax paid on special fuels used in state or federal government vehicles is subject to a refund, as long as the tax was

  12. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25,794.3 125,232.3 November ... 14,453.5 66,101.3 8,392.5 14,607.4 22,846.0 80,708.7 3,071.6 38,342.1 25,917.7 119,050.8 December ......

  13. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    I January ... 3,767.8 15,166.2 1,271.9 3,441.5 5,039.7 18,607.8 1,103.3 23,611.9 6,143.0 42,219.7 February ... 4,023.0 15,858.8...

  14. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    October ... 14,752.6 69,758.6 7,217.1 15,271.7 21,969.7 85,030.3 3,137.2 25,623.2 25,106.9 110,653.4 November ... 14,904.2...

  15. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  16. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kass, Michael D.; Janke, Christopher J.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Keiser, James R.; Gaston, Katherine

    2016-07-12

    Here we report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 °C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured.more » Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.« less

  17. Chemistry of hydrotreating heavy crudes: II. Detailed analysis of polar compounds in Wilmington 650-1000 degree F distillate and hydrotreated products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Green, J.B.; Tang, S.Y.; Reynolds, J.W.; Yu, S.K.T. )

    1987-04-01

    Notwithstanding the current oversupply of crude oil, the future importance of heavy crude as a primary energy resource is widely recognized. In addition, with the market for resid declining, refiners are facing an increasing challenge to convert more of the bottom of the barrel to transportation fuels. The problems that have been predicted for refinery products made from heavier feedstocks are now beginning to surface. State-of-the-art upgrading procedures have proven to be inadequate for removal of many of the chemical compound types that cause problems in the processing sequence or adversely affect the quality of the end products. These problems include instability or incompatibility of process streams or products, corrosiveness and catalyst poisoning. Before new approaches can be intelligently developed to remove the problem components, it is necessary to know what compound types are causing the observed problems. This study is focused on determination of polar compounds in the feedstock and products from hydrotreating a distillate of a representative heavy crude, Wilmington. The ultimate objective is to acquire an understanding of the compound types and reaction mechanisms contributing to instability, incompatibility, corrosiveness, catalyst poisoning and other problems exhibited by some crude oil feedstocks, intermediate process streams and final products resulting from the processing of lower quality fossil fuel feedstocks.

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions The definition of alternative fuel includes liquefied petroleum gas (propane). Special fuel is defined as all combustible gases and liquids that are suitable for powering an internal combustion engine or motor or are used exclusively for heating, industrial, or farm purposes. Special fuels include biodiesel, blended biodiesel, and natural gas products, including liquefied and compressed natural gas. (Reference Indiana Code 6-6-2.5-1 and 6-6-2.5-22

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Han, Manbae; Wagner, Robert M; Sluder, Scott

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

  1. Four different shale oils processed into jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Crude shale oils produced by (a) Geokinetics, (b) Occidental, (c) Paraho, and (d) Tosco II processes have each been catalytically hydroprocessed to produce jet fuel fractions. The shale oil hydroprocessing was performed at low, medium and high hydroprocessing severities. Hydroprocessing severity was changed mainly by varying the temperature. Full boiling range (121-300/sup 0/C) jet fuel was produced from the hydroprocessed product of the raw oil distillates boiling below 343/sup 0/C. This paper describes the shale oil properties and hydroprocessing, gives the results of sulfur removal and hydrogenated shale oil distillation, and lists the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuels. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  2. TVA application of integrated onfarm fuel alcohol production system. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P C; Pile, R S

    1980-01-01

    This contract has provided for the documentation of the feasibility of fuel alcohol production with small onfarm facilities, and for the design and construction of an efficient and easily constructed production facility. A feasibility study and a preliminary design report have been prepared. A prototype facility has been designed and constructed with a design production rate of 10 gallons per hour of 190-proof ethanol. The components of the facility are readily available through normal equipment supply channels or can be primarily owner-constructed. Energy efficiency was also of prime consideration in the design, and heat recovery equipment is included where practical. A renewable fuel boiler is used for process heat. Applicable safety standards and environmental requirements were also incorporated into the design. Other project activities included modification of a pickup truck to use the hydrous alcohol produced, evaluation of vacuum distillation for onfarm units, and development of a computer program to allow detailed economic analyses of fuel alcohol production. Efforts were also initiated to evaluate nongrain feedstocks, develop a preliminary design for a low-cost wood-fired boiler, and evaluate packed distillation columns constructed of plastic pipe.

  3. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of 175 per kW, and ...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples Summary Tables Key Federal Legislation The information below includes a brief chronology and

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuel Retailer Tax Incentive A licensed retail motor fuel dealer may receive a quarterly incentive for selling and dispensing renewable fuels, including biodiesel. A qualified motor fuel dealer is eligible for up to $0.065 for every gallon of renewable fuel sold and up to $0.03 for every gallon of biodiesel sold, if the required threshold percentage is met. The threshold is determined by calculating the percent of total gasoline sales that is renewable fuel or biodiesel. For renewable

  6. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, H.N.

    1998-12-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  7. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  8. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New Mexico (Including Vehicle...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New Mexico (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul ...

  9. Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Natural Gas or Renewable fuel Smart Grid Integration Power, Fuel and ... energy desires * Fuel cells on Natural Gas (LNG) are included * Base market RPS rate plus a technology ...

  10. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  11. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  12. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes Improved Energy Efficiency through the Determination of Optimal Distillation Configuration The ability to apply low-energy distillation confgurations can allow chemical manufacturers to reduce energy consumption of both existing and grassroots plants. However, the determina- tion of an appropriate confguration is limited by an incomplete knowledge of the 'search space' for a proper distillation network. Currently, no

  13. Fuel transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  14. Fuel transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuels Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Performance Photo of a man working with laboratory equipment. NREL fuel performance chemists evaluate a broad range of performance criteria, including storage stability. ...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition - Internal Revenue Code The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) defines alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (propane), compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied hydrogen, liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process, liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass, and P-Series fuels. Biodiesel, ethanol, and renewable diesel are not considered alternative fuels by the IRS. While the term "hydrocarbons" includes liquids that

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Independence and Security Act of 2007 Enacted December 19, 2007 The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) aims to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum. EISA includes provisions to increase the supply of renewable alternative fuel sources by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels annually by 2022. In

  18. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  19. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  20. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-03

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  1. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  2. Fuel economizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwierzelewski, V.F.

    1984-06-26

    A fuel economizer device for use with an internal combustion engine fitted with a carburetor is disclosed. The fuel economizer includes a plate member which is mounted between the carburetor and the intake portion of the intake manifold. The plate member further has at least one aperture formed therein. One tube is inserted through the at least one aperture in the plate member. The one tube extends longitudinally in the passage of the intake manifold from the intake portion toward the exit portion thereof. The one tube concentrates the mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor and conveys the mixture of fuel and air to a point adjacent but spaced away from the inlet port of the internal combustion engine.

  3. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  4. FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2003-04-23

    This project has two primary purposes: (1) Build a small-footprint (SFP) fuel production plant to prove the feasibility of this relatively transportable technology on an intermediate scale (i.e. between laboratory-bench and commercial capacity) and produce as much as 150,000 gallons of hydrogen-saturated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel; and (2) Use the virtually sulfur-free fuel produced to demonstrate (over a period of at least six months) that it can not only be used in existing diesel engines, but that it also can enable significantly increased effectiveness and life of the next-generation exhaust-after-treatment emission control systems that are currently under development and that will be required for future diesel engines. Furthermore, a well-to-wheels economic analysis will be performed to characterize the overall costs and benefits that would be associated with the actual commercial production, distribution and use of such FT diesel fuel made by the process under consideration, from the currently underutilized (or entirely un-used) energy resources targeted, primarily natural gas that is stranded, sub-quality, off-shore, etc. During the first year of the project, which is the subject of this report, there have been two significant areas of progress: (1) Most of the preparatory work required to build the SFP fuel-production plant has been completed, and (2) Relationships have been established, and necessary project coordination has been started, with the half dozen project-partner organizations that will have a role in the fuel demonstration and evaluation phase of the project. Additional project tasks directly related to the State of Alaska have also been added to the project. These include: A study of underutilized potential Alaska energy resources that could contribute to domestic diesel and distillate fuel production by providing input energy for future commercial-size SFP fuel production plants; Demonstration of the use of the product fuel in a heavy

  5. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    regardless of the number of passengers. Qualified AFVs may also use the HOT lanes toll-free. AFVs include plug-in electric vehicles and bi-fuel or dual-fuel vehicles that operate...

  7. Catalytic hydroprocessing of SRC-II heavy distillate fractions. 4. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds in the acidic fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy distillate obtained by hydroliquefaction of Powhatan No.5 coal was separated into 9 fractions by liquid chromatography. The very-weak-acid and weak-acid fractions were used as feeds in hydroprocessing experiments with sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 350 C and 120 atm. The hydrodeoxygenation of the acidic compounds was shown to be rapid in comparison with other hydroprocessing reactions of coal liquids, including hydrogenation of aromatics, hydrodesulphurisation and hydrodenitrogenation.

  8. Winter fuels report, week ending October 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Weekly estimates of distillate stocks (131.6 MMB) are now 2.1 MMB below the lower bound of the three year average, and the current rate of increase is also lower than the average of the past three years. Heating fuels are 48% of the total inventory and have fallen 1.3 MMB during the past week. Distillate production dipped while demand increased. The supply of propane for the current week declined 1.5 MMB from the prior reporting period but is in the normal range for the time of the year. The natural gas supply available for distribution in August 1995 was estimated to be 1,795 BCF, which was almost unchanged from the previous year. The August 1995 consumption of 1,502 BCF was 6% greater than the previous year. This gas volume included 276 BCF injected into underground storage and 16 BCF exported. In July 1995, major gas pipeline companies paid an average of $1.91/KCF for gas purchased from domestic producers, which was a decrease from $2.03 in the previous month. The price for imported gas was $1.10/KCF. Heating oil prices showed little movement during this period, as did propane prices.

  9. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells Fuel cells are the most energy efficient devices for extracting power from fuels. Capable of running on a variety of fuels, including hydrogen, natural gas, and biogas, fuel cells can provide clean power for applications ranging from less than a watt to multiple megawatts. Our transportation-including personal vehicles, trucks, buses, marine vessels, and other specialty vehicles such as lift trucks and ground support equipment, as well as auxiliary power units for traditional

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit An income tax credit is available for 25% of the cost to purchase, construct, and install qualified alternative fueling infrastructure. Qualified property includes equipment used to distribute, dispense, or store alternative fuel. Eligible fuels include natural gas and propane. The entire credit must be taken in three equal annual installments beginning with the taxable year in which the facility is placed into service. Unused credits may be carried

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Infrastructure Tax Credit for Businesses Business owners and others may be eligible for a tax credit of 35% of eligible costs for qualified alternative fuel infrastructure projects, or the incremental or conversion cost of two or more AFVs. Qualified infrastructure includes facilities for mixing, storing, compressing, or dispensing fuels for vehicles operating on alternative fuels. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85),

  12. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Signage The Ohio Turnpike Commission allows businesses to place their logos on directional signs within the right-of-way of state turnpikes. An alternative fuel retailer may include a marking or symbol within their logo indicating that it sells one or more types of alternative fuel. Alternative fuels are defined as E85, fuel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel (B20), natural gas, propane, hydrogen, or any fuel that the U.S. Department of Energy determines, by final rule, to be

  14. Fuel injector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  15. Dual Tank Fuel System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  16. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel and Conversion Definitions Clean transportation fuels include liquefied petroleum gas (or propane), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), electricity, and other transportation fuels determined to be comparable with respect to emissions. CNG is defined as pipeline-quality natural gas that is compressed and provided for sale or use as a motor vehicle fuel. LNG is defined as pipeline-quality natural gas treated to remove water, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans The Nebraska Energy Office administers the Dollar and Energy Saving Loan Program, which makes low-cost loans available for a variety of alternative fuel projects, including the replacement of conventional vehicles with AFVs; the purchase of new AFVs; the conversion of conventional vehicles to operate on alternative fuels; and the construction or purchase of fueling stations or equipment. The maximum loan amount is $750,000 per borrower, and the

  19. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  20. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Grants The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) administers the Alternative Fueling Facilities Program (AFFP) as part of the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan. AFFP provides grants for 50% of eligible costs, up to $600,000, to construct, reconstruct, or acquire a facility to store, compress, or dispense alternative fuels in Texas air quality nonattainment areas. Qualified alternative fuels include biodiesel, electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, propane,

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit for Residents Through the Residential Energy Tax Credit program, qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 25% of alternative fuel infrastructure project costs, up to $750. Qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 50% of project costs, up to $750. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), propane, and other fuels that the Oregon Department of Energy approves. A

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards California's LEV II exhaust emissions standards apply to Model Year (MY) 2004 and subsequent model year passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles meeting specified exhaust standards. The LEV II standards represent the maximum exhaust emissions for LEVs, Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, and Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, including flexible fuel, bi-fuel, and dual-fuel vehicles when operating on an alternative fuel. MY 2009 and

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Use and Vehicle Acquisition Requirements State agency fleets with more than 15 vehicles, excluding emergency and law enforcement vehicles, may not purchase or lease a motor vehicle unless the vehicle uses compressed or liquefied natural gas, propane, ethanol or fuel blends of at least 85% ethanol (E85), methanol or fuel blends of at least 85% methanol (M85), biodiesel or fuel blends of at least 20% biodiesel (B20), or electricity (including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles).

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Release date: December 7, 2015 Next release date: Late 2018 Spent nuclear fuel data are collected by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the Department of Energy's Office of Standard Contract Management (Office of the General Counsel) on the Form GC-859, "Nuclear Fuel Data Survey." The data include detailed characteristics of spent nuclear fuel discharged from commercial U.S. nuclear power plants and currently stored at commercial sites in the United

  6. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume II. Detailed construction information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The objectives of the report are to (a) provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and (b) provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small-scale fuel alcohol plant. This report describes a small-scale fuel alcohol plant designed and constructed for the DOE by EG and G Idaho, Inc., an operating contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant is reasonably complete, having the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention. Where possible, this document follows the design requirements established in the DOE publication Fuel From Farms, which was published in February 1980. For instance, critical requirements such as using corn as the primary feedstock, production of 25 gallons of 190 proof ethanol per hour, and using batch fermentation were taken from Fuel From Farms. One significant deviation is alcohol dehydration. Fuel From Farms recommends the use of a molecular sieve for dehydration, but a preliminary design raised significant questions about the cost effectiveness of this approach. A cost trade-off study is currently under way to establish the best alcohol dehydration method and will be the subject of a later report. Volume two includes equipment and instrumentation data sheets, instrument loop wiring diagrams, and vendor lists.

  7. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version...

  8. Fractional distillation of C/sub 2//C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons at optimum pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1984-08-07

    A method of recovering by distillation the separate components of a hydrocarbon gas mixture comprising ethylene, ethane, propylene and propane which comprises separating the ethylene and ethane as an overhead from a propylene and propane bottom in a first distillation tower at from about 400 to about 600 psia, separating ethylene and ethane as an ethylene overhead and an ethane bottom in a second distillation tower at from about 600 to about 700 psia, and separating propylene as an overhead from a propane bottom in a third distillation tower at from about 280 to about 300 psia is disclosed.

  9. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  10. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.