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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Cathodic protection in oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the use of cathodic protection (CP) to mitigate internal and corrosion-related failures that occur in the produced brine phase of oilfield tanks and production vessels is discussed. Unique considerations covered include brine properties, CP system selection, installation details, monitoring, and coatings.

Turnipseed, S.P. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Intermittent cathodic protection using solar power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intermittent impressed current cathodic protection technique using photovoltaic energy was evaluated to determine it`s ability to protect bridge concrete piles in marine environments against corrosion. The technique uses commercially available anode systems to deliver the cathodic protection current to the concrete and onto the reinforcing steel. Cathodic protection current is only applied during the daytime hours. The magnitude of the applied current was based on sunlight availability. An evaluation was conducted on laboratory specimens as well as in the field. The laboratory work was performed on steel reinforced concrete specimens placed in simulated salt water tanks. For the field evaluation, ten prestressed concrete piles of a bridge structure with an existing rectifier powered cathodic protection system were used. In both cases, intermittent cathodic protection was provided. Polarization and depolarization of the steel reinforcement as well as the protection current delivered were monitored to evaluate the cathodic protection performance as well as the behavior of periodic polarization-depolarization.

Kessler, R.J.; Powers, R.G.; Lasa, I.R. [Florida Dept. of Transportation, Gainesville, FL (United States). Corrosion Research Lab.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

AC corrosion on cathodically protected steel.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This report deals with the effect of alternating current on cathodically protected steel. AC corrosion has become relevant in the offshore industry due to… (more)

Torstensen, Andreas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Sun powers Libya cathodic-protection system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well castings and part of the main 300-mile-long, 32-in diameter pipeline from Sarir to Tobruk are cathodically protected by solar power, which prevents galvanic action by applying an electric direct current of appropriate magnitude and polarity to the steel structures. They then act as cathodes and become the recipients of metallic ions. At each cathodic-protection station, the solar-generaor system consists of solar-panel arrays, electronic controls, and batteries.

Currer, G.W.

1982-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M.; Cryer, C.B.

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Operational test report -- Project W-320 cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640 specifies that corrosion protection must be designed into tank systems that treat or store dangerous wastes. Project W-320, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS), utilizes underground encased waste transfer piping between tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Corrosion protection is afforded to the encasements of the WRSS waste transfer piping through the application of earthen ionic currents onto the surface of the piping encasements. Cathodic protection is used in conjunction with the protective coatings that are applied upon the WRSS encasement piping. WRSS installed two new two rectifier systems (46 and 47) and modified one rectifier system (31). WAC 173-303-640 specifies that the proper operation of cathodic protection systems must be confirmed within six months after initial installation. The WRSS cathodic protection systems were energized to begin continuous operation on 5/5/98. Sixteen days after the initial steady-state start-up of the WRSS rectifier systems, the operational testing was accomplished with procedure OTP-320-006 Rev/Mod A-0. This operational test report documents the OTP-320-006 results and documents the results of configuration testing of integrated piping and rectifier systems associated with the W-320 cathodic protection systems.

Bowman, T.J.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

7

Cathodic protection of carbon steel in simulated geothermal environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability of cathodic protection to mitigate corrosion of carbon steel in two different environments containing H{sub 2}S has been investigated using impressed current and sacrificial anode techniques. Results of impressed current tests conducted under potential control shows that the weight loss can be reduced significantly by shifting the potential of the metal 60 to 80 mV cathodic to the open circuit potential. The relationship between the applied current and the potential shift shows that the current requirement does not necessarily increase with the voltage shift, thus implying that the cost of cathodic protection may not increase in proportion to the protection achieved. The feasibility of using zinc as a sacrificial anode in the environment of interest has also been studied.

Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

1982-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

8

Prevention of crevice corrosion in duplex SS flanges using carbon steel bolts with cathodic protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Achieving reliable long-term performance of high strength bolts for flange connections in subsea service is a critical issue for the offshore industry. Viable bolting materials with high strength that are not susceptible to embrittlement or galvanic corrosion when the flanges are made of stainless steels are limited. A laboratory study was performed to determine the viability of using B7 carbon steel stud bolts and 316 stainless steel (SS) seal rings in a Duplex SS flange for subsea service The laboratory test system used full size commercial flanges, bolts and seal rings to simulate electrochemical conditions that will occur in crevices associated with carbon steel bolts in a Duplex SS flange and with the use of a 316 stainless steel seal ring in a Duplex SS flange. The flange systems were instrumented to enable monitoring of current densities and potentials at precise locations within the crevices throughout the tests as test parameters were changed. Test parameters included cathodic protection level, temperature, and sealing the outer flange gap. Cathodic protection was provided by remote aluminum sacrificial anodes to achieve potentials typical for a sub sea manifold. Both electrochemical data and examination of the components at the end of the 164 day exposure indicated that sufficient cathodic protection occurred in the crevices to provide long term corrosion control to all of the components involved. The capability to use B7 bolts rather than high alloy bolts enables a significant project savings.

Thomason, W.H.; Ivie, R.G.; Marlow, J.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

anode cathodic protection: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

10

Internal cathodic protection of seawater piping system by the use of the RCP method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the early eighties high alloyed stainless steels like austenitic steels with about 6% molybdenum (called 6Mo-steel) and duplex stainless steels with 25% Cr (called super duplex) have been widely used in seawater systems in connection with oil- and gas production. During the last ten years high alloyed stainless steels with 6% molybdenum (6Mo) or 25%Cr (super duplex) have been the most popular materials for seawater systems on offshore installations in the North Sea. The basis for this material selection was to obtain maintenance free systems with long lifetime. However, practical experience has shown that corrosion failures can occur. This paper presents a simple and economical method to avoid corrosion problems internally in piping systems transporting chlorinated seawater. The method is called RCP--Resistor controlled Cathodic Protection. Principles of the method including protection potential, current density requirements and anode design in addition to different practical applications are described.

Johnsen, R.; Gartland, P.O.; Valen, S. [CorrOcean as, Trondheim (Norway); Drugli, J.M. [SINTEF Corrosion Centre, Trondheim (Norway)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Cathodic protection system design for steel pilings of a wharf structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion of steel pilings in sea and brackish water is mostly due to the establishment of localized corrosion cells and the effects of the tidal changes. The most frequently used corrosion protection systems are coatings and/or cathodic protection. These protective systems when properly designed, installed and operated are very effective in preventing corrosion problems. The design of a cathodic protection system, in order to be effective and reliable, must take into consideration all technical design criteria, the type of materials used, the geometric shape of the structure, environmental conditions, site restrictions, and any outside interferences. These design considerations, as well as the use of design data and an overall design methodology for a cathodic protection system for pipe and sheet piling used in a wharf structure, are discussed in this paper.

Nikolakakos, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The pipe coating as an engineered part of the cathodic protection system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic corrosion process is reviewed and the factors influencing the thermodynamic driving forces are discussed. The roles played by both the coating and the cathodic protection system are discussed, and the relationship between the two systems relating to corrosion under a coating film is shown. The importance of treating the coating as part of the cathodic protection system is explained. The need to be aware of the engineering variables of the pipe coating, not only as applied, but also as a function of time, is presented.

Mills, G.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

The effect of cathodic protection on duplex stainless steels in sea water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report reviews the available data on the embrittlement of duplex stainless steels under cathodic protection in sea water. Much of this data has previously been unpublished. The results show that while hydrogen enters duplex alloys at typical protection potentials ({minus}1V SCE) the risk of failure is very low. The austenite phase tends to block cracks in the ferrite, and very high stresses are needed to produce fracture of the austenite or austenite-ferrite phase boundaries to enable crack propagation to occur. The smaller the grain size the more resistant duplex stainless steel is to embrittlement. The report also shows that currently used design stresses for duplex alloys are well below the stresses needed to produce failure. The service experiences with cathodically protected duplex are reviewed and the few failures explained. The report concludes that at normal protection potentials the risk of failure of duplex stainless steel due to hydrogen embrittlement is extremely low.

Francis, R.; Byrne, G.; Warburton, G.R. [Weir Materials Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

Dahl, Megan M. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Pikas, Joseph [Schiff Associates, Sugar Land TX (United States); Edgemon, Glenn L. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Philo, Sarah [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

15

Humectants To Augment Current From Metallized Zinc Cathodic Protection Systems on Concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathodic protection (CP) systems using thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are employed to mitigate the corrosion process in reinforced concrete structures. However, the performance of the anodes is improved by moisture at the anode-concrete interface. Research was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrophilic chemical additives, humectants, on the electrical performance and service life of zinc anodes. Lithium bromide and lithium nitrate were identified as feasible humectants with lithium bromide performing better under galvanic CP and lithium nitrate performing better under impressed current CP. Both humectants improved the electrical operating characteristics of the anode and increased the service life by up to three years.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino Jr., Bernard S.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H. Russell; Bullard, Sophie J.; Collins, W. Keith; Bennett, Jack E. (J.E. Bennett Consulting, Inc.); Soltesz, Steven M. (ODOT); Laylor, H. Martin (ODOT)

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

5. Have special places, including sensitive ecosystems, been protected?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recycled fiber been used appropriately? Other resources Have other resources been used appropriately? Local addressed? Environmental protection Have appropriate environmental controls been applied? Recycled ber Has

17

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting pulsed-cathodic protection Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hall thruster with low-sputtering carbon-velvet electrodes Summary: of a similar carbon fiber velvet material for short-pulse cathodes of high-power microwave tubes,7 for...

19

New protection method for HVDC lines including cables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the third project of the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link in Japan, called the HVDC Link III project (rated at 250 kVdc-1,200 A-300 MW), the authors developed an HVDC transmission line protection method based on a new working principle that allows high-speed and highly sensitive detection of faults, enhancing reliability in the supply of electric power. In general, increasing the sensitivity of relays will lead to an increased likelihood of undesired operation whereas lowering the sensitivity will impair the responsiveness of the relays. The proposed method meets these apparently incompatible requirements very well. Basically classified as a differential scheme, the HVDC transmission line protection method compensates for a charging and discharging current that flows through the line-to-ground capacitance at times of voltage variations caused by a line fault or by the operation of dc power systems. The developed protection method is also characterized in that it uses current changes induced by voltage variations to restrain the operation of a relay. This configuration has made the proposed method far superior in responsiveness and sensitivity to the conventional protection method. A simulation using an EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) was conducted on this method. Developed relay equipment embodying the new protection method was subjected to various verification tests, where this equipment was connected to a power system simulator, before being delivered to the HVDC Link III facility.

Takeda, H.; Ayakawa, H.; Tsumenaga, N.; Sanpei, M.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Personal fall-protection systems include a body harness (safe-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Personal fall-protection systems include a body harness so they will not be damaged. Personal Fall-Protection Systems Safety Tip #8 Just because you always;Additional Information for Presenters Review the information provided on the reverse side of this safety tip

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Cancels DOE O 440.1A. Certified 6/17/2011. Canceled by DOE O 440.1B Chg 1.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

Zhu, Di [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China); Song, Le, E-mail: songle@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiong [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Kajiyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

24

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

Campbell, Andrew T.

25

Hot hollow cathode gun assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, J.D.

1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

26

Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE and NNSA Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Chg 1 dated 8-21-12. Cancels DOE M 440.1-1A. Admin Chg 1, dated 3-14-13.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

27

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

Poinsot, Laurent

28

Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order establishes the framework for an effective worker protection program that will reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE and NNSA Federal workers with a safe and healthful workplace. Chg 1 dated 8-21-12, cancels DOE M 440.1-1A. Admin Chg 1, dated 3-14-13, cancels DOE O 440.1B Chg 1.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

29

Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

Legal protection for the red squirrel The red squirrel is included in Schedules 5 and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circumstances, permit actions that would otherwise be illegal. These include: · The act was the incidental, there is also a licensing system, which can permit activities that would otherwise be offences for certain

31

DOE O 440.1 B, Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including the National  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomenthe HouseStudents2.2at MultipleorderNuclear Plants |Department ofAprilIncludes

32

Novel Composite Cathode Structures  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Relevance * New cathode materials are required to improve the energy density of Li-ion cells for transportation technologies. * The cathode system in this project directly...

33

Air cathode structure manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

Cao, Renyu (Cupertino, CA); Pan, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Vergara, German (Madrid, ES); Fox, Ciaran (Los Altos, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Novel Composite Cathode Structures  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory May 16, 2012 Novel Composite Cathode Structures This presentation does not contain any proprietary or...

36

Layered Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Layered Cathode Materials presented by Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Washington, D.C....

37

Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

Dowell, D.H.; /SLAC; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; /Cornell U., CLASSE; Harkay, K.; /Argonne; Hernandez-Garcia; /Jefferson Lab; Legg, R.; /Wisconsin U., SRC; Padmore, H.; /LBL, Berkeley; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; /Brookhaven; Wan, W.; /LBL, Berkeley

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

38

Nickel-titanium-phosphate cathodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cathode materials having an improved electronic conductivity allowing for faster kinetics in the electrochemical reaction, as well as higher conductivity to meet the power requirements for many consumer applications, especially at low temperatures. The cathode material comprises a compound from the family of compounds where the basic unit is generally represented by Li.sub.xNi.sub.0.5TiOPO.sub.4. The structure of Li.sub.xNi.sub.0.5TiOPO.sub.4 includes corner sharing octahedra [TiO.sub.6] running along the C-axis. The structure is such that nearly three Li atoms are being inserted in Li.sub.xNi.sub.0.5TiOPO.sub.4. A cell in accordance with the principles of the present invention is rechargable and demonstrates a high capacity of lithium intercalation and fast kinetics.

Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. This period has continued to address the problem of making dense 1/2 to 5 {micro}m thick dense layers on porous substrates (the cathode LSM). Our current status is that we are making structures of 2-5 cm{sup 2} in area, which consist of either dense YSZ or CGO infiltrated into a 2-5 {micro}m thick 50% porous layer made of either nanoncrystalline CGO or YSZ powder. This composite structure coats a macroporous cathode or anode; which serves as the structural element of the bi-layer structure. These structures are being tested as SOFC elements. A number of structures have been evaluated both as symmetrical and as button cell configuration. Results of this testing indicates that the cathodes contribute the most to cell losses for temperatures below 750 C. In this investigation different cathode materials were studied using impedance spectroscopy of symmetric cells and IV characteristics of anode supported fuel cells. Cathode materials studied included La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (LSCF), La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PSCF), Sm{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF), and Yb{sub .8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF). A new technique for filtering the Fourier transform of impedance data was used to increase the sensitivity of impedance analysis. By creating a filter specifically for impedance spectroscopy the resolution was increased. The filter was tailored to look for specific circuit elements like R//C, Warburg, or constant phase elements. As many as four peaks can be resolved using the filtering technique on symmetric cells. It may be possible to relate the different peaks to material parameters, like the oxygen exchange coefficient. The cathode grouped in order from lowest to highest ASR is LSCF < PSCF < SSCF < YSCF < LSM. The button cell results agree with this ordering indicating that this is an important tool for use in developing our understanding of electrode behavior in fuel cells.

Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Cathodes - Technological review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) was already used in the first commercialized Li-ion battery by SONY in 1990. Still, it is the most frequently used cathode material nowadays. However, LiCoO{sub 2} is intrinsically unstable in the charged state, especially at elevated temperatures and in the overcharged state causing volume changes and transport limitation for high power batteries. In this paper, some technological aspects with large impact on cell performance from the cathode material point of view will be reviewed. At first it will be focused on the degradation processes and life-time mechanisms of the cathode material LiCoO{sub 2}. Electrochemical and structural results on commercial Li-ion batteries recorded during the cycling will be discussed. Thereafter, advanced nanomaterials for new cathode materials will be presented.

Cherkouk, Charaf; Nestler, Tina [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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41

This article was published in the above mentioned Springer issue. The material, including all portions thereof, is protected by copyright;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article was published in the above mentioned Springer issue. The material, including all Media. The material is for personal use only; commercial use is not permitted. Unauthorized reproduction #12;ORIGINAL RESEARCH Recognizing independent and joint activities among multiple residents in smart

Cook, Diane J.

42

Optogalvanic effect in a hollow cathode discharge with nonlaser sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several atomic emission sources were investigated for their potential to induce optogalvanic signals in hollow cathode lamps. The sources included an inductively coupled argon plasma, a H/sub 2/--O/sub 2/ flame, a high-temperature furnace, electrodeless microwave discharge lamps, and hollow cathode lamps. Successful results were obtained with argon emission from the inductively coupled plasma focused into an argon-filled hollow cathode tube and with atomic emission from one hollow cathode discharge focused into a hollow cathode tube containing the same element. Very low level optogalvanic signals were observed from the other sources but could not be unambiguously ascribed to emission from a specific element. A problem encountered was the presence of a background signal due to photoelectric emission and possibly radiative heating of the cathode.

Apel, C.T.; Keller, R.A.; Zalewski, E.F.; Engleman, R. Jr.

1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cathode materials review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

Daniel, Claus, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Mohanty, Debasish, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Li, Jianlin, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Wood, David L., E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS6472 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

Zeren, J.D.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries . Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries . Abstract:...

47

Tungsten Cathode Catalyst for PEMFC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final report for project to evaluate tungsten-based catalyst as a cathode catalyst for PEM cell applications.

Joel B. Christian; Sean P. E. Smith

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

48

Cathode material for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

49

Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-?} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

Idzerda, Yves

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Modular cathode assemblies and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.

Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

51

Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cathode Materials Production Facility 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review May 13-17, 2013 David Han, Yasuhiro Abe Toda America Inc. Project ID: ARRAVT017...

52

Stabilized Spinel and Polyanion Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

nanostructured phosphate and silicate cathodes and their nanocomposites with graphene - To develop a fundamental understanding of the factors that control the...

53

Cathode for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Worker Protection Program for DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration) Federal Employees Guide for Use with DOE O 440.1B  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Guide provides suggestions and alternative approaches that DOE elements may consider in implementing their worker protection program. Cancels DOE G 440.1-1.

2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

55

Cathodes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd:JuneNovemberWashingtonAdministration-SierraEnergyCathodes

56

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.

YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Laidler, James J. (Burr Ridge, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two. 12 figs.

Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

60

Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

Feng Jin

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Stabilized Spinels and Polyanion Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

process * Synthesis of nano-engineered alloy, carbon-decorated Fe 3 O 4 nanowire, and graphene anodes, but only results on the cathodes are given in the next 11 slides TECHNICAL...

62

Apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a thin-film substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a surface of a continuous thin-film substrate and a treated thin-film cathode having increased smoothness are disclosed. A web of untreated cathode material is moved between a feed mechanism and a take-up mechanism, and passed through a treatment station. The web of cathode material typically includes areas having surface defects, such as prominences extending from the surface of the cathode material. The surface of the cathode material is treated with an abrasive material to reduce the height of the prominences so as to increase an 85 degree gloss value of the cathode material surface by at least approximately 10. The web of cathode material may be subjected to a subsequent abrasive treatment at the same or other treatment station. Burnishing or lapping film is employed at a treatment station to process the cathode material. An abrasive roller may alternatively be used to process the web of cathode material. The apparatus and method of the present invention may also be employed to treat the surface of a lithium anode foil so as to cleanse and reduce the roughness of the anode foil surface.

Hanson, Eric J. (Hudson, WI); Kooyer, Richard L. (Hastings, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a thin-film substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for treating a cathode material provided on a surface of a continuous thin-film substrate and a treated thin-film cathode having increased smoothness are disclosed. A web of untreated cathode material is moved between a feed mechanism and a take-up mechanism, and passed through a treatment station. The web of cathode material typically includes areas having surface defects, such as prominences extending from the surface of the cathode material. The surface of the cathode material is treated with an abrasive material to reduce the height of the prominences so as to increase an 85 degree gloss value of the cathode material surface by at least approximately 10. The web of cathode material may be subjected to a subsequent abrasive treatment at the same or other treatment station. Burnishing or lapping film is employed at a treatment station to process the cathode material. An abrasive roller may alternatively be used to process the web of cathode material. The apparatus and method of the present invention may also be employed to treat the surface of a lithium anode foil so as to cleanse and reduce the roughness of the anode foil surface.

Hanson, Eric J. (Hudson, WI); Kooyer, Richard L. (Hastings, MN)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Electropositive surface layer MPD thruster cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium and barium oxide have been used to generate electropositive surface layers on tungsten cathodes in low power steady state MPD thruster experiments. The electropositive surface layer decreases the cathode work function, resulting in substantial reductions in the steady state cathode operating temperature and erosion rate. Cathode temperature is reduced by 300 degrees with a lithium surface layer and by 800 degrees with a barium oxide surface layer at a 500 ampere thruster current level. These temperature reductions substantially reduce the calculated steady state evaporative erosion rate of the cathode by factors of 20 and 10,000 respectively. Cold cathode startup erosion is also reduced dramatically. The surface melting and arc cratering that is characteristic of pure tungsten cathodes does not occur with an electropositive surface layer cathode. In addition to reducing cathode erosion, the use of these materials increases thruster efficiency. 12 refs.

Chamberlain, F.R.; Kelly, A.J.; Jahn, R.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

Green, M.C. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention relates to a cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The cathode comprises an active surface consisting of a metal oxide obtained by the thermal decomposition of a thermally decomposable compound of a metal chosen from amongst cobalt, iron, manganese or nickel. The cathode is particularly suitable for the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in cells with a permeable diaphragm.

Nicolas, E.

1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

69

Cathodes for ceria-based fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is underway to develop a solid oxide fuel cell that has a ceria-based electrolyte and operates at lower temperatures (500-600{degrees}C) than conventional zirconia-based cells. At present the performance of this ceria-based solid oxide fuel cell is limited by the polarization of conventional cathode materials. The performance of alternative cathodes was measured by impedance spectroscopy and dc polarization. The performance was found to improve by using a thin dense interface layer and by using two-phase cathodes with an electrolyte and an electronic phase. The cathode performance was also found to increase with increasing ionic conductivity for single phase cathodes.

Doshi, R.; Krumpelt, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ricvhards, V.L. [Tri-State Univ., Angola, IN (United States). Dept. of Mech. & Aerospace Engr.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

71

High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the world’s largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research,, Inc.; Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Falce, Lou [Consultant; Schwartzkopf, Steve [Ron Witherspoon, Inc.; Busbaher, Daniel [Semicon Associates

2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

Filters for cathodic arc plasmas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Bilek, Marcela M. M. (Engadine, AU); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Stabilized Spinel and Nano Olivine Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

good storage properties at elevated temperatures - Low cost spinel + layered oxide composite cathodes that can offer a combination of high energy and high power * To develop a...

74

Investigations of Cathode Architecture using Graphite Fibers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Temperature Materials Lab, ORNL * Microscopy, Thermography - Collaboration, external * LBNL independent cathode testing (V. Battaglia) * HydroQuebec for materials (K. Zaghib)...

75

Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project is to systematically characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF, aiming to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating. The understanding gained will help us to optimize the composition and morphology of the catalyst layer and microstructure of the LSCF backbone for better performance. More specifically, the technical objectives include: (1) to characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF; (2) to characterize the microscopic details and stability of the LSCF-catalyst (e.g., LSM) interfaces; (3) to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating; and (4) to demonstrate that the performance and stability of porous LSCF cathodes can be enhanced by the application of a thin-film coating of LSM through a solution infiltration process in small homemade button cells and in commercially available cells of larger dimension. We have successfully developed dense, conformal LSM films with desired structure, composition, morphology, and thickness on the LSCF surfaces by two different infiltration processes: a non-aqueous and a water-based sol-gel process. It is demonstrated that the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes can be improved by the introduction of a thin-film LSM coating through an infiltration process. Surface and interface of the LSM-coated LSCF cathode were systematically characterized using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM observation suggests that a layer of La and Sr oxide was formed on LSCF surfaces after annealing. With LSM infiltration, in contrast, we no longer observe such La/Sr oxide layer on the LSM-coated LSCF samples after annealing under similar conditions. This was also confirmed by x-ray analyses. For example, soft x-ray XANES data reveal that Co cations displace the Mn cations as being more favored to be reduced. Variations in the Sr-O in the annealed LSCF Fourier-transformed (FT) EXAFS suggest that some Sr segregation is occurring, but is not present in the annealed LSM-infiltrated LSCF cathode materials. Further, a surface enhanced Raman technique was also developed into to probe and map LSM and LSCF phase on underlying YSZ substrate, enabling us to capture important chemical information of cathode surfaces under practical operating conditions. Electrochemical models for the design of test cells and understanding of mechanism have been developed for the exploration of fundamental properties of electrode materials. Novel catalyst coatings through particle depositions (SDC, SSC, and LCC) or continuous thin films (PSM and PSCM) were successfully developed to improve the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes. Finally, we have demonstrated enhanced activity and stability of LSCF cathodes over longer periods of time in homemade and commercially available cells by an optimized LSM infiltration process. Microstructure examination of the tested cells did not show obvious differences between blank and infiltrated cells, suggesting that the infiltrated LSM may form a coherent film on the LSCF cathodes. There was no significant change in the morphology or microstructure of the LSCF cathode due to the structural similarity of LSCF and LSM. Raman analysis of the tested cells indicated small peaks emerging on the blank cells that correspond to trace amounts of secondary phase formation during operation (e.g., CoO{sub x}). The formation of this secondary phase might be attributed to performance degradation. In contrast, there was no such secondary phase observed in the LSM infiltrated cells, indicating that the LSM modification staved off secondary phase formation and thus improved the stability.

Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Lai, Samson; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Meilin

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

Shore Protection Act (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Shore Protection Act is the primary legal authority for protection and management of Georgia's shoreline features including sand dunes, beaches, sandbars, and shoals, collectively known as the...

77

Generalized space-charge limited current and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional drift space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the space-charge limited current (SLC) and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional grounded drift space. A simple general analytical solution and an approximate solution for the planar diode are given. Through a semi-analytical method, a general solution for SLC in one-dimensional drift space is obtained. The behaviors of virtual cathode in the drift space, including dominant frequency, electron transit time, position, and transmitted current, are yielded analytically. The relationship between the frequency of the virtual cathode oscillation and the injected current presented may explain previously reported numerical works. Results are significant in facilitating estimations and further analytical studies.

Yang, Zhanfeng; Liu, Guozhi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China); Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

79

Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report summarizes the progress made during the October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-NT0004109 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled “Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes”. The primary objective of this program is to develop a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Strategies to mitigate performance degradation are developed and implemented. In addition, thermal spray manufacturing of SOFCs is explored. Combined, this work establishes a basis for cost-effective SOFC cells.

Alinger, Matthew

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Parameter Estimates for a PEMFC Cathode Qingzhi Guo,* Vijay A. Sethuraman,* and Ralph E. White**,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEMFC cathode the volume fraction of gas pores in the gas diffusion layer, the volume fraction of gas in this work indicate that ionic conduction and gas-phase transport are two processes significantly influencing submitted air cathode model8 that includes gas pores in the CAL to estimate the values of the volume

Sethuraman, Vijay A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Y. Shao-Horn, C. Carlton (MIT) - M. Balasubramanian (APS- ANL) - V. Battaglia (LBNL), Jose M. Calderon- Moreno (Romanian Academy) 3 Objectives Design high capacity,...

82

Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries High Energy Novel Cathode Alloy Automotive Cell Develop & evaluate...

83

Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries....

84

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

85

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

86

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

49thackeray2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cathodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Stabilization of Layered Metal Oxides...

87

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

88

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it...

89

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

information" 4 Approach BASF has a low cost production process for Li ion battery cathode materials. In this project, the cathode materials developed in the laboratory will be...

90

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio Li-Ion Battery Cell...

91

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Relevance * New cathode materials are required to improve the energy density of Li- ion cells for transportation technologies. * The cathode system in this project directly...

92

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writ

Doeff, Marca M

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

95

Corrosion/Fragmentation of Layered Composite Cathode and Related Capacity/Voltage Fading during Cycling Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pristine and cycled layered structure cathode of Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2 samples are characterized by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These analyses provide new insights on capacity/voltage fading mechanism of Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2. Sponge-like structure and fragment pieces were found on the surface of cathode after cycling. Mn2+ species and reduced Li content in the fragments caused significant capacity loss. These results also reveal the functional mechanism of surface coatings, e.g. AlF3, which can protect the electrode from etching by acidic species in the electrolyte, suppress cathode degradation and improve long-term cycling stability.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

96

Performance of Magnesium Cathode in the S Band RF Gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the performance of magnesium cathode in a high frequency RF gun. The quantum efficiency of magnesium showed a dramatic improvement upon laser cleaning, increasing from 10{sup -5} to 4x10{sup -4} after two hours of cleaning. The spatial uniformity of emission also improved from a spot to spot variation of 10 to a variation of 2. Measurements with charges >1 nC indicate that the transient variation of the field due to the shielding effect of the electron in the vicinity of the cathode may play a critical role in the efficient extraction of electrons. Comprehensive theory that includes the electron emission in the presence of a time dependent Schottky effect and RF effects will be discussed.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.; /Brookhaven; Palmer, D.T.; /SLAC; Ben-Zvi, I.; /Brookhaven; Miller, R.H.; /SLAC; Wang, X.J.; Woodle, M.; /Brookhaven

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS.sub.x).sub.n, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode.

Okamoto, Yoshi (Fort Lee, NJ); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY); Lee, Hung S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

99

Development of High Energy Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

deposits). Al-coated cell can is suitable for high-voltage cathodes. Polyethylene-based separators (such as Celgard K1640) are stable at high V. Carbon Additives...

100

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

2013 Estorm - Invited Paper - Cathode Materials Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403 431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783 789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

Daniel, Claus [ORNL] [ORNL; Mohanty, Debasish [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL] [ORNL; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Micro-engineered cathode interface studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to increase the performance of the cathode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at 1,000 C by decreasing the polarization resistance from 0.2 {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 300 mA/cm{sup 2}. Decreased polarization resistance will allow operation at higher current densities. This work is in support of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology using YSZ electrolyte and strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode. As a result of work performed last year at Argonne National Laboratory and information derived from the literature, the limitations at the cathode/electrolyte interface can be classified into two main areas. First, the ionic conductivity of the LSM cathode material is low which limits the reaction zone to an area very close to the interface, while the rest of the cathode thickness acts essentially as current collector with channels for gas access. Second, the electronic conductivity in YSZ is very low which limits the reaction zone to areas that are the boundaries between LSM and YSZ rather than the YSZ surface away from LSM at the interface. Possible solutions to this problem being pursued are: (1) introducing an ionic conducting YSZ phase in LSM to form a porous two-phase mixture of LSM and YSZ; (2) applying a thin interlayer between the electrolyte and the cathode where the interlayer has high ionic and electronic conductivity and high catalytic activity for reduction of O{sub 2}; (3) increasing the ionic conductivity in the LSM by suitable doping; and (4) increasing the electronic conductivity in the electrolyte by doping or by depositing an appropriate mixed conducting layer on the YSZ before applying the cathode.

Doshi, R.; Kueper, T.; Nagy, Z.; Krumpelt, M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current over 500 amp hours. Analysis of samples from the liquid cadmium cathode ingots showed detectable amounts of transuranics and rare-earth elements. Acknowledgements K. B. Davies and D. M. Pace for the mechanical and electrical engineering needed to prepare the equipment for the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments.

D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes With Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications of MFCs for wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. The main challenges for commercializing limited by cathode surface area and performance (9, 12, 13), and the price of cathode materials can

106

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lithium battery cathode. Electrochemical and Solid Statebattery performance of LiMn2O4 cathode. Solid State Ionics,

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Tubular Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Power Generation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

architecture that provides large surface areas for oxygen reduction at the cathode and bacteria growth, is a promising architecture that is intrinsically scalable for creating larger systems. Further increases and its use is sustainable (13). Exposing one side of the cathode to air (air cathode) has significantly

109

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

Harlan U. Anderson

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These endeavors have lead us to a solution which we think is quite unique and should allow us to obtain flaw free dense films of thickness in the 0.5 to 5 {micro}m range at processing temperatures {le} 900{sup o}. The process involves the deposition of a slurry of nanocrystalline YSZ onto a presintered porous LSM substrate. The key element in the deposition is that the slurry contains sufficient YSZ polymer precursor to allow adhesion of the YSZ particles to each other and the surface after annealing at about 600 C. This allows the formation of a porous film of 0.5 to 5 {micro}m thick which adheres to the surface. After formation of this film, YSZ polymer precursor is allowed to impregnate the porous surface layer (capillary forces tend to confine the polymer solution in the nanoporous layer). After several impregnation/heat treatment cycles, a dense film results. Within the next few months, this process should be developed to the point that single cell measurements can be made on 0.5 to 5 {micro}m films on a LSM substrate. This type of processing allows the formation of essentially flaw free films over areas > 1 cm{sup 2}.

Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bimetallic Cathode Materials for Lithium Based Batteries Frontiers in Materials Science Seminar / Chemistryg g g g g y University at Buffalo ­ The State University of New York (SUNY) Abstract Batteries for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are based on the Lithium/Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, Ag2V4O11

112

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Mark K. Debe 3M Company May 10, 2011 restricted information 2011 Annual Merit Review DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells and Vehicle Technologies Programs.125 Performance @ Rated (W/cm2 ) @ 0.8V 1 0.25 1 0.25 Additional Interactions GM Fuel Cell Activities, Nuvera Fuel

113

Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

Xu, Gengfu (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

114

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the sixth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Calculation of the effect of space charge and morphology of porous bodies on the effective charge transfer resistance of porous composite cathodes. (3) The investigation of the three electrode system for the measurement of cathodic polarization using amperometric sensors.

Anil V. Virkar

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

115

Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

116

Development of a Compact Ion Source with a Hot Hollow Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact ion source with 14 mm diameter, 30 mm long discharge region was developed. A total size of the ion source including the beam extraction system was 60 mm in diameter and 160 mm in length. A high temperature coaxial cathode consisting of thin-wall tantalum and tungsten tubes produced a discharge plasma. A source gas was supplied through the inner W tube of the coaxial cathode. A stable plasma of H{sub 2} was maintained with the discharge current of 2.0 A at 68 A cathode heating current. The optimum H{sub 2} gas pressure for ion beam extraction was 2x10{sup -2} Pa. Hydrogen ion beam current was 120 {mu}A (1 mA/cm{sup 2}) at 2.0 A discharge current and 3.0 kV extraction voltage.

Miyamoto, N. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. LTD., 575 Kuzetonoshiro-Cho Minamiku Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan); Demura, Y.; Imakita, S.; Kasuya, T.; Vasquez, M. R. Jr.; Wada, M. [Graduated School of Engineering Doshisha University, Tatar a-Miyakodani Kyotanabe Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

Protection 1 Protection 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protection 1 Protection 1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract is a malicious act or accident that crashes the system--- this might be considered the ultimate degradation. 1, p 437. It was reprinted in ACM Operating Systems Rev. 8, 1 (Jan. 1974), p 18. This version

Lampson, Butler W.

118

Protection 1 Protection1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protection 1 Protection1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract is a malicious act or accident that crashes the system-- this might be considered the ultimate degradation. 1, p 437. It was reprinted in ACM Operating Systems Rev. 8, 1 (Jan. 1974), p 18. This version

Lampson, Butler W.

119

Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Snell, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Model Fire Protection Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To facilitate conformance with its fire safety directives and the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program, DOE has developed a number of "model" program documents. These include a comprehensive model fire protection program, model fire hazards analyses and assessments, fire protection system inspection and testing procedures, and related material.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Corium protection assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice because the Xe plasma density peaks further upstream.

Polk, James E., E-mail: james.e.polk@jpl.nasa.gov; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Capece, Angela M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

NUMERICAL MODELING OF CATHODE CONTACT MATERIAL DENSIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical modeling was used to simulate the constrained sintering process of the cathode contact layer during assembly of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A finite element model based on the continuum theory for sintering of porous bodies was developed and used to investigate candidate low-temperature cathode contact materials. Constitutive parameters for various contact materials under investigation were estimated from dilatometry screening tests, and the influence of processing time, processing temperature, initial grain size, and applied compressive stress on the free sintering response was predicted for selected candidate materials. The densification behavior and generated stresses within a 5-cell planar SOFC stack during sintering, high temperature operation, and room temperature shutdown were predicted. Insufficient constrained densification was observed in the stack at the proposed heat treatment, but beneficial effects of reduced grain size, compressive stack preload, and reduced thermal expansion coefficient on the contact layer densification and stresses were observed.

Koeppel, Brian J.; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

126

advanced cathode material: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

materials. unknown authors 6 Short communication Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary:...

127

Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel...

128

Comments on cathode contaminants and the LBNL test stand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-61978 Comments oncathode contaminants and the LBNL test stand F. Bieniosek,the process of operating the LBNL DARHT cathode test stand.

Bieniosek, F.; Baca, D.; Greenway, W.; Leitner, M.; Kwan, J.W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Cell Analysis ? High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information LBNL Project ID: ES053 OVERVIEW Timeline * PI Joined BATT 2001 * Cathodes Task Started 2001...

130

Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Secondary-electrons-induced cathode plasma in a relativistic magnetron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of time- and space-resolved spectroscopic studies of cathode plasma during a S-band relativistic magnetron operation and a magnetically insulated diode having an identical interelectrode gap are presented. It was shown that in the case of the magnetron operation, one obtains an earlier, more uniform plasma formation due to energetic electrons' interaction with the cathode surface and ionization of desorbed surface monolayers. No differences were detected in the cathode's plasma temperature between the magnetron and the magnetically insulated diode operation, and no anomalous fast cathode plasma expansion was observed in the magnetron at rf power up to 350 MW.

Queller, T.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cathode Synthesis and Voltage Fade: Designed Solutions Based...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(PI), Eungje Lee, and Michael Slater Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Annual Merit review, Washington DC May 13-17, 2013 Cathode Synthesis and...

133

Cathode dissolution: Quarterly report, January-March 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One important mode of degradation of current MCFCs is the dissolution of the NiO cathode into the electrolyte tile and the subsequent precipitation of Ni in the tile. Over time the performance of the cell degrades, and evantually the cell may short out locally via a bridge of Ni particles between the cathode and anode. The purpose of this program is to further the understanding of the processes which cause degradation of the NiO cathode in MCFCs, especially those processes involving dissolution of the cathode and the transport of soluble Ni species in the electrolyte. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Shores, D.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Lower Cost Lithium Ion Batteries From Aluminum Substituted Cathode...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lower Cost Lithium Ion Batteries From Aluminum Substituted Cathode Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing...

135

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Christopher Johnson and Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE...

136

Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

Xu, Gengfu (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as cathode materials for Li-ion battery. Physica B-CondensedHigh Energy High Power Li-ion Battery Cathode Materials AHigh Energy High Power Li-ion Battery Cathode Materials A

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

CHROMIUM POISONING OF COMPOSITE LSM/YSZ CATHODES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Lin Liu and Mogens Mogensen Risø National Laboratory, Materials Research Department, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark Introduction Degradation of composite SOFC cathodes consisting of lanthanum strontium manganate during simulated SOFC operation at ~850°C with current densities from 0 to 0.5 A/cm2. The cathodes were

139

Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of cathode materials for lithium batteries guided by first-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001. 414(M.S. Whittingham, Lithium batteries and cathode materials.

Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

Xing, Yangchuan

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

142

Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Efficient bottom cathodes for organic light-emitting devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bilayers of aluminum and an alkali fluoride are well-known top cathode contacts for organic light-emitting devices but have never been successfully applied as bottom contacts. We describe a bilayer bottom cathode contact for organic electronic devices based on reversing the well-known top cathode structure such that the aluminum, rather than the alkali fluoride, contacts the organic material. Electron-only devices were fabricated showing enhanced electron injection from this bottom contact. Kelvin probe, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments, and thermodynamic calculations suggest that the enhancement results from n doping of the organic material by dissociated alkali metals.

Liu Jie; Duggal, Anil R.; Shiang, Joseph J.; Heller, Christian M. [General Electric Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

144

Office of River Protection Looks Back on 2014 Achievements, Including...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

gallons of water from tank waste, which reduces the volume stored in the double-shell tanks to make room for waste retrieval from single-shell tanks. Since its construction in...

145

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 7uscpopov.pdf More Documents &...

146

Studies on High Voltage Lithium Rich MNC Composite Cathodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the U.S. Department of Energy Improve the current state-of-the art Li-ion cathode materials to achieve overall USABC EV energy density of 300 WhL (long-term ) at C3 and...

147

High Energy Materials for PHEVs: Cathodes (New Project)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

new cathode materials and to use surplus lithium in precursor structures to load thin film metal- or metal-alloy anode substrates. Collaborators Co-investigators: Sun-Ho...

148

Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Techniques and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries Characterization of New Cathode Materials using Synchrotron-based X-ray Techniques and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries 2009 DOE...

149

Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

17johnson2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source...

150

Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural-cathode MFC, CO2 addition resulted in a stable catholyte film pH of 6.61 ( 0.12 and a 152% increase in steady

Angenent, Lars T.

151

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Mark K. Debe 3M Company May 15, 2012 group) Project Management - 3M (A. Steinbach, M. Kurkowski, S. Hendricks, A. Hester, P. Kadera, G

152

Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio Project ID ARRAVT008 Joe DiCarlo BASF Corporation May 11, 2011 "This presentation does not contain...

153

Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

1994-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrochemically Stable Cathode Current Collectors for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable Mg batteries are attractive energy storage systems and could bring cost-effective energy solutions. Currently, however, no practical cathode current collectors that can withstand high voltages in Mg2+ electrolytes has been identified and therefore cathode research is greatly hindered. Here we identified that two metals, Mo and W, are electrochemically stable through formation of surface passive layers. The presented results could have significant impacts on the developments of high voltage Mg batteries.

Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A one-dimensional model illustrating virtual-cathode formation in a novel coaxial virtual-cathode oscillator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional electrostatic sheet model of a coaxial geometry Virtual Cathode Oscillator (VCO) is presented. The cathode is centrally located and connects to a peripherally located plate electrode to form a resonant cavity, and is thus considered to be a novel design. Charge is modelled as concentric sheets about the cathode whose absolute position and velocity are determined as a function of time by solving the relativistic equations of motion. The model predicts the formation of a virtual cathode between the grid and plate electrodes for the case of a space-charge limited current. Setting the electron reflexing frequency (as a function of the grid potential) comparable with the cavity resonant frequency is predicted to improve the efficiency of microwave emission.

Turner, Geoffrey R., E-mail: gturner@csir.co.za [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Nanostructured ceria based thin films ({<=}1 {mu}m) As cathode/electrolyte interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO: Ce{sub 0,9}Gd{sub 0,1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) films were used as an oxygen anion diffusion layer at the cathode/electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), between LSCF (lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite) and YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia). Thin ({approx}100 nm) and thick ({approx}700 nm) mesoporous CGO layers were synthesized through a sol-gel process including organic template coupled with the dip-coating method. Structural and microstructural characterizations were performed, highlighting a well-bonded crystalline CGO nanoparticles network which delineates a 3-D inter-connected mesoporous network. Their electrical behaviors were investigated by impedance spectroscopy analysis of YSZ/mesoporous-CGO/LSCF half-cell. Anode-supported SOFCs, operating at 800 Degree-Sign C, with either dense or mesoporous CGO dip-coated interlayers were also fabricated [NiO-YSZ anode/YSZ/CGO/LSCF cathode]. The impact of the mesoporous CGO interlayers on SOFCs performances was investigated by galvanostatic analysis and compared to the behavior of a dense CGO interlayer. The polarization curves revealed an enhancement in the electrical performance of the cell, which is assigned to a decrease of the polarization resistance at the cathode/electrolyte interface. The integrity and connectivity of the CGO nanoparticles bonded network facilitates O{sup 2-} transport across the interface. - Graphical abstract: Thin and thick CGO films have been prepared through a sol-gel process and their potential application as SOFC cathode/electrolyte interlayer in SOFC has been investigated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous ceria based thin films exhibit interesting performances for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous films were synthesized through the sol-gel process combined with the dip-coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrity and connectivity of the nanoparticles facilitates O{sup 2-} transport across the interface.

Hierso, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, Universite Paris 6-UMR 7574-College de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Boy, P.; Valle, K. [CEA-Le Ripault, LSCG, BP 15, 37000 Monts (France); Vulliet, J.; Blein, F. [CEA-Le Ripault, LCCA, BP 15, 37000 Monts (France); Laberty-Robert, Ch., E-mail: christel.laberty@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, Universite Paris 6-UMR 7574-College de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Sanchez, C. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, Universite Paris 6-UMR 7574-College de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Universal cell frame for high-pressure water electrolyzer and electrolyzer including the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Universal cell frame generic for use as an anode frame and as a cathode frame in a water electrolyzer. According to one embodiment, the universal cell frame includes a unitary annular member having a central opening. Four trios of transverse openings are provided in the annular member, each trio being spaced apart by about 90 degrees. A plurality of internal radial passageways fluidly interconnect the central opening and each of the transverse openings of two diametrically-opposed trios of openings, the other two trios of openings lacking corresponding radial passageways. Sealing ribs are provided on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular member. The present invention is also directed at a water electrolyzer that includes two such cell frames, one being used as the anode frame and the other being used as the cathode frame, the cathode frame being rotated 90 degrees relative to the anode frame.

Schmitt, Edwin W.; Norman, Timothy J.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

158

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

159

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Protective link for superconducting coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Inert Anode/Cathode Program: Fiscal Year 1986 annual report. [For Hall-Heroult cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose of the program is to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes, cathodes, and ancillary equipment for Hall-Heroult cells used by the aluminum industry. The program is divided into four tasks: Inert Anode Development, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development. To devise sensors to control the chemistry of Hall-Heroult cells using stable anodes and cathodes. This report highlights the major FY86 technical accomplishments, which are presented in the following sections: Management, Materials Development, Materials Evaluation, Thermodynamic Evaluation, Laboratory Cell Tests, Large-Scale Tests, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development.

Brenden, B.B.; Davis, N.C.; Koski, O.H.; Marschman, S.C.; Pool, K.H.; Schilling, C.H.; Windisch, C.F.; Wrona, B.J.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this DOE project is to demonstrate that the performance and long-term stability of the state-of-the-art LSCF cathode can be enhanced by a catalytically active coating (e.g., LSM or SSC). We have successfully developed a methodology for reliably evaluating the intrinsic surface catalytic properties of cathode materials. One of the key components of the test cell is a dense LSCF film, which will function as the current collector for the electrode material under evaluation to eliminate the effect of ionic and electronic transport. Since it is dense, the effect of geometry would be eliminated as well. From the dependence of the electrode polarization resistance on the thickness of a dense LSCF electrode and on partial pressure of oxygen, we have confirmed that the surface catalytic activity of LSCF limits the performances of LSCF-based cathodes. Further, we have demonstrated, using test cells of different configurations, that the performance of LSCF-based electrodes can be significantly enhanced by infiltration of a thin film of LSM or SSC. In addition, the stability of LSCF-based cathodes was also improved by infiltration of LSM or SSC. While the concept feasibility of the electrode architecture is demonstrated, many details are yet to be determined. For example, it is not clear how the surface morphology, composition, and thickness of the coatings change under operating conditions over time, how these changes influence the electrochemical behavior of the cathodes, and how to control the microscopic details of the coatings in order to optimize the performance. The selection of the catalytic materials as well as the detailed microstructures of the porous LSCF and the catalyst layer may critically impact the performance of the proposed cathodes. Further, other fundamental questions still remain; it is not clear why the degradation rates of LSCF cathodes are relatively high, why a LSM coating improves the stability of LSCF cathodes, which catalysts would be most effective for LSCF, and how to achieve further enhancement of the performance and stability of SOFC cathodes.

Lei Yang; Ze Liu; Shizhone Wang; Jaewung Lee; Meilin Liu

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

La(Sr)FeO3 SOFC Cathodes with Marginal Copper Doping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract (La0.8Sr0.2)0.98Fe0.98Cu0.02O3-? can be sintered directly onto YSZ (without the need for a protective ceria interlayer to prevent inter-diffusion). Though subject to an extended “burn-in” period (~200 hours), anode-supported YSZ cells utilizing the Cu-doped LSF achieve power densities ranging from 1.3-1.7 W/cm2 at 750ºC and 0.7V. These cells have also demonstrated 500 hours of stable performance. The results are somewhat surprising given that XRD indicates an interaction between (La0.8Sr0.2)0.98Fe0.98Cu0.02O3-? and YSZ resulting in the formation of strontium zirconate and/or monoclinic zirconia. The amount and type of reaction product was found to be dependent on cathode and electrolyte powder pre-calcination temperatures.

Simner, Steve P.; Anderson, Michael D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Hayes, Jeffrey P. (Ripon, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Pulsed hollow-cathode ion lasers: pumping and lasing parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimal discharge conditions have been experimentally found for ion lasers excited in the hollow-cathode discharge plasma by microsecond current pulses by pumping working atoms in secondkind collisions with ions and metastable buffer-gas atoms. Measurements of the output power of krypton ion and zinc-, cadmium-, mercury-, thallium-, copper-, and gallium-vapour lasers in tubes with cathodes of different diameters showed that the pulse power reaches several tens of watts, and the average power obtained with cathodes 2 cm in diameter and a length of 40 cm or more approaches 1 W. Lasing in most media is observed simultaneously at several lines (the multi-wavelength regime). Lasing on a three-component (He - Kr - Hg) mixture is realised in the multi-wavelength regime at blue, red, and IR lines.

Zinchenko, S P; Ivanov, I G

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

168

Corrosion protection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

Physical Protection  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Copies of Section B, Safeguards and Security Alarm Management System, which contains Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information, and Appendix 1, Security Badge Specifications, which contains Official Use Only information, are only available, by request, from the program manager, Protection Program Operations, 301-903-6209. Cancels: DOE M 473.1-1 and DOE M 471.2-1B.

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

171

Physical Protection  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Copies of Section B, Safeguards and Security Alarm Management System, which contains Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information, and Appendix 1, Security Badge Specifications, which contains Official Use Only information, are only available, by request, from the program manager, Protection Program Operations, 301-903-6209. Chg 1, dated 3/7/06. Cancels: DOE M 473.1-1 and DOE M 471.2-1B

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

172

Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for High-Rate Secondary Lithium Batteries . Template Free Synthesis of LiV3O8 Nanorods as a Cathode Material for...

173

Preparation and electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode material forlithium-ion batteries. Preparation and electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode material forlithium-ion...

174

Performance and Stability of Barium Strontium Cobaltite Composite Cathodes for SOFC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cathode materials than LSM. Studies of the (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) have been one of the most popular topics in the cathode research toward to intermediate temperature operation [8-14]. LSCF is a Mixed

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc cathode spots Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 32, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004 A High-Current, Large-Area, Summary: over 3000 shots, the cathode failed. Upon examina- tion of the cathode, a...

176

Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

Kam, Kinson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high accelerating gradient of the RF guns, potentially offering a long lived cathode with very low emittance. Testing this concept requires preparation of the cathode, transportation to the SRF gun and evaluation of the performance of the cathode and the gun at cryogenic temperatures. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the bulk GaAs in the preparation chamber. The highest quantum efficient was 10% at 532 nm that fell to 0.5% after 100 hours. We explored three different ways to activate the GaAs. We verified that the GaAs photocathode remains stable for 30 hours in a 10{sup -11} Torr vacuum. Passing the photocathode through the low 10{sup -9} Torr transfer section in several seconds caused the QE to drop to 0.8%. The photocathode with 0.8% QE can be tested for the SRF gun. The gun and beam pipe were prepared and assembled. After baking at 200 C baking, the vacuum of the gun and beam pipe can sustain a low 10{sup -11} Torr at room temperature. The final test to extract electrons from the gun is ongoing. In this paper, we discuss our progress with this SRF gun and the results of the photocathode in preparation chamber and in magnet transfer line.

Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

Anders, Andre

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

179

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1994; Parawira et al. 2005). Biological treatment processes are particularly effective for wastewaterENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Brewery wastewater treatment using air-cathode microbial fuel cells wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require a better understanding of how operational

180

Protections: Sampling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedles for4-16HamadaBaO/Al2O3Protecting Lab land andProtections

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

182

Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

183

Water Protection Projects and Practices (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute calls on soil and water conservation districts to carry out district-wide and multiple-district projects to support water protection practices, including projects to protect the state...

184

Physical Protection  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the physical protection of interests under the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) purview ranging from facilities, buildings, Government property, and employees to national security interests such as classified information, special nuclear material (SNM), and nuclear weapons. Cancels Section A of DOE M 470.4-2 Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

Argonne Lab's Breakthrough Cathode Technology Powers Electric...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

in June of 2000; the inventors included Michael Thackeray, Khalil Amine, Christopher Johnson and Jaekook Kim. But the story really begins more than 30 years ago. In 1980, Argonne...

186

Observations of a mode transition in a hydrogen hollow cathode discharge using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two distinct operational modes are observed in a radio frequency (rf) low pressure hydrogen hollow cathode discharge. The mode transition is characterised by a change in total light emission and differing expansion structures. An intensified CCD camera is used to make phase resolved images of Balmer ? emission from the discharge. The low emission mode is consistent with a typical ? discharge, and appears to be driven by secondary electrons ejected from the cathode surface. The bright mode displays characteristics common to an inductive discharge, including increased optical emission, power factor, and temperature of the H{sub 2} gas. The bright mode precipitates the formation of a stationary shock in the expansion, observed as a dark region adjacent to the source-chamber interface.

Dixon, Sam, E-mail: sam.dixon@anu.edu.au; Charles, Christine; Dedrick, James; Boswell, Rod [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Chemistry of SOFC Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1) Electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces were studied up to 580oC in 10-3mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectroscopy (STM/STS). A threshold-like drop in the tunneling current was observed at positive bias in STS, which is interpreted as a unique indicator for the activation polarization in cation oxygen bonding on LSM cathodes. Sr-enrichment was found on the surface at high temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy, and was accompanied by a decrease in tunneling conductance in STS. This suggests that Sr-terminated surfaces are less active for electron transfer in oxygen reduction compared to Mn-terminated surfaces on LSM. 2) Effects of strain on the surface cation chemistry and the electronic structure are important to understand and control for attaining fast oxygen reduction kinetics on transition metal oxides. Here, we demonstrate and mechanistically interpret the strain coupling to Sr segregation, oxygen vacancy formation, and electronic structure on the surface of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin films as a model system. Our experimental results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy are discussed in light of our first principles-based calculations. A stronger Sr enrichment tendency and a more facile oxygen vacancy formation prevail for the tensile strained LSM surface. The electronic structure of the tensile strained LSM surface exhibits a larger band gap at room temperature, however, a higher tunneling conductance near the Fermi level than the compressively strained LSM at elevated temperatures in oxygen. Our findings suggest lattice strain as a key parameter to tune the reactivity of perovskite transition metal oxides with oxygen in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. 3) Cation segregation on perovskite oxide surfaces affects vastly the oxygen reduction activity and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. A unified theory that explains the physical origins of this phenomenon is therefore needed for designing cathode materials with optimal surface chemistry. We quantitatively assessed the elastic and electrostatic interactions of the dopant with the surrounding lattice as the key driving forces for segregation on model perovskite compounds, LnMnO3 (host cation Ln=La, Sm). Our approach combines surface chemical analysis with X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy on model dense thin films, and computational analysis with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and analytical models. Elastic energy differences were systematically induced in the system by varying the radius of the selected dopants (Ca, Sr, Ba) with respect to the host cations (La, Sm) while retaining the same charge state. Electrostatic energy differences were introduced by varying the distribution of charged oxygen and cation vacancies in our models. Varying the oxygen chemical potential in our experiments induced changes in both the elastic energy and electrostatic interactions. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that the mechanism of dopant segregation on perovskite oxides includes both the elastic and electrostatic energy contributions. A smaller size mismatch between the host and dopant cations and a chemically expanded lattice were found to reduce the segregation level of the dopant and to enable more stable cathode surfaces. Ca-doped LaMnO3 was found to have the most stable surface composition with the least cation segregation among the compositions surveyed. The diffusion kinetics of the larger dopants, Ba and Sr, was found to be slower, and can kinetically trap the segregation at reduced temperatures despite the larger elastic energy driving force. Lastly, scanning probe image-contrast showed that the surface chemical heterogeneities made of dopant oxides upon segregation were electronically insulating. The consistency between the results obtained from experiments, DFT calculations and analytical theory in this work provides a predictive capability to tailor the cathode surface compositions for high-performance SO

Yildiz, Bilge; Heski, Clemens

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

A MULTI-LENGTH SCALE APPROACH TO CORRELATING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POROUS CATHODE MICROSTRUCTURE TO ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................27 3 COMPREHENSIVE QUANTIFICATION OF POROUS LSCF CATHODE MICROSTRUCTURE AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE

Florida, University of

189

Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

191

Model of calcareous deposit formation on cathodically protected steel in seawater: improvements and extensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

( ? ) g dm3 mol . dme conuersion factor ( ) g. cms (20) 16 Concentration of Major iona in Seawater of Various Salinitles . 1. 6 20- CII ' 15 oO j. :zto f o L o 0 . 0--- X -??)???&X e3-- X X X ? X- 10 20 30 40 Salinity('lg O s. 'o . 12 ~g... e of + 0 0. 6 o~ ox MCI ? tt ? Nt+ /~a- / ? + ? h/g+ ) ? o ? Ca2+ f ? x ? HXB. Fi8trre 6: Concentration of Major Iona in Seawater of Various Salinities and) At ? ? 49. 641 Ag = 67. 460 As ? 21. 028 Bt = ? 0. 077314 B2 = 0. 046580 Bs...

Blackburne, Patricia Nicole

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Depth Profile Analysis of New Materials in Hollow Cathode Discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this review the possibility of hollow cathode discharge for depth profile analysis is demonstrated for several new materials: planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange process in glasses, SnO2 thin films for gas sensors modified by hexamethildisilazane after rapid thermal annealing, W- and WC- CVD layers deposited on Co-metalloceramics and WO3- CVD thin films deposited on glass. The results are compared with different standard techniques.

Djulgerova, R.; Mihailov, V.; Gencheva, V.; Popova, L.; Panchev, B. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Michaylova, V. [Technical University of Sofia, 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szytula, A.; Gondek, L.; Dohnalik, T.M. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics - Jagellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

Optical and electrical investigations into cathode ignition and diode closure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temporal behavior of high-power diodes is closely related to the impedance collapse caused by the movement of the cathode and/or anode plasmas. This impedance collapse can be especially problematic when a constant power electron beam is required. This is the case for the very large area (square meters) diodes used to pump the amplifiers within the Aurora KrF laser system. The electron beam technology development program at Los Alamos utilizes the Electron Beam Test Facility (EGTF) to study diode physics in an attempt to better understand the basic phenomenology of ignition and closure. A combination of optical and electric diagnostics has been fielded on the Electron Beam Test Facility to study ignition and closure in large area electron beam diodes. A four-channel framing camera is used to observe the formation of microplasmas on the surface of the cathode and the subsequent movement of these plasmas toward the anode. Additionally, a perveance model is used to extract information about this plasma from voltage and current profiles. Results from the two diagnostics are compared. Closure velocity measurements are presented showing little dependence on applied magnetic field for both velvet and carbon felt emitters. We also report the first observation of the screening effect in large area cold cathode diodes. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Coogan, J.J.; Rose, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

Thurston, Anthony

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

A knife-edge array field emission cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

Lee, B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ion source based on the cathodic arc  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Protecting Wildlife  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for Plutonium CleanupProposalTeam:RightsProtecting

200

Protecting Software  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedles for4-16HamadaBaO/Al2O3Protecting Lab land and the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

J. H. Zhu

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Characterization of Atomic and Electronic Structures of Electrochemically Active SOFC Cathode Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to gain a fundamental understanding of the oxygen-reduction mechanism on mixed conducting cathode materials by means of quantum-chemical calculations coupled with direct experimental measurements, such as vibrational spectroscopy. We have made progress in the elucidation of the mechanisms of oxygen reduction of perovkite-type cathode materials for SOFCs using these quantum chemical calculations. We established computational framework for predicting properties such as oxygen diffusivity and reaction rate constants for adsorption, incorporation, and TPB reactions, and formulated predictions for LSM- and LSC-based cathode materials. We have also further developed Raman spectroscopy as well as SERS as a characterization tool for SOFC cathode materials. Raman spectroscopy was used to detect chemical changes in the cathode from operation conditions, and SERS was used to probe for pertinent adsorbed species in oxygen reduction. However, much work on the subject of unraveling oxygen reduction for SOFC cathodes remains to be done.

Kevin Blinn; Yongman Choi; Meilin Liu

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

203

Large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride cathode structure having predetermined emission profile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large area directly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) cathode system (10) is disclosed. The system comprises a LaB.sub.6 cathode element (11) generally circular in shape about a central axis. The cathode element (11) has a head (21) with an upper substantially planar emission surface (23), and a lower downwardly and an intermediate body portion (26) which diminishes in cross-section from the head (21) towards the base (22) of the cathode element (11). A central rod (14) is connected to the base (22) of the cathode element (11) and extends along the central axis. Plural upstanding spring fingers (37) are urged against an outer peripheral contact surface (24) of the head end (21) to provide a mechanical and electrical connection to the cathode element (11).

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Gordon, Keith C. (Berkeley, CA); Kippenham, Dean O. (Castro Valley, CA); Purgalis, Peter (San Francisco, CA); Moussa, David (San Francisco, CA); Williams, Malcom D. (Danville, CA); Wilde, Stephen B. (Pleasant Hill, CA); West, Mark W. (Albany, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Composite Organic Radical - Inorganic Hybrid Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new organic radical inorganic hybrid cathode comprised of PTMA/LiFePO4 composite system is developed and reported for the first time. The hybrid cathodes demonstrate high pulse power capability resulting in a significant improvement over the pure PTMA or LiFePO4 cathode which is very promising for transportation and other high pulse power applications that require long cycle life and lower cost.

Huang, Qian; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip K.; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z J. R. Smith,* D. P In this initial study the electrochemically active region of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode an actual three-dimensional 3D model of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode and its interface

Florida, University of

206

Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

epoxide groups within epoxy resins have been utilized forfor covalent bonding with epoxy resins. A full review ofdelamination of an epoxy resin on cathodically polarized

Love, Corey T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A Micro-Scale Model for Oxygen Reduction on LSM-YSZ Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, a micro-scale model is developed to simulate the oxygen reduction on LSM-YSZ composite cathode. The model incorporates the effects of cathode microstructural properties on the local transport phenomena and electrochemistry inside the cathode. A detailed reaction mechanism is used in the model which has two parallel routes for oxygen conversion into oxide ions, namely two-phase boundary and three-phase boundary pathways. The model predicts field distributions of local thermodynamic values, over-potential, Faradaic current and other parameters relevant to cathode performance. Electrochemical impedance simulations are performed using the current model to analyze the contribution of various processes to the overall impedance.

Pakalapati, Suryanarayana Raju; Celik, Ismail; Finklea, Harry; Gong, Mingyang; Liu, Xingbo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Electrochemical kinetics of thin film vanadium pentoxide cathodes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical experiments were performed to investigate the processing-property-performance relations of thin film vanadium pentoxide cathodes used in lithium batteries. Variations in microstructures were achieved via ...

Mui, Simon C., 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Power control architectures for cold cathode fluorescent lamp and light emitting diode based light sources.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this dissertation, two different energy efficient power supply topologies are introduced for controlling cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) and high-brightness light emitting diode… (more)

Doshi, Montu V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Coffey, Gregory W

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

211

Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layered Oxides for Lithium Batteries. Nano Lett. 13, 3857–O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energydecomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-principles

Lin, Feng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-cathode microbial fuel Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bioelectronics 30 (2011) 267271 Summary: .elsevier.comlocatebios Air-cathode structure optimization in separator-coupled microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhanga , Haotian... :...

213

Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

Manthiram, Arumugam (Austin, TX); Wu, Yan (Austin, TX)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup ?} beam with ? {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 ??mm?mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup ?}}/I{sub H{sup ?}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

Lin, S. H., E-mail: linshh@impcas.ac.cn; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China) [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Advanced Measurement and Modeling Techniques for Improved SOFC Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of factors governing performance and degradation of mixed-conducting SOFC cathodes. Two new diagnostic tools were developed to help achieve this goal: (1) microelectrode half-cells for improved isolation of cathode impedance on thin electrolytes, and (2) nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (NLEIS), a variant of traditional impedance that allows workers to probe nonlinear rates as a function of frequency. After reporting on the development and efficacy of these tools, this document reports on the use of these and other tools to better understand performance and degradation of cathodes based on the mixed conductor La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSC) on gadolinia or samaria-doped ceria (GDC or SDC). We describe the use of NLEIS to measure O{sub 2} exchange on thin-film LSC electrodes, and show that O{sub 2} exchange is most likely governed by dissociative adsorption. We also describe parametric studies of porous LSC electrodes using impedance and NLEIS. Our results suggest that O{sub 2} exchange and ion transport co-limit performance under most relevant conditions, but it is O{sub 2} exchange that is most sensitive to processing, and subject to the greatest degradation and sample-to-sample variation. We recommend further work that focuses on electrodes of well-defined or characterized geometry, and probes the details of surface structure, composition, and impurities. Parallel work on primarily electronic conductors (LSM) would also be of benefit to developers, and to improved understanding of surface vs. bulk diffusion.

Stuart Adler; L. Dunyushkina; S. Huff; Y. Lu; J. Wilson

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ``Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan`` (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1.

Not Available

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Cathode Coating (IN-09-061) - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites ProposedOccupational Healthcatalysts . | EMSLNEPA25Cathode

220

Synthesis and Characterization of Cathode Materials | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy Strain Rate4SuperhardSuspectEngines | Department ofSyngasCathode

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHigh Efficiency| -4Novel Cathode

222

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effect of energetic electrons on near-wall sheath voltage in the cathode region of a cold cathode direct current discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is experimentally demonstrated that energetic electrons originating from the cathode or produced in volumetric processes in the cathode region of a cold cathode direct current discharge can create a large potential drop in the near-wall sheath. This voltage drop may be much greater than kT{sub e}/e (where k is the Boltzmann constant, T{sub e} is the electron temperature, and e is the electron charge). Due to the large near-wall sheath voltage, slow and moderately energetic electrons cannot reach the wall and move toward the anode. Application of additional potentials to the wall can change the amount of energetic electrons reaching the wall. This effect can be used for regulation of the near-cathode plasma and near-wall sheath properties and thus may be useful in technical applications.

Blessington, J. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Demidov, V. I. [UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Beavercreek, Ohio 45432 (United States); Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Williamson, J. M. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cold-Cathodes for Sensors and Vacuum Microelectronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this laboratory-directed research and development project was to study amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films for eventual cold-cathode electron emitter applications. The development of robust, cold-cathode emitters are likely to have significant implications for modern technology and possibly launch a new industry: vacuum micro-electronics (VME). The potential impact of VME on Sandia`s National Security missions, such as defense against military threats and economic challenges, is profound. VME enables new microsensors and intrinsically radiation-hard electronics compatible with MOSFET and IMEM technologies. Furthermore, VME is expected to result in a breakthrough technology for the development of high-visibility, low-power flat-panel displays. This work covers four important research areas. First, the authors studied the nature of the C-C bonding structures within these a-C thin films. Second, they determined the changes in the film structures resulting from thermal annealing to simulate the effects of device processing on a-C properties. Third, they performed detailed electrical transport measurements as a function of annealing temperature to correlate changes in transport properties with structural changes and to propose a model for transport in these a-C materials with implications on the nature of electron emission. Finally, they used scanning atom probes to determine important aspects on the nature of emission in a-C.

Siegal, M.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.; Simpson, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DiNardo, N.J.; Mercer, T.W. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Martinez-Miranda, L.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

Stockie, John

228

Effect of A-site Non-stoichiometry on LSCF Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LSCF Cathodes were explored when effected with A-site non-stoichiometry. At 700-800 C, the operating temperatures of intermediate temperature (IT-) SOFCs have enabled the use of stainless steels in the SOFC framework and current collectors, allowing significant reductions in cost. However, the lower operating temperatures of IT-SOFC's also result in significant decreases in power densities of cells with LSM cathodes due to their high activation energies. LSCF is a mixed ionic electronic conducting perovskite that exhibits higher performance than LSM/YSZ composites and shows potential as a replacement cathode. This study investigates the effect of A-site stoichiometry on the performance of LSCF cathodes. Cell tests showed that A-site and Sr-deficient LSCF cathodes consistently outperformed stoichiometric LSCF cathodes, exhibiting up to 10% higher cell power densities. It was also observed that all stoichiometric, A-site, and Sr-deficient LSCF cathodes degraded over time at similar rates. Contributions of ohmic and electrode polarization losses to cell degradation rates were similar regardless of cathode composition.

Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Hardy, John S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bochkarev, M. B. [Institute of Electrophysics, UB, RAS, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, S. A., E-mail: sb@nsc.gpi.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, 38 Vavilov St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Electrochemical characterization of cobalt-encapsulated nickel as cathodes for MCFC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical characterization of cobalt-encapsulated nickel as cathodes for MCFC Anand an electroless deposition process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of the Co-coated electrodes is similar when compared to bare nickel oxide electrodes in the presence of cathode gas. The solubility decreased

Popov, Branko N.

231

Performance Characteristics of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Monte Carlo Strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance Characteristics of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Monte Carlo Strategy to study the performance of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The methodology takes into account. Published September 26, 2008. Lithium-ion batteries are state-of-the-art power sources1 for por- table

Subramanian, Venkat

232

Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics Marshall Cox,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics Marshall Cox,1,a Alon Gorodetsky,2 Bumjung single-layer graphene is demonstrated as a cathode for organic photovoltaic devices. The measured properties indicate that graphene offers two potential advantages over conventional photovoltaic electrode

Kim, Philip

233

Doped LiFePO? cathodes for high power density lithium ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Olivine LiFePO4 has received much attention recently as a promising storage compound for cathodes in lithium ion batteries. It has an energy density similar to that of LiCoO 2, the current industry standard for cathode ...

Bloking, Jason T. (Jason Thompson), 1979-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

Innocenzi, V., E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it; De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Protecting Life on Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: Protecting Life on Earth: An Introduction to thePeter B. Protecting Life on Earth: An Introduction to theof Protecting Life on Earth is “to explain to an intelligent

Anderson, Byron P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Office of Physical Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Office of Physical Protection is comprised of a team of security specialists engaged in providing Headquarters-wide physical protection.

237

Characterization of Uranium Codeposited with Hydrogen on Nickel Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously, it has been reported that nuclear transmutation reactions are accelerated when radioactive elements are subjected to low-level electric fields during electrolysis of aqueous electrolytes. Our research investigated the codeposition of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and H on Ni cathodes, using an acidic electrolyte and a Pt anode. Then, the radiation emitted by the electroplated U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was compared with radiation emitted by unelectrolyzed U{sub 3}O{sub 8} from the same batch. The electroplated U{sub 3}O{sub 8} initially produced {approx}2900 counts in 3 min (April 17, 2000). This rose sporadically in steps to {approx} 3700 counts in 3 min on May 11, 2000, and it remained relatively constant at this level until the GM measurements ended on June 8, 2000. The unelectrolyzed U{sub 3}O{sub 8} from the same batch emitted radiation at a much lower rate, {approx}1250 counts in 3 min, and this remained almost constant over the entire period of measurement. After the GM measurements, a gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radiation from the same two, 10-mg electroplated and unelectrolyzed U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples. The net integral of the same 36 peaks for the same measurement time (25 h) gave 53 000 counts for the electroplated sample, 1.7 times as many as the 31 000 counts for the unelectrolyzed sample. Alpha and beta measurements are under way for both samples. Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscope micrograph of a typical surface structure of uranium electroplated on a nickel cathode. The donut-like features appear to be the result of microscopic surface eruptions that produced voids surrounded by raised circular rims. Figure 3 shows an energy dispersive spectrometer spectrum from electroplated U{sub 3}O{sub 8} on a nickel cathode. In addition to oxygen and uranium, cesium, iron, and nickel are present. A peak at 16.36 keV, which overlaps with a uranium peak at 16.44 keV, is tentatively labeled as fermium. Mass spectrometer and X-ray diffraction studies are also underway.

G. Goddard; S. Frantz

2000-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The uranium emission spectrum from a hollow cathode discharge is displayed from 11,000 to 26,000 cm/sup -1/. This atlas lists 4928 spectral lines of uranium; 3949 are classified to the neutral spectrum and 431 are classified to the singly ionized spectrum. Listed wavenumbers are accurate to +-0.003 cm/sup -1/ and the listed relative intensities to +-8%. The richness of the spectrum makes this atlas useful for wavenumber calibration of lasers, spectrographs, and monochromators to an accuracy of 1 part in 10/sup 7/. This atlas is also useful as a guide to the uranium spectrum, and relative oscillator strengths (gf values) can be calculated from the intensities to a precision of +-20%.

Palmer, B.A.; Keller, R.A.; Engleman, R. Jr.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

Sigmund, Wolfgang M. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Woan, Karran V. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Bell, Nelson Simmons

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lithium/organosulfur redox cell having protective solid electrolyte barrier formed on anode and method of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium/organosulfur redox cell is disclosed which comprises a solid lium anode, a liquid organosulfur cathode, and a barrier layer formed adjacent a surface of the solid lithium anode facing the liquid organosulfur cathode consisting of a reaction product of the lithium anode with the organosulfur cathode. The organosulfur cathode comprises a material having the formula (R(S).sub.y).sub.N where y=1 to 6, n=2 to 20 and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the linear chain may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Meilin (Albany, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Vevey, CH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

243

Protected Areas Stacy Philpott  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Convention of Biological Diversity, 1992 #12;IUCN Protected Area Management Categories Ia. Strict Nature. Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI. Managed Resource Protected Area #12;Ia. Strict Nature Preserves and Ib. Wilderness Areas · Natural preservation · Research · No · No #12;II. National Parks · Ecosystem protection

Gottgens, Hans

244

Fire Protection Program Metrics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presenter: Perry E. D ’Antonio, P.E., Acting Sr. Manager, Fire Protection - Sandia National Laboratories

245

Degradation Mechanisms of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O3 SOFC Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term stability of anode-supported YSZ electrolyte SOFCs utilizing (La0.6Sr0.4)0.98Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? (LSCF-6428) cathodes was assessed. Samples tested for 500 hours at 750 C and 0.7V indicated ?50% degradation. While scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis indicated no obvious microstructural or chemical phenomena that could explain the high degradation, x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that enrichment of Sr at the cathode-electrolyte and cathode-current collector interfaces was at least partially responsible for the observed degradation.

Simner, Steve P.; Anderson, Michael D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

246

The evidence of cathodic micro-discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processing of EV31 magnesium alloy has been carried out in fluoride containing electrolyte under bipolar pulse current regime. Unusual PEO cathodic micro-discharges have been observed and investigated. It is shown that the cathodic micro-discharges exhibit a collective intermittent behavior, which is discussed in terms of charge accumulations at the layer/electrolyte and layer/metal interfaces. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine the electron density (typ. 10{sup 15}?cm{sup ?3}) and the electron temperature (typ. 7500?K) while the role of F{sup ?} anions on the appearance of cathodic micro-discharges is pointed out.

Nominé, A., E-mail: alexandre.nomine@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); National Institute of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 4, Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Martin, J.; Noël, C.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Bardin, I. V.; Kovalev, V. L.; Rakoch, A. G. [National Institute of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 4, Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

247

Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior and battery performances were investigated. The substitution positions on the anthraquinone structure, binders for electrode preparation and electrolyte formulations have been found to have significant effects on the battery performances of such organic cathode materials. The substitution position with less steric stress has higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate capability. Polyvinylidene fluoride binder and ether-based electrolytes are favorable for the high capacity and long cycle life of the quinonyl organic cathodes.

Xu, Wu; Read, Adam L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, CH2M HILL B&W West...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

nuclear criticality protection program, fire protection program, and the conduct of operations program. In addition, there are technical safety requirements that include...

249

Pine Ridge Area Community Wildfire Protection Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pine Ridge Area Community Wildfire Protection Plan Update 2013 West Ash Fire: Wednesday August 29 the boundary of the original plan to include all the area within the Upper Niobrara White Natural Resource, 2012 #12;Facilitated by: Nebraska Forest Service In cooperation with: Region 23 Fire Protection

Farritor, Shane

250

NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

SURFACE SEGREGATION STUDIES OF SOFC CATHODES: COMBINING SOFT X-RAYS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.

Miara, Lincoln J.; Piper, L.F.J.; Davis, Jacob N.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra; Smith, K. E.; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell Roland D. Cusick*, Mark L. Ullery, Brian A. Dempsey, Bruce E. Logan Department of Civil January 2014 Available online 6 February 2014 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cell Electrochemical

253

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy novel cathode / alloy...

254

Short communication Performance of microbial fuel cells with and without Nafion solution as cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Performance of microbial fuel cells with and without Nafion solution as cathode online 31 March 2010 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) Nafion Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) Internal resistance Electricity production The performance of tubular microbial fuel cells (MFC

255

Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Microstructural effects on capacity-rate performance of vanadium oxide cathodes in lithium-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vanadium oxide thin film cathodes were analyzed to determine whether smaller average grain size and/or a narrower average grain size distribution affects the capacity-rate performance in lithium-ion batteries. Vanadium ...

Davis, Robin M. (Robin Manes)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EPDM EVA ethylene vinyl acetate FBE fusion-bonded epoxy GMACoating Thickness on FBE ………………. Figure 7.13: NormalizedWhen XANES was applied to FBE-coated iron, the cathodically

Love, Corey T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Supply and demand in the material recovery system for cathode ray tube glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents an analysis of the material recovery system for leaded glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs). In particular, the global mass flow of primary and secondary CRT glass and the theoretical capacities for using ...

Nadeau, Marie-Claude

259

Corrosion mechanisms in aqueous solutions containing dissolved H2S. Part 2: Mode! ofthe cathodic reactions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion mechanisms in aqueous solutions containing dissolved H2S. Part 2: Mode! ofthe cathodicFP Energies nouvelles, Rond-point de 1'échangeur de Solaize BP3, 69360 Solaize, France. J. Corrosion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

The role of phase transformation in the rate performance limited Lix? V? O? battery cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has recently been reported that the rate performance of Lix? V?O?, a widely studied candidate Li-ion battery cathode material, can be significantly improved through a variety of particle size reduction techniques, (e.g. ...

Avery, Kenneth Charles

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385°C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350°C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500°C to 750°C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650°C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2010-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

262

Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

263

Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Rohan, James F. (Cork City, IE); Foo, Conrad C. (Dedham, MA); Pasquariello, David M. (Pawtucket, RI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

265

Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...

Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

266

Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

Capece, Angela M., E-mail: acapece@pppl.gov; Shepherd, Joseph E. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

The design of a cathode to operate in an oxygen-rich environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary problem with Hall plasma accelerator operation on oxygen is poor cathode performance and short lifetime. The primary problem with micro Hall thrusters is the absence of a stable low power cathode. Cathodes traditionally used for both applications employ thermionic emitters which are not efficient and which are easily oxidized in an oxygen-rich environment. The field emitter cathode presented in this report has the potential of filling both vacancies since it does not require a high-power heater and can be scaled down with the size of the thruster. The advantages to using Hf and HfC as emitting materials are low work functions and high resistance to oxygen poisoning. Preliminary investigations proved that HfC emitters can operate in 7.6 mTorr oxygen pressure environments. The initial cathode design employs an electrostatic lens that also acts as an ion filter to prevent thruster ions from bombarding the field emitters while decelerating the electron beam and keeping it focused to ensure efficient performance. Electron trajectories through the cathode and ion filtering capabilities are presented in this report as predicted by the charged particle code, MAGIC.

Marrese, Colleen M.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Mackie, William A.; Evans, David E. [Plasmadynamic and Electric Propulsion Lab., University of Michigan Dept. of Aerospace Engineering FXB Building, 1320 Beal Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2118 (United States); Linfield Research Institute 900 Baker St. McMinnville, Oregon 97128-6894 (United States)

1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

HTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/background · Stability and protection are crucial issues for HTS tapes and coils applied to electric power devices. ­Both for the economic argument for HTS AC applications like cables and transformers. · Conductor design is importantHTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability, AC Losses, and Fault Currents M. J

269

Neutral beam dump with cathodic arc titanium gettering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An incomplete neutral beam capture can degrade the plasma performance in neutral beam driven plasma machines. The beam dumps mitigating the shine-through beam recycling must entrap and retain large particle loads while maintaining the beam-exposed surfaces clean of the residual impurities. The cathodic arc gettering, which provides high evaporation rate coupled with a fast time response, is a powerful and versatile technique for depositing clean getter films in vacuum. A compact neutral beam dump utilizing the titanium arc gettering was developed for a field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by 1 MW, 20-40 keV neutral hydrogen beams. The titanium evaporator features a new improved design. The beam dump is capable of handling large pulsed gas loads, has a high sorption capacity, and is robust and reliable. With the beam particle flux density of 5 x 10{sup 17} H/(cm{sup 2}s) sustained for 3-10 ms, the beam recycling coefficient, defined as twice the ratio of the hydrogen molecular flux leaving the beam dump to the incident flux of high-energy neutral atoms, is {approx}0.7. The use of the beam dump allows us to significantly reduce the recycling of the shine-through neutral beam as well as to improve the vacuum conditions in the machine.

Smirnov, A.; Korepanov, S. A.; Putvinski, S. [Tri Alpha Energy Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Krivenko, A. S.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Savkin, V. Ya. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A1-xA'x)1-yFeO3-.delta. or of general formula A1-x-yA'xFeO3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

272

Identifying and Protecting Official Use Only Information  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish a program within the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to identify certain unclassified controlled information as Official Use Only (OUO) and to identify, mark, and protect documents containing such information.

2003-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Livestock Risk Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Livestock risk protection (LRP) insurance policies protect producers from adverse price changes in the livestock market. This publication explains how LRP works, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these polices, and gives examples...

Thompson, Bill; Bennett, Blake; Jones, Diana

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Protection Program Operations  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Order establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Protective Forces (FPF), Contractor Protective Forces (CPF), and the Physical Security of property and personnel under the cognizance of DOE.

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

276

An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

Droemer, Darryl W. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Bennett, Nichelle L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Laboratories

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Corrosion behavior and interfacial resistivity of bipolar plate materials under molten carbonate fuel cell cathode conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A material is needed for bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) that combines the low oxide resistivity of 316L stainless steel (SS) with the low corrosion rate of the type 310 SS. The authors tested a group of materials that included Nitronic 50 SS and a newly developed high-temperature nickel-rich alloy, having chromium contents ranging from 16 to 31 wt %. Their results indicate that chromium content is the primary determinant of oxide scale composition and resistivity. In the MCFC cathode compartment, all tested alloys formed a duplex structure with an inner Cr-rich layer and an outer Fe-rich one. The composition of the inner Cr-rich layer was determined by the chromium content of the base alloy and has a controlling effect on scale resistivity. Oxide scale resistivity was measured for three electrolyte compositions: Li/K, Li/Na, and newly developed (Li, Na, Ca, Ba) carbonates. Changes in the physical/mechanical properties (spallation/cracking) in the oxide scale of 316L SS provided an understanding of its resistivity fluctuations over time.

Schoeler, A.C.; Kaun, T.D.; Bloom, I.; Lanagan, M.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

279

Coastal Marshlands Protection Act (Georgia  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coastal Marshlands Protection Act provides the Coastal Resources Division with the authority to protect tidal wetlands. The Coastal Marshlands Protection Act limits certain activities and...

280

Fire Protection Program Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

Sharry, J A

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

PREVENTION DES EXPLOSIONS DE POUSSIERES ET PROTECTION CONTRE LEURS EFFETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of prevention and protection of explosible atmospheres, including dust air mixtures. On the framework95-27 PREVENTION DES EXPLOSIONS DE POUSSIERES ET PROTECTION CONTRE LEURS EFFETS DIRECTIVES aujourd'hui des problemes de prevention et de protection en ce qui concerne les explosions d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Groundwater Protection 7 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT7-1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and to implement best management practices designed to protect groundwater. Examples include upgrading unGroundwater Protection 7 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT7-1 7.1 THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION's program helps to fulfill the environmental monitoring requirements outlined in U.S. Department of Energy

Homes, Christopher C.

283

High Stability, Self-Protecting Electrocatalyst Particles - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that easily passivates, creating a relatively inert surface layer which inhibits corrosion of the underlying constituents. Including the passivating element protects the...

284

Two types of diffusions at the cathode/electrolyte interface in IT-SOFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical transmission electron microscopy, in particular with the combination of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), has been performed to investigate the microstructure and microchemistry of the interfacial region between the cathode (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, LSCF) and the electrolyte (Gd-doped ceria, GDC). Two types of diffusions, mutual diffusion between cathode and electrolyte as well as the diffusion along grain boundaries, have been clarified. These diffusions suggest that the chemical stability of LSCF and GDC are not as good as previously reported. The results are more noteworthy if we take into consideration the fact that such interdiffusions occur even during the sintering process of cell preparation. - Graphical Abstract: Two types of diffusions, the mutual diffusion and the diffusion along grain boundaries, occurred at the cathode/electrolyte interface of intermediate temperature solid state fuel cells, during cell preparation. The mutual diffusion is denoted by black arrows and the diffusion along grain boundaries assigned by pink arrows. Highlights: > All the cations in cathode (LSCF) and electrolyte (GDC) can mutually diffuse into each other. > Diffusing elements will segregate at grain boundaries or triple junctions around the cathode/electrolyte interface. > Two types of diffusions, the mutual diffusion and diffusion along grain boundaries, have been clarified thereafter.

Li Zhipeng, E-mail: LI.Zhipeng@nims.go.jp [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based on Nanomaterials Science, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Mori, Toshiyuki [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based on Nanomaterials Science, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Auchterlonie, Graeme John [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Zou Jin [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Division of Materials, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Drennan, John [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

An intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with electrospun nanofiber cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) nanofibers have been fabricated by the electrospinning method and used as the cathode of an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte. The three-dimensional nanofiber network cathode has several advantages: (i) high porosity; (ii) high percolation; (iii) continuous pathway for charge transport; (iv) good thermal stability at the operating temperature; and (v) excellent scaffold for infiltration. The fuel cell with the monolithic LSCF nanofiber cathode exhibits a power density of 0.90 W cm{sup ?2} at 1.9 A cm{sup ?2} at 750 °C. The electrochemical performance of the fuel cell has been further improved by infiltration of 20 wt% of gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) into the LSCF nanofiber cathode. The fuel cell with the LSCF–20% GDC composite cathode shows a power density of 1.07 W cm{sup ?2} at 1.9 A cm{sup ?2} at 750 °C. The results obtained show that one-dimensional nanostructures such as nanofibers hold great promise as electrode materials for intermediate-temperature SOFCs.

Zhi, Mingjia; Lee, Shiwoo; Miller, Nicholas; Menzler, Norbert H.; Wu, Nianqiang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Asset Protection Analysis Guide  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Guide provides examples of the application of as set protection analysis to several common problems. Canceled by DOE N 251.80.

2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

Protected Water Sources (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter designates protected water sources, which are subject to additional special conditions regarding water use. Permit applications for water withdrawals from these sources may still be...

288

Protective Actions and Reentry  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This volume defines appropriate protective actions and reentry of a site following an emergency. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

289

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

290

Environmental Protection Specialist  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A successful candidate in this position will serve as an environmental protection specialist within the Environmental Planning and Analysis department (KEC) of the Environment, Fish, and Wildlife ...

291

System Protection Control Craftman  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A successful candidate will perform preventative and corrective maintenance on protective relays, revenue meters, telemetering schemes, substation control systems and various kinds of substation...

292

DOE Advanced Protection Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Circuit Fault Status - Four Faults Recorded * 10212007 (high winds) - Relay pick-ups, but no trip * 12252007 (high winds) - Protection operated correctly - Post-fault...

293

Physical Protection Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Supplements DOE O 473.1, by establishing requirements for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Cancels: DOE M 5632.1C-1

2002-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Amp\\`ere-Class Pulsed Field Emission from Carbon-Nanotube Cathodes in a Radiofrequency Resonator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulsed field emission from cold carbon-nanotube cathodes placed in a radiofrequency resonant cavity was observed. The cathodes were located on the backplate of a conventional $1+\\frac{1}{2}$-cell resonant cavity operating at 1.3-GHz and resulted in the production of bunch train with maximum average current close to 0.7 Amp\\`ere. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristic, transverse emittance, and pulse duration are presented and, when possible, compared to numerical simulations. The implications of our results to high-average-current electron sources are briefly discussed.

Mihalcea, D; Hartzell, J; Panuganti, H; Boucher, S M; Murokh, A; Piot, P; Thangaraj, J C T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is expected to improve further. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper.

Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

2010-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

296

Condensation in the Cathode of a PEM Fuel Cell M. J. Kermani J. M. Stockie A. G. Gerber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation in the Cathode of a PEM Fuel Cell M. J. Kermani J. M. Stockie A. G. Gerber University@unb.ca. ABSTRACT Three species condensing flow in the cathode of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell of an ongoing effort to carefully model individual elements of the PEM fuel cell, with a par- ticular focus

Stockie, John

297

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. Deposition on flat substrates yields February 4, 2010. Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells are promising for future automotive applications

Gall, Daniel

298

Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air-Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Logan*,, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China Department of Civil and Environmental better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode

299

Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

40.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES The...

300

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Clothes That Care -- Flame Resistant Protection.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.. 8-1272 othes That Care- Flame Resistant Protection" TOoe ZTA245.7 8873 NQ.'2'T2 Texas Agricultural Extension Service . The Texas A&M University System Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas , ? Clothes That Care- Flame... Resistant Protection Claudia Kerbel * Concern for a safer environment has led to changes in many of the everyday products we use , including clothing . In the' past dec ade, flame-resistant (FR) garments and fabrics have become more available than ever...

Kerbel, Claudia

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Protection of Human Subjects  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish DOE procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 CFR Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects, ad in DOE P 443.1, Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects. Cancels DOE O 1300.3. Canceled by DOE O 443.1A.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Protection of Human Subjects  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects; and in DOE P 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, dated 12-20-07. Cancels DOE O 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B.

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

304

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Environmental protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

R. C. Holland

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Environmental Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To implement sound stewardship practices that are protective of the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources impacted by the Department of Energy (DOE) operations and by which DOE cost effectively meets or exceeds compliance with applicable environmental; public health; and resource protection laws, regulations, and DOE requirements. Cancels DOE 5400.1 and DOE N 450.4.

2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan serves as an aid to management and staff to implement new environmental programs in a timely manner.

Brekke, D.D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media A Comparison of Self-Protecting Digital Content and AACS Independent Security Evaluators www.securityevaluators.com May 3, 2005 Copyright for Optical Media 2 #12;Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media 3 Executive

Amir, Yair

309

Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Conley, William R. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics Marshall Cox, Alon Gorodetsky, Bumjung Kim, Keun Soo Kim, Zhang Jia et al.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics Marshall Cox, Alon Gorodetsky, Bumjung Kim-layer graphene cathodes for organic photovoltaics Marshall Cox,1,a Alon Gorodetsky,2 Bumjung Kim,2 Keun Soo Kim,3-layer graphene is demonstrated as a cathode for organic photovoltaic devices. The measured properties indicate

Hone, James

311

Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

312

Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This order establishes the Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for Department of Energy (DOE) operations. Cancels Interim Management Directive No. 5001, Safety, Health And Environmental Protection dated 9-29-77.

1980-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

313

DOE Order 440. 1 B: Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

insufficient time to seek effective redress through the normal hazard reporting and abatement procedures established in accordance with this Order; Have access to DOE worker...

314

Office of River Protection Looks Back on 2014 Achievements, Including Tank  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecemberInitiativesNationalNuclear Safety Office of Nuclear Safetyof

315

Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecemberInitiativesNationalNuclear Safety Officethe ChiefServices14.1D,NNSA) FEDERAL

316

DOE Order 440. 1 B: Worker Protection Program for DOE (Including NNSA)  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Deliciouscritical_materials_workshop_presentations.pdf MoreProgram |DOEInfrastructure Working GroupEnergy DOE

317

Effect of nitrate on the performance of single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of nitrate on the performance of single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells Chontisa Accepted 26 August 2008 Published online 11 September 2008 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Denitrification microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has drawn much attention recently as a new approach of waste- water treatment

Tullos, Desiree

318

Supporting Information Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Supporting Information Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan b a State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, THU­ VEOLIA Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, PR China * Corresponding author: E

319

A flat-cathode thermionic injector for the PHERMEX Radiographic Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PHERMEX (Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) standing-wave linear accelerator is a high-current electron beam generator used for flash-radiography. An improved electron gun has been designed employing a flat-thermionic cathode to replace the existing Pierce-geometry gun. The flat cathode yields increased current with the same applied voltage and cathode area as the Pierce gun. The ISIS code simulations indicate a beam current of 1.5 kA at 600 kV. The new geometry also reduces the probability for high voltage breakdown in the A-K gap. A reentrant magnet captures the expanding electron beam and a bucking coil nulls cathode-tinge field. A third coil is used to optimize the extraction field profile and reduce the effect of nonlinear space charge on the beam emittance. Time-resolved measurements of beam current and voltage have been made. In addition, a streak camera was used to measure beam emittance and spatial profile. Comparisons of measurements with simulations are presented.

Kauppila, T.; Builta, L.; Burns, M.; Gregory, W.; Honaberger, D.; Watson, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hughes, T. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

A flat-cathode thermionic injector for the PHERMEX Radiographic Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PHERMEX (Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays) standing-wave linear accelerator is a high-current electron beam generator used for flash-radiography. An improved electron gun has been designed employing a flat-thermionic cathode to replace the existing Pierce-geometry gun. The flat cathode yields increased current with the same applied voltage and cathode area as the Pierce gun. The ISIS code simulations indicate a beam current of 1.5 kA at 600 kV. The new geometry also reduces the probability for high voltage breakdown in the A-K gap. A reentrant magnet captures the expanding electron beam and a bucking coil nulls cathode-tinge field. A third coil is used to optimize the extraction field profile and reduce the effect of nonlinear space charge on the beam emittance. Time-resolved measurements of beam current and voltage have been made. In addition, a streak camera was used to measure beam emittance and spatial profile. Comparisons of measurements with simulations are presented.

Kauppila, T.; Builta, L.; Burns, M.; Gregory, W.; Honaberger, D.; Watson, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hughes, T. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Facile synthesis of Li2Spolypyrrole composite structures for high-performance Li2S cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Facile synthesis of Li2S­polypyrrole composite structures for high-performance Li2S cathodes Zhi demon- strate facile, in situ synthesis of Li2S­polypyrrole composites for use as high-performance Li2S polysulfides during cycling. Poly- pyrrole, being a conducting polymer, also helps to facilitate elec- tronic

Cui, Yi

322

Microstructural Characterization Using Orientational Imaging Microscopy of SOFC Cathodes Subjected to Thermal and Electrochemical Loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathodes in SOFCs consist of interconnecting and contacting two-phase interfaces and three-phase lines in a complex three-phase microstructure. Furthermore, the interfacial crystallography is dynamic and changes in response to thermal loads and to interfacial electrochemical polarizations. Owing to this inherent complexity, a complete and fundamental understanding of both the basic mechanisms of cathodic processes and their performance degradation has not been achieved. We have carried out quantitative orientational imaging microscopy (OIM) on button-cell geometry SOFCs containing porous cathodes of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide. A series of cathodes, taken from cells subjected to both open-circuit and current-loaded fuel-cell conditions, were characterized with OIM to determine their microstructural and crystallographic properties as a function of thermal and electrochemical history. In this presentation we will discuss the results of these studies, focusing on the crystallographic nature of the statistically important two-phase interfaces and three-phase lines.

Cao, Y. (Carnegie Mellon University); Miller, H.M. (Carnegie Mellon University); Johnson, C.; Wilson, L.C.; Rohrer, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Salvador, P. (Carnegie Mellon University)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

innovati nNREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential environmental and safety issues. The search for a replacement cathode material has led to lithium, the chemical reaction of the anode with the electrolyte causes electrons to enter the wire, moving throughFePO4 is due to the particular geometry of its electronic struc- ture--in technical terms, it has

324

Beam characterization of a lab bench cold cathode ultra-soft x-ray generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-source. Keywords: Ultra-soft X-rays (USX), USX Cold cathode generator, Gafchromic dosimetry, Aluminium K line. 1 and cell transformation) [1]. USX, however,5 pose significant problems in dosimetry and experimental design References hal-00858423,version1-5Sep2013 Author manuscript, published in "Nuclear Instruments and Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Spectroscopic diagnostics of the plasma in the cathode region of a nitrogen glow discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

323 Spectroscopic diagnostics of the plasma in the cathode region of a nitrogen glow discharge A of the characteristic quantities of the plasma, the diagnostics must be made in situ by non-intrusive methods that offer. Margulis and J. Jolly Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Bâtiment 212, Université de Paris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

The use and optimization of stainless steel mesh cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a high-yield method for producing hydrogen from renewable biomass. One cost MEC systems for hydrogen production. ª 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier for water electrolysis) [1,2], hydrogen can be evolved on the cathode under anoxic conditions, usually

327

Ion velocities in direct current arc plasma generated from compound cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arc plasma from Ti-C, Ti-Al, and Ti-Si cathodes was characterized with respect to charge-state-resolved ion energy. The evaluated peak velocities of different ion species in plasma generated from a compound cathode were found to be equal and independent on ion mass. Therefore, measured difference in kinetic energies can be inferred from the difference in ion mass, with no dependence on ion charge state. The latter is consistent with previous work. These findings can be explained by plasma quasineutrality, ion acceleration by pressure gradients, and electron-ion coupling. Increasing the C concentration in Ti-C cathodes resulted in increasing average and peak ion energies for all ion species. This effect can be explained by the “cohesive energy rule,” where material and phases of higher cohesive energy generally result in increasing energies (velocities). This is also consistent with the here obtained peak velocities around 1.37, 1.42, and 1.55 (10{sup 4} m/s) for ions from Ti{sub 0.84}Al{sub 0.16}, Ti{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}, and Ti{sub 0.90}C{sub 0.10} cathodes, respectively.

Zhirkov, I.; Rosen, J. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)] [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Eriksson, A. O. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden) [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Oerlikon Balzers Coating AG, Iramali 18, 9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

328

Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes) was tested as a catalyst binder in a microbial fuel cell. 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Anti-flooding Catalyst binder a b s t r a c

329

Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

331

An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source David K. Olson,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design based on metal vapor vacuum arc MeVVA concepts is employed as a plasma source for a study of a 7 using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs with a proton beam. We create our 7 Be on the surface of a sample of enriched boron carbide. Because 7

Hart, Gus

332

Mitigating Voltage Fade in Cathode Materials by Improving the Atomic Level Uniformity of Elemental Distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li-rich and Mn-rich (LMR) layered structured materials are very promising cathodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, their fundamental structure and voltage fading mechanisms are far from being well understood. Here we report the first evidence on the reduced voltage and energy fade of LMR cathode by improving the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species. LMR cathode (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2) prepared by co-precipitation and sol-gel methods are dominated by R-3m phase and show significant Ni-segregation at the surface of the particles. They exhibit large voltage-fade and fast capacity degradation. In contrast, LMR cathode prepared by hydrothermal assisted method is dominated by C2/m phase and minimal Ni-segregation. It also demonstrates much smaller voltage-fade and excellent capacity retention. The fundamental correlation between the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species and the functional stability of the materials found in this work also guide the design of other functional materials with enhanced stabilities.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Pinghong; Chen, Xilin; Zhu, Zihua; Zhao, Wenbo; Pullan, Lee; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Dr Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are alternative energy conversion devices that efficiently. The fundamental relationship between operating conditions and device performance will help to optimize the device

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

334

Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a methanogenic biofilm on the cathode by either direct electron transfer or evolved hydrogen. To optimize methane, Microbial electrolysis cell, Power-to-gas, Microbially influenced corrosion, Carbon black, Graphite, hydro- gen gas production by water electrolysis often requires expensive precious metals to reduce

335

Growth and characterization of rare-earth monosulfides for cold cathode applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of chalco- genides of the rare-earth elements.4,5 The possibility was analyzed theoretically basedGrowth and characterization of rare-earth monosulfides for cold cathode applications Y. Modukuru, J phonons at 261 284 and 100 92 cm 1 with LaS NdS , respectively. These rare-earth monosulfides offer

Boolchand, Punit

336

SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION The Use and Optimization of Stainless Steel Mesh Cathodes in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Hydrogen Energy (IJHE) #12;Mesh Surface Area Calculation Figure S1: SS 304 woven mesh configuration, where (or cm2 / cm2 ) Specific area per 7 cm2 cathode: 2 cm45.107 =Ã?S Specific area per reactor volume: 3232

337

Carbonophosphates: A New Family of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Identified Computationally  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonophosphates: A New Family of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Identified ABSTRACT: The tremendous growth of Li-ion batteries into a wide variety of applications is setting new applications from portable electronics to electric vehicles. A critical element of a Li-ion battery is the Li

Ceder, Gerbrand

338

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediateOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights oxide fuel cells are of technological interest as they offer high efficiency for energy conversion

Yildiz, Bilge

339

Gold and gold-graphene used as cathodic interfaces for scission of carbon-halogen bonds.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Application to the building of anthraquinone-Au electrodes. Jacques Simonet a * and Viatcheslav Jouikov b a as cathode material. This first work points out the immobilization of anthraquinone (AQ) in organic polar.12.024 #12;2 Graphical Abstract Key Words: Graphene; 2-Bromomethylanthraquinone; Anthraquinone electrodes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform Fikile R of hydrogen H2 and oxygen O2 . Operating fuel cells in alkaline media, as opposed to acidic media, has on an alkaline microfluidic fuel cell for catalyst and electrode characterization. Its constantly refreshing

Kenis, Paul J. A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a, *, N. Sinha, Waterloo, Ont. N2L3C5, Canada 1. Introduction Field emission from carbon nanotube (CNT) was first reported Available online 27 June 2008 Keywords: Field emission Current density Carbon nanotube Strain phonon A B

Melnik, Roderick

342

accelerator machines cathode: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reduce this waste of energy, the potential for waste recovery and equipment available for waste heat recovery. Areas under study include the press section, paper machine dryer...

343

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fire protection design criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE FIELD EMISSION ARRAY FOR ELECTRON LENS APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During Phase I, the following goals were achieved: (1) design and fabrication of a novel, nano-dimensional CNT field emitter assembly for high current density application, with high durability; (2) fabrication of a ceramic based micro channel plate (MCP) and characterization of its secondary electron emission; and (3) characterizing the CNT/MCP cathode for high field emission and durability. As a result of these achievements, a relatively high current density of ~ 1.2 A/cm2 from a CNT cathode and single channel MCP were measured. The emission current was also extremely stable with a peak-to-peak variation of only 1.8%. The emission current could be further enhanced to meet requirements for electron lens applications by increasing the number of MCP channels. A calculation for maximum possible current density with a 1200 channel/cm2 MCP, placed over a cathode with 1200 uniformly functioning CNTs, would be ~1.46 kA/cm2, neglecting space charge limitations. Clearly this level of emission is far greater than what is needed for the electron lens application, but it does offer a highly comforting margin to account for sub-standard emitters and/or to allow the lesser challenge of building a cathode with fewer channels/cm2. A satisfactory goal for the electron lens application would be a controllable emission of 2-4 mA per channel in an ensemble of 800-1200 uniformly-functioning channels/cm2, and a cathode with overall area of about 1 cm2.

Hirshfield, Jay L

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

Ground water protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

348

Environmental Protection Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act states general provisions for the protection of the environment. It also states specific regulations for air, water and land pollution as well as atomic radiation, toxic chemical and oil...

349

United States Environmental Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risksUnited States Environmental Protection Agency Hydrogeologic Framework, Ground-Water Geochemistry

350

Protection of Tidewaters (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Protection of Tidewaters Act establishes the State of Georgia as the owner of the beds of all tidewaters within the State, except where title by a private party can be traced to a valid British...

351

Protective Coatings for Turbomachinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for power plant efficiency and reliability, the need to prevent corrosion and erosion is growing. Operators, overhaulers, and manufacturers have been using protective coatings for over twenty-five years to prevent erosion and corrosion. The evolution...

McCune, B.; Hilty, L.

352

Groundwater Protection Act (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Commissioner of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources is required to determine a general groundwater protection strategy and groundwater quality standards for the state, to be approved by...

353

Protection of Human Subjects  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Policy is to establish DOE-specific principles for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Cancels DOE P 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Protection of Human Subjects  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The purpose of this Policy is to establish DOE-specific policy for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Canceled by DOE P 443.1A.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Physical Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes Department of Energy management objectives, requirements and responsibilities for the physical protection of safeguards and security interests. Cancels DOE 5632.1C. Canceled by DOE O 470.4.

2002-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Mondriaan memory protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and ...

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Cavern Protection (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is public policy of the state to provide for the protection of caves on or under Texas lands. For the purposes of this legislation, “cave” means any naturally occurring subterranean cavity, and...

358

Federal Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Protective laser beam viewing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

360

Voluntary Protection Program- Basics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) promotes safety and health excellence through cooperative efforts among labor, management, and government at the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor sites. DOE has also formed partnerships with other Federal agencies and the private sector for both advancing and sharing its Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) experiences and preparing for program challenges in the next century. The safety and health of contractor and federal employees are a high priority for the Department.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Environmental Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The objective is to implement sound stewardship practices that are protective of the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources impacted by DOE operations, and meet or exceed compliance with applicable environmental, public health, and resource protection requirements cost effectively. The revision provides specific expectations for implementation of Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environment, Energy, and Transportation Management. Cancels DOE O 450.1. Canceled by DOE O 436.1.

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

362

Environmental Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To implement sound stewardship practices that are protective of the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources impacted by the Department of Energy (DOE) operations and by which DOE cost effectively meets or exceeds compliance with applicable environmental; public health; and resource protection laws, regulations, and DOE requirements. Chg 1, dated 1-24-05; Chg 2, dated 12-7-05; Admin Chg 1, dated 1-3-07. Cancels DOE 5400.1 and DOE N 450.4.

2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

General Environmental Protection Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for Department of Energy (DOE) Operations for assuring compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, Executive Orders, and internal Department policies. Cancels DOE O 5480.1A. Para. 2b, 4b, and 4c of Chap. II and para. 2d and 3b of Chap. III canceled by DOE O 231.1.

1990-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

365

Observation of radio frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge plasma with MgO and Al electrodes for plasma processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various high-density plasma sources have been proposed for plasma processing. Especially, the hollow cathode discharge is one of the powerful ones. In this work, radio-frequency (RF) driven ring-shaped hollow cathode discharges with high secondary-electron emission have been investigated, using an aluminum (Al) cathode, coated or not with magnesium oxide (MgO). The thickness of MgO thin film is approximately 200?nm. The RF discharge voltage for the coated cathode is almost the same as that for the uncoated one, in a wide range of Ar gas pressure, from 5.3 to 53.2?Pa. The results reveal that the plasma density has a peak at an Ar gas pressure of 10.6?Pa for both cathodes. The plasma density for the coated cathode is about 1.5–3 times higher than that for the uncoated one, at various gas pressures. To the contrary, the electron temperature for the coated cathode is lower than temperature obtained with the uncoated cathode, at various gas pressures. Radial profiles of electron saturation current, which is proportional to plasma flux, are also examined for a wide range of gas pressure. Radial profiles of electron temperature at various axial positions are almost uniform for both cathodes so that the diffusion process due to density gradient is dominant for plasma transport. The secondary electrons emitted from the coated cathode contribute to the improvement of the plasma flux radial profile obtained using the uncoated cathode.

Ohtsu, Yasunori, E-mail: ohtsuy@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Naoki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data Protection Policy Page 1 DATA PROTECTION POLICY POLICY STATEMENT The University intends to fully comply with all requirements of the Data Protection Act 1998 (,,Act) in so far as it affects the Universitys activities. SCOPE This Data Protection Policy: Covers the processing of all personal information

Greenlees, John

367

Rack protection monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

California at Davis, University of

369

Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Design and Implementation of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Hollow Cathode Discharge Source for the Study of the Reaction H+  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Implementation of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Hollow Cathode Discharge Source for the Study in the first place and providing me with this incredible opportunity! You guys rock! 2 #12;Introduction Work

McCall, Benjamin J.

371

Evaluation of Tavorite-Structured Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using High-Throughput Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cathode materials with structure similar to the mineral tavorite have shown promise for use in lithium-ion batteries, but this class of materials is relatively unexplored. We use high-throughput density-functional-theory ...

Mueller, Tim

372

Designing materials for energy storage with high power and energy density : LiFePO? cathode material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LiFePO? has drawn a lot of attention as a cathode material in lithium rechargeable batteries because its structural and thermal stability, its inexpensive cost, and environmental friendliness meet the requirements of power ...

Kang, Byoungwoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

New nanocrystalline manganese oxides as cathode materials for lithium batteries : electron microscopy, electrochemical and X-ray absorption studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 New nanocrystalline manganese oxides as cathode materials for lithium batteries : electron: manganese oxide, lithium batteries, nanomaterials Corresponding author: Pierre Strobel, tel. 33 476 887 940 with lithium iodide in aqueous medium at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Optimization of the Cathode Catalyst Layer Composition of a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Novel 2-Step Preparation Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For good performance and high durability PEM fuel cells run at high water saturation levels. However, excess liquid water generated by the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode can block pores in the catalyst layer so ...

Friedmann, Roland

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication. Abstract: In this work, we synthesized monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 nanobelts via a single-step,...

376

Platinum-Alloy Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Nanometer-Scale Compositional and Morphological Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical measurements showed an ?75% Pt surface area loss and an ?40% specific activity loss for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) cathode with acid-treated “Pt[subscript 3]Co ” catalyst particles in a H[subscript ...

Chen, Shuo

377

Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

378

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissolution of NiO cathodes during cell operation is a limiting factor to the successful commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Microencapsulation of the NiO cathode has been adopted as a surface modification technique to increase the stability of NiO cathodes in the carbonate melt. The material used for surface modification should possess thermodynamic stability in the molten carbonate and also should be electro catalytically active for MCFC reactions. A simple first principles model was developed to understand the influence of exchange current density and conductivity of the electrode material on the polarization of MCFC cathodes. The model predictions suggest that cobalt can be used to improve the corrosion resistance of NiO cathode without affecting its performance. Cobalt was deposited on NiO cathode by electroless deposition. The morphology and thermal oxidation behavior of Co coated NiO was studied using scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis respectively. The electrochemical performance of cobalt encapsulated NiO cathodes were investigated with open circuit potential measurement and current-potential polarization studies. These results were compared to that of bare NiO. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of cobalt-coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Dissolution of nickel into the molten carbonate melt was less in case of cobalt encapsulated nickel cathodes. Co coated on the surface prevents the dissolution of Ni in the melt and thereby stabilizes the cathode. Finally, cobalt coated nickel shows similar polarization characteristics as nickel oxide. A similar surface modification technique has been used to improve the performance of the SS 304 current collectors used in MCFC cells. SS 304 was encapsulated with nanostructured layers of NiCo and NiMo by electroless deposition. The corrosion behavior of bare and surface modified SS 304 in molten carbonate under cathode gas atmosphere was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential studies, Tafel polarization, impedance analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. This study confirms that the presence of surface modification leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and electronic conductivity.

Dr. Ralph E. White

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

Anders, Andre

2014-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

380

A model for the self-pulsing regime of microhollow cathode discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microhollow cathode discharges may operate in different regimes depending of the discharge current. They are subject to relaxation oscillations in the so-called self-pulsing regime in which the discharge oscillates between two quasiequilibria: at low current it remains confined in the microhole whereas it expands on the cathode backside during short high-current pulses. A model based on a nonlinear discharge resistance is proposed to describe the phenomenon. The analysis of the dynamics reveals that the current pulse rises in an extremely short time while the characteristic (longer) decay time is imposed by the resistance when the discharge is expanded outside the hole. It is shown how the nonlinear discharge resistance may be inferred from the experimental current-voltage signals.

Chabert, P.; Lazzaroni, C.; Rousseau, A. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, CNRS, Paris XI, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Final Technical Report- Back-gate Field Emission-based Cathode RF Electron Gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective was to complete the design of an electron gun which utilizes a radio frequency (RF) power source to apply a voltage to a field emission (FE) cathode, a so called cold cathode, in order to produce an electron beam. The concept of the RF electron gun was originally conceived at Argonne National Laboratory but never reduced to practice. The research allowed the completion of the design based upon the integration of the FE electron source. Compared to other electron guns, the RF gun is very compact, less than one third the size of other comparable guns, and produces a high energy (to several MeV), high quality, high power electron beam with a long focal length with high repetition rates. The resultant electron gun may be used in welding, materials processing, analytical equipment and waste treatment.

McGuire, Gary; Martin, Allen; Noonan, John

2010-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

Anders, Andre

2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

383

A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

Anders, Andre

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Environmental protection implementation plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable.

Holland, R.C.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Environmental Protection Implementation Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. This report focuses on the following: notification of environmental occurrences; general planning and reporting; special programs and plans; environmental monitoring program; and quality assurance and data verification.

Brekke, D.D.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Protections = Defenses in Depth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedles for4-16HamadaBaO/Al2O3Protecting Lab land andProtections =

387

Method for protecting an electric generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

Kuehnle, Barry W. (Ammon, ID); Roberts, Jeffrey B. (Ammon, ID); Folkers, Ralph W. (Ammon, ID)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

388

Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

390

Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide in nonaqueous electrolytes. polarization curves at porous Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes some results obtained from studying the poloarization characteristics of cathodic sulfur dioxide reduction at porous electrodes made by applying a mixture of carbon black, graphite, and binder to a metal screen serving as current collector. Solutions of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate and in a mixture of propylene carbonate and acetonitrile were used as the electrolytes. Some typical galvanostatic discharge curves are shown for sulfur dioxide reduction at porous electrodes. The discharge capacity increases with increasing electrode porosity and decreasing current density. One can see when comparing the curves that the discharge capacities differ substantially for highly porous electrodes which had practically the same porosity of about 70%. The effect of current density is more important in solutions with a high SO/sub 2/ concentration. The operating efficiency of porous electrodes which serve as cathodes in high power Li-SO/sub 2/ power sources can be predicted on the basis of polorization curves for the porous electrodes which reflect the influence of macrostructure on the cathodic process.

Shembel, E.M.; Danilova, N.P.; Ksenzhek, O.S.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

United States Environmental Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Health and Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (40 CFR Part 197)--Final Rule Response to Comments Document #12;Yucca Mountain Standards Response to Comments Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada 40 CFR Part 197 June, 2001 Office of Radiation and Indoor Air U

393

Armored garment for protecting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, II, Jack F. (Albuquerque, NM); Whinery, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brazfield, Richard (Albuquerque, NM); Lawrie, Catherine (Tijeras, NM); Lawrie, David (Tijeras, NM); Preece, Dale S. (Watkins, CO)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fish passage and protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consists of reprints on fish passage and protection topics from: American Fisheries Society; American Society of Civil Engineers; Harza Engineering Company; Hydro Review Magazine; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Independent Energy Magazine; National Hydropower Association; Northwest Hydroelectric Association; United States Army Corps of Engineers; United States Committee on large dams; and the United States Department of the Interior.

Rinehart, B.N.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

United States Environmental Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

federal and state agencies to prepare for emergencies at U.S. nuclear plants, transportation accidents is actively involved with other U.S. government agencies for preparing to respond to acts of chemical, EPAprovides support to the Emergency ManagementAgency by: (1) establishing guidelines for protecting

396

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

397

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Contractor Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cybersecurity: Protecting Our  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cybersecurity: Protecting Our Data THE IMPORTANCE OF CYBERSECURITY "The cyber threat is one prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cybersecurity." President Barack Obama We live in a wired world and cybersecurity to function properly. Threats in cyberspace will soon equal or surpass that fromterrorism

400

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

McDowell, V.P.

1988-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

404

Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Order establishes the Environmental Protection, Safety. and Health Protection Program for Department of Energy (DOE) operations. Cancels DOE 5480.1, dated 5-5-1980, its chapters are not canceled. Canceled by DOE O 5480.1B

1981-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Preparation of Pt deposited nanotubular TiO{sub 2} as cathodes for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen production using seawater electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop effective cathodes to increase the production of hydrogen and use the seawater, an abundant resource in the earth as the electrolyte in photoelectrochemical systems. In order to fabricate the Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes, various contents of the Pt precursor (0-0.4 wt%) deposited by the electrodeposition method were used. On the basis of the hydrogen evolution rate, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes with the natural seawater and two concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from single (nanofiltration) and combined membrane (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) processes. The surface characterizations exhibited that crystal structures and morphological properties of Pt and TiO{sub 2} found the results of XRD pattern and SEM/TEM images, respectively. - Graphical abstract: On the basis of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TIO{sub 2} cathodes with natural seawater. In comparison of hydrogen evolution rate with various seawater electrolytes, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was found to show the better performance as cathode with the concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from membrane. Highlights: > Pt deposited TiO{sub 2} electrodes are used as cathode in PEC H{sub 2} production. > Natural and concentrated seawater by membranes are used as electrolytes in PEC. > Pt/TiO{sub 2} shows a good performance as cathode with seawater electrolytes. > H{sub 2} evolution rate increases with more concentrated seawater electrolyte. > Highly saline seawater is useful resource for H{sub 2} production.

Nam, Wonsik [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Technology and Education, Department of Applied Chemical Engineering, 1800 Chungjeollo, Byeongcheon-myun, Chungnam 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seichang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyunku [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jaekyung, E-mail: jyoon@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Natural Resources Protection Act (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maine's Department of Environmental Protection requires permits for most activities that occur in a protected natural resource area or adjacent to water resources such as rivers or wetlands. An ...

409

Environmental Protection and Natural Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

59 Stat. 1219. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).1992. Integrated Environmental Plan for the Mexican-U.S.EPA, A92-171.toc. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (

Sánchez-Rodríguez, Roberto; Mumme, Stephen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Protected Water Area System (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Natural Resource Commission maintains a state plan for the design and establishment of a protected water area system and those adjacent lands needed to protect the integrity of that system. A...

411

Unequal Error Protection Turbo Codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unequal Error Protection Turbo Codes Diploma Thesis Neele von Deetzen Arbeitsbereich Nachrichtentechnik School of Engineering and Science Bremen, February 28th, 2005 #12;Unequal Error Protection Turbo Convolutional Codes / Turbo Codes 18 3.1 Structure

Henkel, Werner

412

Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li(Ni0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4)O2 Cathode Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demand for less expensive batteries with longer life timescommercial use in L i - ion batteries since their inceptionas a cathode for lithium-ion batteries especially for hybrid

Rumble, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Extended reaction zone of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode for solid oxide fuel cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a complicated process which involves the interaction of oxygen molecules, electrons, and oxygen ions. Therefore, it can only proceed at locations where gas, electronic conductor, and an oxygen ion conductor meet. Although the extension of the reaction zone beyond the traditional so-called triple-phase-boundary (TPB) is widely accepted for a mixed ionically and electronically conductive cathode, work in this area has yet to reach a consensus on how far the reaction zone can be extended. In this study, anode-supported fuel cells with a variety of LSCF cathode thicknesses were fabricated and tested in two cathode environments, flowing oxygen and flowing air. In flowing oxygen, the cell performance increased with LSCF cathode thickness over the entire range investigated (from 5 to 33 ?m). In flowing air, the cell performance also increased with the LSCF cathode thickness from 5 to 13 ?m, but then remained almost constant with further increase in cathode thickness. In flowing oxygen, since there was no concentration polarization related to oxygen diffusion, the polarization resistance of oxygen reduction decreased with the LSCF cathode thickness because of the increased number of reaction sites. A linear relationship was established between the reciprocal of the polarization resistance and the cathode thickness, which was explained by a model developed for aqueous gas diffusion electrodes.

Lu, Zigui; Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molecular species or UV degradation, stabilizers or multi-5], and protect against UV degradation [10, 11]. Hydrous

Love, Corey T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cathode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) must have low dissolution rate, high structural strength and good electrical conductivity. Currently available cathodes are made of lithiated NiO which have acceptable structural strength and conductivity. However a study carried out by Orfeld et al. and Shores et al. indicated that the nickel cathodes dissolved, then precipitated and reformed as dendrites across the electrolyte matrix. This results in a decrease in cell utilization and eventually leads to shorting of the cell. The solubility of NiO was found to depend upon the acidity/basicity of the melt (basicity is directly proportional to log P{sub CO2}), carbonate composition, H{sub 2}O partial pressure and temperature. Urushibata et al. found that the dissolution of the cathode is a primary life limiting constraint of MCFCs, particularly in pressurized operation. With currently available NiO cathodes, the goal of 40,000 hours for the lifetime of MCFC appears achievable with cell operation at atmospheric pressure. However, the cell life at 10 atm and higher cell pressures is in the range between 5,000 to 10,000 hours. The overall objective of this research is to develop a superior cathode for MCFC's with improved catalytic ability, enhanced corrosion resistance with low ohmic losses, improved electronic conductivity. We also plan to understand the corrosion processes occurring at the cathode/molten carbonate interface. The following cathode materials will be subjected to detailed electrochemical, performance, structural and corrosion studies. (i) Passivated NiO alloys using chemical treatment with yttrium ion implantation and anodic yttrium molybdate treatment; (ii) Novel composite materials based on NiO and nanosized Ce, Yt, Mo; (iii) Co doped LiNiO{sub 2} LiNiO{sub 2} doped with 10 to 20% Co (LiCo{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 2}) and NiO cathodes; and (iv) CoO as a replacement for NiO. Passivation treatments will inhibit corrosion and increase the stability of the cathode at high temperatures. Deposition of refractory metals (Mo, W, Li{sub 2}NiCrO{sub 4}) will impart stability to the cathode at high temperatures. Further it will also increase the electrocatalytic activity and corrosion resistance of the cathode. Doping with Co will decrease the alloy dissolution and increase the cycle life of the cathode. In the reporting period the oxidation behavior of Ni and Co in Li + Na carbonate eutectic was investigated under oxidizing environment using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic technique. The open circuit potential was monitored as a function of time in order to evaluate the material's reactivity in the melt.

Anand Durairajan; Bala Haran; Branko N. Popov; Ralph E. White

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

418

Lattice Expansion of LSCF-6428 Cathodes Measured by In-situ XRD during SOFC Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new capability has been developed for analyzing solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper describes the initial results of in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) of the cathode on an operating anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell. It has been demonstrated that XRD measurements of the cathode can be performed simultaneously with electrochemical measurements of cell performance or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). While improvements to the technique are still to be made, the XRD pattern of a lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode with the composition La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? (LSCF-6428) was found to continually but gradually change over the course of more than 60 hours of operation in air under typical SOFC operating conditions. It was determined that the most significant change was a gradual increase in the cubic lattice parameters of the LSCF from 3.92502 Å (as determined from the integration of the first 20 hours of XRD patterns) to 3.92650 Å (from the integration of the last 20 hours). This analysis also revealed that there were several peaks from unidentified minor phases that increased in intensity over this timeframe. After a temporary loss of airflow early in the test, the cell generated between 225 and 250 mW/cm2 for the remainder of the test. A large low frequency arc in the impedance spectra suggests the cell performance was gas diffusion limited and that there is room for improvement in air delivery to the cell.

Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Edwards, Danny J.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

419

Electro-catalytically Active, High Surface Area Cathodes for Low Temperature SOFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on developing low polarization (area specific resistance, ASR) cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In order to accomplish this we focused on two aspects of cathode development: (1) development of novel materials; and (2) developing the relationships between microstructure and electrochemical performance. The materials investigated ranged from Ag-bismuth oxide composites (which had the lowest reported ASR at the beginning of this contract) to a series of pyrochlore structured ruthenates (Bi{sub 2-x}M{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where M = Sr, Ca, Ag; Pb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}; and Y{sub 2-2x}Pr{sub 2x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}), to composites of the pyrochlore ruthenates with bismuth oxide. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, we optimized the Ag-bismuth oxide and the ruthenate-bismuth oxide composites in terms of both two-phase composition and particle size/microstructure. We further investigated the role of thickness and current collector on ASR. Finally, we investigated issues of stability and found the materials investigated did not form deleterious phases at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Further, we established the ability through particle size modification to limit microstructural decay, thus, enhancing stability. The resulting Ag-Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} and Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7{sup -}}Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} composite cathodes had ASRs of 1.0 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and 0.73 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.048 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and 0.053 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. These ASRs are truly impressive and makes them among the lowest IT-SOFC ASRs reported to date.

Eric D. Wachsman

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High current, low emittance, steady state electron guns with plasma cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Major limitations of plasma cathodes have been overcome in an electron gun based on extraction of superthermal electrons with a low thermal spread. A grid is employed to select these electrons for extraction while retaining the bulk electrons in the discharge. Steady state extraction of electron beams corresponding to over 60% of the total arc discharge current has been observed. A perveance of over 280 microperv was reached with the extraction of 9A at 1KeV from a 6 mm aperture. Some of the characteristics of the electron gun described in this paper are very attractive for electron beam melting.

Herschovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

In-Situ Monitoring of Particle Growth at PEMFC Cathode under Accelerated Cycling Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-situ method to measure changes in catalyst particle size at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is demonstrated. Synchrotron X-rays, 58 keV, were used to measure the pair distribution function on an operating fuel cell and observe the growth of catalyst particles under accelerated degradation conditions. The stability of Pt/C and PtCo/C with different initial particle sizes was monitored over 3000 potential cycles. The increase in particle size was fit to a linear trend as a function of cycles. The most stable electrocatalyst was found to be the alloyed PtCo with the larger initial particle size.

Redmond, Erin L.; Setzler, Brian P.; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Fuller, Thomas F. (GIT); (Columbia)

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

423

Method for analyzing the mass of a sample using a cold cathode ionization source mass filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

Felter, Thomas E.

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

424

Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Designing radiation protection signs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Income Protection (IP) Insurance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the daily futures market closing prices for the insured crop prior to the sales closing date and during harvest. IP uses the Group Risk Plan?s (GRP) county yield index to adjust IP premium rates. The insurance is provided for an enter- prise unit... equals 27.5 percent of the approved yield times 100 percent of the projected price. An insured?s total guaranteed dollar amount of protection is the net acres of the insured crop (acres times share) in the county multiplied by the IP dollar guaran- tee...

Stokes, Kenneth; Barnaby, G. A. Art; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe

1999-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

427

Protecting your personal information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedles for4-16HamadaBaO/Al2O3Protecting Lab land and

428

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

429

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

430

Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

1994-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

431

Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

Konrad, Charles E. (Roanoke, VA); Benson, Ralph A. (Roanoke, VA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

433

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

434

Getting started -protecting and funding your ideas 21st April 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Getting started - protecting and funding your ideas 21st April 2009 Venue: Invent, DCU issues faced by a start up including how to protect its intellectual property. 10.30 Máire Cunningham rights? · How to protect these rights · Best practice 11.10 Máire Cunningham, Partner, Beauchamps

Humphrys, Mark

435

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Microstructure Modeling of Porosity-Graded Cathode Using Focused Ion Beam and Homogenization Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, microstructure of a porosity-graded lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been characterized using focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) combined with image processing. Two-point correlation functions of the two-dimensional (2D) images taken along the direction of porosity gradient are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. The effective elastic modulus of the two-phase porosity-graded cathode is predicted using strong contrast (SC) and composite inclusion (CI) homogenization techniques. The effectiveness of the two methods in predicting the effective elastic properties of the porositygraded LSM cathode is investigated in comparison with the results obtained from the finite element model (FEM).

Hamedani, Amani; Baniassadi, Majid; Sheidaei, A.; Pourboghrat, F.; Remond, Y.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB?SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non?destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three?dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studied under different operating conditions. Both the cathode and the full cell model give good fits to the experimental data.

Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

Widom, A; Larsen, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

440

Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode readout and pulse-height correction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present our new results from testing 15-mm-long virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors with a common-cathode readout for correcting pulse-height distortions. The array employs parallelepiped-shaped CdZnTe (CZT) detectors of a large geometrical aspect ratio, with two planar contacts on the top and bottom surfaces (anode and cathode) and an additional shielding electrode on the crystal's sides to create the virtual Frisch-grid effect. We optimized the geometry of the device and improved its spectral response. We found that reducing to 5 mm the length of the shielding electrode placed next to the anode had no adverse effects on the device's performance. At the same time, this allowed corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information.

Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, E.U.; Fochuk, P.M.; Fuerstnau, M.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Jones, F.; Kim, K.; Kopach, O.V.; Taggart, R.; Yang, G.; Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; and James, R.B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

442

Applications of fiber optics in physical protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors.

Buckle, T.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-embolic protection devices Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

02.07 PHYSICAL PLANT Summary: of employees working under the protection of a unitteam lockout and tagout device. (b) Provision... . This will include provisions for the orderly...

444

DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency...

446

Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Combined Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Processes Determining Cathode Performance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980’s as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot’s cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

Kukla, Maija M.; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Merkle, R.; Mastrikov, Yuri; Maier, J.

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

448

Generation of continuous and pulsed diagnostic imaging x-ray radiation using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray radiation can be generated using a carbon nanotube CNT -based field-emission cathode. The device can readilyGeneration of continuous and pulsed diagnostic imaging x-ray radiation using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission cathode G. Z. Yue Department of Physics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North

449

Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

450

Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

Not Available

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

451

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

Namboodiri, Vinod

453

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

Antsaklis, Panos

454

Protection of Forest Resources (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute addresses the conservation and protection of forest resources by encouraging the use of land management best practices pertaining to soil erosion, timber sale planning, associated road...

455

Minnesota Peatland Protection Act (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Certain peatland core areas are designated as scientific and natural areas, and development is restricted. Currently, only two peatlands have been protected: the Pine Creek Peatland in Roseau...

456

Ground Water Protection (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

North Dakota has a degradation prevention program for groundwater protection, with standards established by the Department of Health. This section addresses groundwater standards, quality...

457

Groundwater Protection Plan (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Groundwater Protection Plans (GPPs) are required for all facilities having the potential to impact groundwater. They are “preventive maintenance” documents that cover all processes and materials at...

458

Classified Matter Protection and Control  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 471.2, which establishes policy for the protection and control of classified and unclassified information. Does not cancel other directives.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

460

MIE -H&S -08 -Personal Protection Personal Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type of work. Safety glasses 2. Safety boots are optional, except when heavy parts are to be moved or worked on. Open toe shoes must not worn at the work site or in the laboratories. Safety boots 3. GlovesMIE - H&S - 08 - Personal Protection Personal Protection 1. Safety glasses must be worn when any

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Data Protection Policy Version History Data Protection Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROTECTION POLICY 1. Introduction 1.1 The Data Protection Act 1998 applies to all personal information about state that: 1. Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully 2. Personal data shall be obtained incompatible with that purpose or purposes 3. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive

Doran, Simon J.

462

EPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cancer. EPA does not regulate naturally occurring radiation or the non-ionizing radiation that is emittedEPA's Radiation Protection Standards Protecting the Environment from Radioactive Materials EPA materials. These radioactive materials emit ionizing radiation, which can damage living tissue and cause

463

International PatentInternational Patent Protection: 1990 -Protection: 1990 -  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International PatentInternational Patent Protection: 1990 -Protection: 1990 - 20052005 Measurement and TrendsMeasurement and Trends Patent Strength and Stages of EconomicPatent Strength and Stages of Economic DevelopmentDevelopment #12;I. Measurement & TrendsI. Measurement & Trends Patent Rights Index (0

Lansky, Joshua

464

Subterranean barriers including at least one weld  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

465

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

466

Power generation method including membrane separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

Not Available

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

470

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

471

Method for smoothing the surface of a protective coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for smoothing the surface of a ceramic-based protective coating which exhibits roughness is disclosed. The method includes the steps of applying a ceramic-based slurry or gel coating to the protective coating surface; heating the slurry/gel coating to remove volatile material; and then further heating the slurry/gel coating to cure the coating and bond it to the underlying protective coating. The slurry/gel coating is often based on yttria-stabilized zirconia, and precursors of an oxide matrix. Related articles of manufacture are also described.

Sangeeta, D. (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Curtis Alan (Schenectady, NY); Nelson, Warren Arthur (Clifton Park, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

The primary components of a fuel cell are an ion conducting electrolyte, a cathode, and an anode, as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary components of a fuel cell are an ion conducting electrolyte, a cathode, and an anode chemical driving force for the oxygen and the hydrogen to react to produce water. In the fuel cell, however for the many categories of fuel cells under development today. Desirable characteristics of fuel cell

Haile, Sossina M.

473

Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioelectrochemical Microbial fuel cell Biofuels Separators a b s t r a c t The combined use of brush anodes and glass was 75 ± 1 W/m3 . Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power into the anode chamber. The use of a cloth separator (J-cloth, JC) substan- tially improved power generation

474

Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b , Juan Shi c Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, THU­VEOLIA Environment Joint Research Center Park, PA 16802, USA c School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining

475

X-ray Absorption Measurements on Nickel Cathode of Sodium-beta Alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-CI Chemical Associations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sections of Na-Al-NiCl2 cathodes from sodium-beta alumina ZEBRA batteries have been characterized with X-ray fluorescence mapping, and XANES measurements to probe the microstructure, elemental correlation, and chemical speciation after voltage cycling. Cycling was performed under identical load conditions at either 240 or 280 °C operating temperature and subsequently quenched in either the charged or discharged state. X-ray fluorescence mapping and XANES measurements were made adjacent to the current collector and ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte interfaces to detect possible gradients in chemical properties across the cathode. An FeS additive, introduced during battery synthesis, was found to be present as either Fe metal or an Fe(II) chloride in all cathode samples. X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an operating temperature and charge-state dependent spatial correlation between Fe, Ni, and Cl concentration. XANES measurements indicate that both Ni and Fe are chemically reactive and shift between metallic and chloride phases in the charged and discharged states, respectively. However the percentage of chemically active Ni and Fe is significantly less in the cell operated at lower temperature. Additionally, the cathode appeared chemically homogeneous at the scale of our X-ray measurements.

Bowden, Mark E.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Fulton, John L.; Lemmon, John P.; Lu, Xiaochuan; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Heald, Steve M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Mortensen, Devon R.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Hess, Nancy J.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Experimental study of a Ne-H{sub 2} Penning Recombination Laser in a helical hollow cathode discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Penning recombination lasers (PRL), as first proposed in, operate in non-equilibrium recombination plasma where the upper laser level (ULL) is populated by the recombination flux and the lower laser level (LLL) is depopulated by Penning reactions. The lack of chemical activity and degradation of the laser mixture, lasing in the visible spectral region and high output power obtained attract the attention to the Ne-H{sub 2} PRL operating on the NeI 585.3 nm line (the 2p{sub 1}-1s{sub 2} transition). Despite the most powerful PRL are pumped by electron beams of relativistic energies, it is of practical interest to realize PRL pumped in a hollow cathode discharge where beam of high energy primary electrons exists. In this study a detailed experimental investigation of a Ne-H{sub 2} PRL operating in a helical hollow cathode discharge is carried out. The obtained data are compared with the results of the theoretical model. The laser tube design is similar to that used in our previous work. The cathode is made of Mo band 10 mm wide, helically wound with a 15 mm pitch to form a cylindrical hollow. Five laser tubes with different cathode diameters (5.5-12 mm) and lengths (110-280 mm) are investigated.

Pramatarov, P.M.; Stefanova, M.S.; Petrov, G.M. [Georgy Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Process for the manufacture of an electrode for electrochemical process and a cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrically conductive substrate is coated with a material containing an unsintered powder of a metal active for electrochemical proton reduction and colloidal silica and the said material is heated on the substrate successively in an oxidizing atmosphere and then in a reducing atmosphere. The electrode may be employed as a cathode for electrolytic production of hydrogen in an alkaline medium.

Nicolas, E.; Merckaert, L.

1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

478

Synthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Available online 3 August 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Oxygen reduction Carbon in large quantities from agricultural products or biomass. Hence, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) haveSynthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol

Zhao, Tianshou

479

A Hybrid Laser-driven E-beam Injector Using Photo-cathode Electron Gun and superconducting Cavity*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Hybrid Laser-driven E-beam Injector Using Photo-cathode Electron Gun and superconducting Cavity as a continuing effort towards a high-brightness superconducting RF injector. Various species of photo and one (betasuperconducting cavities operating under 2 K is to be constructed

Geng, Rong-Li

480

High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li2S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium-Ion Batteries Yuan Yang, Guangyuan Zheng, Sumohan Misra,§ Johanna Nelson,§ Michael F. Toney for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. INTRODUCTION

Cui, Yi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "include cathodic protection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Cycle-Life Characterization of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries with LiNiO2 Cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle-Life Characterization of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries with LiNiO2 Cathode Yancheng Zhang of lithium- ion batteries for electric vehicles EVs and hybrid EVs HEVs . Substantial research has been- face, which is critical to the cycle life and calendar life of lithium- ion batteries.1,2 Unfortunately

482

Vacuum-free lamination of low work function cathode for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-coated organic light-emitting diode is transferred from a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold by lamination, or blade coating [1,2] for organic light emitting diode (OLED) as well as solar cell. The top electrodeVacuum-free lamination of low work function cathode for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting

Meng, Hsin-Fei

483

Sputter-Deposited Pt/CrN Nanoparticle PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes: Limited Proton Conductivity Through Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sputter-Deposited Pt/CrN Nanoparticle PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes: Limited Proton Conductivity Through for proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show manuscript received September 17, 2009. Published November 13, 2009. Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells

Gall, Daniel

484

Microstructure Reconstruction and Direct Evaluation of Li-Ion Battery Cathodes Fuqiang Liu* and N A Siddique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructure Reconstruction and Direct Evaluation of Li-Ion Battery Cathodes Fuqiang Liu* and N of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA High-capacity Li-ion batteries are among the best of the major challenges in Li-ion batteries is to improve mass transport across multiple phase interfaces

Liu, Fuqiang

485

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

486

Adaptive protection algorithm and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

Hedrick, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L. (Irwin, PA) [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M. (Mars, PA) [Mars, PA

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

487

Protecting Your Hands and Feet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protecting Your Hands and Feet Treating Feet Though foot skin is similar to hand skin, the problem gardeners usually have to deal with on their feet is wetness. Proper footwear is the best protection. Look powder will also help. Dust feet, not the floor or carpet, by putting your foot in a paper bag before

Liskiewicz, Maciej

488

Corrosion protection for silver reflectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of protecting silver reflectors from damage caused by contact with gaseous substances which are often present in the atmosphere and a silver reflector which is so protected. The inventive method comprises at least partially coating a reflector with a metal oxide such as aluminum oxide to a thickness of 15 .ANG. or less.

Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Scott, Marion L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

489

River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of six core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities of the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) Environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy; Define the Scope of Work; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Perform Work within Controls; and Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement.

POWELL, P.A.

2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

490

Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

491

Temporary coatings for protection of microelectronic devices during packaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, temporary protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

492

High current, low emittance, steady state electron guns with plasma cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Major limitations of plasma cathodes have been overcome in an electron gun based on extraction of superthermal electrons from a discharge characterized by a large component of high energy electrons with a low thermal spread. A grid is employed to select these electrons for extraction while retaining the bulk electrons in the discharge. Steady state extraction of electron beams corresponding to over 60% of the total arc discharge current has been observed. A perveance of over 280 microperv was reached with the extraction of 9A at 1 keV from a 6 nun aperture. Some of the characteristics of the electron beam described in this paper are very attractive for electron beam melting.

Hershcovitch, A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

493

Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Demonstration of Cathode Emittance Dominated High Bunch Charge Beams in a DC gun-based Photoinjector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (greater than or equal to 100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittance measured at 9-9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Free Electron Lasers (FELs).

Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

497

Oxygen Transport Kinetics in Infiltrated SOFCs Cathode by Electrical Conductivity Relaxation Technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infiltration has attracted increasing attention as an effective technique to modify SOFC cathodes to improve cell electrochemical performance while maintaining material compatibility and long-term stability. However, the infiltrated material's effect on oxygen transport is still not clear and detailed knowledge of the oxygen reduction reaction in infiltrated cathodes is lacking. In this work, the technique of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) is used to evaluate oxygen exchange in two common infiltrated materials, Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-?}. The ECR technique is also used to examine the transport processes in a composite material formed with a backbone of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-?} and possessing a thin, dense surface layer composed of the representative infiltrate material. Both the surface oxygen exchange process and the oxygen exchange coefficient at infiltrate/LSCF interface are reported. ECR testing results indicate that the application of infiltrate under certain oxygen partial pressure conditions produces a measureable increase in the fitted oxygen exchange parameter. It is presently only possible to generate hypotheses to explain the observation. However the correlation between improved electrochemical performance and increased oxygen transport measured by ECR is reliably demonstrated. The simple and inexpensive ECR technique is utilized as a direct method to optimize the selection of specific infiltrate/backbone material systems for superior performance.

Li, Yihong; Gerdes, Kirk; Liu, Xingbo

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

499

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z