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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Intermittent cathodic protection using solar power  

SciTech Connect

An intermittent impressed current cathodic protection technique using photovoltaic energy was evaluated to determine it`s ability to protect bridge concrete piles in marine environments against corrosion. The technique uses commercially available anode systems to deliver the cathodic protection current to the concrete and onto the reinforcing steel. Cathodic protection current is only applied during the daytime hours. The magnitude of the applied current was based on sunlight availability. An evaluation was conducted on laboratory specimens as well as in the field. The laboratory work was performed on steel reinforced concrete specimens placed in simulated salt water tanks. For the field evaluation, ten prestressed concrete piles of a bridge structure with an existing rectifier powered cathodic protection system were used. In both cases, intermittent cathodic protection was provided. Polarization and depolarization of the steel reinforcement as well as the protection current delivered were monitored to evaluate the cathodic protection performance as well as the behavior of periodic polarization-depolarization.

Kessler, R.J.; Powers, R.G.; Lasa, I.R. [Florida Dept. of Transportation, Gainesville, FL (United States). Corrosion Research Lab.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

AC corrosion on cathodically protected steel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This report deals with the effect of alternating current on cathodically protected steel. AC corrosion has become relevant in the offshore industry due to… (more)

Torstensen, Andreas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cathodic protection requirements for deepwater systems  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory experience related to requirements for cathodic protection (CP) in deep water are reviewed with emphasis on identification of the major variables that need to be specified for successful deepwater CP designs for offshore structures. The subject is addressed based on the historical development of cathodic protection design methodologies for offshore structures focusing on sacrificial anode systems and trends that have resulted in specific changes in design requirements. Three main subjects are discussed: (1) application of existing industry standards such as NACE RP0176; (2) environmental factors--dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water velocity and fouling; and (3) calcareous deposits--difference between shallow and deep waters. Current practice of design criteria and systems for deepwater applications is assessed, including initial polarization, use of coatings and anode materials. The results from laboratory tests are compared with available documented service experiences and field tests results.

Menendez, C.M.; Hanson, H.R.; Kane, R.D.; Farquhar, G.B.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Sun powers Libya cathodic-protection system  

SciTech Connect

Well castings and part of the main 300-mile-long, 32-in diameter pipeline from Sarir to Tobruk are cathodically protected by solar power, which prevents galvanic action by applying an electric direct current of appropriate magnitude and polarity to the steel structures. They then act as cathodes and become the recipients of metallic ions. At each cathodic-protection station, the solar-generaor system consists of solar-panel arrays, electronic controls, and batteries.

Currer, G.W.

1982-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The cathodic protection anodes and corrosion coating on two 8-inch (203.2 mm) outside diameter (O.D.) offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water ({minus}380 feet, {minus}116 m) installation. In-situ methods for deep water inspection and repair of the pipelines` cathodic protection and coating systems were developed and performed. Methods are described in which underwater anode retrofits were performed and friction welding technology was used to re-attach anode leads. Standard procedures for underwater pipeline coating repair and remediation of damaged line pipe are provided.

Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of shorting pipeline and jacket cathodic protection (CP) systems for the external protection of subsea pipelines based on data from operations in the Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, North Sea, and Indonesia are discussed. Shorting, as opposed to traditional electrical isolation, is cost effective because CP surveys and future retrofits are greatly simplified. Jacket CP systems can provide protection of coated pipelines for distances much greater than normally anticipated. Some simple modeling of jacket/pipeline CP systems is used to illustrate the effect of various design parameters.

Thomason, W.H. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Evans, S. (Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Rippon, I.J. (Conoco Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Maurin, A.E. III (Conoco Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection (CP) anodes and corrosion coating on two offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water installation. In-situ methods for deep-water inspection and repair of the pipelines` CP and coating systems were developed and used. High-pressure natural gas Pipeline. A design was 5.6 miles of 8.625 in. OD by 0.406 in. W.T. API SL, Grade X-42, seamless line pipe. Pipeline B design was 0.3 miles of similar specification pipe. Both pipelines were mill-coated with 14 mil of fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) corrosion coating. Girth welds were field-coated with FBE.

Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cathodic protection deployment on space shuttle solid rocket boosters  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion protection of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters incorporates the use of cathodic protection (anodes) in concert with several coatings systems. The SRB design has large carbon/carbon composite (motor nozzle) electrically connected to an aluminum alloy structure. Early in the STS program, the aluminum structures incurred tremendous corrosive attack at coating damage locations due primarily to galvanic coupling with the carbon/carbon nozzle. Also contributing to the galvanic corrosion problem were stainless steel and titanium alloy components housed within the aluminum structures and electrically connected to the aluminum structures. This paper highlights the evolution in the protection of the aluminum structures, providing historical information and summary data from the operation of the corrosion protection systems. Also, data and information are included regarding the evaluation and application of inorganic zinc rich primers to provide anode area on the aluminum structures.

Zook, L.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

Hack, H.P. [ed.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Operational test report -- Project W-320 cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect

Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640 specifies that corrosion protection must be designed into tank systems that treat or store dangerous wastes. Project W-320, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS), utilizes underground encased waste transfer piping between tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Corrosion protection is afforded to the encasements of the WRSS waste transfer piping through the application of earthen ionic currents onto the surface of the piping encasements. Cathodic protection is used in conjunction with the protective coatings that are applied upon the WRSS encasement piping. WRSS installed two new two rectifier systems (46 and 47) and modified one rectifier system (31). WAC 173-303-640 specifies that the proper operation of cathodic protection systems must be confirmed within six months after initial installation. The WRSS cathodic protection systems were energized to begin continuous operation on 5/5/98. Sixteen days after the initial steady-state start-up of the WRSS rectifier systems, the operational testing was accomplished with procedure OTP-320-006 Rev/Mod A-0. This operational test report documents the OTP-320-006 results and documents the results of configuration testing of integrated piping and rectifier systems associated with the W-320 cathodic protection systems.

Bowman, T.J.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

11

Field testing the criteria for cathodic protection of buried pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Five criteria for cathodic protection of buried pipelines were studied by a review of the literature, and by experimentation in the laboratory and in the field in soil environments. The five criteria studied were the following: (1) {minus}850-mV on and polarized (IR-compensated) potential, (2) 300-mV voltage shift, (3) 100-mV polarization, (4) Tafel potential, and (5) net cathodic current. Each criterion was found to provide an indication of corrosion and its control. Environmental conditions (the type of soil and its physical constituents, moisture content, oxygen level, temperature; and the presence of anaerobic bacteria) were found to be important in affecting the actual requirements and modifications to the presently accepted minimum values for the criteria. Determination of IR-voltage drops in the soil was concluded to be important for accurate interpretation of the {minus}850-mV potential and 300-mV voltage-shift criteria.

Barlo, T.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Cathodic protection system design for steel pilings of a wharf structure  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of steel pilings in sea and brackish water is mostly due to the establishment of localized corrosion cells and the effects of the tidal changes. The most frequently used corrosion protection systems are coatings and/or cathodic protection. These protective systems when properly designed, installed and operated are very effective in preventing corrosion problems. The design of a cathodic protection system, in order to be effective and reliable, must take into consideration all technical design criteria, the type of materials used, the geometric shape of the structure, environmental conditions, site restrictions, and any outside interferences. These design considerations, as well as the use of design data and an overall design methodology for a cathodic protection system for pipe and sheet piling used in a wharf structure, are discussed in this paper.

Nikolakakos, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection and an alternate photovoltaic/ultracapacitor combined power source  

SciTech Connect

The Coastal Systems Station (COASTSYSTA) designed, installed, and started up on 20 January 1990, a state-of-the-art stand-alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS, installed on a 775-foot steel sheet piling of a Navy dock bulkhead, provides complete, continuous corrosion protection. The PVCPSYS has been in operation for more than five years, has not required any repair or maintenance, and is environmentally clean. Initial cost savings of the PVCPSYS versus conventional cathodic protection system was $46,000. A second PVCPSYS was installed on another 800-foot bulkhead on 21 May 1993. It is also providing complete corrosion protection without backup power. Performance is well documented. Other potential applications are moth-balled ships, locks, dams, bridges, pipelines, and similar structures. These systems are considered a major advance by Sandia and the Department of Defense (DOD) Photovoltaic Review Committee. An ultracapacitor, a recent hi-tech development that is environmentally clean, will be incorporated in the PVCPSYS when required to enhance the system`s capability. A photovoltaic/ultracapacitor (or equivalent) combined power source operating under adverse conditions, and/or to satisfy or meet regulations will assure cathodic protection, including pipelines carrying combustibles or other products that could otherwise create environmental problems. Patents are pending on this PVCPSYS and the photovoltaic/ ultracapacitor powered systems.

Muehl, W.W. Sr. [Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, FL (United States). Dahlgren Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection and an alternate photovoltaic/ultracapacitor combined power source  

SciTech Connect

The Coastal Systems Station (COASTSYSTA) designed, installed, and started up on 20 January 1990, a state-of-the-art stand alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS, installed on a 775-foot steel sheet piling of a Navy dock bulkhead, provides complete, continuous corrosion protection. The PVCPSYS has been in operation for more than four years, has not required any repair or maintenance, and is environmentally clean. Initial cost savings of the PVCPSYS versus conventional cathodic protection system was $46,000. A second PVCPSYS was installed on another 800-foot bulkhead on 21 May 1993. It is also providing complete corrosion protection without backup power. These systems are considered a major advance by Sandia and the Department of Defense (DOD) Photovoltaic Review Committee. An ultracapacitor, a recent hi-tech development that is environmentally clean, will be incorporated in the PVCPSYS when required to enhance the system`s capability. A photovoltaic/ultracapacitor (or equivalent) combined power source operating under adverse conditions, and/or to satisfy or meet regulations will assure cathodic protection, including pipelines carrying combustibles or other products that could otherwise create environmental problems. Patents are pending on this PVCPSYS and the photovoltaic/ultracapacitor powered systems. The objective of the initial project was to successfully demonstrate that renewable energy can efficiently and economically replace, or be used instead of, continuous nonrenewable power sources. An opportunity to cleanly show that photovoltaic power is practical and reliable was the result of a recommendation to provide cathodic protection to the Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center bulkhead.

Muehl, W.W. Sr. [Coastal Systems Station, Panama City, FL (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The slope parameter approach to marine cathodic protection design and its application to impressed current systems  

SciTech Connect

The recently developed slope parameter approach to design of galvanic anode cathodic protection (cp) systems for marine structures constitutes an advancement in this technology compared to current practice, primarily because the former is first principles based and the latter is an empirical algorithm. In this paper, the slope parameter approach is reviewed; and related applications for which it can be utilized, including (1) design of new and retrofit cp systems, (2) evaluation of potential survey data, and (3) cp system design for complex geometries, are mentioned. The design current density is identified as the single remaining parameter for which values must be projected solely by experience or experimentation. In addition, the slope parameter approach is applied to the results of impressed current cp experiments, and it is shown how parameters for this can be interrelated with those of galvanic anode cp. Advantages of this capability are identified and discussed.

Hartt, W.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The pipe coating as an engineered part of the cathodic protection system  

SciTech Connect

The basic corrosion process is reviewed and the factors influencing the thermodynamic driving forces are discussed. The roles played by both the coating and the cathodic protection system are discussed, and the relationship between the two systems relating to corrosion under a coating film is shown. The importance of treating the coating as part of the cathodic protection system is explained. The need to be aware of the engineering variables of the pipe coating, not only as applied, but also as a function of time, is presented.

Mills, G.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The sacrificial cathodic protection of UNS C71500 heat exchanger tubes in Arabian Gulf sea water  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation using a specially designed circulating test rig was carried out to study the effectiveness of achieving complete cathodic protection of UNS C71500 heat exchanger tubes in seawater applications. Results indicated that the galvanic current distribution covered the entire 6m length of the tube. The presence of sulfide ions as pollutants in seawater shifted the galvanic potentials of the tubes to more active potentials and prevented the formation of protective films that normally form.

Al-Hashem, A.; Carew, J.A.; Al-Sayegh, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Humectants To Augment Current From Metallized Zinc Cathodic Protection Systems on Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection (CP) systems using thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are employed to mitigate the corrosion process in reinforced concrete structures. However, the performance of the anodes is improved by moisture at the anode-concrete interface. Research was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrophilic chemical additives, humectants, on the electrical performance and service life of zinc anodes. Lithium bromide and lithium nitrate were identified as feasible humectants with lithium bromide performing better under galvanic CP and lithium nitrate performing better under impressed current CP. Both humectants improved the electrical operating characteristics of the anode and increased the service life by up to three years.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino Jr., Bernard S.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H. Russell; Bullard, Sophie J.; Collins, W. Keith; Bennett, Jack E. (J.E. Bennett Consulting, Inc.); Soltesz, Steven M. (ODOT); Laylor, H. Martin (ODOT)

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

5. Have special places, including sensitive ecosystems, been protected?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recycled fiber been used appropriately? Other resources Have other resources been used appropriately? Local addressed? Environmental protection Have appropriate environmental controls been applied? Recycled ber Has

20

Design of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for U.S. Navy hulls  

SciTech Connect

The goal of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) design for ship hulls, under the Navy Ship's Technical Manual (NSTM, Chapter 633), is to provide a uniform potential distribution at {minus}0.85 V, {+-}0.05 V, versus a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference cell, over the wetted hull surface during all operational aspects of an active ship. To accomplish this, the physical scale modeling (PSM) technique, combined with a rigid design protocol, has been used extensively by the US Navy to provide optimal and retrofit upgrade designs of ICCP systems for hulls. The ICCP design guidance, provided by the protocol, defines the hull properties, hull damage and general power supply requirements. PSM is utilized to determine optimal placement of ICCP components (anodes and reference cells) and to evaluate performance for up to a 15% wetted hull coatings loss under static (pierside) and dynamic (underway) conditions. Data are provided which illustrate the use of the design protocol criteria, along with the integrated PSM technique, to determine ICCP system design and evaluate performance.

Lucas, K.E.; Thomas, E.D.; Kaznoff, A.I.; Hogan, E.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Relationship of chemical components and impurities of aluminum galvanic anodes upon the cathodic protection of marine structures  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum galvanic anodes form the principal basis for cathodic protection of offshore structures and marine vehicles. A satisfactory cathodic protection (CP) design using the galvanic mode must employ a valid anode. It follows, therefore, that highly responsible compositional consideration be associated with such anodes. Since applications extend from very low temperature to above ambient seawaters, this factor is addressed in the paper. Applications in sea muds and its effect upon anode behavior is also considered. Primary emphasis will be given the indium-activated alloys with occasional comparisons to the mercury-activated aluminum anodes. The grounds for this emphasis lies in the fact that the indium-activated anodes constitute the great majority of use. The data and observations discussed are based primarily on low temperature, ambient and higher temperature laboratory and pilot tests supplemented by user field applications over the last 25--30 years. Dependable aluminum anode performance in the subject waters and muds point to careful control of iron and copper impurities, coupled with the correct balance of indium, zinc and silicon. Generalized recommendations are presented with regard to composition. The future challenges of cathodic protection at greater seawater depths are also addressed. Possible effects upon anode current capacity and voltage are so related.

Schrieber, C.F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

New protection method for HVDC lines including cables  

SciTech Connect

For the third project of the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link in Japan, called the HVDC Link III project (rated at 250 kVdc-1,200 A-300 MW), the authors developed an HVDC transmission line protection method based on a new working principle that allows high-speed and highly sensitive detection of faults, enhancing reliability in the supply of electric power. In general, increasing the sensitivity of relays will lead to an increased likelihood of undesired operation whereas lowering the sensitivity will impair the responsiveness of the relays. The proposed method meets these apparently incompatible requirements very well. Basically classified as a differential scheme, the HVDC transmission line protection method compensates for a charging and discharging current that flows through the line-to-ground capacitance at times of voltage variations caused by a line fault or by the operation of dc power systems. The developed protection method is also characterized in that it uses current changes induced by voltage variations to restrain the operation of a relay. This configuration has made the proposed method far superior in responsiveness and sensitivity to the conventional protection method. A simulation using an EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) was conducted on this method. Developed relay equipment embodying the new protection method was subjected to various verification tests, where this equipment was connected to a power system simulator, before being delivered to the HVDC Link III facility.

Takeda, H.; Ayakawa, H.; Tsumenaga, N.; Sanpei, M.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Field Trial of impressed current, sacrificial anode, constant voltage and intermittent cathodic protection on a steel reinforced coastal bridge  

SciTech Connect

Equipment has been designed and installed for a field trial being conducted on a coastal reinforced concrete bridge with a newly installed cathodic protection (CP) system. The purpose of the field trial is to determine the optimum form of intermittent CP for protecting coastal bridges. The forms of CP that were considered for the field trial are: (1) impressed current CP as the control; (2) currentinterrupted ICCP; (3) corrosion rate monitoring device controlled ICCP; (4) constant voltage CP; and (5) sacrificial anode CP. Once the test is initiated, the performance of these four forms of CP on a coastal RC bridge and their effectiveness in providing protection to reinforcing steel will be is compared with that achieved by present Oregon Department of Transportation ICCP practices. Details are presented on the set up of the experiment and the logic used to control CP intermittently. The field trial is scheduled to be started early 2007.

Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Williamson, K.M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Cryer, C.B. (ODOT); Tran, H. (ODOT)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

DOE Order 440. 1 B: Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including NNSA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0. 1 B: Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including 0. 1 B: Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including NNSA) Federal Employees DOE Order 440. 1 B: Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including NNSA) Federal Employees Stakeholders: DOE and NNSA employees Scope: DOE Order 440.1 B establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Summary: Among the requirements of DOE Order 440.1 B, the Department must provide its employees, including NNSA, a number of protections relating to whistle blowing guidelines. The relevant section of requirements includes: 4. REQUIREMENTS. DOE elements must:

25

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Personal fall-protection systems include a body harness (safe-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Personal fall-protection systems include a body harness so they will not be damaged. Personal Fall-Protection Systems Safety Tip #8 Just because you always;Additional Information for Presenters Review the information provided on the reverse side of this safety tip

Minnesota, University of

26

Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

40.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE 40.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES The familiar level of this module is divided into two sections. In the first section, we will discuss the objective, requirements, and the responsibilities assigned to the heads of field elements. In the second section, we will discuss the content of attachment 1, Functional Area Requirements. We have provided examples and a practice to help familiarize you with the material. The practice will also help prepare you for the criterion test. DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 440.1B, Worker Protection Management for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees

27

Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES The familiar level of this module is divided into two sections. In the first section, we will discuss the objective, requirements, and the responsibilities assigned to the heads of field elements. In the second section, we will discuss the content of attachment 1, Functional Area Requirements. We have provided examples and a practice to help familiarize you with the material. The practice will also help prepare you for the criterion test. DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 440.1B, Worker Protection Management for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal

28

Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200,000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

K Sasaki; H Naohara; Y Cai; Y Choi; P Liu; M Vukmirovic; J Wang; R Adzic

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Synopsis of Cathode #4 Activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface. For protection, use UHV grade aluminum foil insteadof lint free paper. The UHV foil shall be essentially freeminutes handling according to UHV practice, cathode surface

Ekdahl, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Office of River Protection Looks Back on 2014 Achievements, Including Tank Retrieval Progress  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

RICHLAND, Wash. – In 2014, EM’s Office of River Protection (ORP) marked several accomplishments at the Hanford site, including continuing efforts to resolve remaining technical issues with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP); restarting operations of the 242-A Evaporator; establishing waste acceptance limits for WTP; and continuing progress in waste tank retrievals.

31

Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Cancels DOE O 440.1A. Certified 6/17/2011. Canceled by DOE O 440.1B Chg 1.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

32

Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

Zhu, Di [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China); Song, Le, E-mail: songle@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiong [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Kajiyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE and NNSA Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Chg 1 dated 8-21-12. Cancels DOE M 440.1-1A. Admin Chg 1, dated 3-14-13.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

35

Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE and NNSA Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Chg 1 dated 8-21-12, cancels DOE M 440.1-1A. Admin Chg 1, dated 3-14-13, cancels DOE O 440.1B Chg 1.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

36

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

38

Novel Composite Cathode Structures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Relevance * New cathode materials are required to improve the energy density of Li-ion cells for transportation technologies. * The cathode system in this project directly...

39

Anode and Cathode Arcs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... we call an anode arc, produces a circular pit on the anode and a general roughening of the opposed cathode. Photomicrographs of single anode-type arcs were published1 before the ... arcs\tCathode arcs

L. H. GERMER; W. S. BOYLE

1955-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cathode contact materials PNNL.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Cathode Contact Development of Cathode Contact Materials for SOFC J.W. Stevenson, G.G. Xia, Z. Lu, X. Li, Z. Nie, T. Oh, and J.D.Templeton Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 July 27-29, 2010 July 27 29, 2010 11 th Annual SECA Workshop Pittsburgh, PA Cathode/Interconnect Contact Materials Cathode/Interconnect Contact Materials Cathode Chromia-forming Protective Coating Contact layer Chromia-forming alloy interconnect 2 Cathode/Interconnect Contact Materials Cathode/Interconnect Contact Materials Requirements: High electrical conductivity to reduce interfacial electrical resistance between cathode and interconnect Contact layer Chemical and structural stability in air at SOFC operating temperature Chemical compatibility with adjacent materials (perovskite cathode,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Advanced Cathode Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

new catalysts, this research program will also target other issues crucial to PEMFC cathode electrocatalysis: novel electrode structures; catalyst durability meeting the...

42

Advanced Cathode Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on advanced cathode catalysts, was given by Piotr Zelenay of Los Alamos National laboratory at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

43

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Titanates as High-Energy Cathode Materials for Li-IonI, Amine K (2009) High Energy Cathode Material for Long-LifeA New Cathode Material for Batteries of High Energy Density.

Doeff, Marca M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

This article was published in the above mentioned Springer issue. The material, including all portions thereof, is protected by copyright;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article was published in the above mentioned Springer issue. The material, including all Media. The material is for personal use only; commercial use is not permitted. Unauthorized reproduction #12;ORIGINAL RESEARCH Recognizing independent and joint activities among multiple residents in smart

Cook, Diane J.

45

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition André Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 53, Berkeley, California 94720 aanders@lbl.gov Abstract Cathodic arc plasma deposition is one of oldest coatings technologies. Over the last two decades it has become the technology of choice for hard, wear resistant coatings on cutting and forming tools, corrosion resistant and decorative coatings on door knobs, shower heads, jewelry, and many other substrates. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions are reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. The

46

DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 440.1B, Worker Protection Management for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0.1B 0.1B WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING THE NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DOE O 440.1B Familiar Level June 2011 1 DOE O 440.1B WORKER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT FOR DOE (INCLUDING THE NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES FAMILIAR LEVEL OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources listed below, you will be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are the objectives of DOE O 440.1B? 2. What are the requirements that DOE elements must meet according to DOE O 440.1B? 3. What is the hazard prevention/abatement process that must be implemented according to DOE O 440.1B? 4. What are three responsibilities assigned by DOE O 440.1B for heads of field elements?

47

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. This period has continued to address the problem of making dense 1/2 to 5 {micro}m thick dense layers on porous substrates (the cathode LSM). Our current status is that we are making structures of 2-5 cm{sup 2} in area, which consist of either dense YSZ or CGO infiltrated into a 2-5 {micro}m thick 50% porous layer made of either nanoncrystalline CGO or YSZ powder. This composite structure coats a macroporous cathode or anode; which serves as the structural element of the bi-layer structure. These structures are being tested as SOFC elements. A number of structures have been evaluated both as symmetrical and as button cell configuration. Results of this testing indicates that the cathodes contribute the most to cell losses for temperatures below 750 C. In this investigation different cathode materials were studied using impedance spectroscopy of symmetric cells and IV characteristics of anode supported fuel cells. Cathode materials studied included La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (LSCF), La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PSCF), Sm{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF), and Yb{sub .8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF). A new technique for filtering the Fourier transform of impedance data was used to increase the sensitivity of impedance analysis. By creating a filter specifically for impedance spectroscopy the resolution was increased. The filter was tailored to look for specific circuit elements like R//C, Warburg, or constant phase elements. As many as four peaks can be resolved using the filtering technique on symmetric cells. It may be possible to relate the different peaks to material parameters, like the oxygen exchange coefficient. The cathode grouped in order from lowest to highest ASR is LSCF < PSCF < SSCF < YSCF < LSM. The button cell results agree with this ordering indicating that this is an important tool for use in developing our understanding of electrode behavior in fuel cells.

Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Definition: Cathode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cathode Cathode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Cathode The negative pole of a battery (electrolytic cell), where electrons enter (and current leaves) the system.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A cathode is an electrode through which electric current flows out of a polarized electrical device. The direction of electric current is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow-thus, electrons are considered to flow toward the cathode electrode while current flows away from it. This convention is sometimes remembered using the mnemonic CCD for cathode current departs. Cathode polarity is not always negative. Although positively charged cations always move towards the cathode (hence their name) and negatively charged anions move away from it, cathode

49

Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

Zeren, J.D.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries . Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries . Abstract:...

52

Tungsten Cathode Catalyst for PEMFC  

SciTech Connect

Final report for project to evaluate tungsten-based catalyst as a cathode catalyst for PEM cell applications.

Joel B. Christian; Sean P. E. Smith

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

Worker Protection Program for DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees Guide for Use with DOE O 440.1B  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Guide provides suggestions and alternative approaches that DOE elements may consider in implementing their worker protection program. Cancels DOE G 440.1-1.

2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

55

Modular cathode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.

Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

56

Stabilized Spinel and Polyanion Cathodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

nanostructured phosphate and silicate cathodes and their nanocomposites with graphene - To develop a fundamental understanding of the factors that control the...

57

HIGH-CAPACITY POLYANION CATHODES  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

nanostructured phosphate and silicate cathodes as well as their nanocomposites with graphene to overcome the limitations of poor ionic and electronic conductivity - To develop a...

58

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials, although electro-active compounds containing these metals exist. Today’s technologically important cathodesactive field. Characteristics of battery cathode materials

Doeff, Marca M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Cathode for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CATHODIC LIMITATIONS ON LOCALIZED CORROSION OF WETTED SS 316L, AT ROOM TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The ability of a SS316L surface wetted with a thin electrolyte layer to serve as an effective cathode for an active localized corrosion site was studied computationally. The dependence of the total net cathodic current, I{sub net}, supplied at the repassivation potential E{sub rp} (of the anodic crevice) on relevant physical parameters including water layer thickness (WL), chloride concentration ([Cl{sup -}]) and length of cathode (Lc) were investigated using a three-level, full factorial design. The effects of kinetic parameters including the exchange current density (i{sub o,c}) and Tafel slope ({beta}{sub c}) of oxygen reduction, the anodic passive current density (i{sub p}) (on the cathodic surface), and E{sub rp} were studied as well using three-level full factorial designs of [Cl{sup -}] and Lc with a fixed WL of 25 {micro}m. The study found that all the three parameters WL, [Cl{sup -}] and Lc as well as the interactions of Lc x WL and Lc x [Cl{sup -}] had significant impact on I{sub net}. A five-factor regression equation was obtained which fits the computation results reasonably well, but demonstrated that interactions are more complicated than can be explained with a simple linear model. Significant effects on I{sub net} were found upon varying either i{sub o,c}, {beta}{sub c}, or E{sub rp}, whereas i{sub p} in the studied range was found to have little impact. It was observed that I{sub net} asymptotically approached maximum values (I{sub max}) when Lc increased to critical minimum values. I{sub max} can be used to determine the stability of coupled localized corrosion and the critical Lc provides important information for experimental design and corrosion protection.

F. Cui; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; R.G. Kelly

2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.

YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Laidler, James J. (Burr Ridge, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two. 12 figs.

Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

65

Stabilized Spinel and Nano Olivine Cathodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NANO OLIVINE STABILIZED SPINEL AND NANO OLIVINE CATHODES CATHODES ARUMUGAM MANTHIRAM Electrochemical Energy Laboratory (ECEL) Materials Science and Engineering Program The...

66

Stabilized Spinels and Polyanion Cathodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

process * Synthesis of nano-engineered alloy, carbon-decorated Fe 3 O 4 nanowire, and graphene anodes, but only results on the cathodes are given in the next 11 slides TECHNICAL...

67

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a thin-film substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a surface of a continuous thin-film substrate and a treated thin-film cathode having increased smoothness are disclosed. A web of untreated cathode material is moved between a feed mechanism and a take-up mechanism, and passed through a treatment station. The web of cathode material typically includes areas having surface defects, such as prominences extending from the surface of the cathode material. The surface of the cathode material is treated with an abrasive material to reduce the height of the prominences so as to increase an 85 degree gloss value of the cathode material surface by at least approximately 10. The web of cathode material may be subjected to a subsequent abrasive treatment at the same or other treatment station. Burnishing or lapping film is employed at a treatment station to process the cathode material. An abrasive roller may alternatively be used to process the web of cathode material. The apparatus and method of the present invention may also be employed to treat the surface of a lithium anode foil so as to cleanse and reduce the roughness of the anode foil surface.

Hanson, Eric J. (Hudson, WI); Kooyer, Richard L. (Hastings, MN)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a thin-film substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a surface of a continuous thin-film substrate and a treated thin-film cathode having increased smoothness are disclosed. A web of untreated cathode material is moved between a feed mechanism and a take-up mechanism, and passed through a treatment station. The web of cathode material typically includes areas having surface defects, such as prominences extending from the surface of the cathode material. The surface of the cathode material is treated with an abrasive material to reduce the height of the prominences so as to increase an 85 degree gloss value of the cathode material surface by at least approximately 10. The web of cathode material may be subjected to a subsequent abrasive treatment at the same or other treatment station. Burnishing or lapping film is employed at a treatment station to process the cathode material. An abrasive roller may alternatively be used to process the web of cathode material. The apparatus and method of the present invention may also be employed to treat the surface of a lithium anode foil so as to cleanse and reduce the roughness of the anode foil surface.

Hanson, Eric J. (Hudson, WI); Kooyer, Richard L. (Hastings, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Capacity Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...

71

Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

72

HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding high performance materials Pt/C cathode B.S.E. Pt PtCo/C cathode IrB.S.E. Pt Co PtIrCo/C cathodeHIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY T. D. Jarvi UTC Power Corporation Electrochemical Area Loss Activity at 900 mVRHE (IR-Free) 0.44 A/mg Pt Specific Activity at 900 m

73

High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

Green, M.C. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Note on RF Photo-Cathode Gun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E.R. Gray and P.M. Giles, "Photo-cathodes in AcceleratorProceedings Note on RF Photo-Cathode Gun K. -J. Kim August106 LBL-29538 Note on RF Photo-Cathode G un Kwang-Je Kim

Kim, Kwang-Je

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Polyanionic Cathode-Active Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the 1980s, the layered rock salt types LiCoO2 1 and LiNiO2 2 and spinel-type LiMn2O4 3 were successively proposed as 4-V class cathode-active materials by Goodenough's group...

Shigeto Okada; Jun-ichi Yamaki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Magnetic-cusp, cathodic-arc source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic-cusp for a cathodic-arc source wherein the arc is confined to the desired cathode surface, provides a current path for electrons from the cathode to the anode, and utilizes electric and magnetic fields to guide ions from the cathode to a point of use, such as substrates to be coated. The magnetic-cusp insures arc stability by an easy magnetic path from anode to cathode, while the straight-through arrangement leads to high ion transmission. 3 figs.

Falabella, S.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources  

SciTech Connect

This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the world’s largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research,, Inc.; Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Falce, Lou [Consultant; Schwartzkopf, Steve [Ron Witherspoon, Inc.; Busbaher, Daniel [Semicon Associates

2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

80

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the third quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries, and its relationship to cathode polarization. Included indirectly through the grain boundary effect is the effect of space charge. (2) Synthesis of LSC + SDC composite cathode powders by combustion synthesis. (3) Fabrication and testing of anode-supported single cells made using synthesized LSC + ScDC composite cathodes.

Anil V. Virkar

2003-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Filters for cathodic arc plasmas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Bilek, Marcela M. M. (Engadine, AU); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Lighting Group: Sources and Ballasts: OLED Cathodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OLED Cathodes OLED Cathodes Development of New Cathodes for OLED's Objective The objective of this project is to develop improved cathodes for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Approach A major challenge for organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology is to improve electron injection into the organic electroluminescent layer, which limits the efficiency of the device and the luminous flux per unit area. This project aims at overcoming such barriers by developing “structured cathodes” based on functional materials (nanotubes and nanoclusters) with characteristic size smaller than the optical wavelength. The incorporation of such nanostructured cathodes in OLEDs can significantly improve device efficiency by lowering operating voltage, and increase device stability and light extraction.

83

Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on alloy cathode catalysts, was given by T. D. Jarvi of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

84

HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

POLYANION CATHODES ARUMUGAM MANTHIRAM Electrochemical Energy Laboratory (ECEL) Materials Science and Engineering Program The University of Texas at Austin May 14, 2012 Project ID...

85

A analysis of the cathode coupled amplifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN ANALySIS 0 TH CATHODE COOFL D ~iPLIPIER A Thesis by FORREST JACKS RETLING-. . R Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee 'Head of Department August, 1951 AN ANALYSIS OF THE CATHODE COUPLED. AMPLIFIER by FORHEST JAMES.... The Cathode-Coupled Amplif 1er Circuit 2. The Cathode-Coupled Amplif ier Circuit shnwing a. c. components only 3. The Approximate A. C. Fquivalent, Circuit Page 17 4 ~ Aoproximate Equivalent C1rcu its f' or Calculating Output Impedances 22 5...

Hetlinger, Forrest James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Novel Composite Cathode Structures | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es115johnson2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel Composite Cathode Structures Vehicle...

87

Novel Composite Cathode Structures | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es115johnson2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel Composite Cathode Structures...

88

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

One primary suspected cause of long-term performance degradation of solid oxide fuels (SOFCs) is the accumulation of chromium (Cr) species at or near the cathode/electrolyte interface due to reactive Cr molecules originating from Cr-containing components (such as the interconnect) in fuel cell stacks. To date, considerable efforts have been devoted to the characterization of cathodes exposed to Cr sources; however, little progress has been made because a detailed understanding of the chemistry and electrochemistry relevant to the Cr-poisoning processes is still lacking. This project applied multiple characterization methods - including various Raman spectroscopic techniques and various electrochemical performance measurement techniques - to elucidate and quantify the effect of Cr-related electrochemical degradation at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Using Raman microspectroscopy the identity and location of Cr contaminants (SrCrO{sub 4}, (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel) have been observed in situ on an LSM cathode. These Cr contaminants were shown to form chemically (in the absence of current flowing through the cell) at temperatures as low as 625 C. While SrCrO{sub 4} and (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel must preferentially form on LSM, since the LSM supplies the Sr and Mn cations necessary for these compounds, LSM was also shown to be an active site for the deposition of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} for samples that also contained silver. In contrast, Pt and YSZ do not appear to be active for formation of Cr-containing phases. The work presented here supports the theory that Cr contamination is predominantly chemically-driven and that in order to minimize the effect, cathode materials should be chosen that are free of cations/elements that could preferentially react with chromium, including silver, strontium, and manganese.

Harry Abernathy; Meilin Liu

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to systematically characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF, aiming to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating. The understanding gained will help us to optimize the composition and morphology of the catalyst layer and microstructure of the LSCF backbone for better performance. More specifically, the technical objectives include: (1) to characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF; (2) to characterize the microscopic details and stability of the LSCF-catalyst (e.g., LSM) interfaces; (3) to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating; and (4) to demonstrate that the performance and stability of porous LSCF cathodes can be enhanced by the application of a thin-film coating of LSM through a solution infiltration process in small homemade button cells and in commercially available cells of larger dimension. We have successfully developed dense, conformal LSM films with desired structure, composition, morphology, and thickness on the LSCF surfaces by two different infiltration processes: a non-aqueous and a water-based sol-gel process. It is demonstrated that the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes can be improved by the introduction of a thin-film LSM coating through an infiltration process. Surface and interface of the LSM-coated LSCF cathode were systematically characterized using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM observation suggests that a layer of La and Sr oxide was formed on LSCF surfaces after annealing. With LSM infiltration, in contrast, we no longer observe such La/Sr oxide layer on the LSM-coated LSCF samples after annealing under similar conditions. This was also confirmed by x-ray analyses. For example, soft x-ray XANES data reveal that Co cations displace the Mn cations as being more favored to be reduced. Variations in the Sr-O in the annealed LSCF Fourier-transformed (FT) EXAFS suggest that some Sr segregation is occurring, but is not present in the annealed LSM-infiltrated LSCF cathode materials. Further, a surface enhanced Raman technique was also developed into to probe and map LSM and LSCF phase on underlying YSZ substrate, enabling us to capture important chemical information of cathode surfaces under practical operating conditions. Electrochemical models for the design of test cells and understanding of mechanism have been developed for the exploration of fundamental properties of electrode materials. Novel catalyst coatings through particle depositions (SDC, SSC, and LCC) or continuous thin films (PSM and PSCM) were successfully developed to improve the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes. Finally, we have demonstrated enhanced activity and stability of LSCF cathodes over longer periods of time in homemade and commercially available cells by an optimized LSM infiltration process. Microstructure examination of the tested cells did not show obvious differences between blank and infiltrated cells, suggesting that the infiltrated LSM may form a coherent film on the LSCF cathodes. There was no significant change in the morphology or microstructure of the LSCF cathode due to the structural similarity of LSCF and LSM. Raman analysis of the tested cells indicated small peaks emerging on the blank cells that correspond to trace amounts of secondary phase formation during operation (e.g., CoO{sub x}). The formation of this secondary phase might be attributed to performance degradation. In contrast, there was no such secondary phase observed in the LSM infiltrated cells, indicating that the LSM modification staved off secondary phase formation and thus improved the stability.

Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Lai, Samson; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Meilin

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

91

IN-SITU XRD OF OPERATING LSFC CATHODES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW ANALYTICAL CAPABILITY  

SciTech Connect

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) research capability has been developed that facilitates measuring the electrochemical performance of an operating SOFC while simultaneously performing x-ray diffraction on its cathode. The evolution of this research tool’s development is discussed together with a description of the instrumentation used for in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of operating SOFC cathodes. The challenges that were overcome in the process of developing this capability, which included seals and cathode current collectors, are described together with the solutions that are presently being applied to mitigate them.

Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

92

Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the progress made during the October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-NT0004109 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled “Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes”. The primary objective of this program is to develop a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Strategies to mitigate performance degradation are developed and implemented. In addition, thermal spray manufacturing of SOFCs is explored. Combined, this work establishes a basis for cost-effective SOFC cells.

Alinger, Matthew

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Cathodic Arc Deposition of Copper Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plasma source with a copper cathode was operated in an oxygen atmosphereplasma source with a copper cathode in an oxygen atmosphere.plasma source with a copper cathode (5 cm diameter) operated in an oxygen atmosphere.

MacGill, R.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new cathode material for batteries of high energy density.high-energy cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries. Advanced Materialsmaterials are promising cathodes, as they can provide high power and high energy,

Zhu, Jianxin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Cathodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

100- 120 mAhg at a 0.08 mAg rate. Autogenic reactions to be pursued further in the search for advanced electrode materials and architectures 16 3. Simulation of Atomic...

96

Cathodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

97

Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts Debbie Myers ­ Argonne National Laboratory-platinum cathode electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to meet DOE targets that: ­ Promotes the direct not contain any proprietary or confidential information #12;Objective and Technical Targets Develop a non

98

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;3 Objectives: Development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support and Approach Approach: Development of advanced cathode catalysts and supports based on 3M's nanostructured thin Review (6/8/10) Water management for cool/wet transient operation (Task 5.2) Developed key strategy

99

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

100

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single...

102

Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries....

103

Cathode Synthesis and Voltage Fade: Designed Solutions Based...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cathode Synthesis and Voltage Fade: Designed Solutions Based on Theory Cathode Synthesis and Voltage Fade: Designed Solutions Based on Theory 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

104

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Abstract: The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst...

105

Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures Development of High-Capacity Cathode Materials with Integrated Structures 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

106

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

107

Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures Development of high-capacity cathode materials with integrated structures 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

108

High Energy Materials for PHEVs: Cathodes (New Project) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Materials for PHEVs: Cathodes (New Project) High Energy Materials for PHEVs: Cathodes (New Project) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega"...

109

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

110

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells |...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

111

Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters  

SciTech Connect

Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

113

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Approaches to methanol-tolerant air cathodes for methanol-air fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The achievement of truly methanol-tolerant oxygen cathodes will greatly assist the development of direct methanol-air fuel cells, because the cathode performance will not be affected by the presence of methanol or its oxidation products, which can diffuse across the cell from the anode. In addition, methanol will not be consumed at the cathode. Although platinum-based oxygen cathodes can continue to perform well in the presence of methanol under certain conditions, methanol can be consumed rapidly at such electrodes. Oxygen electrocatalysts were examined in the present work which are largely inactive for methanol oxidation and are also not affected significantly by the presence of methanol. These included heat-treated transition metal macrocycles and hydrated ruthenium dioxide. The most promising electrocatalyst examines thus far is heat-treated iron tetramethoxyphenylporphyrin supported on high area carbon.

Tryk, D.A.; Gupta, S.L.; Aldred, W.H.; Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

Doeff, Marca M

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

116

Performance of Magnesium Cathode in the S Band RF Gun  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the performance of magnesium cathode in a high frequency RF gun. The quantum efficiency of magnesium showed a dramatic improvement upon laser cleaning, increasing from 10{sup -5} to 4x10{sup -4} after two hours of cleaning. The spatial uniformity of emission also improved from a spot to spot variation of 10 to a variation of 2. Measurements with charges >1 nC indicate that the transient variation of the field due to the shielding effect of the electron in the vicinity of the cathode may play a critical role in the efficient extraction of electrons. Comprehensive theory that includes the electron emission in the presence of a time dependent Schottky effect and RF effects will be discussed.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.; /Brookhaven; Palmer, D.T.; /SLAC; Ben-Zvi, I.; /Brookhaven; Miller, R.H.; /SLAC; Wang, X.J.; Woodle, M.; /Brookhaven

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Nickel-Cathoded Perovskite Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel-Cathoded Perovskite Solar Cells ... Current lead halide perovskite solar cells use high work function (?) precious metals, such as gold (? = 5.1 eV), as the back cathode to maximize the attainable photovoltage. ... We report herein a set of perovskite-type solar cells that use nickel (? = 5.04 eV), an earth-abundant element and non-precious metal, as back cathode and achieve the same open-circuit voltage as gold and an efficiency of 10.4%. ...

Qinglong Jiang; Xia Sheng; Bing Shi; Xinjian Feng; Tao Xu

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

118

K2CsSb Cathode Development  

SciTech Connect

K{sub 2}CsSb is an attractive photocathode for high current applications. With a quantum efficiency of >4% at 532nm and >10% at 355nm, it is the only cathode to have demonstrated an average current of 35mA in an accelerator environment We describe ongoing cathode development work. for the energy recovery linac being constructed at BNL Several cathodes have been created on both copper and stainless steel substrates, and their spatial uniformity and spectral response have been characterized. Preliminary lifetime measurements have been performed at high average current densities (>1 mA/mm{sup 2}).

Smedley,J.; Rao, T.; Wang, E.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS.sub.x).sub.n, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode.

Okamoto, Yoshi (Fort Lee, NJ); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY); Lee, Hung S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS{sub x}){sub n}, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode. 5 figs.

Okamoto, Y.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Interaction of cathode plasma with the cathode surface in an electron source with explosive electron emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interaction of the plasma formed at emission centers of an electron source using explosive electron emission with the cathode surface is studied....

É. N. Abdullin; G. P. Bazhenov

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Cathode applications to high-current diodes  

SciTech Connect

A principal limitation of pulse length for high electron current density diodes is the gap closure due to plasma propagation. This closure is due to plasma formed on the cathode and anode in the process of explosive field emission created by the required high field stresses of the high current diode. Experimental results of high current density T-F'' cathode and a plasma cathode will be presented. Current densities of greater than 300 A/cm2 were obtained for pulse lengths of 3 {mu}sec. Typical closure velocities were less than 2 mm/usec compared with the typical 2 cm/{mu}sec for explosive emission cathodes. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Pincosy, P.A.; Poulsen, P.; Greenwood, D.

1990-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

Development of High Energy Cathode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

deposits). Al-coated cell can is suitable for high-voltage cathodes. Polyethylene-based separators (such as Celgard K1640) are stable at high V. Carbon Additives...

124

Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on non-platinum bimetallic cathode electrocatalysts, was given by Debbie Myers of Argonne National Laboratory at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

125

Engineering of High Energy Cathode Materials  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Engineering of High energy cathode material K. Amine (PI) H. Wu, I. Belharouak, Y.K. Sun Argonne National Laboratory DOE merit review May 14-18 , 2012 This presentation does not...

126

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

127

Protection 1 Protection 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protection 1 Protection 1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract is a malicious act or accident that crashes the system--- this might be considered the ultimate degradation. 1, p 437. It was reprinted in ACM Operating Systems Rev. 8, 1 (Jan. 1974), p 18. This version

Lampson, Butler W.

128

Protection 1 Protection1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protection 1 Protection1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract is a malicious act or accident that crashes the system-- this might be considered the ultimate degradation. 1, p 437. It was reprinted in ACM Operating Systems Rev. 8, 1 (Jan. 1974), p 18. This version

Lampson, Butler W.

129

A plasma cathode for a radio-frequency gun  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A plasma ferroelectric cathode is used to form electron ... high charge in an electron bunch in an rf electron gun of a 10-cm wavelength ... . The operation of the cathode in the rf gun was studied experimentally...

V. A. Kushnir; I. V. Khodak

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Determination of Selenium in Nuts by Cathodic Stripping Potentiometry (CSP)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of Selenium in Nuts by Cathodic Stripping Potentiometry (CSP) ... In this work, cathodic stripping potentiometry (CSP) (14) is used to determine the selenium content of nuts that were studied. ... CSP Analysis. ...

Giacomo Dugo Lara La Pera; Vincenzo Lo Turco; Ekaterini Mavrogeni; Maria Alfa

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented...

132

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithium battery cathode. Electrochemical and Solid Statebattery performance of LiMn2O4 cathode. Solid State Ionics,

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

Harlan U. Anderson

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Photo cathode laser timing response measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photo cathode laser timing response measurements F. Löhl, H. Schlarb, E. Vogel, W. Koprek, V on the gun phase 2.) Arrival time change of photo injector laser pulses #12;Florian Löhl FLASH Seminar, June 19th, 2007 photo injector laser ~ 1.3 GHz vector modulator DAC I Q DOOCS Courtesy of I. Will #12

136

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the sixth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Calculation of the effect of space charge and morphology of porous bodies on the effective charge transfer resistance of porous composite cathodes. (3) The investigation of the three electrode system for the measurement of cathodic polarization using amperometric sensors.

Anil V. Virkar

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of interaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

J. Hong; E. C. Bellm; J. E. Grindlay; T. Narita

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Understanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur Cathode Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of obstacles, including poor cycle life, low Coulombic efficiency, and low active material utilization.5 Cathode Performance Weiyang Li, Qianfan Zhang, Guangyuan Zheng,§ Zhi Wei Seh, Hongbin Yao, and Yi Cui*,, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United

Cui, Yi

139

Investigating Local Degradation and Thermal Stability of Charged Nickel-Based Cathode Materials through Real-Time Electron Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cathode part was prepared from a mixed slurry of 90 wt % active material (NCA), 6 wt % conducting carbon, and 4 wt % poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) binder in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) solvent. ... The observed differences in thermal decomposition behavior can be caused by a number of factors, including kinetic effects that occur during initial charge or heating, inhomogeneous dispersion of active materials, conducting agents, and polymer binder in the mixed slurry of the cathode, and the degree of electrolyte impregnation into the cathode. ... Real-time TEM has been used to describe the thermal decomposition that occurs at the surface of LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes. ...

Sooyeon Hwang; Seung Min Kim; Seong-Min Bak; Byung-Won Cho; Kyung Yoon Chung; Jeong Yong Lee; Wonyoung Chang; Eric A. Stach

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dual-bonded catalyst layer structure cathode for PEMFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel electrode structure based on dual-bonded catalyst layer structure is reported to elevate proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathode performance. Differing from conventional cathode with simplex PTFE or ionomer as binder material in catalyst layer (CL), dual-bonded CL combines those two types of binders, respectively, in a composite structure. In order to develop a cathode possessing the superior merits of both mass transport and proton transfer, a PTFE-rich CL and an ionomer-rich CL were fabricated on gas diffusion layer in proper order. Polarization characteristic of cathodes with dual-bonded CL, conventional PTFE-bonded CL and ionomer-bonded CL were evaluated at ambient pressure in oxygen/air. Better performance of cathode was achieved with dual-bonded, compared with conventional structures. Electric yield rate of dual-bonded cathode was about 50%, whilst that of conventional cathodes was about 40%.

Xuewei Zhang; Pengfei Shi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Snell, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CATHODE CONTACT MATERIAL DENSIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling was used to simulate the constrained sintering process of the cathode contact layer during assembly of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A finite element model based on the continuum theory for sintering of porous bodies was developed and used to investigate candidate low-temperature cathode contact materials. Constitutive parameters for various contact materials under investigation were estimated from dilatometry screening tests, and the influence of processing time, processing temperature, initial grain size, and applied compressive stress on the free sintering response was predicted for selected candidate materials. The densification behavior and generated stresses within a 5-cell planar SOFC stack during sintering, high temperature operation, and room temperature shutdown were predicted. Insufficient constrained densification was observed in the stack at the proposed heat treatment, but beneficial effects of reduced grain size, compressive stack preload, and reduced thermal expansion coefficient on the contact layer densification and stresses were observed.

Koeppel, Brian J.; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode pockels cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating. pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal.

Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for LithiumSulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National...

145

Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium  

SciTech Connect

A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Dischargin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery performance Provides two coating processes that...

147

Development of sulfur cathode material for Li-S batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??M.S. Efforts were taken to fabricate a cathode material having Sulfur as the active material. First step is composed of identifying potential ways of fabricating… (more)

Dharmasena, Ruchira Ravinath, 1984-

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems Analysis Publications Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development-This key technology focuses on improving...

150

Cell Analysis ? High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Investigate the relationships of structure, morphology and performance of cathode and anode materials. * Explore kinetic barriers and utilize the knowledge gained to design and...

151

Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes Improving Fuel Cell...

152

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Christopher Johnson and Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE...

153

Development of High Energy Cathode Materials | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Materials Development of High Energy Cathode Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

154

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

155

Stabilized Spinels and Polyanion Cathodes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications STABILIZED SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES Stabilized Spinels and Nano Olivines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Capacity Polyanion...

156

Effect of Cathode Position on Hall-Effect Thruster Performance and Cathode Coupling Voltage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ionization fraction I Anode supply current m Anode mass flow mi Mass of a xenon ion nq Density of xenon neutral or ion with charge state q q Average xenon species charge number T Thrust t Time Tf Final. In the laboratory, this parameter is the potential difference between the cathode and ground, i.e. the tank walls

King, Lyon B.

157

Effect of Cathode Position on Hall-Effect Thruster Performance and Cathode Coupling Voltage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

losses e Electronic charge fi Propellent ionization fraction I Anode supply current mi Mass of a xenon ion nq Density of xenon neutral or ion with charge state q q Average xenon species charge number is the potential difference between the cathode and ground, i.e. the tank walls, and is ME-EM Dept., 815 R.L. Smith

King, Lyon B.

158

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

develop the high energy high power cathode materials for LIBNew Cathode Material for Batteries of High- Energy Density.High Energy High Power Li-ion Battery Cathode Materials A

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as cathode materials for Li-ion battery. Physica B-CondensedHigh Energy High Power Li-ion Battery Cathode Materials AHigh Energy High Power Li-ion Battery Cathode Materials A

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries Title Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Kerlau, Marie, Marek Marcinek, Venkat Srinivasan, and Robert Kostecki Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 52 Pagination 5422-5429 Keywords cathode, degradation, li-ion battery, raman microscopy Abstract LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite cathodes were cycled in model cells to study interfacial phenomena that could lead to electrode degradation. Ex situ spectroscopic analysis of the tested cathodes, which suffered substantial power and capacity loss, showed that the state of charge (SOC) of oxide particles on the cathode surface was highly non-uniform despite the deep discharge of the Li-ion cell at the end of the test. The inconsistent kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles was attributed to the degradation of electronic pathways within the composite cathodes. A simple theoretical model based on a distributed network showed that an increase of the contact resistance between composite electrode particles may be responsible for non-uniform local kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles and the overall degradation of electrochemical performance of composite electrodes.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode Effect of Humidity and Temperature Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 formation rates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC anode and cathode were catalyst onto the disk and by varying the temperature, dissolved O2 concentration, and the acidity levels

Weidner, John W.

162

CHROMIUM POISONING OF COMPOSITE LSM/YSZ CATHODES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Lin Liu and Mogens Mogensen Risø National Laboratory, Materials Research Department, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark Introduction Degradation of composite SOFC cathodes consisting of lanthanum strontium manganate during simulated SOFC operation at ~850°C with current densities from 0 to 0.5 A/cm2. The cathodes were

163

Nanofiber Scaffold for Cathode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

A high performance solid oxide fuel cell cathode using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanofibers scaffold with the infiltrated La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM) shows an enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. Such a cathode offers a continuous path for charge transport and an increased number of triple-phase boundary sites.

Mingjia Zhi; Nicholas Mariani; Randall Gemmen; Kirk Gerdes; Nianqiang Wu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Aqueous Cathode for Next-Generation Alkali-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aqueous cathode in the flow-through mode can be individually stored in a “fuel” tank, which reduces the volume of the battery and increases the design flexibility of the battery structure, as shown in Figure 1. ... Unlike previous lithium?water batteries, the aqueous cathode is not plagued by H2 evolution from the solution, and the battery is efficiently rechargeable. ...

Yuhao Lu; John B. Goodenough; Youngsik Kim

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ion Exchange Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Microbial Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ion Exchange Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Microbial Fuel Cells ... The optimum amount of graphite fibers needed for these brush electrodes has not yet been optimized, and the cathode remains the greatest challenge for MFC designs. ... Different catalyst locations (inside versus outside) and loadings, specific surface areas, and solution chemistry (solution conductivity) were examined to optimize performance. ...

Yi Zuo; Shaoan Cheng; Bruce E. Logan

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

166

Polymer–Graphene Nanocomposites as Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polymer–Graphene Nanocomposites as Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ... Lithium battery; cathode; polymer; graphene; nanocomposite ...

Zhiping Song; Terrence Xu; Mikhail L. Gordin; Ying-Bing Jiang; In-Tae Bae; Qiangfeng Xiao; Hui Zhan; Jun Liu; Donghai Wang

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

167

Solid State NMR Studies of Li-Rich NMC Cathodes: Investigating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

voltage fade * Electrochemical characterization of LMR-NMC cathode materials with fully lithium-6 enriched cells (enriched electrolyte, enriched Li-metal and enriched cathode) *...

168

DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shipping container, mounted UHV cleaned heatshield, sent tosurface. For protection, use UHV grade aluminum foil insteadof lint free paper. The UHV foil shall be essentially free

Henestroza, E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

warhead protection  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

1%2A en Office of Nuclear Warhead Protection http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-0

170

Office of River Protection Looks Back on 2014 Achievements, Including...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

gallons of water from tank waste, which reduces the volume stored in the double-shell tanks to make room for waste retrieval from single-shell tanks. Since its construction in...

171

Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma of Thallium  

SciTech Connect

Thallium arc plasma was investigated in a vacuum arc ionsource. As expected from previous consideration of cathode materials inthe Periodic Table of the Elements, thallium plasma shows lead-likebehavior. Its mean ion charge state exceeds 2.0 immediately after arctriggering, reaches the predicted 1.60 and 1.45 after about 100 microsecand 150 microsec, respectively. The most likely ion velocity is initially8000 m/s and decays to 6500 m/s and 6200 m/s after 100 microsec and 150microsec, respectively. Both ion charge states and ion velocities decayfurther towards steady state values, which are not reached within the 300microsec pulses used here. It is argued that the exceptionally high vaporpressure and charge exchange reactions are associated with theestablishment of steady state ion values.

Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

172

High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect

Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

Protsailo, Lesia

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

One-Step Synthesis of Graphene/Polypyrrole Nanofiber Composites as Cathode Material for a Biocompatible Zinc/Polymer Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-Step Synthesis of Graphene/Polypyrrole Nanofiber Composites as Cathode Material for a Biocompatible Zinc/Polymer Battery ... Miniature or flexible aqueous metal–air batteries are currently considered to be one of the most promising candidates for powering mIMDs, which mainly include the zinc–air battery system and the magnesium–air battery system. ...

Sha Li; Kewei Shu; Chen Zhao; Caiyun Wang; Zaiping Guo; Gordon Wallace; Hua Kun Liu

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

174

High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

Xing, Yangchuan

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses  

SciTech Connect

Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Improvement of the Cycling Performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 Cathode Active Materials by a Dual-Conductive Polymer Coating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presence of a protective conducting polymer layer formed on the cathode also suppressed the growth of a resistive layer and inhibited the dissolution of transition metals from the active cathode materials, which resulted in more stable cycling characteristics than the pristine LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material at 55 oC. ... It is well known that the gradual capacity fading of layered LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 materials at high temperatures is due to structural and interfacial instabilities as well as dissolution of transition metals from the active cathode material by HF attack. ... (40, 41) It is plausible that the protective PEDOT-co-PEG layer coated on the active LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 material renders the cathode material more resistive against HF attack in the electrolyte and thus inhibits the dissolution of metals from the active cathode materials into the electrolyte solution at elevated temperatures. ...

Seo Hee Ju; Ik-Su Kang; Yoon-Sung Lee; Won-Kyung Shin; Saheum Kim; Kyomin Shin; Dong-Won Kim

2014-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Li2S cathodes to date.22­28 Most efforts have been focused on the active material itself-lithiated Li2S represents a more attractive cathode material because it enables pairing with safer, lithium-generation cathode materials with much higher specic capacities. Sulfur is a promising cathode material with a high

Cui, Yi

179

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Received 472K * FY10 Funding Expected 890K Barriers * Reduce the production cost of Cathode Material * Meet PHEV battery requirements for a 40 mile all-electric range *...

180

Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Techniques and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based X-ray Techniques and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries 2009 DOE...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermalphase, capacity and volume change information. 12 .. 12 Table 2 Summary of cathode and anode materialsphase, capacity and volume change information. 12 The last method involved seeking new materials.

Zhu, Jianxin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Burst Radio-Frequency Excited Pulsed Hollow-Cathode Lamp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transient emission characteristics of a hollow-cathode lamp driven by a pulsed current in combination with a radio-frequency burst signal are described. The radio-frequency field...

Araki, Tsutomu; Walters, John P; Minami, Shigeo

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery used for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) due to its low cost, low toxicity, thermal andthermal stability. 109-112 Thus, it proves to be a promising candidate cathode in battery

Zhu, Jianxin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on advanced cathode catalysts and supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Mark Debe of 3M at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

185

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

17johnson2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source...

186

Cathode Synthesis and Voltage Fade: Designed Solutions Based...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

like to work with others * Li-rich Mn-rich cathodes have a VF - Theory focuses on thermodynamics of structures and components - Mechanism likely driven by the kinetics * Can we...

187

Cathodic Arc Deposition of Copper Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the range 1-1.25 GHz, UHV compatible, and very adhesivefulfill the requirements for UHV compatibility. A cathodic85 MPa) and fulfill all UHV requirements. The deposition

MacGill, R.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fire Protection Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Fire Protection Overview The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is multi-faceted. It includes published fire safety directives (Orders, standards, and guidance documents), a range of oversight activities, an annual fire protection program summary, and a directory of fire safety professionals. DOE also sponsors fire safety conferences, various training initiatives, and a spectrum of technical assistance activities. This Home Page is intended to bring together in one location as much of the Program's resources as possible to facilitate greater understanding, communication, and efficiency of operations. Guidelines -- NFPA Codes and standards, CFRs, and DOE Directives (policy statements, Orders, Standards, and Guidance Documents)

189

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Fire Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Standard was developed to provide acceptable methods and approaches for meeting DOE fire protection program and design requirements and to address special or unique fire protection issues at DOE facilities that are not comprehensively or adequately addressed in national consensus standards or other design criteria.

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

191

Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes for air-cathode microbial fuel cells{  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes materials in order to optimize and extend the lifetime of AC cathodes in MFCs. 1. Introduction A microbial, with the cathode typically limiting power production.5,6 Catalysts can be used to reduce the activation energy

192

Cattail Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cattail Protection Cattail Protection Name: Julie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is a piece of land protected by cattails protected? (Meaning you can not touch, cover up or build on.) Replies: Hi Julie, It's quite possible that a piece of land with cattails is protected as a wetland. There are some federal (and probably state) statutes on wetland protection, in general you have to file environmental impact statements and such. I've heard of cases where some large projects were allowed to encroach on wetlands when the builders signed contracts requiring they construct a wetland of equivalent size on another parcel of land. Donald Yee Ph.D. I assume you are referring to wetlands protections. Cattails are wetland plants, and there are regulations governing - but not necessarily preventing - the development of wetlands, but cattails are also aggressive and somewhat weedy, so I doubt the presence of cattails alone would be sufficient to call an area a wetland. This is a technical question which all too often lands in legal dispute. Check with the Corps of Engineers, the EPA, and other experts in wetlands delineation and regulation.

193

Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

194

Physical Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Copies of Section B, Safeguards and Security Alarm Management System, which contains Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information, and Appendix 1, Security Badge Specifications, which contains Official Use Only information, are only available, by request, from the program manager, Protection Program Operations, 301-903-6209. Cancels: DOE M 473.1-1 and DOE M 471.2-1B.

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

Physical Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Copies of Section B, Safeguards and Security Alarm Management System, which contains Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information, and Appendix 1, Security Badge Specifications, which contains Official Use Only information, are only available, by request, from the program manager, Protection Program Operations, 301-903-6209. Chg 1, dated 3/7/06. Cancels: DOE M 473.1-1 and DOE M 471.2-1B

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

196

Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cathodes manufacturing processes for high-rate Li/SOCl/sub 2/ batteries  

SciTech Connect

Influence of type of carbon black, wetting agent, teflon content (up to 50 %), and carbon paste processing on cathodes characteristics and performances were evaluated. Single cell tests at 30 mA/cm/sup 2/ indicated that high cathode efficiencies could be achieved with various cathode formulations, even with a teflon content of 50 %. Discharge performances on glassy carbon cathodes and analysis of pores size distribution in the porous cathode provided baselines for the interpretation of the above-mentioned results as well as a better understanding of carbon cathode behaviour in Li/SOCl/sub 2/ cells.

Danel, V.; Descroix, J.P.; Petit, A.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Degradation characteristics of air cathode in zinc air fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) is a promising candidate for electrical energy storage and electric vehicle propulsion. However, its limited durability has become a major obstacle for its successful commercialization. In this study, 2-cell stacks, 25 cm² cells and three-electrode half-cells are constructed to experimentally investigate the degradation characteristics of the air cathode. The results of electrochemical tests reveal that the peak power density for the 25 cm2 cell with a new air cathode is 454 mW cm?2, which is twice as the value of the used air cathode. The electrochemical impedance analysis shows that both the charge transfer resistance and the mass transfer resistance of the used air cathodes have increased, suggesting that the catalyst surface area and gas diffusion coefficient have decreased significantly. Additionally, the microstructure and morphology of the catalytic layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are characterized by scanning electron microscopes (SEM). SEM results confirm that the micropores in CL and GDL of the used air cathode are seriously clogged, and many catalyst particles are lost. Therefore, the performance degradation is mainly due to the clogging of micropores and loss of catalyst particles. Furthermore, hypotheses of degradation mechanism and mitigation strategies for GDL and CL are discussed briefly.

Ze Ma; Pucheng Pei; Keliang Wang; Xizhong Wang; Huachi Xu; Yongfeng Liu; Guanlin peng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

FTIR and Raman Study of LixTiyMn1-y2(y=0,0.11) Cathodes in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FTIR and Raman Study of LixTiyMn1-y2(y=0,0.11) Cathodes in FTIR and Raman Study of LixTiyMn1-y2(y=0,0.11) Cathodes in Pyrrolidinium-based Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Systems Title FTIR and Raman Study of LixTiyMn1-y2(y=0,0.11) Cathodes in Pyrrolidinium-based Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Systems Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Hardwick, Laurence J., Juliette A. Saint, Ivan T. Lucas, Marca M. Doeff, and Robert Kostecki Journal J. Electrochemical Society Volume 156 Issue 2 Pagination A120-A127 Keywords electrochemical electrodes, Fourier transform spectra, infrared spectra, lithium compounds, manganese compounds, Raman spectra, titanium compounds Abstract This work demonstrates the protective effect of partial titanium substitution in LixTi0.11Mn0.89O2 against surface decomposition in room-temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) cells. Raman microscopy and reflectance Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to analyze electrodes recovered from cycled Li/LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y=0,0.11) cells containing the 0.5mol/kg LiTFSI in P13FSI RTIL electrolyte. [TFSI=bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide .] Raman and FTIR spectra of cycled LixMnO2 cathodes showed many distinct bands that can be attributed to both the electrolyte and electrode decomposition products. The thickness of the amorphous porous layer on the LixMnO2 cathode increased during cycling. The surface degradation of LixMnO2 and precipitation of electrolyte decomposition products contributed to the film growth. Improved cycling behavior was observed in cells containing LixTi0.11Mn0.89O2 , yet Raman spectroscopy also showed possible surface degradation. The FTIR spectra of cycled LixMnO2 and LixTi0.11Mn0.89O2 cathodes displayed bands characteristic for LiSO3CF3 and Li2NSO2CF3 , which originate from the reaction of the TFSI anion with traces of water present in the cell.

200

La(Sr)FeO3 SOFC Cathodes with Marginal Copper Doping  

SciTech Connect

Abstract (La0.8Sr0.2)0.98Fe0.98Cu0.02O3-? can be sintered directly onto YSZ (without the need for a protective ceria interlayer to prevent inter-diffusion). Though subject to an extended “burn-in” period (~200 hours), anode-supported YSZ cells utilizing the Cu-doped LSF achieve power densities ranging from 1.3-1.7 W/cm2 at 750ºC and 0.7V. These cells have also demonstrated 500 hours of stable performance. The results are somewhat surprising given that XRD indicates an interaction between (La0.8Sr0.2)0.98Fe0.98Cu0.02O3-? and YSZ resulting in the formation of strontium zirconate and/or monoclinic zirconia. The amount and type of reaction product was found to be dependent on cathode and electrolyte powder pre-calcination temperatures.

Simner, Steve P.; Anderson, Michael D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sr doped Co substituted Li nickelate cathode materials for Li cells with improved cycling and thermal stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Samples of cathode material were synthesized from a highly dispersed precursor ... thin film of Li-borate glass. The cathode active material (CAM) was mixed with 15 wt. ... and pressed on thin Al discs. The cathodes

R. Moshtev; P. Zlatilova; S. Vassilev

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Advanced cathode material for high power applications.  

SciTech Connect

In our efforts to develop low cost high-power Li-ion batteries with excellent safety, as well as long cycle and calendar life, lithium manganese oxide spinel and layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode materials were investigated. Our studies with the graphite/LiPF{sub 6}/spinel cells indicated a very significant degradation of capacity with cycling at 55 C. This degradation was caused by the reduction of manganese ions on the graphite surface which resulted in a significant increase of the charge-transfer impedance at the anode/electrolyte interface. To improve the stability of the spinel, we investigated an alternative salt that would not generate HF acid that may attack the spinel. The alternative salt we selected for this work was lithium bisoxalatoborate, LiB(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} ('LiBoB'). In this case, the graphite/LiBoB/spinel Li-ion cells exhibited much improved cycle/calendar life at 55 C and better abuse tolerance, as well as excellent power. A second system based on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} layered material was also investigated and its performance was compared to commercial LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}. Cells based on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} showed lower power fade and better thermal safety than the LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based commercial cells under similar test conditions. Li-ion cells based on the material with excess lithium (Li{sub 1.1}Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}) exhibited excellent power performance that exceeded the FreedomCAR requirements.

Amine, K.; Belharouak, I.; Kang, S. H.; Liu, J.; Vissers, D.; Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Vehicles of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Vehicles of Today Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric Vehicles of Today February 14, 2011 - 6:15pm Addthis Jeff Chamberlain Speaks at Brookings Battery Forum | Photo Courtesy of Audra Capas, 5StarPR Jeff Chamberlain Speaks at Brookings Battery Forum | Photo Courtesy of Audra Capas, 5StarPR David Moore Presidential Management Fellow, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy The Department of Energy has been investing in vehicle electrification for more than a decade, with results that speak for themselves: The battery technologies in almost all of the electric vehicles and hybrids on the road today were developed with support from the Department. As you may have read

204

Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 DOE EERE Kick-off Meeting 2009 DOE EERE Kick-off Meeting Announcement No: DE-PS36-08GO98010 Topic: 1A Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division PI: Nenad M. Markovic Co-PI: Vojislav R. Stamenkovic Subcontractors: * Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Karren More * Jet Propulsion Laboratory - NASA - S.R. Narayan * Brown University - Shouheng Sun * Indiana University Purdue - Goufeng Wang * 3M Company - Radoslav Atanasoski Overview Timeline * Project start: 9/2009 * Project end: 9/2012 Barriers ~ 30-40% (!!!) Cathode kinetics * The main losses: CATHODE 1) High content of Pt 2) Poor activity: Pt/C = Pt-poly/10 3) Durability (Pt dissolves: power loss) 4) Carbon support corrosion Budget * Total Project funding $ 6.5M

205

Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Hayes, Jeffrey P. (Ripon, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Electrosprayed polyaniline as cathode material for lithium secondary batteries  

SciTech Connect

Doped polyaniline with LiPF{sub 6} is electrosprayed onto aluminum foil using electrospinning technique, and evaluated as cathode active material for application in room-temperature lithium batteries. Doping level is characterized using FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. In FTIR Spectra, characteristic peaks of PANI are shifted to lower bands as a result of doping which indicates the effectiveness of doping. Doping level is also confirmed by UV-vis spectra. Surface morphology of the cathode is studied using scanning electron microscope. Electrochemical evaluation of the cell using electrosprayed PANI as cathode show good cycling properties. The cell delivers a high discharge value of 142.5 mAh/g which is about 100% of theoretical capacity, and the capacity is lowered during cycle and reached 61% of theoretical capacity after 50 cycles. The cell delivers a stable but lower discharge capacity at higher C-rates.

Manuel, James; Raghavan, Prasanth; Shin, Chorong; Heo, Min-Yeong [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jung-Pil; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Ahn, Hyo-Jun [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Fire Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NOT MEASUREMENT NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1066-2012 December 2012 _______________ Supersedes DOE-STD-1066-99 DOE STANDARD FIRE PROTECTION U.S. Department of Energy AREA FIRP Washington, DC 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web page at http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/ DOE-STD-1066-2012 FOREWORD This Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) supersedes DOE-STD-1066-99 1 and is approved for use by DOE and its contractors. The following fire protection standard is canceled with the issuance of this Standard and appropriate technical content was incorporated into this Standard:  DOE-STD-1088-95, Fire Protection for Relocatable Structures

208

High-Efficiency, Magnetized, Virtual-Cathode Microwave Generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microwave generation by electron beams in virtual-cathode configurations can achieve significant power levels. However, most designs inherently have two competing mechanisms generating microwaves: the oscillating virtual cathode and the reflexing electrons. These mechanisms interfere destructively with each other. This paper reports investigation of a novel idea of using an external axial magnetic field and a thick anode with an appropriate collimating slot to extract the electron beam and to suppress the reflexing electrons. It was found that high-power, narrow-band, monochromatic microwaves could be generated with efficiency of 10% to 20%.

Thomas J. T. Kwan

1986-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

209

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of the Cathode Geometry on the Characteristics of an Electric Arc  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of the cathode geometry on the characteristics of an electric arc is treated. It is found that the characteristics of plasma in discharges with cathodes of different geometry (cone, ... . It is assumed...

R. M. Urusov; T. E. Urusova

210

Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries . Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for...

211

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION The Use and Optimization of Stainless Steel Mesh Cathodes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION The Use and Optimization of Stainless Steel Mesh Cathodes in Microbial (or cm2 / cm2 ) Specific area per 7 cm2 cathode: 2 cm45.107 =Ã?S Specific area per reactor volume: 3232

212

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and High Voltage Spinel Cathode | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Cathode Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and High Voltage Spinel Cathode 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

213

Factors affecting the discharge lifetime of lithium-molten nitrate thermal battery cells using soluble cathode materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of soluble cathode materials in molten nitrate electrolyte thermal battery cells presents several problems related to cathode...? rich separator layer.

G. E. McManis; A. N. Fletcher; M. H. Miles

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Water Protection Projects and Practices (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute calls on soil and water conservation districts to carry out district-wide and multiple-district projects to support water protection practices, including projects to protect the state...

215

Physical Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of interests under the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) purview ranging from facilities, buildings, Government property, and employees to national security interests such as classified information, special nuclear material (SNM), and nuclear weapons. Cancels Section A of DOE M 470.4-2 Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

216

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this initial study the electrochemically active region of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathodeThree-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z J. R. Smith,* D. P and heat.1 They consist of three basic layers: cathode, electrolyte, and anode. The cathode is a porous

Florida, University of

217

Challenges and Constraints of Using Oxygen Cathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Challenges and Constraints of Using Oxygen Cathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells ... The optimization of the cathode preparation (the choice of binder (5), the binder/catalyst ratio, the catalyst processing etc.) was beyond the scope of this study and should be the focus of further, technological investigations. ... Optimized cathode preparation procedures will most likely help increasing this factor and result in a further improved cathode performance at lower catalyst loads. ...

Feng Zhao; Falk Harnisch; Uwe Schröder; Fritz Scholz; Peter Bogdanoff; Iris Herrmann

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

218

Modeling Studies of a Cylindrical Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cathode catalyst layer is modeled using spherical agglomerate characterization. ... (16-19) In the present work, we have developed a two-dimensional (2-D) steady-state model of a cylindrical PEMFC cathode under air-breathing and pressurized conditions. ... We adopt an agglomerate catalyst layer model and recast it into a compact form for optimization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes. ...

Srinivasarao Modekurti; Brian Bullecks; Debangsu Bhattacharyya; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

219

Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy membrane fuel cell PEMFC cathode by ac impedance measurement at open-circuit potential conditions by impregnating a proton-conducting ionomer in the catalyst active layer of the cathode of a polymer electrolyte

220

Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance J. Prabhuram, T performance was due to the permeated methanol adsorbates on platinum sites of the cathode, which impede utilized to get rid of the methanol adsorbates from the cathode electrochemically by sweeping from 0 to 1

Zhao, Tianshou

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell with three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode was fabricated for a zirconia based micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Three different cathodes (cathode A, no pore former; cathode B, with pore former (1.5 {micro}m in diameter); cathode C, with pore former (0.8 {micro}m in diameter)) were compared to investigate how the microstructure of it affected the cell performance at various operating temperatures. Micro-sized pores were well distributed within cathode B and C. The total porosity of cathode A is 35%, while it respectively reached 42 and 50% for cathodes B and C. At the same time, the specific surface area of them was 28.8 and 52.0% larger than that of the cathode A. As a result, the peak power density of the zirconia based cell, with cathode C, was 0.25 and 0.56 W cm{sup -2} at 550 and 600 C, while the respective value was just 0.11 and 0.30 W cm{sup -2} for the cell with cathode A. Thus, optimizing microstructure of cathode should be one of the best approaches for lowering the operating temperature for SOFCs.

Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sumi, H.; Fujishiro, Y.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Divalent Iron Nitridophosphates: A New Class of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4-6) Here we demonstrate the design of a battery cathode material incorporating N3– anions as a distinct structural building block. ... Lithium transition metal phosphates are of interest as storage cathodes for rechargeable Li batteries because of their high energy d., low raw materials cost, environmental friendliness and safety. ... The reversible specific capacities for the cathode and anode active materials were detd. ...

Jue Liu; Xiqian Yu; Enyuan Hu; Kyung-Wan Nam; Xiao-Qing Yang; Peter G. Khalifah

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

Impact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not been previously examined. Three different types of cathode materials were tested here with increasingly of catalyst used with more saline wastewaters. While Pt oxygen reduction activity is reduced, CoTMPP cathodeImpact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) Xi Wang

224

Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics Marshall Cox,1,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using graphene as the cathode material. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. doi:10 study that has utilized graphene as a cathode material.15 In this work, multilayer graphene modified as a cathode, yielding an active area of 0.16 cm2 . I-V measurements were performed under AM 1.5 solar simu

Kim, Philip

225

Electrochemical characterization of cobalt-encapsulated nickel as cathodes for MCFC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the operating life of the cell. Apart from this, cathode dissolution results in loss of active material and in decrease of the active surface area available for the oxygen reduction reaction (cathodic reac- tion problem is focused on varying the molten salt constituents [6,7] or using alternate cathode materials [8

Popov, Branko N.

226

CEBAF - environmental protection program plan  

SciTech Connect

An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots  

SciTech Connect

Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

Anders, Andre

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Cathode porous transport irreversibility model for PEM fuel cell design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence is studied of slip-irreversibility at the interface between the gas diffusion layer, also referred to here as the porous transport layer, and the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A two-dimensional cathode ... Keywords: catalyst layer, exergy, gas diffusion layer, slip flow irreversibility

E. O. B. Ogedengbe; M. A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Hydrogen Evolution at Activated Nisx-Cathodes in Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NiSx-coated nickel cathodes are used for commercial water electrolysis in concentrated KOH solutions. Such electrodes have ... to 5 mol% during 16 days of electrolysis and to about 0.7 mol% after...1.00–1.03. The...

B. Børresen; A. Bjørgum; G. Hagen; R. Tunold…

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Brian KarrerPPDyL Lithium-fed Cathode Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and light � Big picture: develop a thruster that could be used for a Mars mission #12;Brian KarrerPPDyL Outline � Introduction to electric propulsion and plasma � Objectives of the Li-fed cathode research � Introduction to Multi-color Video Pyrometry � Data and analysis method � Results � Conclusions #12;Brian Karrer

Petta, Jason

231

Fluoride based cathodes and electrolytes for high energy thermal batteries  

SciTech Connect

A research and development program is being conducted at the Saft Advanced Technologies Division in Hunt Valley, MD to double the energy density of a thermal battery. A study of high voltage cathodes to replace iron disulfide is in progress. Single cells are being studied with a lithium anode and either a copper(II) fluoride, silver(II) fluoride, or iron(III) fluoride cathode. Due to the high reactivity of these cathodes, conventional alkali metal chloride and bromide salt electrolytes must be replaced by alkali metal fluoride electrolytes. Parametric studies using design-of-experiments matrices will be performed so that the best cathode for an improved battery design can be selected. Titanium hardware for the design will provide a higher strength to weight ratio with lower emissivity than conventional stainless steel. The battery will consist of two power sections. The goals are battery activation in less than 0.2 s, 88 Wh/kg, 1,385 W/kg, and 179 Wh/L over an environmental temperature range of {minus}40 C to +70 C.

Briscoe, J.D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

233

Improved Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells with p-Toluenesulfonic Acid-Doped Co-PPy/C as Cathode Electrocatalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The characteristics and electrocatalytic activities of Co-PPy-TsOH/C were analyzed with various techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, rotating ring disk electrode analysis, and a single H2?O2 PEMFC, and compared with those of undoped catalyst Co-PPy/C. ... The performance of PEMFCs with Co-PPy-TsOH/C as cathode catalyst is better than that with Co-PPy/C, and the resulting maximum output power density of 203 mW cm?2 is a substantial improvement over the best values reported in the literature with Co-PPy/C-based cathode catalyst. ...

Xianxia Yuan; Xin Zeng; Hui-Juan Zhang; Zi-Feng Ma; Chao-Yang Wang

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

in June of 2000; the inventors included Michael Thackeray, Khalil Amine, Christopher Johnson and Jaekook Kim. But the story really begins more than 30 years ago. In 1980, Argonne...

235

Model of calcareous deposit formation on cathodically protected steel in seawater: improvements and extensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

( ? ) g dm3 mol . dme conuersion factor ( ) g. cms (20) 16 Concentration of Major iona in Seawater of Various Salinitles . 1. 6 20- CII ' 15 oO j. :zto f o L o 0 . 0--- X -??)???&X e3-- X X X ? X- 10 20 30 40 Salinity('lg O s. 'o . 12 ~g... e of + 0 0. 6 o~ ox MCI ? tt ? Nt+ /~a- / ? + ? h/g+ ) ? o ? Ca2+ f ? x ? HXB. Fi8trre 6: Concentration of Major Iona in Seawater of Various Salinities and) At ? ? 49. 641 Ag = 67. 460 As ? 21. 028 Bt = ? 0. 077314 B2 = 0. 046580 Bs...

Blackburne, Patricia Nicole

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Chemistry of SOFC Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior  

SciTech Connect

1) Electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces were studied up to 580oC in 10-3mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectroscopy (STM/STS). A threshold-like drop in the tunneling current was observed at positive bias in STS, which is interpreted as a unique indicator for the activation polarization in cation oxygen bonding on LSM cathodes. Sr-enrichment was found on the surface at high temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy, and was accompanied by a decrease in tunneling conductance in STS. This suggests that Sr-terminated surfaces are less active for electron transfer in oxygen reduction compared to Mn-terminated surfaces on LSM. 2) Effects of strain on the surface cation chemistry and the electronic structure are important to understand and control for attaining fast oxygen reduction kinetics on transition metal oxides. Here, we demonstrate and mechanistically interpret the strain coupling to Sr segregation, oxygen vacancy formation, and electronic structure on the surface of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin films as a model system. Our experimental results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy are discussed in light of our first principles-based calculations. A stronger Sr enrichment tendency and a more facile oxygen vacancy formation prevail for the tensile strained LSM surface. The electronic structure of the tensile strained LSM surface exhibits a larger band gap at room temperature, however, a higher tunneling conductance near the Fermi level than the compressively strained LSM at elevated temperatures in oxygen. Our findings suggest lattice strain as a key parameter to tune the reactivity of perovskite transition metal oxides with oxygen in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. 3) Cation segregation on perovskite oxide surfaces affects vastly the oxygen reduction activity and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. A unified theory that explains the physical origins of this phenomenon is therefore needed for designing cathode materials with optimal surface chemistry. We quantitatively assessed the elastic and electrostatic interactions of the dopant with the surrounding lattice as the key driving forces for segregation on model perovskite compounds, LnMnO3 (host cation Ln=La, Sm). Our approach combines surface chemical analysis with X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy on model dense thin films, and computational analysis with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and analytical models. Elastic energy differences were systematically induced in the system by varying the radius of the selected dopants (Ca, Sr, Ba) with respect to the host cations (La, Sm) while retaining the same charge state. Electrostatic energy differences were introduced by varying the distribution of charged oxygen and cation vacancies in our models. Varying the oxygen chemical potential in our experiments induced changes in both the elastic energy and electrostatic interactions. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that the mechanism of dopant segregation on perovskite oxides includes both the elastic and electrostatic energy contributions. A smaller size mismatch between the host and dopant cations and a chemically expanded lattice were found to reduce the segregation level of the dopant and to enable more stable cathode surfaces. Ca-doped LaMnO3 was found to have the most stable surface composition with the least cation segregation among the compositions surveyed. The diffusion kinetics of the larger dopants, Ba and Sr, was found to be slower, and can kinetically trap the segregation at reduced temperatures despite the larger elastic energy driving force. Lastly, scanning probe image-contrast showed that the surface chemical heterogeneities made of dopant oxides upon segregation were electronically insulating. The consistency between the results obtained from experiments, DFT calculations and analytical theory in this work provides a predictive capability to tailor the cathode surface compositions for high-performance SO

Yildiz, Bilge; Heski, Clemens

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Electricity generation from sediment microbial fuel cells with algae-assisted cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract One major limiting factor for sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFC) is the low oxygen reduction rate in the cathode. The use of the photosynthetic process of the algae is an effective strategy to increase the oxygen availability to the cathode. In this study, \\{SMFCs\\} were constructed by introducing the algae (Chlorella vulgaris) to the cathode, in order to generate oxygen in situ. Cyclic voltammetry and dissolved oxygen analysis confirmed that C. vulgaris in the cathode can increase the dissolved oxygen concentration and the oxygen reduction rate. We showed that power generation of SMFC with algae-assisted cathode was 21 mW m?2 and was further increased to 38 mW m?2 with additional carbon nanotube coating in the cathode, which was 2.4 fold higher than that of the SMFC with bare cathode. This relatively simple method increases the oxygen reduction rate at a low cost and can be applied to improve the performance of SMFCs.

De-Bin Wang; Tian-Shun Song; Ting Guo; Qinglu Zeng; Jingjing Xie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Atomic Layer Deposition Functionalized Composite SOFC Cathode La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2O3-? -Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9: Enhanced Long-Term Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(10, 12-16) Since the ORR activity of an AMO3 perovskite cathode is critically determined by the atomic structure (e.g., electronic configuration) and composition (e.g., cation concentration and oxygen nonstoichiometry) on the surface,(17-21) a complete coverage of the passive and insulating SrO(s) layer over the cathode surface would easily block the ORR-active sites for effective charge-transfer. ... (LSCF-6428) cathodes incorporating Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 cathode-electrolyte interlayers, was assessed. ... The material requirements for this particular application are discussed together with a study of some conductive oxides as candidate materials for protection layers on stainless steel substrates. ...

Yunhui Gong; Rajankumar L. Patel; Xinhua Liang; Diego Palacio; Xueyan Song; John B. Goodenough; Kevin Huang

2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Shore Protection Act (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shore Protection Act (Georgia) Shore Protection Act (Georgia) Shore Protection Act (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Transportation Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Georgia Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Georgia Department of Natural Resources The Shore Protection Act is the primary legal authority for protection and management of Georgia's shoreline features including sand dunes, beaches, sandbars, and shoals, collectively known as the sand-sharing system. The value of the sand-sharing system is recognized as vitally important in protecting the coastal marshes and uplands from Atlantic storm activity, as well as providing valuable recreational opportunities.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the fourth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas, namely, continued further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge, and its relationship to cathode polarization; and fabrication of samaria-doped ceria porous (SDC). The work on the model development involves calculation of the effect of space charge on transport through porous bodies. Three specific cases have been examined: (1) Space charge resistivity greater than the grain resistivity, (2) Space charge resistivity equal to the grain resistivity, and (3) Space charge resistivity lower than the grain resistivity. The model accounts for transport through three regions: the bulk of the grain, the space charge region, and the structural part of the grain boundary. The effect of neck size has been explicitly incorporated. In future work, the effective resistivity will be incorporated into the effective cathode polarization resistance. The results will then be compared with experiments.

Anil V. Virkar

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

242

Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

245

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Catalysts and Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells DE-FG36-07GO17007 Mark K. Debe 3M Company Feb. 13, 2007 2007 DOE HFCIT Kick-off Meeting This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Overview Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM FC's - 2007 DOE HFCIT Kick-off, Feb. 13-14, 2007 2 3 Barriers A. Electrode and MEA Durability B. Stack Material & Mfg Cost C. Electrode and MEA Performance DOE Technical Targets Electrocatalyst (2010, 2015) * Durability w/cycling: hrs < 80 o C - (5000, 5000) > 80 o C - (2000, 5000) * Cost: $/kW (5,4) * Mass activity: A/mg ( 0.44, 0.44) * PGM Total, g/ kW rated: (0.3, 0.2) MEA (2010, 2015) * Cost: $/kW (10,5) * Performance: W/cm 2 at Rated Pwr. (1,1) ; 0.8V (0.25, 0.25) Budget * Total Project funding $10.43MM

246

Optical and electrical investigations into cathode ignition and diode closure  

SciTech Connect

The temporal behavior of high-power diodes is closely related to the impedance collapse caused by the movement of the cathode and/or anode plasmas. This impedance collapse can be especially problematic when a constant power electron beam is required. This is the case for the very large area (square meters) diodes used to pump the amplifiers within the Aurora KrF laser system. The electron beam technology development program at Los Alamos utilizes the Electron Beam Test Facility (EGTF) to study diode physics in an attempt to better understand the basic phenomenology of ignition and closure. A combination of optical and electric diagnostics has been fielded on the Electron Beam Test Facility to study ignition and closure in large area electron beam diodes. A four-channel framing camera is used to observe the formation of microplasmas on the surface of the cathode and the subsequent movement of these plasmas toward the anode. Additionally, a perveance model is used to extract information about this plasma from voltage and current profiles. Results from the two diagnostics are compared. Closure velocity measurements are presented showing little dependence on applied magnetic field for both velvet and carbon felt emitters. We also report the first observation of the screening effect in large area cold cathode diodes. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Coogan, J.J.; Rose, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A knife-edge array field emission cathode  

SciTech Connect

many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

Lee, B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact  

SciTech Connect

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

J. H. Zhu

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES  

SciTech Connect

This project involved the synthesis of nanowire ã-MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing ã-MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the ã-MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the ã-MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into ã-MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the ã-MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating high-power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

John Olson, PhD

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

252

Large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride cathode structure having predetermined emission profile  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) cathode system (10) is disclosed. The system comprises a LaB.sub.6 cathode element (11) generally circular in shape about a central axis. The cathode element (11) has a head (21) with an upper substantially planar emission surface (23), and a lower downwardly and an intermediate body portion (26) which diminishes in cross-section from the head (21) towards the base (22) of the cathode element (11). A central rod (14) is connected to the base (22) of the cathode element (11) and extends along the central axis. Plural upstanding spring fingers (37) are urged against an outer peripheral contact surface (24) of the head end (21) to provide a mechanical and electrical connection to the cathode element (11).

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Gordon, Keith C. (Berkeley, CA); Kippenham, Dean O. (Castro Valley, CA); Purgalis, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Moussa, David (San Francisco, CA); Williams, Malcom D. (Danville, CA); Wilde, Stephen B. (Pleasant Hill, CA); West, Mark W. (Albany, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Composite cathode based on yttria stabilized bismuth oxide for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites consisting of silver and yttria stabilized bismuth oxide (YSB) have been investigated as cathodes for low-temperature honeycomb solid oxide fuel cells with stabilized zirconia as electrolytes. At 600?° C the interfacial polarization resistances of a porous YSB–Ag cathode is about 0.3??? cm 2 more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of other reported cathodes on stabilized zirconia. For example the interfacial resistances of a traditional YSZ–lanthanum maganites composite cathode is about 11.4??? cm 2 at 600?° C . Impedance analysis indicated that the performance of an YSB–Ag composite cathode fired at 850?° C for 2 h is severely limited by gas transport due to insufficient porosity. The high performance of the YSB–Ag cathodes is very encouraging for developing honeycomb fuel cells to be operated at temperatures below 600?° C .

Changrong Xia; Yuelan Zhang; Meilin Liu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Characterization of Atomic and Electronic Structures of Electrochemically Active SOFC Cathode Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to gain a fundamental understanding of the oxygen-reduction mechanism on mixed conducting cathode materials by means of quantum-chemical calculations coupled with direct experimental measurements, such as vibrational spectroscopy. We have made progress in the elucidation of the mechanisms of oxygen reduction of perovkite-type cathode materials for SOFCs using these quantum chemical calculations. We established computational framework for predicting properties such as oxygen diffusivity and reaction rate constants for adsorption, incorporation, and TPB reactions, and formulated predictions for LSM- and LSC-based cathode materials. We have also further developed Raman spectroscopy as well as SERS as a characterization tool for SOFC cathode materials. Raman spectroscopy was used to detect chemical changes in the cathode from operation conditions, and SERS was used to probe for pertinent adsorbed species in oxygen reduction. However, much work on the subject of unraveling oxygen reduction for SOFC cathodes remains to be done.

Kevin Blinn; Yongman Choi; Meilin Liu

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

255

Effect of cathode structure on neutron yield performance of a miniature plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter we report the effect of two different cathode structures – tubular and squirrel cage, on neutron output from a miniature plasma focus device. The squirrel cage cathode is typical of most DPF sources, with an outer, tubular envelope that serves as a vacuum housing, but does not carry current. The tubular cathode carries the return current and also serves as the vacuum envelope, thereby minimizing the size of the DPF head. The maximum average neutron yield of ( 1.82 ± 0.52 ) × 10 5 n / shot for the tubular cathode at 4 mbar was enhanced to ( 1.15 ± 0.2 ) × 10 6 n / shot with squirrel cage cathode at 6 mbar operation. These results are explained on the basis of a current sheath loading/mass choking effect. The penalty for using a non-transparent cathode negates the advantage of the smaller size of the DPF head.

Rishi Verma; R.S. Rawat; P. Lee; S. Lee; S.V. Springham; T.L. Tan; M. Krishnan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

FTIR and Raman Study of the LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.11) Cathodes in Methylpropyl Pyrrolidinium Bis(fluoro-sulfonyl)imide, LiTFSI Electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

response of the cathode active material could be examinedComposite cathodes with active material loading between 8composite cathode, as well as loss of active material and

Hardwick, L.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Performance and Stability of Barium Strontium Cobaltite Composite Cathodes for SOFC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and 50 wt% Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (CGO) was used as the composite cathode material. Symmetric cells were prepared composite cathode by keeping the samples at 700 °C for 1600 hours. It showed very similar passivation/activation cathode materials than LSM. Studies of the (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) have been one of the most popular

259

Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Coffey, Gregory W

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

260

Simulations of multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC of 112 MHz superconducting electron gun  

SciTech Connect

A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be used for testing of the performance of various high quantum efficiency photocathodes. In a previous paper, we presented the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). In this paper we present updated designs of the cathode stalk and FPC. Multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC was simulated using three different codes. All simulation results show no serious multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC.

Xin T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on cathode supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Yong Wang of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

262

Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Li-Rich Layered Oxides for Lithium Batteries. Nano Lett. 13,O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energysolvent decomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-

Lin, Feng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Micro-Scale Model for Oxygen Reduction on LSM-YSZ Cathode  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a micro-scale model is developed to simulate the oxygen reduction on LSM-YSZ composite cathode. The model incorporates the effects of cathode microstructural properties on the local transport phenomena and electrochemistry inside the cathode. A detailed reaction mechanism is used in the model which has two parallel routes for oxygen conversion into oxide ions, namely two-phase boundary and three-phase boundary pathways. The model predicts field distributions of local thermodynamic values, over-potential, Faradaic current and other parameters relevant to cathode performance. Electrochemical impedance simulations are performed using the current model to analyze the contribution of various processes to the overall impedance.

Pakalapati, Suryanarayana Raju; Celik, Ismail; Finklea, Harry; Gong, Mingyang; Liu, Xingbo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites as active cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites cathode [triphosphazene sulfide composite (PS) or nitroaniline–triphosphazene disulfide composite (NPS)] which can give good affinity with electrolytes was...

J. D. Liu; S. Q. Zhang; S. B. Yang; Z. F. Shi; S. T. Zhang; L. K. Wu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Charge–discharge characteristics of polythiopheneas a cathode active material in a rechargeable battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polythiophene films were electrochemically deposited on glassy carbon substrates under potentiostatic control and used as cathode active material together with a Zn anode in a...

G. C´iric´-Marjanovic´; S. Mentus

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es056zhang2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Phase Behavior and Solid State Chemistry in Olivines Development of High Energy Cathode Materials Interfacial Processes -...

267

Superior Long-Term Energy Retention and Volumetric Energy Density for Li-Rich Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Superior Long-Term Energy Retention and Volumetric Energy Density for Li-Rich Cathode Materials ... †Department of Energy Engineering, School of

Pilgun Oh; Seungjun Myeong; Woongrae Cho; Min-Joon Lee; Minseong Ko; Hu Young Jeong; Jaephil Cho

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

268

Whistleblower Protection and Nondisclosure Agreements | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whistleblower Protection and Nondisclosure Agreements Whistleblower Protection and Nondisclosure Agreements Whistleblower Protection and Nondisclosure Agreements Important Notice Concerning Nondisclosure Acknowledgments or Agreements (NDAs) with the Department of Energy: Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 Required Statement Regarding Nondisclosure Agreements: Pursuant to the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012, the following statement applies to every nondisclosure policy, form, or agreement of the Government (with current or former federal employees), including those in effect before the Act's effective date of December 27, 2012: "These provisions are consistent with and do not supersede, conflict with, or otherwise alter the employee obligations, rights, or liabilities created

269

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Protecting Life on Earth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Protecting Life on Earth: An Introduction to thePeter B. Protecting Life on Earth: An Introduction to theof Protecting Life on Earth is “to explain to an intelligent

Anderson, Byron P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

273

ORISE: Protecting Human Subjects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or performed by DOE employees, addresses the protection of human subjects. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) supports DOE in its efforts to protect...

274

Office of Physical Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Physical Protection is comprised of a team of security specialists engaged in providing Headquarters-wide physical protection.

275

Plasma parameters of an active cathode during relativistic magnetron operation  

SciTech Connect

The results of time- and space-resolved spectroscopic studies of the plasma produced at the surface of the ferroelectric cathode during the operation of an S-band relativistic magnetron generating approx50 MW microwave power at f=3005 MHz and powered by a linear induction accelerator (LIA) (150 kV, 1.5 kA, 250 ns) are presented. The surface plasma was produced by a driving pulse (3 kV, 150 ns) prior to the application of the LIA accelerating high-voltage pulse. The cathode plasma electron density and temperature were obtained by analyzing hydrogen H{sub a}lpha and H{sub b}eta, and carbon ions CII and CIII spectral lines, and using the results of nonstationary collision radiative modeling. It was shown that the microwave generation causes an increase in plasma ion and electron temperature up to approx4 and approx7 eV, respectively, and the plasma density increases up to approx7x10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}. Estimates of the plasma transport parameters and its interaction with microwave radiation are also discussed.

Hadas, Y.; Kweller, T.; Sayapin, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Bernshtam, V. [Department of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Sciences, 61000 Rehovot (Israel)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

277

Reprint of "Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reprint of "Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes Reprint of "Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries" Title Reprint of "Studies of local degradation phenomena in composite cathodes for lithium-ion batteries" Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Kerlau, Marie, Marek Marcinek, Venkat Srinivasan, and Robert Kostecki Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 53 Pagination 1385-1392 Keywords cathode, degradation, li-ion battery, raman microscopy Abstract LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite cathodes were cycled in model cells to study interfacial phenomena that could lead to electrode degradation. Ex situ spectroscopic analysis of the tested cathodes, which suffered substantial power and capacity loss, showed that the state of charge (SOC) of oxide particles on the cathode surface was highly non-uniform despite the deep discharge of the Li-ion cell at the end of the test. The inconsistent kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles was attributed to the degradation of electronic pathways within the composite cathodes. A simple theoretical model based on a distributed network showed that an increase of the contact resistance between composite electrode particles may be responsible for non-uniform local kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles and the overall degradation of electrochemical performance of composite electrodes.

278

Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Four regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by defining three threshold current densities and a maximum current density. They correspond to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface, extension of the gas-liquid two-phase zone to the cathode/channel interface, saturated moist air exiting the gas channel, and complete consumption of oxygen by the electrochemical reaction. When the cell operates above the first threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multi-component mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A/cm{sup 2}.

WANG,Z.H.; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

Low Loading Pt Cathode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Derived from the Particle Size Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results have shown that with sputtered Pt cathode catalysts, the metal loading in PEMFC can be reduced to cathode metal loading in PEMFC, less attention has been paid to DMFC. ... The long-term performance of catalyst Pt14-050 in DMFC was examined to explore the stability of the small-sized Pt catalysts. ...

Fei Wen; Ulrich Simon

2007-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

280

Effect of A-site Non-stoichiometry on LSCF Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

LSCF Cathodes were explored when effected with A-site non-stoichiometry. At 700-800 C, the operating temperatures of intermediate temperature (IT-) SOFCs have enabled the use of stainless steels in the SOFC framework and current collectors, allowing significant reductions in cost. However, the lower operating temperatures of IT-SOFC's also result in significant decreases in power densities of cells with LSM cathodes due to their high activation energies. LSCF is a mixed ionic electronic conducting perovskite that exhibits higher performance than LSM/YSZ composites and shows potential as a replacement cathode. This study investigates the effect of A-site stoichiometry on the performance of LSCF cathodes. Cell tests showed that A-site and Sr-deficient LSCF cathodes consistently outperformed stoichiometric LSCF cathodes, exhibiting up to 10% higher cell power densities. It was also observed that all stoichiometric, A-site, and Sr-deficient LSCF cathodes degraded over time at similar rates. Contributions of ohmic and electrode polarization losses to cell degradation rates were similar regardless of cathode composition.

Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Hardy, John S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Mesoporous composite cathode materials prepared from inverse micelle structures for high  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

active materials in LIBs. Manganese oxide-based compounds are particularly attrac- tive as cathodes owingMesoporous composite cathode materials prepared from inverse micelle structures for highCoO2) is the most common active material.1 However, since natural deposits of cobalt are scarce

Cao, Guozhong

282

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black-based materials that have good catalytic activity, but the electrical conductivity of the AC is poor compared as a binder, as opposed to Nafion with Pt, which greatly reduces the cost of the cathode materials. AC

283

Calculations of Oxygen Stability in Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes Penghao Xiao,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculations of Oxygen Stability in Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes Penghao Xiao, Z. Q. Deng, A ABSTRACT: Oxygen loss can lead to high-capacity Li2MnO3-based lithium- rich layered cathodes. Substitution The stabilized compounds have a similar structure as LiMO2 except that excess Li populates the transition

Henkelman, Graeme

284

What performance would non-Pt cathode catalysts need to achieve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

require development of x2 more active cathode catalyst MEA/DM optimization required but less criticalWhat performance would non-Pt cathode catalysts need to achieve to be practical Motors Fuel Cell Activities Honeoye Falls, NY DOE Workshop on Non-Platinum Electrocatalysts 21

285

The use and optimization of stainless steel mesh cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for water electrolysis) [1,2], hydrogen can be evolved on the cathode under anoxic conditions, usually for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water electrolysis [13,14]. Hu et al. * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ1The use and optimization of stainless steel mesh cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells Yimin

286

Evaluation of the relationship between cathode microstructure and electrochemical behavior for SOFCs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an actual cathode and the polarization resistance of the signi cant elementary steps of the cathodic transfer resistance and oxygen adsorption. A direct relationship between microstructural parameters from resistance and the adsorption polarization resistance display a power law relationship with LTPB and pore

Florida, University of

287

RF Plasma Cathode-Neutralizer for Space Applications IEPC-2007-266  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raitses and Nathaniel J. Fisch Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA AbstractRF Plasma Cathode-Neutralizer for Space Applications IEPC-2007-266 Presented at the 30th: A new plasma cathode-neutralizer based on electron extraction from inductively coupled plasma (ICP

288

Kinetics and PEMFC performance of RuxMoySez nanoparticles as a cathode catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of RuxMoySez nanoparticles dispersed on carbon powder was studied in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and as cathode catalysts for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). RuxMoySez catalyst was synthesized by decarbonylation of transition-metal carbonyl compounds for 3 h in organic solvent. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Catalyst is composed of uniform agglomerates of nanocrystalline particles with an estimated composition of Ru6Mo1Se3, embedded in an amorphous phase. The electrochemical activity was studied by rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) techniques. Tafel slopes for the ORR remain invariant with temperature at ?0.116 V dec?1 with an increase of the charge transfer coefficient in d?/dT = 1.6 × 10?3, attributed to an entropy turnover contribution to the electrocatalytic reaction. The effect of temperature on the ORR kinetics was analyzed resulting in an apparent activation energy of 45.6 ± 0.5 kJ mol?1. The catalyst generates less than 2.5% hydrogen peroxide during oxygen reduction. The RuxMoySez nanoparticles dispersed on a carbon powder were tested as cathode electrocatalyst in a single fuel cell. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA), included Nafion® 112 as polymer electrolyte membrane and commercial carbon supported Pt (10 wt%Pt/C-Etek) as anode catalyst. It was found that the maximum performance achieved for the electro-reduction of oxygen was with a loading of 1.0 mg cm?2 RuxMoySez 20 wt%/C, arriving to a power density of 240 mW cm?2 at 0.3 V and 80 °C.

K. Suárez-Alcántara; O. Solorza-Feria

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Composition-Tailored Synthesis of Gradient Transition Metal Precursor Particles for Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composition-Tailored Synthesis of Gradient Transition Metal Precursor Particles for Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials ... Collected particles were lithiated, and one promising material was evaluated as the active cathode component in a lithium-ion battery. ...

Gary M. Koenig, Jr.; Ilias Belharouak; Haixai Deng; Yang-Kook Sun; Khalil Amine

2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

Impact of active material surface area on thermal stability of LiCoO2 cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal stability of charged LiCoO2 cathodes with various surface areas of active material is investigated in order to quantify the effect of LiCoO2 surface area on thermal stability of cathode. Thermogravimetric analyses and calorimetry have been conducted on charged cathodes with different active material surface areas. Besides reduced thermal stability, high surface area also changes the active material decomposition reaction and induces side reactions with additives. Thermal analyses of LiCoO2 delithiated chemically without any additives or with a single additive have been conducted to elaborate the effect of particle size on side reactions. Stability of cathode–electrolyte system has been investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Arrhenius activation energy of cathode decomposition has been calculated as function of conversion at different surface area of active material.

Jan Geder; Harry E. Hoster; Andreas Jossen; Jürgen Garche; Denis Y.W. Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Free-Standing Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2@Graphene Film for a Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Free-Standing Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2@Graphene Film for a Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode ... Graphene is a well-known material endowed with numerous advantages that have led to its extensive use as a conductive additive in Li-ion batteries, including superior electronic conductivity, a large surface area, and excellent mechanical strength. ...

Hongli Zhu; Kang Taek Lee; Gregory Thomas Hitz; Xiaogang Han; Yuanyuan Li; Jiayu Wan; Steven Lacey; Arthur von Wald Cresce; Kang Xu; Eric Wachsman; Liangbing Hu

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Steady-State Impedance Model for a PEMFC Cathode Qingzhi Guo* and Ralph E. White**,z  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolyte membrane fuel cell PEMFC cathode is presented. The catalyst layer of the electrode is assumedA Steady-State Impedance Model for a PEMFC Cathode Qingzhi Guo* and Ralph E. White**,z Center in an air/H2 PEMFC.1 Two common models are available in the literature for the study of a PEMFC air cathode

293

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

294

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, CH2M HILL B&W West...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

nuclear criticality protection program, fire protection program, and the conduct of operations program. In addition, there are technical safety requirements that include...

295

A Review of DC Micro-grid Protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, an overview of DC micro-grid is described, which includes the status of DC micro-grid protection and its future development. The paper presents the key techniques of DC micro-grid protection. So fa...

Yuhong Xie; Jia Ning; Yanquan Huang…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

CRAD, Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 CRAD, Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012 December 4, 2012 Occupational Radiation Protection Program Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry (HSS CRAD 45-35, Rev. 1) This document provides an overview of the Criteria, Activities, and Lines of Inquiry that will be used to collect information to evaluate occupational radiation protection programs against DOE policy, standards, and regulatory requirements. The approach includes evaluation of essential programmatic elements of radiation protection programs with additional emphasis on implementation of the core functions of integrated safety management. CRAD, Occupational Radiation Protection Program - December 4, 2012

297

FAQS Qualification Card - Fire Protection | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fire Protection Fire Protection FAQS Qualification Card - Fire Protection A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). For each functional area, the FAQS identify the minimum technical competencies and supporting knowledge and skills for a typical qualified individual working in the area. FAQC-FireProtection-2007.docx Description Fire Protection Qualification Card - 2007 FAQC-FireProtection-2000.docx Description Fire Protection Qualification Card - 2000

298

Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

Sigmund, Wolfgang M. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Woan, Karran V. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Bell, Nelson Simmons

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Thermal and electrochemical properties of PEO-LiTFSI-Pyr14TFSI-based composite cathodes, incorporating 4 V-class cathode active materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PEO-LiTFSI-Pyr14TFSI)-based 4 V-class composite cathodes, incorporating either Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 or Li(Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05)O2 were prepared by a hot-pressing process and successively investigated in terms of their morphological, thermal, and electrochemical properties. Thereby, excellent mechanical and thermal properties could be demonstrated for all composite cathodes. The electrochemical performance of truly dry all-solid-state Li/P(EO)10LiTFSI-(Pyr14TFSI)2/composite cathode batteries at temperatures as low as 40 °C revealed high delivered capacities. However, in comparison with LiFePO4, the 4 V-class composite cathodes also indicated much lower capacity retention. In-depth investigations on the interfacial properties of Li(Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05)O2 composite cathodes revealed a strong dependence on the anodic cut-off potential and the presence of current flow through the cell, whereby different degradation mechanisms could be characterized upon cycling, according to which the finite growth of a surface films at both electrode/polymer electrolyte interfaces inhibited continuous decomposition of the polymer electrolyte even at potentials as high as 4.3 V. Moreover, the presence of Pyr14TFSI in the 4 V-class composite cathodes sustainably reduced the cathode interfacial resistance and presumably diminished the corrosion of the aluminum current collector.

Morten Wetjen; Guk-Tae Kim; Mario Joost; Giovanni B. Appetecchi; Martin Winter; Stefano Passerini

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Physical protection system design and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, {open_quotes}what to protect against whom.{close_quotes} The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given.

Williams, J.D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Polymer–Graphene Nanocomposites as Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Electroactive polymers are a new generation of 'green' cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. We have developed nanocomposites combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide, to improve their high-rate performance. The polymer-graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple in-situ polymerization in the presence of graphene sheets. The highly dispersed graphene sheets in the nanocomposite drastically enhanced the electronic conductivity and allowed the electrochemical activity of the polymer cathode to be efficiently utilized. This allows for ultrafast charging and discharging - the composite can deliver more than 100 mAh/g within just a few seconds.

Song, Zhiping; Xu, Terrence (Tianren) [Tianren; Gordin, Mikhail; Jiang, Yingbing; Bae, In-Tae; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Donghai

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

302

Free Energy for Protonation Reaction in Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Free Energy for Protonation Reaction in Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials ... The electrochemically inert layered defect-rocksalt compound Li2MnO3 has been structurally integrated with more electrochemically active layered compounds in order to enhance Li-ion-battery cathode stability. ... Cathodes of the material had a discharge capacity of 200 mA-h/g, based on the mass of the Li-Mn oxide; an electrode capacity of >140 mA-h/g was achieved on cycling in a room-temp. ...

R. Benedek; M. M. Thackeray; A. van de Walle

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

303

The evidence of cathodic micro-discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processing of EV31 magnesium alloy has been carried out in fluoride containing electrolyte under bipolar pulse current regime. Unusual PEO cathodic micro-discharges have been observed and investigated. It is shown that the cathodic micro-discharges exhibit a collective intermittent behavior, which is discussed in terms of charge accumulations at the layer/electrolyte and layer/metal interfaces. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine the electron density (typ. 10{sup 15}?cm{sup ?3}) and the electron temperature (typ. 7500?K) while the role of F{sup ?} anions on the appearance of cathodic micro-discharges is pointed out.

Nominé, A., E-mail: alexandre.nomine@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); National Institute of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 4, Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Martin, J.; Noël, C.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Bardin, I. V.; Kovalev, V. L.; Rakoch, A. G. [National Institute of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 4, Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

304

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

305

Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings  

SciTech Connect

To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Protection Program Operations  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Order establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Protective Forces (FPF), Contractor Protective Forces (CPF), and the Physical Security of property and personnel under the cognizance of DOE.

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

307

Protective Force Program Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

Safety & Environmental Protection Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety & Environmental Protection Services Guidance Note --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW Safety & Environmental Protection Services 1 Telephone: 0141-330-5532 Email: safety of others who live near you. It is about fire and the tragic consequences of getting some simple things

Guo, Zaoyang

309

Safety & Environmental Protection Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety & Environmental Protection Services Guidance Note --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW Safety & Environmental Protection Services 1 Telephone: 0141-330-5532 Email: safety FOR THE CURRENT REVISION. Emergency Fire Action Plan Revision 03/10 Listed below are the procedures and other

Guo, Zaoyang

310

Fire Protection Related Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fire Protection related sites for Department of Energy, Non-DOE Government and Non-Government information.

311

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

312

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

313

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING FPE College of Engineering California Polytechnic State University San problems and develop fire safety design solutions in a variety of professional settings. Fire Protection Engineering Science � Apply concepts associated with the thermal sciences, to the analysis of fire protection

Sze, Lawrence

314

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING FPE College of Engineering California Polytechnic State University San and develop fire safety design solutions in a variety of professional settings. Fire Protection Engineering Science · Apply concepts associated with the thermal sciences, to the analysis of fire protection

Sze, Lawrence

315

Preparation and characterization of Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC cathode: effect of different reduction methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC cathode were prepared by impregnation-reduction method using...4, and N2H4...as reductant, respectively, and characterized by BET, CV and XRD. The effect of reduction methods on the...

Jianlu Zhang; Xiaoli Wang; Chuan Wu…

316

Organic photovoltaic devices with the bilayer cathode interfacial structure of pyromellitic dianhydride and lithium fluoride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we fabricated and characterized an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device with a pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA)/lithium fluoride (LiF) cathode interfacial layer between poly(3-hexylthiophene?2,5-diyl)(P3HT)+[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and Al. Compared to the OPV device with a LiF-only cathode interfacial layer having a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.7%, the OPV device with the bilayer cathode interfacial structure [PMDA (0.3 nm)/LiF (0.7 nm)] exhibited a reduced resistance and a PCE value enhanced to 3.9% under an illumination condition of 100 mW cm?2 (AM1.5). The observed improvement of the OPV characteristics was attributed to the reduced leakage current of the device by the bilayer cathode interfacial layer.

Eunkyoung Nam; Seungsik Oh; Donggeun Jung; Hyoungsub Kim; Heeyeop Chae; Junsin Yi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cathode materials for lithium ion batteries prepared by sol-gel methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improving the preparation technology and electrochemical performance of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries is a current major focus of research and development in the areas of materials, power sources...

H. Liu; Y. P. Wu; E. Rahm; R. Holze; H. Q. Wu

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode ...

Libao Chen; Ming Zhang; Weifeng Wei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STOICHIOMETRIC LAYERED CATHODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CATHODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Feng Lin, 1*As shown in Figure 2, in lithium-metal half-cells, capacitypredominantly occurs along the lithium diffusion channels,

Lin, Feng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Numerical computation of electric arc with annular attachment on the cathode butt end  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of computing a stationary arc with annular attachment on the butt end of a solid cylindrical cathode are presented. The influence of the discharge external parameters on the characteristics of arc ...

A. Zh. Zhainakov; R. M. Urusov; T. E. Urusova

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The current-voltage characteristic of a hot-cathode electric arc at low pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown that in a hot-cathode electric arc operating at low pressures of the working ... drop arises that results in an increase in discharge voltage with current even before the transition of the discharge

C. P. Nikulin

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy novel cathode / alloy...

323

SURFACE SEGREGATION STUDIES OF SOFC CATHODES: COMBINING SOFT X-RAYS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect

A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.

Miara, Lincoln J.; Piper, L.F.J.; Davis, Jacob N.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra; Smith, K. E.; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Hafnium metallocene compounds used as cathode interfacial layers for enhanced electron transfer in organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have used hafnium metallocene compounds as cathode interfacial layers for organic solar cells [OSCs]. A metallocene compound consists of...6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl...

Keunhee Park; Seungsik Oh; Donggeun Jung; Heeyeop Chae…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Polyaniline: characterization as a cathode active material in rechargeable batteries in aqueous electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytically pure form of chemically synthesized polyaniline having the emeraldine oxidation state has been used as a cathode active material together with a Zn anode in the...2 electrolyte (pH?4). The experim...

N. L. D. Somasiri; A. G. Macdiarmid

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

LiCoO2-and LiMn2O4-based composite cathode materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have prepared composite cathode materials based on two electrochemically active compounds, LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4..., and investigated their properties. The results indicate that the discharge capacities of all th...

Ya. V. Shatilo; E. V. Makhonina; V. S. Pervov; V. S. Dubasova…

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrous oxide species as inhibitors of oxygen reduction at platinum activated fuel cell cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The successful development of a methanol/air fuel cell requires optimum performance of the air/ oxygen cathode at about 0.8 V vs RHE. ... oxygen gas reduction on platinum (the best electrocatalyst for this reacti...

L. D. Burke; J. K. Casey; J. A. Morrissey…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Study of Anodic and Cathodic Catalysts for Water Electrolysis Activation of Membranes and Diaphragms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of the anodic and cathodic catalysts developed under the previous contract 067–76-EHI, with a view to identifying the best candidate for alkaline and acid electrolysis at temperatures up to 140°C,...

Placido M. Spaziante

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thermal instabilities of organic carbonates with discharged cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal instability of lithiated cathode materials with organic...4, LiMn2O4, and LiCoO2...were mixed with diethyl carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and propylene carbonat...

Wei-Jie Ou; Chen-Shan Kao; Yih-Shing Duh…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Advanced Lithium Battery Cathodes Using Dispersed Carbon Fibers as the Current Collector  

SciTech Connect

To fabricate LiFePO4 battery cathodes, highly conductive carbon fibers of 10-20 m in diameter have been used to replace a conventional aluminum (Al) foil current collector. This disperses the current collector throughout the cathode sheet and increases the contact area with the LiFePO4 (LFP) particles. In addition, the usual organic binder plus carbon-black can be replaced by a high temperature binder of <5 weight % carbonized petroleum pitch (P-pitch). Together these replacements increase the specific energy density and energy per unit area of the electrode. Details of the coating procedure, characterization and approach for maximizing the energy density are discussed. In a side-by-side comparison with conventional cathodes sheets of LFP on Al foil, the carbon fiber composite cathodes have a longer cycle life, higher thermal stability, and high capacity utilization with little sacrifice of the rate performance.

Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Supply and demand in the material recovery system for cathode ray tube glass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the material recovery system for leaded glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs). In particular, the global mass flow of primary and secondary CRT glass and the theoretical capacities for using ...

Nadeau, Marie-Claude

332

High-voltage pulsed discharge in an electron source with a plasma cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nature of and mechanism for producing a high-voltage discharge in an electron source with a plasma cathode are investigated. The possibility of generating pulsed electron currents with an amplitude of 103–104

S. P. Bugaev; F. Ya. Zagulov

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Ribbon-Beam Generation at Forevacuum Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A plasma electron source producing a ribbon beam at pressures of ... cathode is used as a plasma generator. Electrons are extracted through the emission slit in ... covered by a metal mesh. The maximum electron-b...

V. A. Burdovitsin; Yu. A. Burachevskii…

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Coastal Marshlands Protection Act (Georgia  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coastal Marshlands Protection Act provides the Coastal Resources Division with the authority to protect tidal wetlands. The Coastal Marshlands Protection Act limits certain activities and...

335

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385°C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350°C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500°C to 750°C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650°C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2010-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

336

ORISE: Human Subjects Protection Resource Protection Book  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Protection Resource Book Human Subjects Protection Resource Book The Human Subjects Protection Resource Book synthesizes information currently available on the protection of human subjects in research, the continuing application of such information to new areas of endeavor, and ever-changing rules, regulations, and guidance. This resource, to which the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contributed, is for investigators, institutional review boards, research organizations, research subjects and others. The book contains chapters that provide background information on the history and development of federal regulations; chapters that discuss procedural and substantive issues regarding the review and conduct of human subjects research; and chapters that are specific to one type of research

337

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode-Supported Cell Development - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Supported Cell Development- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

338

Graphene Cathode-Based ZnO Nanowire Hybrid Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene Cathode-Based ZnO Nanowire Hybrid Solar Cells ... On the basis of this structure, we then demonstrate graphene cathode-based hybrid solar cells using two different photoactive materials, PbS quantum dots and the conjugated polymer P3HT, with AM 1.5G power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% and 0.5%, respectively, approaching the performance of ITO-based devices with similar architectures. ... graphene; ZnO nanowires; solar cells; ITO ...

Hyesung Park; Sehoon Chang; Joel Jean; Jayce J. Cheng; Paulo T. Araujo; Mingsheng Wang; Moungi G. Bawendi; Mildred S. Dresselhaus; Vladimir Bulovi?; Jing Kong; Silvija Grade?ak

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

339

Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...

Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

340

SWNT?MWNT Hybrid Architecture for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SWNT?MWNT Hybrid Architecture for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes ... A thin film of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and SWNT?multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrids loaded with Pt have been evaluated as the cathode catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. ... Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program: Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Planned Program Activities for 2003?2010; U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: January 21, 2005. ...

Palanisamy Ramesh; Mikhail E. Itkis; Jason M. Tang; Robert C. Haddon

2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Development of a cold cathode ion source for a mass spectrometer type vacuum leak detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF A COLD CATHODE ION SOURCE FOR A MASS SPECTROL'ETER TYPE VACUUM LEAK DETECTOR A Dissertation By Harold A. Thomas June 1947 Approval as to style and content recommended* Head Deparanent of Electrical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF A... Investigation of Ion Source ? .......... 6 III. Investigation of Ion Energies ...................... 21 IV. Development of Lrass Spectrometer Tube Utilizing the Cold Cathode Ion S o u r c e ........ 41 V* Conclusions...

Thomas, Harold Albert

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e? and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm?2 to 0.05 mA cm?2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

Fang Wang; Yang-Hai Xu; Zhong-Kuan Luo; Yan Pang; Qi-Xing Wu; Chun-Sheng Liang; Jing Chen; Dong Liu; Xiang-hua Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

S-band relativistic magnetron operation with an active plasma cathode  

SciTech Connect

Results of experimental research on a relativistic S-band magnetron with a ferroelectric plasma source as a cathode are presented. The cathode plasma was generated using a driving pulse (approx3 kV, 200 ns) applied to the ferroelectric cathode electrodes via inductive decoupling prior to the beginning of an accelerating pulse (200 kV, 150 ns) delivered by a linear induction accelerator. The magnetron and generated microwave radiation parameters obtained for the ferroelectric plasma cathode and the explosive emission plasma were compared. It was shown that the application of the ferroelectric plasma cathode allows one to avoid a time delay in the appearance of the electron emission to achieve a better matching between the magnetron and linear induction accelerator impedances and to increase significantly (approx30%) the duration of the microwave pulse with an approx10% increase in the microwave power. The latter results in the microwave radiation generation being 30% more efficient than when the explosive emission cathode is used, where efficiency does not exceed 20%.

Hadas, Y.; Sayapin, A.; Kweller, T.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

The design of a cathode to operate in an oxygen-rich environment  

SciTech Connect

The primary problem with Hall plasma accelerator operation on oxygen is poor cathode performance and short lifetime. The primary problem with micro Hall thrusters is the absence of a stable low power cathode. Cathodes traditionally used for both applications employ thermionic emitters which are not efficient and which are easily oxidized in an oxygen-rich environment. The field emitter cathode presented in this report has the potential of filling both vacancies since it does not require a high-power heater and can be scaled down with the size of the thruster. The advantages to using Hf and HfC as emitting materials are low work functions and high resistance to oxygen poisoning. Preliminary investigations proved that HfC emitters can operate in 7.6 mTorr oxygen pressure environments. The initial cathode design employs an electrostatic lens that also acts as an ion filter to prevent thruster ions from bombarding the field emitters while decelerating the electron beam and keeping it focused to ensure efficient performance. Electron trajectories through the cathode and ion filtering capabilities are presented in this report as predicted by the charged particle code, MAGIC.

Marrese, Colleen M.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Mackie, William A.; Evans, David E. [Plasmadynamic and Electric Propulsion Lab., University of Michigan Dept. of Aerospace Engineering FXB Building, 1320 Beal Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2118 (United States); Linfield Research Institute 900 Baker St. McMinnville, Oregon 97128-6894 (United States)

1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Groundwater Protection 7 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT7-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to implement best management practices designed to protect groundwater. Examples include upgrading unGroundwater Protection 7 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT7-1 7.1 THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION's program helps to fulfill the environmental monitoring requirements outlined in U.S. Department of Energy

Homes, Christopher C.

346

CRAD, Fire Protection - October 12, 2012 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fire Protection - October 12, 2012 Fire Protection - October 12, 2012 CRAD, Fire Protection - October 12, 2012 October 12, 2012 Fire Protection Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry HSS CRAD 45-34, Rev. 1) Review fire protection system design and defense in-depth strategies. Interviews shall be conducted of personnel including fire engineers, fire coordinators, fire system technicians, facility operations personnel, and fire department personnel. Review policies, procedures, fire hazards analyses, and safety basis documentation. Additionally, perform facility building walk downs and inspections, and observe selected work activities, such as hot work, fire system impairments, combustible storage practices, dispensing flammable liquids, maintenance and testing of fire protection

347

FAQS Qualification Card - Radiation Protection | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection FAQS Qualification Card - Radiation Protection A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). For each functional area, the FAQS identify the minimum technical competencies and supporting knowledge and skills for a typical qualified individual working in the area. FAQC-RadiationProtection.docx Description Radiation Protection Qualification Card More Documents & Publications FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Radiation Protection

348

Excimer emission from pulsed microhollow cathode discharges in xenon  

SciTech Connect

Direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is an intense source for excimer radiation in vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 172 nm in a high pressure xenon (Xe) gas. The concentration of precursors for the excimer formation, i.e., excited and ionized gas atoms, increases significantly by applying high voltage pulse onto the dc MHCD over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. The intensity of the excimer emission for the voltage pulse of 20 ns duration exceeds that of the emission intensity obtained from the same MHCD operated only in the dc mode, by one order of magnitude. In addition, the emission intensity increases by one order of magnitude over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. It can be assumed that the emission intensity of the MHCD source increases as long as the duration of the high voltage pulse is shorter than the electron relaxation time. For the high voltage pulse of 100 ns duration, the emission intensity has been found to be further enhanced by a factor of three when the gas pressure is increased from 200 to 800 mbar.

Lee, B.-J.; Nam, S. H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Rahaman, H. [CSIR–CEERI Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)] [CSIR–CEERI Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Iberler, M.; Jacoby, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frank, K. [Physics Department 1, University of Erlangen – Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Physics Department 1, University of Erlangen – Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges  

SciTech Connect

Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Bennett, Nichelle L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Laboratories

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Durability study of transition metal based non-precious cathode in PEFC  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on performance durability of newly developed polyaniline (PANI)-derived non-precious cathode catalyst, whose high oxygen-reduction activity was verified in electrochemical and fuel cell testing, exhibiting onset and half-wave potential (E{sup 1/2}) of oxygen reduction at 0.90 V and 0.77 V, respectively, as well as an insignificant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields below 1%. It was found catalyst durability in fuel cell life tests is greatly dependent on the catalyst synthesis including nitrogen precursors, employed transition metals, and supporting materials. Importantly, the working voltages in fuel cell testing have a profound impact on the stability, which much more stable performance can be observed at lower voltage such as 0.4 V when compared with higher voltage, 0.6 V. Preliminary physical and electrochemical characterization present to provide insight into the origin of the possible degradation mechanism for the non-precious active sites.

Wu, Gang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Hot hollow cathode and its applications in vacuum coating: A concise review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A concise description of the hollow cathode (HC) effect is given to clarify the confusing terminology and their diverse applications. The cold and hot types of HC’s are then discussed. It is followed by a summary of the behavior of the hot HC as an arc generating device with emphasis on its use for vacuum coating purposes. Two major coating devices one developed by Ulvac Corp. (Japan) and the other at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) of Rockwell International (USA) are then reviewed with their respective applications. Review of the latter includes recent results of plume effect upon both the unusual deposition rate distribution and the extremely high substrate (ion) current. The coating morphology and microstructure can be best explained using the Krikorian concept and when optimized can help to render very high bonding strength (as high as 90 ksi for 304 stainless steel substrates) with the coatings used as the bonding interlayer. Finally comments are made concerning the directions of future technology development based on the system features reviewed.

Y. S. Kuo; R. F. Bunshah; D. Okrent

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Laboratory coating evaluation and its relationship with the selection to protect pipeline against external corrosion  

SciTech Connect

There are several pipeline external coatings classified into different types, among them are extruded and tape polyethylene, fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), coal tar enamel, coal tar epoxy, polyurethane, wax, cementitious epoxy and multilayer systems. These coatings are assumed to protect the pipeline for a certain period of time. In order to select the most appropriate coating, several accelerated laboratory tests need to be carried out to obtain their properties and correlate them with the performance in the field. Cathodic disbonding tests at different temperatures and voltages, adhesion at different temperatures, impact resistance, loss of adhesion against time under water immersion conditions, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and water uptake are the most important tests to carry out in this study. The results indicate that coatings perform differently in each test. For this reason the selection must be done according to the soil characteristics, considering the results obtained in laboratory. This paper will provide a guideline to select a coating for a specific environment and the results that should be expected in the field. For example, the multilayer system presented the best performance like low cathodic disbonding, excellent adhesion, high impact resistance, excellent behavior under hot water immersion and high temperature resistance. This system can be used in all types of soil with high life time expectancy in protecting the pipeline. On the other hand, the polyurethane coating presented high impact resistance but very low adhesion and high cathodic disbonding that limits its use in corrosive soil.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Castafieda, L.; Alvarez, E. [INTEVEP, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Material Technology Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

National Infrastructure Protection Plan  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Infrastructure Infrastructure Protection Plan 2006 Preface Preface i The ability to protect the critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) of the United States is vital to our national security, public health and safety, economic vitality, and way of life. U.S. policy focuses on the importance of enhancing CI/KR protection to ensure that essential governmental missions, public services, and economic functions are maintained in the event of a

355

Respiratory Protection Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This page is supported by the Respiratory Protection Program Administrators Group. The Respiratory Protection Program Administrators Group is a volunteer organization co-sponsored by the DOE Office of Worker Safety and Health Policy and the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) to provide a forum for DOE and DOE contractor personnel to identify respiratory protection issues of concern to the DOE and pursue solutions to issues identified.

356

Physical Protection Program Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Supplements DOE O 473.1, by establishing requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Cancels: DOE M 5632.1C-1

2002-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

Asset Protection Analysis Guide  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Guide provides examples of the application of as set protection analysis to several common problems. Canceled by DOE N 251.80.

2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

359

Evaluation of sterling silver as a contacting material for the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research focuses on the development and testing of contact paste materials for the SOFC, utilizing silver, in a simulated cathode environment. Test specimens were… (more)

Sakacsi, John.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Definition: Special Protection System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Protection System Protection System Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Special Protection System An automatic protection system designed to detect abnormal or predetermined system conditions, and take corrective actions other than and/or in addition to the isolation of faulted components to maintain system reliability. Such action may include changes in demand, generation (MW and Mvar), or system configuration to maintain system stability, acceptable voltage, or power flows. An SPS does not include (a) underfrequency or undervoltage load shedding or (b) fault conditions that must be isolated or (c) out-of-step relaying (not designed as an integral part of an SPS). Also called Remedial Action Scheme.[1] Also Known As Remedial Action Scheme Related Terms system References

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Aging assessment for active fire protection systems  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

Ross, S.B. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Clothes That Care -- Flame Resistant Protection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.. 8-1272 othes That Care- Flame Resistant Protection" TOoe ZTA245.7 8873 NQ.'2'T2 Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas , ? Clothes That Care- Flame... Resistant Protection Claudia Kerbel * Concern for a safer environment has led to changes in many of the everyday products we use , including clothing . In the' past dec ade, flame-resistant (FR) garments and fabrics have become more available than ever...

Kerbel, Claudia

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the fifth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Fabrication of porous samaria-doped ceria (SDC) and investigation of the effect of thermal treatment on its conductivity. The model developed accounts for transport through three regions: (a) Transport through the bulk of the grain, RI, which includes parallel transport through space charge region. (b) Transport through the space charge region adjacent to the neck (grain boundary), RII. (c) Transport through the structural part of the neck (grain boundary), RIII. The work on the model development involves calculation RI, RII, RIII, and the sum of these three terms, which is the total resistance, as a function of the grain radius ranging between 0.5 and 5 microns and as a function of the relative neck size, described in terms of the angle theta, ranging between 5 and 45{sup o}. Three values of resistivity of the space charge region were chosen; space charge resistivity greater than grain resistivity, equal to grain resistivity, and lower than grain resistivity. Experimental work was conducted on samaria (Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped ceria (SDC) samples of differing porosity levels, before and after thermal treatment at 1200 C. The conductivity in the annealed samples was lower, consistent with enhanced Debye length. This shows the important role of space charge on ionic transport, and its implications concerning cathode polarization.

Anil V. Virkar

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

364

Simulative research on the expansion of cathode plasma in high-current electron beam diode  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of cathode plasma has long been recognized as a limiting factor in the impedance lifetime of high-current electron beam diode. Realistic modeling of such plasma is of great necessity in order to discuss the dynamics of cathode plasma. Using the method of particle-in-cell, the expansion of cathode plasma is simulated in this paper by a scaled-down diode model. It is found that the formation of cathode plasma increases the current density in the diode. This consequently leads to the decrease of the potential at plasma front. Once the current density has been increased to a certain value, the potential at plasma front would then be equal to or lower than the plasma potential. Then the ions would move towards the anode, and the expansion of cathode plasma is thereby formed. Different factors affecting the plasma expansion velocity are discussed in this paper. It is shown that the decrease of proton genatation rate has the benefit of reducing the plasma expansion velocity.

Xu Qifu; Liu Lie [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Microbial fuel cell with an algae-assisted cathode: A preliminary assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an algae-assisted cathode, i.e., a system where the oxygen required by the cathode is not provided by aeration but by the photosynthetic process of the algae (Chlorella vulgaris), has been studied. The cathode was illuminated for 12 h each day (from 8:00 h to 20:00 h). 25 days was necessary to achieve steady state conditions. The time evolution of dissolved oxygen and cell voltage were assessed over the course of each day. As expected, the dissolved oxygen values were not constant throughout the day, reaching maximum values between 14:00 h and 20:00 h when dark phase reactions began and the algae started to consume oxygen. Cell voltage (Rext 120 ?) followed the same trend as the oxygen profile. The supply of CO2 in the cathode was also studied, and half an hour was enough time to get the system working properly. During the acclimation stage, power density increased up to 13.5 mW m?2 at steady state conditions. However, impedance analysis showed that polarization resistance was higher at the cathode than at the anode. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that the studied system is a feasible method to treat wastewater in a self-sustainable way.

Araceli González del Campo; Pablo Cañizares; Manuel A. Rodrigo; Francisco J. Fernández; Justo Lobato

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Experimental investigation of a capacitive blind hollow cathode discharge with central gas injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operating parameters and resulting plasma properties of a blind hollow cathode (BHC) discharge have been investigated. The hollow cathode was driven capacitively with a pulsed dc signal of 200 kHz in a power range between 50 and 100 W at an ambient pressure of about 10 Pa. The working gas was argon, which was introduced with a ceramic capillary at different positions of the longitudinal axis of the hollow cathode with flow rates of between 30 and 1000 sccm. The current–voltage characteristics were recorded.The pressure at the end of the BHC was measured with a miniaturized pressure transducer with varying volumetric flow rate and axial position of the capillary in the hollow cathode. To characterize the ignition behaviour of the system, the measured breakdown voltages were compared with phenomenological Paschen curves calculated from the pressure data.Optical emission spectroscopy was used to examine the origins of the light emission, comparing the glow mode and hollow cathode mode in particular.A high-speed camera recorded some plasma processes. A mounting with an indium tin oxide coated glass was used to observe the inner volume of the BHC along the longitudinal axis, while the plasma was operated with different parameters. The optical observations revealed an inhomogeneous plasma condition along the axis.

D Hoffmann; M Müller; D Petkow; G Herdrich; S Lein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Application of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films to the head/disk tribology  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous hard carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic arc deposition exhibit very high hardness and elastic modulus, high mass density, low coefficient of friction, and the films are very smooth. All these properties are beneficial to applications of these films for the head/disk interface tribology. The properties of cathodic arc deposited amorphous carbon films are summarized, and they are compared to sputter deposited, hydrogenated (CH{sub x}), and nitrogenated (CN{sub x}) carbon films which are the present choice for hard disk and slider coatings. New developments in cathodic arc coaters are discussed which are of interest to the disk drive industry. Experiments on the nanotribology, mass density and hardness, corrosion behavior, and tribochemical behavior of cathodic arc films are reported. A number of applications of cathodic arc deposited films to hard disk and slider coatings are described. It is shown that their tribological performance is considerably better compared to CH{sub x} and CN{sub x} films.

Anders, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.; Bhatia, C.S. [SSD/IBM, San Jose, CA (United States); Fong, W.; Lo, R.Y.; Bogy, D.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Mechanics Lab.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program. Topical report: Cathode compatibility tests  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

Johnson, W.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan serves as an aid to management and staff to implement new environmental programs in a timely manner.

Brekke, D.D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Protective Force Program Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

371

Environmental protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

R. C. Holland

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Protection of Human Subjects  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects; and in DOE P 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, dated 12-20-07. Cancels DOE O 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B.

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Protection of Human Subjects  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish DOE procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 CFR Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects, ad in DOE P 443.1, Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects. Cancels DOE O 1300.3. Canceled by DOE O 443.1A.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Environmental Protection Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To implement sound stewardship practices that are protective of the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources impacted by the Department of Energy (DOE) operations and by which DOE cost effectively meets or exceeds compliance with applicable environmental; public health; and resource protection laws, regulations, and DOE requirements. Cancels DOE 5400.1 and DOE N 450.4.

2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Conley, William R. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Notices ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

25 Federal Register 25 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 209 / Friday, October 28, 2011 / Notices ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9484-2] Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC); Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Charter Renewal. Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that, in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App.2. The Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) is a necessary committee which is in the public interest. Accordingly, CHPAC will be renewed for an additional two- year period. The purpose of CHPAC is to provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator of EPA on issues

377

ORISE: Human Subjects Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Protection Human Subjects Protection The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performs technical assessments to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories involved in human subjects research projects. Under DOE Order and Policy 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, and 10 CFR 745, DOE employees and contractors are expected to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects. In support of the DOE Office of Science and the Human Subjects Protection Program (HSPP), ORISE has most recently assisted with the development and distribution of tools to address classified research and to track potential human social cultural behavior systems (HSCB) research conducted by DOE laboratories. Examples of products that ORISE has developed in support of the HSPP

378

Department of Energy: Safety and Employee Protection Authorities |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy: Safety and Employee Protection Authorities Energy: Safety and Employee Protection Authorities Department of Energy: Safety and Employee Protection Authorities In an effort to provide greater clarity on the diverse nature of federal safety and employee protection programs, the Department of Energy (DOE) has compiled the following list of existing authorities that directly pertain to DOE employees and DOE contractors. These laws prescribe the appropriate protections and guidelines for employees raising protected concerns. The Department is committed to maintaining a safe, healthy, and transparent work environment through raising greater awareness of the existing employee protection programs. The following includes a summarization of existing protections as well as a link to the full text of each statutory and

379

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode active material powders for lithium-conductivity of cathode active materials can limit the powergraphitic coatings on cathode active material powders and

Doeff, M.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Li2NiO2 as a Novel Cathode Additive for Overdischarge Protection of Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the fuel-cell voltage reaches the plateau region, the anode voltage is also saturated around 3.6 V (vs Li/Li+) where the anodic copper dissolution is estimated to occur. ... Numerical simulation for the discharge behaviors of batteries in series and/or parallel-connected battery pack ...

Hochun Lee; Sung-Kyun Chang; Eun-Young Goh; Jun-Yong Jeong; Jae Hyun Lee; Hyeong-Jin Kim; Jeong-Ju Cho; Seung-Tae Hong

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Contamination Evaluation with a RRDE- Acetylene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of C2H2 on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for a commercial Pt/C catalyst was investigated using rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique in acidic solution. This study was undertaken to provide insight into the mechanism of C2H2 contamination of the cathodes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The cyclic voltammetry results show a high C2H2 coverage on the Pt surface and an almost complete loss of the electrochemical surface area in the presence of 0.14 mM C2H2. The RRDE was used to measure the ORR polarization curves and H2O2 production in air. The introduction of C2H2 shifts the ORR onset potential in the negative direction by 330 mV, and no limiting current can be observed in the potential scan window. The significant retardation of the ORR is associated with the complete loss of the ECSA, as the adsorption of C2H2 on the Pt sites results in the inhibition of both HUPD and O2 adsorption. Furthermore, it is proposed that C2H2 adsorption also has an impact on the adsorption configuration of O2 molecules; the Pauling configuration prevails due to the spatial limitations imposed by the presence of adsorbed C2H2 on Pt. As a result, both the ring-disk and Koutecky-Levich measurements show a shift in the reaction pathway from a 4- to a 2-electron reduction: the H2O2 production increases and the charge transfer number decreases. The ORR rate determining step is observed to be shifted from the first electron transfer to other possible steps. This change is confirmed by the Tafel slope measurement, which increases significantly and is most likely due to the changes in the adsorption energy of O2. Nearly complete recovery of the performance is attainable by stopping the C2H2 exposure. The unrecovered performance is attributed to the remaining surface adsorbates.

Junjie Ge; Jean St-Pierre; Yunfeng Zhai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative and Durable High Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells PNNL: Yong Wang Conrad Zhang Vilayanur Viswanath Yuehe Lin Jun Liu Project kick Project kick - - off meeting off meeting Feb 13 Feb 13 - - 14, 2007 14, 2007 Ballard Power Systems: Stephen Campbell University of Delaware: Jingguang Chen ORNL: Sheng Dai 2 Technical Issues and Objective Technical Issues and Objective Current technical issues z Carbon support „ Susceptible to oxidation under fuel cell operating conditions. „ Oxidation further catalyzed by Pt „ Corrosion leads to Pt migration and agglomeration

384

Long-pulse arc-discharge plasma source with cold cathode for diagnostic neutral beam injector  

SciTech Connect

Long-pulse cold cathode arc-discharge plasma generators have been successfully used as high-quality hydrogen ion sources for plasma diagnostic neutral beams. One of the main advantages of this type of plasma source is a high proton fraction (80%-90%). However, the lifetime of the plasma source is limited due to intensive electrode's erosion, especially at the cathode region. An optimized design of the cathode and the nearest electrodes is found which reduces the erosion and allows us to increase the pulse length. The plasma source produces the extracted ion current up to 3 A at a low angular divergence, and at the pulse duration up to 2 s.

Deichuli, P. P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Stupishin, N. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

PEDOT: Cathode active material with high specific capacity in novel electrolyte system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was chemically synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TGA and organic elemental analysis (EA). The polymer was tested as cathode active material for rechargeable lithium batteries. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge–discharge tests of PEDOT as the cathode active material was investigated in an electrolyte system of LiN(CF3SO2)2/1,2-dimethoxyethane/1,3-dioxopentane (1:2 by weight). The peak discharge capacity of up to 691 mAh/g was obtained during the 1st cycle, and remained above 330 mAh/g after 44 cycles. These results indicate that PEDOT can afford a high specific capacity as a cathode active material. A redox mechanism is tentatively proposed.

Lizhi Zhan; Zhiping Song; Jingyu Zhang; Jing Tang; Hui Zhan; Yunhong Zhou; Caimao Zhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_LSM-Infiltrated LSCF Cathodes.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Interfaces and Interfaces in LSM-Infiltrated LSCF Cathodes Wentao Qin, Mingfei Liu, Matthew E. Lynch, Jong-jin Choi and Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Recent studies suggest that the stability and performance of a porous La x Sr 1-x Co y Fe 1-y O 3- (LSCF) cathode may be enhanced by the infiltration of a thin-film La x Sr 1-x MnO 3- (LSM) coating. However, the mechanism of the observed enhancement is still unknown. This poster will present our recent findings in microanalyses of the structure, composition, and morphology of the LSM and LSCF surfaces as well as the LSM/LSCF interfaces in LSM-infiltrated LSCF cathodes. Results indicate that a

387

Protective properties of conversional polymer coatings  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the development of conversional polymer coatings deposited from aqueous solutions. A distinctive feature of such coatings is that their deposition occurs at the expense of the energy of chemical reactions on the surface of the treated metal. {open_quotes}Amchem,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Oxy Metall,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Union Carbide Corp.{close_quotes} are leading company patentees in this field. The resistance of these coatings to the action of a salt mist lies within the range 16-500 h and depends on the nature of the latex and the composition of the compound. Below, we present results of an investigation of the protective properties of conversion polymeric coatings by different methods. The coatings were applied according to the technology developed at the Dnepropetrovsk Institute of Chemical Engineering. This technology differs from similar technologies used abroad by the utilization of products of large-scale chemical industrial production and specially synthesized stabilizers, which also play the role of cross-linking agents. The protective properties of conversional polymer coatings were studied using the pulse electrostatic method and also by simulated-service tests. As advantages of the electrostatic method over classical ac methods of corrosion testing, one can mention the possibilities of leveling the ohmic drop in a solution and measuring the values of the reaction resistance and the double-layer capacitance of a corroding electrode in the same test. The corrosion current was determined for given values of the reaction resistance and the anodic and cathodic Tafel constants, which can also be found from results of electrostatic measurements.

Panasenko, S.A.; Mark, L.I.; Grishchuk, V.I. [Dzerzhinskii Institute of Chemical Engineering, Dnepropetrovsk (Russian Federation)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Office of River Protection (ORP) and Washingotn River Protection Solutions,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection (ORP) and Washingotn River Protection Office of River Protection (ORP) and Washingotn River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) Partnering Agreement for the DOE-EM Tank Operations Project Office of River Protection (ORP) and Washingotn River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) Partnering Agreement for the DOE-EM Tank Operations Project The Mission of the Office of River Protection is to safely retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Office of River Protection (ORP) and Washingotn River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) Partnering Agreement for the DOE-EM Tank Operations Project More Documents & Publications 2011 Annual Workforce Analysis and Staffing Plan Report - Office of River Protection Consent Order, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC - NCO-2011-01

389

Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This order establishes the Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for Department of Energy (DOE) operations. Cancels Interim Management Directive No. 5001, Safety, Health And Environmental Protection dated 9-29-77.

1980-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

Mechanism for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Pt3Ni Alloy Fuel Cell Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), 4H+ + 4e– + O2 ? 2H2O, at the cathode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a critical issue for commercial application of this type of fuel cells. ... This agrees with the volcano-like trend for ORR catalysts,(7, 31, 32) when the activity first increases and then decreases as the catalyst d-band center shifts downward. ... Improved Non-Pt Alloys for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Fuel Cell Cathodes Predicted from Quantum Mechanics ...

Yao Sha; Ted H. Yu; Boris V. Merinov; Pezhman Shirvanian; William A. Goddard; III

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

391

Carbon Nanotube Film by Filtration as Cathode Catalyst Support for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotube Film by Filtration as Cathode Catalyst Support for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell ... 1-10 Some early investigations found that by using the normal paste method and simply replacing carbon black particles with disordered multiwalled CNTs as the support for Pt catalyst nanoparticles higher PEMFC and DMFC performances were achieved. ... activity of the CNT cathode catalysts was measured in a direct methanol fuel cell by use of a Pt-Ru/C anode, and use of a Nafion-115 membrane. ...

Wenzhen Li; Xin Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Mahesh Waje; Yushan Yan

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

392

Amp\\`ere-Class Pulsed Field Emission from Carbon-Nanotube Cathodes in a Radiofrequency Resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulsed field emission from cold carbon-nanotube cathodes placed in a radiofrequency resonant cavity was observed. The cathodes were located on the backplate of a conventional $1+\\frac{1}{2}$-cell resonant cavity operating at 1.3-GHz and resulted in the production of bunch train with maximum average current close to 0.7 Amp\\`ere. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristic, transverse emittance, and pulse duration are presented and, when possible, compared to numerical simulations. The implications of our results to high-average-current electron sources are briefly discussed.

Mihalcea, D; Hartzell, J; Panuganti, H; Boucher, S M; Murokh, A; Piot, P; Thangaraj, J C T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect

RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is expected to improve further. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper.

Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

2010-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Voltage Gain in Lithiated Enolate-Based Organic Cathode Materials by Isomeric Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Voltage Gain in Lithiated Enolate-Based Organic Cathode Materials by Isomeric Effect ... For a long time, this class of redox-active materials has been disregarded mainly due to stability issues but, in recent years, progress has been made demonstrating that organics undeniably exhibit considerable assets. ... In practice, dilithium (2,3-dilithium-oxy)-terephthalate compound (Li4C8H2O6) was first produced through an eco-friendly synthesis scheme based on CO2 sequestration, then characterized, and finally tested electrochemically as lithiated cathode material vs. Li. ...

Sébastien Gottis; Anne-Lise Barrès; Franck Dolhem; Philippe Poizot

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Optimization of carbon-supported platinum cathode catalysts for DMFC operation.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe performance and optimization of carbon-supported cathode catalysts at low platinum loading. We find that at a loading below 0.6 mg cm-2 carbon-supported platinum outperforms platinum black as a DMFC cathode catalyst. A catalyst with a 1:1 volume ratio of the dry NafionTM to the electronically conducting phase (platinum plus carbon support) provides the best performance in oxygen reduction reaction. Thanks to improved catalyst utilization, carbon-supported catalysts with a platinum content varying from 40 wt% to 80 wt% deliver very good DMFC performance, even at relatively modest precious metal loadings investigated in this work.

Zhu, Y. (Yimin); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Zelenay, P. (Piotr)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Improved Non-Pt Alloys for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Fuel Cell Cathodes Predicted from Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the hypothesis that improved alloy catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at fuel cell cathodes should catalysts for polymer electrolyte mem- brane fuel cell (PEMFC) than pure Pt, while maintaining or improving the surface under FC operating conditions.9 To determine new alloy candidates for PEMFC cathodes, we

Goddard III, William A.

397

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability ... The resulting graphene–sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ?600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density. ...

Hailiang Wang; Yuan Yang; Yongye Liang; Joshua Tucker Robinson; Yanguang Li; Ariel Jackson; Yi Cui; Hongjie Dai

2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

398

A Hybrid Laser-driven E-beam Injector Using Photo-cathode Electron Gun and superconducting Cavity*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Hybrid Laser-driven E-beam Injector Using Photo-cathode Electron Gun and superconducting Cavity, Beijing 100871, China * Work supported by NNSF of China Abstract A laser-driven photo-cathode electron gun constructed and tested. As the next step, a hybrid photo-injector, using a DC laser-driven electron gun

Geng, Rong-Li

399

The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Shen J. Dillon, Lam Helmick,§,¶ Herbert M. Miller,§ Lane Wilson in a multiphase ceramic material. I. Introduction THE active cathode regions of many solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, both before and after mild

Rohrer, Gregory S.

400

High-Energy Cathode Materials (Li2MnO3–LiMO2) for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Energy Cathode Materials (Li2MnO3–LiMO2) for Lithium-Ion Batteries ... Fabrication of Nitrogen-Doped Holey Graphene Hollow Microspheres and Their Use as an Active Electrode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries ... Li-rich materials are considered the most promising for Li-ion battery cathodes, as high energy densities can be achieved. ...

Haijun Yu; Haoshen Zhou

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hierarchically Structured Ni3S2/Carbon Nanotube Composites as High Performance Cathode Materials for Asymmetric Supercapacitors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hierarchically Structured Ni3S2/Carbon Nanotube Composites as High Performance Cathode Materials for Asymmetric Supercapacitors ... Therefore, the active surface area of the Ni3S2 nanoparticles is increased, which further enhances the capacitive performance of the composite electrode. ... nickel sulfide; carbon nanotube; composite; cathode material; asymmetric supercapacitor ...

Chao-Shuan Dai; Pei-Yi Chien; Jeng-Yu Lin; Shu-Wei Chou; Wen-Kai Wu; Ping-Hsuan Li; Kuan-Yi Wu; Tsung-Wu Lin

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Hyun materials as cathode in lithium ion batteries because of its intrinsic low-cost, environmental friendliness that enhances the contact between active material grains and electrolyte. In particular, LiMn2O4 nanorods

Cui, Yi

403

Phase Separations in LiFe1–xMnxPO4: A Random Stack Model for Efficient Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lithium transition metal phosphates are of interest as storage cathodes for rechargeable Li batteries because of their high energy d., low raw materials cost, environmental friendliness and safety. ... The former material, proven to be very promising as active cathode material in Li metal and Li-ion batteries, was synthesized through a new procedure that combines a simple sol-gel pptn. ...

Weifeng Huang; Shi Tao; Jing Zhou; Cheng Si; Xing Chen; Wei Huang; Chuanhong Jin; Wangsheng Chu; Li Song; Ziyu Wu

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Crystal Orientation Tuning of LiFePO4 Nanoplates for High Rate Lithium Battery Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For an electrochemical cell to deliver capacity at high rate, all parts of the Li+-electron path between the anode and the cathode active material have to be capable of sustaining this rate. ... Materials with the olivine LixMPO4 structure form an important class of rechargeable battery cathodes. ...

Li Wang; Xiangming He; Wenting Sun; Jianlong Wang; Yadong Li; Shoushan Fan

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

405

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. Deposition on flat substrates yields February 4, 2010. Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells are promising for future automotive applications

Gall, Daniel

406

Thermal runaway features of 18650 lithium-ion batteries for LiFePO4 cathode material by DSC and VSP2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of availability, accountability, and applicability, LiFePO4 cathode material has been confirmed to be better than LiCoO2...cathode material. Nevertheless, few related researches were conducted for thermal

Chia-Yuan Wen; Can-Yong Jhu; Yih-Wen Wang…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Protective laser beam viewing device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

408

Bird Protection in Illinois  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protection in Illinois Protection in Illinois Nature Bulletin No. 550-A January 18, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BIRD PROTECTION IN ILLINOIS Very few people are indifferent about birds. Almost every bird is the feathered friend of somebody or some organization ready to do battle in its behalf. At present, in Illinois, songbirds and most other wild birds, together with their nests and eggs, are completely protected by law at all times. A few kinds, called game birds, may be shot by hunters -- pheasants and quail, also migratory ducks, geese, coots, jacksnipes, woodcocks, and doves. Such hunting must be done with shotguns in certain places in certain open seasons with many other detailed restrictions. Now, even crow hunters are licensed. The only unprotected birds are those three immigrants or exotics: the English sparrow, the European starling and the "domestic " pigeon. These, too, have their friends .

409

Protective Force Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

410

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Physical Protection Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes Department of Energy management objectives, requirements and responsibilities for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Cancels DOE 5632.1C. Canceled by DOE O 470.4.

2002-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

412

Voluntary Protection Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

VPP Steering Committee - The Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Federal Field Steering Committee is a group of Federal field office staff members from offices where at...

413

Federal Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Protection of Human Subjects  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The purpose of this Policy is to establish DOE-specific policy for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Canceled by DOE P 443.1A.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Protection of Human Subjects  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Policy is to establish DOE-specific principles for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Cancels DOE P 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cavern Protection (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cavern Protection (Texas) Cavern Protection (Texas) Cavern Protection (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Texas Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Texas General Land Office It is public policy of the state to provide for the protection of caves on or under Texas lands. For the purposes of this legislation, "cave" means any naturally occurring subterranean cavity, and includes or is synonymous with cavern, pit, pothole, well, sinkhole, and grotto. No person may excavate, remove, destroy, injure, alter in any significant manner, or deface any part of a cave owned by the State of Texas, unless the person

417

Laboratory Protection Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Points of Contact Points of Contact Organization Chart (pdf) Groups Emergency Services Emergency Management Security Operations BNL Site Access Main Gate Access Forms Welcome to the... Laboratory Protection Division (LP) Mission Statement: To serve and protect Brookhaven National Laboratory's staff, guests, and interests from the undesirable consequences of unwanted events by providing preparedness, assessment, engineering, and immediate response services for all types of security and non-security related emergencies. Protect DOE special nuclear materials, classified matter, sensitive information, and property against theft, diversion, or destruction; prevent the sabotage of programs that could result in significant scientific or financial impact; prevent the malevolent release of hazardous materials including radiological, chemical, and infectious agents or other criminal acts protecting people, property, and national security, providing a safe and secure environment for employees, the public, and the environment.

418

General Environmental Protection Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for Department of Energy (DOE) Operations for assuring compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, Executive Orders, and internal Department policies. Cancels DOE O 5480.1A. Para. 2b, 4b, and 4c of Chap. II and para. 2d and 3b of Chap. III canceled by DOE O 231.1.

1990-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

419

Voluntary Protection Program- Basics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) promotes safety and health excellence through cooperative efforts among labor, management, and government at the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor sites. DOE has also formed partnerships with other Federal agencies and the private sector for both advancing and sharing its Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) experiences and preparing for program challenges in the next century. The safety and health of contractor and federal employees are a high priority for the Department.

420

Environmental Protection Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To implement sound stewardship practices that are protective of the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources impacted by the Department of Energy (DOE) operations and by which DOE cost effectively meets or exceeds compliance with applicable environmental; public health; and resource protection laws, regulations, and DOE requirements. Chg 1, dated 1-24-05; Chg 2, dated 12-7-05; Admin Chg 1, dated 1-3-07. Cancels DOE 5400.1 and DOE N 450.4.

2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Protections: Sediment Control = Contaminant Retention  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sediment Control Protections: Sediment Control Contaminant Retention LANL maintains hundreds of wells, stream sampling stations and stormwater control structures to protect...

422

NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

participants include universities, national laboratories, small businesses, and other R&D organizations. The data and results are available to all Industry Teams, ensuring...

423

Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY POLICY STATEMENT The University intends to fully comply with all requirements of the Data Protection Act 1998 (,,Act) in so far as it affects the Universitys activities. SCOPE This Data Protection Policy: Covers the processing of all personal information

Greenlees, John

425

Hollow cathode cold atmospheric plasma source with monoatomic and molecular gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance of the radio frequency (r.f.) hollow cathode at atmospheric pressure was tested for neon, argon, nitrogen and air. A non-equilibrium (cold) atmospheric plasma was generated in the gas flowing through the cathode. The electrode system was installed in a chamber open to ambient atmosphere. Two r.f. frequencies 13.56 and 27.12 \\{MHz\\} were compared. Similarly to the low pressure hollow cathodes the higher frequency was found to be more suitable for all tested gases, due to a lower minimum r.f. voltage and related power for ignition and sustaining a stable plasma. The fused hollow cathode (FHC) source produces a stable and uniform plasma over large area in monoatomic gases, suitable for surface treatment of temperature sensitive materials, for cleaning and surface activation applications. However, a substantial difference was found in discharge performance when using a molecular gas. An optimization of the impedance matching network enabled generation of a stable cold plasma at r.f. powers below 50 W in both air and nitrogen. Possibilities of a stable uniform air (or nitrogen) plasma generation over large areas by the FHC sources are discussed, too.

H Baránková; L Bárdoš

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source David K. Olson,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design based on metal vapor vacuum arc MeVVA concepts is employed as a plasma source for a study of a 7 using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs with a proton beam. We create our 7 Be on the surface of a sample of enriched boron carbide. Because 7

Hart, Gus

427

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate

Yildiz, Bilge

428

Cold-hollow-cathode arc discharge in crossed electric and magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A crossed-field cold-hollow-cathode arc is stable at low working gas pressures...?2–10?1 Pa, magnetic-field-and gas-dependent arcing voltages of 20–50 V, and discharge currents of 20–200 A. This is ... produced o...

P. M. Schanin; N. N. Koval; Yu. Kh. Akhmadeev; S. V. Grigoriev

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Effect of current density on poisoning rate of Co-containing fuel cell cathodes by chromium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variation of electrochemical performance of a La0.58Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) cathode due to chromium gas-phase deposition has been studied at 800°C. The highest degradation rate is observed under open circuit con...

E. Yu. Konysheva

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Influence of NaCl on cathode performance of solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Degradation induced by sodium chloride in air was...0.8Sr0.2)0.98MnO3(LSM) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3(LSCF) cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells(SOFC). Cell performance was measured by volatilizing NaCl to...2...fo...

Run-ru Liu; De-jun Wang; Jing Leng

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Supporting Information Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Supporting Information Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan b a State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, THU­ VEOLIA Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, PR China * Corresponding author: E

432

Microstructural Characterization Using Orientational Imaging Microscopy of SOFC Cathodes Subjected to Thermal and Electrochemical Loads  

SciTech Connect

Cathodes in SOFCs consist of interconnecting and contacting two-phase interfaces and three-phase lines in a complex three-phase microstructure. Furthermore, the interfacial crystallography is dynamic and changes in response to thermal loads and to interfacial electrochemical polarizations. Owing to this inherent complexity, a complete and fundamental understanding of both the basic mechanisms of cathodic processes and their performance degradation has not been achieved. We have carried out quantitative orientational imaging microscopy (OIM) on button-cell geometry SOFCs containing porous cathodes of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide. A series of cathodes, taken from cells subjected to both open-circuit and current-loaded fuel-cell conditions, were characterized with OIM to determine their microstructural and crystallographic properties as a function of thermal and electrochemical history. In this presentation we will discuss the results of these studies, focusing on the crystallographic nature of the statistically important two-phase interfaces and three-phase lines.

Cao, Y. (Carnegie Mellon University); Miller, H.M. (Carnegie Mellon University); Johnson, C.; Wilson, L.C.; Rohrer, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Salvador, P. (Carnegie Mellon University)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Manganese-Containing Cathode-Active Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Manganese, which has a Clarke number of 0.06%,1...is the tenth-most abundant element in the earth’s crust, and has been utilized as a cathode-active material for manganese, alkaline-manganese, and lithium ... , f...

Koichi Numata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Short communication Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short communication Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in microbial activity for ORR [7]. The procedures to make these materials have required several synthesis steps, long catalytic activity is thought to be due to production of nitrogen-containing carbon materials

435

Selection of Conductive Additives in Li-Ion Battery Cathodes A Numerical Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- capacity LiNi1-xCoxO2 to lower cost LiNi1-xCoxO2. The addition of conductive additives to cathode materials significantly improve overall conductivity. Percolation was achieved for the volume fraction of active material particulate system. Neither surface nor bulk modifications of active-material particle conductivities seem

Sastry, Ann Marie

436

Ex situ testing method to characterize cathode catalyst degradation during start-up/shut-down -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ex situ testing method to characterize cathode catalyst degradation during start in electrochemically active surface area. Furthermore, contributions from different processes leading to catalyst. Submitted: 15.12.2011 * Pres. address: SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, New Energy Solutions, Sem Sælandsvei

Pfeifer, Holger

437

Beam characterization of a lab bench cold cathode ultra-soft x-ray generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-source. Keywords: Ultra-soft X-rays (USX), USX Cold cathode generator, Gafchromic dosimetry, Aluminium K line. 1 and cell transformation) [1]. USX, however,5 pose significant problems in dosimetry and experimental design References hal-00858423,version1-5Sep2013 Author manuscript, published in "Nuclear Instruments and Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

438

Mitigating Voltage Fade in Cathode Materials by Improving the Atomic Level Uniformity of Elemental Distribution  

SciTech Connect

Li-rich and Mn-rich (LMR) layered structured materials are very promising cathodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, their fundamental structure and voltage fading mechanisms are far from being well understood. Here we report the first evidence on the reduced voltage and energy fade of LMR cathode by improving the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species. LMR cathode (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2) prepared by co-precipitation and sol-gel methods are dominated by R-3m phase and show significant Ni-segregation at the surface of the particles. They exhibit large voltage-fade and fast capacity degradation. In contrast, LMR cathode prepared by hydrothermal assisted method is dominated by C2/m phase and minimal Ni-segregation. It also demonstrates much smaller voltage-fade and excellent capacity retention. The fundamental correlation between the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species and the functional stability of the materials found in this work also guide the design of other functional materials with enhanced stabilities.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Pinghong; Chen, Xilin; Zhu, Zihua; Zhao, Wenbo; Pullan, Lee; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

Understanding structural defects in lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes Karalee A. Jarvis,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the required amounts of lithium, manganese, and nickel acetates were added to this solution. The molar ratioUnderstanding structural defects in lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes Karalee A. Jarvis, Accepted 31st March 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm30575e Planar defects in lithium-rich layered oxides were

Ferreira, Paulo J.

440

Growth and characterization of rare-earth monosulfides for cold cathode applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chalco- genides of the rare-earth elements.4,5 The possibility was analyzed theoretically basedGrowth and characterization of rare-earth monosulfides for cold cathode applications Y. Modukuru, J phonons at 261 284 and 100 92 cm 1 with LaS NdS , respectively. These rare-earth monosulfides offer

Boolchand, Punit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Portable power source based on air-hydrogen fuel cells with free-breathing cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Portable power source based on air-hydrogen fuel cells (FCs) operating in a free-breathing cathode regime has been developed. At a volume of 100 cm3, the source has a power capacity of 8.5 W h and generates a pow...

S. A. Gurevich; E. I. Terukov; O. I. Kon’kov; A. A. Tomasov…

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Corrosion mechanisms in aqueous solutions containing dissolved H2S. Part 2: Mode! ofthe cathodic reactions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) the expression of the current density for the reaction (3) was obtained after the determination of the Tafel potential, and bc.u,s is the cathodic Tafel slope equal to 145±10mV (!). 2 Governing equations The governing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform Fikile R of hydrogen H2 and oxygen O2 . Operating fuel cells in alkaline media, as opposed to acidic media, has on an alkaline microfluidic fuel cell for catalyst and electrode characterization. Its constantly refreshing

Kenis, Paul J. A.

444

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

445

Carbonophosphates: A New Family of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Identified Computationally  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbonophosphates: A New Family of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Identified ABSTRACT: The tremendous growth of Li-ion batteries into a wide variety of applications is setting new applications from portable electronics to electric vehicles. A critical element of a Li-ion battery is the Li

Ceder, Gerbrand

446

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a, *, N. Sinha, Waterloo, Ont. N2L3C5, Canada 1. Introduction Field emission from carbon nanotube (CNT) was first reported Available online 27 June 2008 Keywords: Field emission Current density Carbon nanotube Strain phonon A B

Melnik, Roderick

447

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

448

Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

449

Farmland Protection Policy Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Farmland Protection Policy Act Farmland Protection Policy Act Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Farmland Protection Policy Act Year 1981 Url [[File:|160px|link=http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/?ss=16&navtype=SUBNAVIGATION&cid=nrcs143_008275&navid=100170180000000&pnavid=100000000000000&position=Welcome.Html&ttype=detail&pname=Farmland%20Protection%20Policy%20Act%20%7C%20NRCS]] Description Congress enacted the Farmland Protection Policy Act (FPPA) as a subtitle of the 1981 Farm Bill. The purpose of the law is to "...minimize the extent to which Federal programs contribute to the unnecessary conversion of farmland to nonagricultural uses..." (P.L. 97-98, Sec. 1539-1549; 7 U.S.C. 4201, et seq.). The FPPA also stipulates that federal programs be compatible with state, local and private efforts to protect farmland. For the purposes of the law, federal programs include construction projects-such as highways, airports, dams and federal buildings-sponsored or financed in whole or part by the federal government, and the management of federal lands. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is charged with oversight of the FPPA.

450

Notices ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

076 Federal Register 076 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 250 / Monday, December 31, 2012 / Notices ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9006-8] Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off Charleston, South Carolina AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the designation of an expanded ODMDS off Charleston, South Carolina. Purpose: EPA has the authority to designate ODMDSs under Section 102 of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.). It is EPA's policy to prepare a National Environmental Policy Document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR 58045, October 1998). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, TO

451

Notices ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

22 Federal Register 22 Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 103 / Friday, May 28, 2010 / Notices ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9156-1] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of one new equivalent method for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, one new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surender Kaushik, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (MD-D205-03), National Exposure

452

River Protection.PDF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cc: cc: DOE/IG-0506 I N S P E C T I O N R E P O R T U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF INSPECTIONS I N S P E C T I O N O F SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION PERFORMANCE-BASED INCENTIVE PROGRAM JUNE 2001 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, DC 20585 June 14, 2001 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman /s/ Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Report on "Inspection of Selected Aspects of the Office of River Protection Performance-Based Incentive Program" BACKGROUND The Office of River Protection (ORP), which reports to the Office of Environmental Management, is responsible for remediation of the radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Hanford Site in the State of Washington. For Fiscal Year (FY) 2000, ORP established 26 performance-based contract

453

Method for protecting an electric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

Kuehnle, Barry W. (Ammon, ID); Roberts, Jeffrey B. (Ammon, ID); Folkers, Ralph W. (Ammon, ID)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

454

Environmental Protection Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Details Site Details EPD Home Staff List (pdf) Org Chart (pdf) Compliance / Permits Programs Other Information Land Use & Institutional Controls Mapping Site Environmental Reports Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) Spill Response BNL Site Index Can't View PDFs? Developing Environmental Products and Services for Brookhaven Stakeholders The Environmental Protection Division (EPD) develops and delivers environmental products and services for all Brookhaven stakeholders. We manage environmental programs such as pollution prevention, groundwater protection, and natural resource management; provide technical assistance on environmental requirements; maintain the Laboratory's IS0 14001-registered Environmental Management System; prepare environmental permit applications; conduct environmental monitoring; manage data

455

Protection Program Operations  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Order establishes requirements for the management and operation of the DOE Federal Protective Forces (FPF), Contractor Protective Forces (CPF), and the Physical Security of property and personnel under the cognizance of DOE. Cancels DOE M 470.4-2A, DOE M 470.4-3A, and DOE M 470.4-8. Appendix C Safeguards and Security Alarm Management and Control Systems, of DOE M 470.4-2A, is retained and incorporated into this Order as Attachment 3, Annex 1.

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

456

Substation fire protection features  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes Commonwealth Edison`s (ComEd) approach to substation fire protection. Substation fires can have a major operational, financial, as well as political impact on a utility. The overall Company philosophy encompasses both active and passive fire protection features to provide prompt detection, notification, and confinement of fire and its by-products. Conservatively designed smoke detection systems and floor and wall penetration seals form the backbone of this strategy. The Company has implemented a program to install these features in new and existing substations. Thus far these measures have been successful in mitigating the consequences of substation fires.

Hausheer, T.G. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Environmental protection implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable.

Holland, R.C.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. This report focuses on the following: notification of environmental occurrences; general planning and reporting; special programs and plans; environmental monitoring program; and quality assurance and data verification.

Brekke, D.D.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

J. D. Bigbee

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

460

Observation of radio frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge plasma with MgO and Al electrodes for plasma processing  

SciTech Connect

Various high-density plasma sources have been proposed for plasma processing. Especially, the hollow cathode discharge is one of the powerful ones. In this work, radio-frequency (RF) driven ring-shaped hollow cathode discharges with high secondary-electron emission have been investigated, using an aluminum (Al) cathode, coated or not with magnesium oxide (MgO). The thickness of MgO thin film is approximately 200?nm. The RF discharge voltage for the coated cathode is almost the same as that for the uncoated one, in a wide range of Ar gas pressure, from 5.3 to 53.2?Pa. The results reveal that the plasma density has a peak at an Ar gas pressure of 10.6?Pa for both cathodes. The plasma density for the coated cathode is about 1.5–3 times higher than that for the uncoated one, at various gas pressures. To the contrary, the electron temperature for the coated cathode is lower than temperature obtained with the uncoated cathode, at various gas pressures. Radial profiles of electron saturation current, which is proportional to plasma flux, are also examined for a wide range of gas pressure. Radial profiles of electron temperature at various axial positions are almost uniform for both cathodes so that the diffusion process due to density gradient is dominant for plasma transport. The secondary electrons emitted from the coated cathode contribute to the improvement of the plasma flux radial profile obtained using the uncoated cathode.

Ohtsu, Yasunori, E-mail: ohtsuy@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Naoki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Who Protects My Trust?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......they trust to protect their interests? The eBay points model of trust works and users understand that. We need something...behavioural advertising. It is claimed they are able to predict flu outbreaks and even know when a woman is pregnant before she does......

Rick Chandler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

United States Environmental Protection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Public Health and Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (40 CFR Part 197)--Final Rule Response to Comments Document #12;Yucca Mountain Standards Response to Comments Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada 40 CFR Part 197 June, 2001 Office of Radiation and Indoor Air U

463

Armored garment for protecting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, II, Jack F. (Albuquerque, NM); Whinery, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brazfield, Richard (Albuquerque, NM); Lawrie, Catherine (Tijeras, NM); Lawrie, David (Tijeras, NM); Preece, Dale S. (Watkins, CO)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

464

Protective Force Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

465

United States Environmental Protection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water; preventionUnited States Environmental Protection Agency Hydrogeologic Framework, Ground-Water Geochemistry/R-02/008 January 2002 Hydrogeologic Framework, Ground-Water Geochemistry, and Assessment of Nitrogen

466

Contractor Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

467

Marine Policy Challenges in developing China's marine protected area system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the country hosts an exceptional marine biodiversity comprising about 20,300 recorded species, including 12Marine Policy Challenges in developing China's marine protected area system Wanfei Qiu a,* , Bin Department of Marine Environment Protection, State Oceanic Administration, No. 1 Fuxingmenwai Avenue, Beijing

Jones, Peter JS

468

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers  

SciTech Connect

An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

McDowell, V.P.

1988-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

470

Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Order establishes the Environmental Protection, Safety. and Health Protection Program for Department of Energy (DOE) operations. Cancels DOE 5480.1, dated 5-5-1980, its chapters are not canceled. Canceled by DOE O 5480.1B

1981-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

471

Resynthesis of LiCo1?xMnxO2 as a cathode material for lithium secondary batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recycling process involving chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical steps has been applied to recover cobalt from spent lithium ion batteries and resynthesize cathode active materials. LiCo1?xMnxO2...powders ...

Soo-Kyung Kim; Dong-Hyo Yang; Jeong-Soo Sohn…

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Effects of different particle sizes on electrochemical performance of spinel LiMn2O4 cathode materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the preparation of cathode sheets, a slurry was formed by mixing the active material (85%), acetylene black (10%)...N...-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP). The mixed slurry was coated onto an aluminum current collec...

Ting-Feng Yi; Xin-Guo Hu; Chang-Song Dai; Kun Gao

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Platinum-Alloy Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Nanometer-Scale Compositional and Morphological Changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrochemical measurements showed an ?75% Pt surface area loss and an ?40% specific activity loss for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) cathode with acid-treated “Pt[subscript 3]Co ” catalyst particles in a H[subscript ...

Chen, Shuo

474

Thermal processes in the systems with Li-battery cathode materials and LiPF6 -based organic solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic instability of positive electrodes (cathodes) in Li-ion batteries in humid air and battery solutions results in capacity fading and batteries degradation, especially at elevated temperatures. In thi...

Ortal Haik; Francis Susai Amalraj…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Optimization of the Cathode Catalyst Layer Composition of a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Novel 2-Step Preparation Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For good performance and high durability PEM fuel cells run at high water saturation levels. However, excess liquid water generated by the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode can block pores in the catalyst layer so ...

Friedmann, Roland

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

476

A Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Focused-Beam Generation in the Fore-Pump Pressure Range  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A plasma electron source is described that forms a focused beam ... is generated in a hollow-cathode discharge. Electrons are extracted through a single emission hole in the anode. The source provides an electron

V. A. Burdovitsin; I. S. Zhirkov; E. M. Oks…

477

High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication. Abstract: In this work, we synthesized monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 nanobelts via a single-step,...

478

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of NiO cathodes during cell operation is a limiting factor to the successful commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Microencapsulation of the NiO cathode has been adopted as a surface modification technique to increase the stability of NiO cathodes in the carbonate melt. The material used for surface modification should possess thermodynamic stability in the molten carbonate and also should be electro catalytically active for MCFC reactions. A simple first principles model was developed to understand the influence of exchange current density and conductivity of the electrode material on the polarization of MCFC cathodes. The model predictions suggest that cobalt can be used to improve the corrosion resistance of NiO cathode without affecting its performance. Cobalt was deposited on NiO cathode by electroless deposition. The morphology and thermal oxidation behavior of Co coated NiO was studied using scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis respectively. The electrochemical performance of cobalt encapsulated NiO cathodes were investigated with open circuit potential measurement and current-potential polarization studies. These results were compared to that of bare NiO. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of cobalt-coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Dissolution of nickel into the molten carbonate melt was less in case of cobalt encapsulated nickel cathodes. Co coated on the surface prevents the dissolution of Ni in the melt and thereby stabilizes the cathode. Finally, cobalt coated nickel shows similar polarization characteristics as nickel oxide. A similar surface modification technique has been used to improve the performance of the SS 304 current collectors used in MCFC cells. SS 304 was encapsulated with nanostructured layers of NiCo and NiMo by electroless deposition. The corrosion behavior of bare and surface modified SS 304 in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential studies, Tafel polarization, impedance analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. This study confirms that the presence of surface modification leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and electronic conductivity.

Dr. Ralph E. White

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

479

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Theoretical specific energy and theoretical energy density Scanning electron micrograph of the GO-S nanocomposite June 2013 Searching for a safer, less expensive alternative to today's lithium-ion batteries, scientists have turned to lithium-sulfur as a possible chemistry for next-generation batteries. Li/S batteries have several times the energy storage capacity of the best currently available rechargeable Li-ion battery, and sulfur is inexpensive and nontoxic. Current batteries using this chemistry, however, suffer from extremely short cycle life-they don't last through many charge-discharge cycles before they fail. A research team led by Elton Cairns and Yuegang Zhang has developed a new

480

Comparison of electrogenic capabilities of microbial fuel cell with different light power on algae grown cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electricity generation capabilities of microbial fuel cell with different light power on algae grown cathode were compared. Results showed that microbial fuel cell with 6 and 12 W power of light always produced higher voltage and power density than with 18 and 26 W. Similarly, microbial fuel cell with 6 and 12 W of light power always displayed higher Coulombic efficiency and specific power than the one with 18 and 26 W. The results also showed that microbial fuel cell with covered anodic chamber always displayed higher voltage, power density, Coulombic efficiency and specific power than the one without covered anodic chamber. Binary quadratic equations can be used to express the relationships between the light power and the voltage, power density, Coulombic efficiency and specific power. Although lower power of light on algae grown cathode and covering anodic chamber will increase system’s electricity production, they will not significantly reduce its internal resistance.

D.F. Juang; C.H. Lee; S.C. Hsueh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Final Technical Report- Back-gate Field Emission-based Cathode RF Electron Gun  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to complete the design of an electron gun which utilizes a radio frequency (RF) power source to apply a voltage to a field emission (FE) cathode, a so called cold cathode, in order to produce an electron beam. The concept of the RF electron gun was originally conceived at Argonne National Laboratory but never reduced to practice. The research allowed the completion of the design based upon the integration of the FE electron source. Compared to other electron guns, the RF gun is very compact, less than one third the size of other comparable guns, and produces a high energy (to several MeV), high quality, high power electron beam with a long focal length with high repetition rates. The resultant electron gun may be used in welding, materials processing, analytical equipment and waste treatment.

McGuire, Gary; Martin, Allen; Noonan, John

2010-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

482

Aliphatic thioether polymers as novel cathode active materials for rechargeable lithium battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two aliphatic thioether polymers, poly[methanetetryl-tetra(thiomethylene)] (PMTTM) and poly(2,4-dithiopentanylene) (PDTP) were designed, synthesized, characterized and tested as cathode active materials. The chemical structure of polymers was confirmed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, and XPS spectral analysis. Both polymers were found to have electrochemical activity as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium battery by the electrochemical tests. The specific capacity of PMTTM was 504 mA h g?1 at the third cycle and faded to 200 mA h g?1 after 10 cycles; PDTP showed low and stable specific capacity around 100 mA h g?1 even after 50 cycles. The specific capacity of fully saturated aliphatic thioether polymers demonstrated that thioether bonds offered energy storage. It was proposed that thioether bond was oxidized to form thioether cations with the help of ether solvents.

Jingyu Zhang; Lingbo Kong; Lizhi Zhan; Jing Tang; Hui Zhan; Yunhong Zhou; Caimao Zhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Dual active material composite cathode structures for Li-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficacy of composite Li-ion battery cathodes made by mixing active materials that possessed either high-rate capability or high specific energy was examined. The cathode structures studied contained carbon-coated LiFePO4 and either Li[Li0.17Mn0.58Ni0.25]O2 or LiCoO2. These active materials were arranged using three different electrode geometries: fully intermixed, fully separated, or layered. Discharge rate studies, cycle-life evaluation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted using coin cell test structures containing Li-metal anodes. Results indicated that electrode configuration was correlated to rate capability and degree of polarization if there was a large differential between the rate capabilities of the two active material species.

J.F. Whitacre; K. Zaghib; W.C. West; B.V. Ratnakumar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Preparation of the tetrahydro-hexaquinone as a novel cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel quinone compound, tetrahydro-hexaquinone (THHQ), was prepared by a facile oxidation process and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and elemental analysis (EA). The compound was tested as a novel cathode active material for rechargeable lithium batteries. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge–discharge tests of THHQ were investigated in an electrolyte system of LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)+diethyl carbonate (DEC, 1:1 by volume). The electrochemical tests showed that an initial specific capacity of 340 mA h g?1 was obtained and 203 mA h g?1 specific capacity was retained after 40 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g?1. The results indicated that THHQ can afford a high specific capacity as a potential cathode active material.

Qingli Zou; Weikun Wang; Anbang Wang; Zhongbao Yu; Keguo Yuan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Sulfides organic polymer: Novel cathode active material for rechargeable lithium batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two novel sulfide polymers, poly(2-phenyl-1,3-dithiolane) and poly[1,4-di(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)benzene], were prepared via facile oxidative-coupling polymerization under ambient conditions, characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA and elemental analysis, and were tested as cathode materials in rechargeable lithium battery. The charge–discharge tests showed that the specific capacity of poly[1,4-di(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)benzene)] was 378 mAh g?1 at the third cycle, and retained at 300 mAh g?1 after 20 cycles. The specific capacity of poly(2-phenyl-1,3-dithiolane) was 117 mAh g?1 at the second cycle, and retained at 100 mAh g?1 after 20 cycles. The results indicated that thiolane group could be used as cathode active function group for lithium secondary batteries and the novel electrode reaction is proposed tentatively.

Jing Yu Zhang; Ling Bo Kong; Li Zhi Zhan; Jing Tang; Hui Zhan; Yun Hong Zhou; Cai Mao Zhan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)  

SciTech Connect

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

Anders, Andre

2014-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

487

FAQS Job Task Analyses - Fire Protection Engineering  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Job Task Analysis and Competency Review Job Task Analysis and Competency Review for All Level Competencies Fire Protection Engineering FAQS Initially conducted (expert competencies): August 2010 Updated (includes ALL Competencies): April 2011 Updated (includes ALL Competencies): October 2012 STEP 1: Job Task Analysis for Tasks Task (and Number) Source Importance Frequency Serve as the subject matter expert in the area of fire protection, life safety, and fire department emergency related services. FAQS Duties and Responsibilities Paragraph A 5 4 Review fire hazard analyses, assessments, and other fire safety documentation for compliance with applicable requirements. FAQS Duties and Responsibilities Paragraph B 5 3 Evaluate the adequacy of site emergency services. This includes all facets of the fire

488

Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Program Management » Safety » Worker Protection Services » Program Management » Safety » Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees This Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses and accidental losses by providing DOE Federal and contractor workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees More Documents & Publications CRAD, Machine Shop Safe Operations Assessment Plan Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Audit Report: IG-0404 Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing

489

ORISE: Voluntary Protection Program (VPP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) is a unique, collaborative program that is designed to promote superiority in safety and health at DOE contractor sites. In 2003, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) officially gained VPP Star status. This new ranking served as the next logical step in ORISE's established and growing safety program based on the Integrated Safety Management system. Originally launched by DOE in January 1994, VPP was designed to promote public recognition of outstanding programs with improved safety and health performance. VPP represents DOE's high priority for operating in the safest way possible, and the program serves as a visible and measurable indicator of this priority. VPP brings several workplace advantages, including improved labor/

490

Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions Title Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Zheng, Honghe, Gao Liu, Xiangyun Song, Paul L. Ridgway, Shidi Xun, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of Electrochemical Society Abstract Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 -based laminates of approximately the same loading and of varying levels of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder and acetylene black (ratio held constant) were fabricated and calendered to different porosities, with the objective to investigate performance on a volume basis. The electronic conductivity of the laminates depends strongly on the inactive material content but not significantly on porosity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies found that charge-transfer resistance with calendering varied greatly with inactive material content. When the electrode contains low levels of inactive material (2% PVDF and 1.6% carbon), calendering significantly reduced the bulk resistance of the electrode. With high levels of inactive material (8% PVDF and 6.4% carbon), charge-transfer resistance increased with increased calendering. Above a certain level, depending on the overall composition, the inactive material reduces ionic transport to the active material surface. For a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle required to go 40 miles at an average rate of 20 miles/h with a 38 kW 10 s power-pulse capability, the cell chemistry studied is energy-limited. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the cathode should be compressed to 10% porosity with a minimal amount of inactive material

491

Theory, Investigation, and Stability of Cathode Electro-catalytic Activity„Georgia Institute of Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theory, Investigation, and Stability of Theory, Investigation, and Stability of Cathode Electro-catalytic Activity- Georgia Institute of Technology Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for

492

Ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots in the absence and presence of a magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Because plasma production at vacuum cathode spots is approximately proportional to the arc current, arc current modulation can be used to generate ion current modulation that can be detected far from the spot using a negatively biased ion collector. The drift time to the ion detector can used to determine kinetic ion energies. A very wide range of cathode materials have been used. It has been found that the kinetic ion energy is higher at the beginning of each discharge and approximately constant after 150 {micro}s. The kinetic energy is correlated with the arc voltage and the cohesive energy of the cathode material. The ion erosion rate has in inverse relation to the cohesive energy, enhancing the effect that the power input per plasma particle correlates with the cohesive energy of the cathode material. The influence of three magnetic field configurations on the kinetic energy has been investigated. Generally, a magnetic field increases the plasma impedance, arc burning voltage, and kinetic ion energy. However, if the plasma is produced in a region of low field strength and streaming into a region of higher field strength, the velocity may decrease due to the mirror effect. A magnetic field can increase the plasma temperature but may reduce the density gradients by preventing free expansion into vacuum. Therefore, depending on the configuration, a magnetic field may increase or decrease the kinetic energy of ions. Additionally, the angular distribution of the ion flux and ion kinetic energy has been investigated in the absence of an external magnetic field. The result can be fitted by a superposition of an isotropic and a cosine distribution.

Anders, Andre; Yushkov, George Yu.

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

493

Characterization and Comparison of Different Cathode Materials for SC-SOFC: LSM, BSCF, SSC and LSCF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cathode materials for Single Chamber Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SC-SOFC) (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3- (LSM), Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0 Chamber, Solid Oxide Fuel cell, SSC. 1 Introduction Single Chamber Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SC-SOFC) show and their polarization resistance under air and methane/air atmosphere. Electrolyte-supported fuel cells, with Ce0.9Gd0

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

494

Electrochemical properties of lithium polymer batteries with doped polyaniline as cathode material  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) was doped with different lithium salts such as LiPF{sub 6} and LiClO{sub 4} and evaluated as cathode-active material for application in room-temperature lithium batteries. The doped PANI was characterized by FTIR and XPS measurements. In the FTIR spectra, the characteristic peaks of PANI are shifted to lower bands as a consequence of doping, and it is more shifted in the case of PANI doped with LiPF{sub 6}. The cathodes prepared using PANI doped with LiPF{sub 6} and LiClO{sub 4} delivered initial discharge capacities of 125 mAh g{sup ?1} and 112 mAh g{sup ?1} and stable reversible capacities of 114 mAh g{sup ?1} and 81 mAh g{sup ?1}, respectively, after 10 charge–discharge cycles. The cells were also tested using polymer electrolyte, which delivered highest discharge capacities of 142.6 mAh g{sup ?1} and 140 mAh g{sup ?1} and stable reversible capacities of 117 mAh g{sup ?1} and 122 mAh g{sup ?1} for PANI-LiPF{sub 6} and PANI-LiClO{sub 4}, respectively, after 10 cycles. The cathode prepared with LiPF{sub 6} doped PANI shows better cycling performance and stability as compared to the cathode prepared with LiClO{sub 4} doped PANI using both liquid and polymer electrolytes.

Manuel, James [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kwang; Matic, Aleksandar; Jacobsson, Per [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)] [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Ha, Jong Keun; Cho, Kwon-Koo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the second quarter of the project. Effort is directed in two areas: (1) The use of a novel method to achieve a given porosity level with high contiguity and thus conductivity. (2) Relate the measured conductivity to porosity and contiguity. The rationale for these experiments was to develop cathodes with high ionic conductivity, so that the effective polarization resistance will be concomitantly lowered.

Anil V. Virkar

2003-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

496

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

497

Protecting Spreadsheets Against Fraud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous research on spreadsheet risks has predominantly focussed on errors inadvertently introduced by spreadsheet writers i.e. it focussed on the end-user aspects of spreadsheet development. When analyzing a faulty spreadsheet, one might not be able to determine whether a particular error (fault) has been made by mistake or with fraudulent intentions. However, the fences protecting against fraudulent errors have to be different from those shielding against inadvertent mistakes. Faults resulting from errors committed inadvertently can be prevented ab initio by tools that notify the spreadsheet writer about potential problems whereas faults that are introduced on purpose have to be discovered by auditors without the cooperation of their originators. Even worse, some spreadsheet writers will do their best to conceal fraudulent parts of their spreadsheets from auditors. In this paper we survey the available means for fraud protection by contrasting approaches suitable for spreadsheets with those known from frau...

Mittermeir, Roland T; Hodnigg, Karin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 °C for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

Doeff, Marca M. (Hayward, CA); Peng, Marcus Y. (Cupertino, CA); Ma, Yanping (Albany, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z