National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for inclined plane railways

  1. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  2. Excitation of the orbital inclination of Iapetus during planetary encounters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesvorn, David; Vokrouhlick, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2014-09-01

    Saturn's moon, Iapetus, has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ? 8, which is unexpected because the inclination should be ? 0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e ? 0.03 at present). Here, we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In 4 out of 10 instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unaffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's inclination were adequate to explain its present value. In three of these cases, however, Iapetus's eccentricity was excited to >0.1-0.25, and it is not clear whether it could have been damped to its present value (? 0.03) by a subsequent process (e.g., tides and dynamical friction from captured irregular satellites do not seem to be strong enough). Our results therefore imply that only 2 out of 10 instability cases (?20%) can excite Iapetus's inclination to its current value (?30% of trials lead to >5) while leaving its orbital eccentricity low.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Railway Makes Tracks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Hampshire Railway Makes Tracks With Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Railway Makes Tracks With Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet ...

  4. Hythane project by Hydrogen China Ltd and China Railway Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project by Hydrogen China Ltd and China Railway Construction Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hythane project by Hydrogen China Ltd and China Railway Construction...

  5. ASSEMBLY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AND INCLINATIONS OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foucart, Francois; Lai, Dong

    2013-02-10

    The Kepler satellite has discovered a number of transiting planets around close binary stars. These circumbinary systems have highly aligned planetary and binary orbits. In this paper, we explore how the mutual inclination between the planetary and binary orbits may reflect the physical conditions of the assembly of protoplanetary disks and the interaction between protostellar binaries and circumbinary disks. Given the turbulent nature of star-forming molecular clouds, it is possible that the gas falling onto the outer region of a circumbinary disk and the central protostellar binary have different axes of rotation. Thus, the newly assembled circumbinary disk can be misaligned with respect to the binary. However, the gravitational torque from the binary produces a warp and twist in the disk, and the back-reaction torque tends to align the disk and the binary orbital plane. We present a new, analytic calculation of this alignment torque and show that the binary-disk inclination angle can be reduced appreciably after the binary accretes a few percent of its mass from the disk. Our calculation suggests that in the absence of other disturbances, circumbinary disks and planets around close (sub-AU) stellar binaries, for which mass accretion onto the proto-binary is very likely to have occurred, are expected to be highly aligned with the binary orbits, while disks and planets around wide binaries can be misaligned. Measurements of the mutual inclinations of circumbinary planetary systems can provide a clue to the birth environments of such systems.

  6. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1994-02-15

    A double crystal monochromator is described including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced. 11 figures.

  7. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khounsary, Ali M.

    1994-01-01

    A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.

  8. Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead Malcolm Shealy Alacritas, Inc. April 7, 2008 Oil Demand: China, India, Japan, South Korea 0 2 4 6 8 1995 2000 2005 2010 Million BarrelsDay ...

  9. Flow visualisation in inclined louvered fins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T'Joen, C.; De Paepe, M. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jacobi, A. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    In this study the flow within an interrupted fin design, the inclined louvered fin, is investigated experimentally through visualisation. The inclined louvered fin is a hybrid of the offset strip fin and standard louvered fin, aimed at improved performance at low Reynolds numbers for compact heat exchangers. The flow behaviour is studied in six geometrically different configurations over a range of Reynolds numbers and quantified using the concept of 'fin angle alignment factor'. The transition from steady laminar to unsteady flow was studied in detail. The fin geometry had a very large impact on the transitional flow behaviour, especially on vortex shedding. (author)

  10. PRECISE TULLY-FISHER RELATIONS WITHOUT GALAXY INCLINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreschkow, D.; Meyer, M.

    2013-11-10

    Power-law relations between tracers of baryonic mass and rotational velocities of disk galaxies, so-called Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs), offer a wealth of applications in galaxy evolution and cosmology. However, measurements of rotational velocities require galaxy inclinations, which are difficult to measure, thus limiting the range of TFR studies. This work introduces a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method for recovering the TFR in galaxy samples with limited or no information on inclinations. The robustness and accuracy of this method is demonstrated using virtual and real galaxy samples. Intriguingly, the MLE reliably recovers the TFR of all test samples, even without using any inclination measurementsthat is, assuming a random sin i-distribution for galaxy inclinations. Explicitly, this 'inclination-free MLE' recovers the three TFR parameters (zero-point, slope, scatter) with statistical errors only about 1.5 times larger than the best estimates based on perfectly known galaxy inclinations with zero uncertainty. Thus, given realistic uncertainties, the inclination-free MLE is highly competitive. If inclination measurements have mean errors larger than 10, it is better not to use any inclinations than to consider the inclination measurements to be exact. The inclination-free MLE opens interesting perspectives for future H I surveys by the Square Kilometer Array and its pathfinders.

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Railway Express Office - NY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    0-03 Railway Express Office - NY 0-03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Railway Express Office (NY.0-03 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: American Railway Express (Downtown) , New York , New York NY.0-03-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 NY.0-03-1 Site Operations: None - Involved with a fire during transport of uranium scrap. NY.0-03-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination remote NY.0-03-1 NY.0-03-2

  12. Compact planetary systems perturbed by an inclined companion. I. Vectorial representation of the secular model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bou, Gwenal; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-07-10

    The non-resonant secular dynamics of compact planetary systems are modeled by a perturbing function that is usually expanded in eccentricity and absolute inclination with respect to the invariant plane. Here, the expressions are given in a vectorial form which naturally leads to an expansion in eccentricity and mutual inclination. The two approaches are equivalent in most cases, but the vectorial one is specially designed for those cases where an entire quasi-coplanar system tilts to a large degree. Moreover, the vectorial expressions of the Hamiltonian and of the equations of motion are slightly simpler than those given in terms of the usual elliptical elements. We also provide the secular perturbing function in vectorial form expanded in semi-major axis ratio allowing for arbitrary eccentricities and inclinations. The interaction between the equatorial bulge of a central star and its planets is also provided, as is the relativistic periapse precession of any planet induced by the central star. We illustrate the use of this representation to follow the secular oscillations of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and for Kozai cycles which may take place in exoplanetary systems.

  13. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  14. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumusque, X.

    2014-12-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than ?2-2.5 km s{sup 1}. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 which can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD 189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be i=84{sub ?20}{sup +6} deg, which implies a star-planet obliquity of ?=4{sub ?4}{sup +18} considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For ? Cen B, we derive an inclination of i=45{sub ?19}{sup +9}, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the ? Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that ? Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of ? Cen B can be measured using 40 radial-velocity measurements, which is remarkable given that the projected rotational velocity of the star is smaller than 1.15 km s{sup 1}.

  15. Low velocity impact of inclined CSM composite laminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, W.S.; Madjidi, S.; Marshall, I.H.; Robb, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    The damage tolerance of composite laminates subject to low velocity impact is an important aspect of current design philosophies required to ensure the integrity of primary load bearing structures. To the authors knowledge, no work published in the open literature has addressed the damage tolerance of composites subject to impacts at non-perpendicular inclinations, which in practical situations is the most common form of impact. This paper describes an experimental study, devised to assess the influence of inclined impact on the residual strength characteristics of CSM laminates. Preliminary experimental results and comparisons with previous work on flat plate impact tests are presented. The influence of the degree of inclination and impact energy are correlated with the laminates damage area and residual tensile properties.

  16. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  17. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  18. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  19. Relaxation of compressively strained AlGaN by inclined threading...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Relaxation of compressively strained AlGaN by inclined threading dislocations. Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2005-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 973648 Report ...

  20. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  1. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  2. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  4. Plane Tree Capital LLP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plane Tree Capital LLP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Plane Tree Capital LLP Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Sector: Carbon Product: London-based investment...

  5. Fiber optic inclination detector system having a weighted sphere with reference points

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cwalinski, Jeffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic inclination detector system for determining the angular displacement of an object from a reference surface includes a simple mechanical transducer which requires a minimum number of parts and no electrical components. The system employs a single light beam which is split into two light beams and provided to the transducer. Each light beam is amplitude modulated upon reflecting off the transducer to detect inclination. The power values associated with each of the reflected light beams are converted by a pair of photodetectors into voltage signals, and a microprocessor manipulates the voltage signals to provide a measure of the angular displacement between the object and the reference surface.

  6. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lifshitz, Y.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  7. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  8. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  9. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2014-08-08

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  10. Total skin electron beam therapy using an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuse, H.; Suzuki, K.; Shida, K.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, D.; Seki, M.; Mori, Y.; Sakae, T.; Isobe, T.; Okumura, T.; Sakurai, H.

    2014-06-15

    Total skin electron beam is a specialized technique that involves irradiating the entire skin from the skin surface to only a few millimetres in depth. In the Stanford technique, the patient is in a standing position and six different directional positions are used during treatment. Our technique uses large electron beams in six directions with an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter was also used to spread the electron beam and move its intensity peak. Dose uniformity measurements were performed using Gafchromic films which indicated that the surface dose was 2.04 0.05 Gy. This technique can ensure the dose reproducibility because the patient is fixed in place using an inclinable couch on a motorized table.

  11. Monthly optimum inclination of glass cover and external reflector of a basin type solar still with internal and external reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    In this report, we present a theoretical analysis of a basin type solar still with internal and external reflectors. The external reflector is a flat plate that extends from the back wall of the still, and can presumably be inclined forwards or backwards according to the month. We have theoretically predicted the daily amount of distillate produced by the still throughout the year, which varies according to the inclination angle of both the glass cover and the external reflector, at 30 N latitude. We found the optimum external reflector inclination for each month for a still with a glass cover inclination of 10-50 deg. The increase in the average daily amount of distillate throughout the year of a still with inclined external reflector with optimum inclination in addition to an internal reflector, compared to a conventional basin type still was predicted to be 29%, 43% or 67% when the glass cover inclination is 10 deg, 30 deg or 50 deg and the length of external reflector is half the still's length. (author)

  12. Computer network control plane tampering monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michalski, John T.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Black, Stephen P.; Torgerson, Mark D.

    2010-06-08

    A computer network control plane tampering monitor that detects unauthorized alteration of a label-switched path setup for an information packet intended for transmission through a computer network.

  13. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. Study on the ultrasonic inspection method using the full matrix capture for the in service railway wheel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Jianping; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Peng, Chaoyong

    2014-02-18

    The quality of wheel is especially important for the safety of high speed railway. In this paper, a new ultrasonic array inspection method, the Full Matrix Capture (FMC) has been studied and applied to the high speed railway wheel inspection, especially in the wheel web from the tread. Firstly, the principle of FMC and TFM algorithm is discussed, and then the new optimization is applied to the standard FMC; Secondly the fundamentals of optimization is described in detail and the performance is analyzed. Finally, the experiment has been built with a standard phased array block and railway wheel, and then the testing results are discussed and analyzed. It is demonstrated that this change for the ultrasonic data acquisition and image reconstruction has higher efficiency and lower cost comparing to the FMC's procedure.

  15. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  16. Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous fracture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a ...

  17. 70008 U PLANE MODULE ASSY 127 -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 1290.7 U PLANE WITH PERIMETER BLOCKS FRONT (UPSTREAM SIDE) 7 FIBER BUNDLE ALL OTHERS ARE 8 FIBER SECTIONS SHOWN ON SHT 2 2261.9 89.05 621.7 24.48 2581.7 101.64 2261.9 89.05...

  18. X PLANE MODULE ASSY 127 - Sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCALE 1 : 1 2.63 .63 SECTION D-D SCALE 1 : 1 .63 SECTION A-A PERIMETER BLOCKS SCALE 1 : 1 X PLANE & FRONT (UPSTREAM SIDE) 45.88 4.20 .63 2.60 3.00 SCINT CORNER CUT-BACK DETAIL E...

  19. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. 70009 V PLANE MODULE ASSY 127 -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 FRONT (UPSTREAM SIDE) V PLANE WITH PERIMETER BLOCKS W WEAVE & SKINS 7 FIBER BUNDLE ALL OTHERS ARE 8 FIBER SECTIONS SHOWN ON SHT 2 3292.39 129.62 101.64 2581.72 89.05 2261.87...

  1. Bandgap properties of diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Haitao; Li, Yong; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-14

    The 3D (dimensional) diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with different lattice constants were prepared using rapid prototyping and gel casting with alumina. In this paper, heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces were designed and its bandgap properties were studied. The normalized resonant intensity of electromagnetic wave in heterostructure with inclined and curved interface is stronger than that in the ordinary heterostructure without modified interface. The influence of curved interface on transmission properties of electromagnetic wave was investigated with the radius of curvature ranging from 17?mm to 37?mm at 5?mm interval. The results show that two resonant modes appear in the photonic band gap, being similar to the band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals with two defects inside. With the increasing of the radius of curvature, the resonant mode shift to higher frequency. In the structure with a radius of curvature of 32?mm, a guiding band appears in the photonic band gap. Further increase in the radius of curvature, the guiding band will split into two resonant modes again and the two resonant modes shift to lower frequencies.

  2. MAPPING EARTH ANALOGS FROM PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY: SPIN-ORBIT TOMOGRAPHY FOR PLANETS IN INCLINED ORBITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Yuka [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawahara, Hajime, E-mail: yuka.fujii@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2012-08-20

    Aiming at obtaining detailed information on the surface environment of Earth analogs, Kawahara and Fujii proposed an inversion technique of annual scattered light curves named spin-orbit tomography (SOT), which enables us to sketch a two-dimensional albedo map from annual variation of the disk-integrated scattered light, and demonstrated the method with a planet in a face-on orbit. We extend it to be applicable to general geometric configurations, including low-obliquity planets like the Earth in inclined orbits. We simulate light curves of the Earth in an inclined orbit in three photometric bands (0.4-0.5 {mu}m, 0.6-0.7 {mu}m, and 0.8-0.9 {mu}m) and show that the distribution of clouds, snow, and continents is retrieved with the aid of the SOT. We also demonstrate the SOT by applying it to an upright Earth, a tidally locked Earth, and Earth analogs with ancient continental configurations. The inversion is model independent in the sense that we do not assume specific albedo models when mapping the surface, and hence applicable in principle to any kind of inhomogeneity. This method can potentially serve as a unique tool to investigate the exohabitats/exoclimes of Earth analogs.

  3. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  4. Nonlinear interaction of plane elastic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korneev, V.A.; Nihei, K.T.; Myer, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents basic first order results of nonlinear elastic theory by Murnaghan for elastic wave propagation in isotropic solids. The authors especially address the problem of resonant scattering of two collimated beams and present analytical solutions for amplitudes of all possible types of resonant interactions for elastic plane waves. For estimation of nonlinear scattered waves they use measured elastic parameters for sandstone. The most profound nonlinear effect is expected for interactions of two SH waves generating compressional P wave at sum frequency. Estimations show that nonlinear phenomena is likely to be observed in seismic data. Basic equations of nonlinear five-constant theory by Murnaghan are also presented.

  5. Procedure for Performing In-Plane Membrane Conductivity Testing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy In-Plane Membrane Conductivity Testing Procedure for Performing In-Plane Membrane Conductivity Testing Presented at the 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia htmwg_may09_conductivity_testing.pdf (1.01 MB) More Documents & Publications In-Plane Conductivity Testing Procedures and Results High Temperature Membrane Working Group Minutes In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC

  6. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  7. Traffic noise and the hyperbolic plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, G.W. Warnick, C.M.

    2010-04-15

    We consider the problem of sound propagation in a wind. We note that the rays, as in the absence of a wind, are given by Fermat's principle and show how to map them to the trajectories of a charged particle moving in a magnetic field on a curved space. For the specific case of sound propagating in a stratified atmosphere with a small wind speed, we show that the corresponding particle moves in a constant magnetic field on the hyperbolic plane. In this way, we give a simple 'straightedge and compass' method to estimate the intensity of sound upwind and downwind. We construct Mach envelopes for moving sources. Finally, we relate the problem to that of finding null geodesics in a squashed anti-de Sitter spacetime and discuss the SO(3,1)xR symmetry of the problem from this point of view.

  8. A proposal to improve ecological compensation practice in road and railway projects in Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarroya, Ana Puig, Jordi

    2013-09-15

    To reduce ecological impacts caused by development projects, avoidance, minimization and compensation techniques have to be taken together into consideration along Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures. This paper explores the particular role that ecological compensation has had in recent road and railway EIA procedures in Spain, as seen through the review of a set of recent EIA Records of Decision (RODs) that confirms precedent findings. Noticing that residual impacts are not paid much attention, and that there is no evidence of a solid public participation in ecological impact evaluation, it proposes to increase the awareness on residual impacts, as a way to make easier public access to the allegedly most sensitive moment of EIA implementation: (residual) impact evaluation. -- Highlights: ► Ecological compensation practice in Spain is much lower than avoidance or mitigation. ► Residual impacts are overlooked in EIA processes and public participation is low. ► An increased awareness of residual impacts may also promote public participation. ► Current context needs these small steps to move towards better compensation practice.

  9. MHK Projects/WavePlane Prototype 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WavePlane Prototype 1 < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADM...

  10. Progress and Status on Through-Plane Resistance and Conductivity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 ... High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program In Plane Conductivity Testing, ...

  11. Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin-film silicon solar cells Prev Next Title: Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells Authors: Chung, H. ...

  12. Using ARM data to correct plane-parallel satellite retrievals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using ARM data to correct plane-parallel satellite retrievals of cloud properties Dong, Xiquan University of North Dakota Minnis, Patrick NASA Langley Research Center Xi, Baike...

  13. MHK Technologies/C Plane | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Click here Cross Flow Turbine Technology Description The Aquantis C Plane is a dual horizontal axis rotor device with two nacelles housing power generation systems Mooring...

  14. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Power, Gary D.

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  15. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  16. WavePlane International AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International AS Place: Gentofte, Denmark Zip: 2820 Product: Company working with a wave energy device called the 'WavePlane' Coordinates: 55.75069, 12.55007 Show Map Loading...

  17. MHK Technologies/WavePlane | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Early Stage Development & Design & Engineering Technology Description The WavePlane is a V-shaped design, which is anchored with the head up against the incoming waves. Below the...

  18. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  19. Progress and Status on Through-Plane Resistance and Conductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement of Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy Progress and Status on Through-Plane Resistance and Conductivity Measurement of Fuel Cell Membranes Progress and Status on Through-Plane Resistance and Conductivity Measurement of Fuel Cell Membranes Presentation at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 high_temp_cooper.pdf (915.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity

  20. Mixed convection radiative flow of three dimensional Maxwell fluid over an inclined stretching sheet in presence of thermophoresis and convective condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashraf, M. Bilal; Hayat, T.; Shehzad, S. A.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-02-15

    Three dimensional radiative flow of Maxwell fluid over an inclined stretching surface with convective boundary condition is investigated. Heat and mass transfer analysis is taken into account with thermophoresis effects. Similarity transformations are utilized to reduce the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Series solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration are developed. Influence of different parameters Biot number, therrmophoretic parameter, Deborah number, ratio parameter, inclined stretching angle, radiation parameter, mixed convection parameter and concentration buoyancy parameter on the non-dimensional velocity components, temperature and concentration are plotted and discussed in detail. Physical quantities of interests are tabulated and examined.

  1. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  2. Laplace plane modifications arising from solar radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical effects of solar radiation pressure (SRP) in the solar system have been rigorously studied since the early 1900s. This non-gravitational perturbation plays a significant role in the evolution of dust particles in circumplanetary orbits, as well as in the orbital motion about asteroids and comets. For gravitationally dominated orbits, SRP is negligible and the resulting motion is largely governed by the oblateness of the primary and the attraction of the Sun. The interplay between these gravitational perturbations gives rise to three mutually perpendicular planes of equilibrium for circular satellite orbits. The classical Laplace plane lies between the equatorial and orbital planes of the primary, and is the mean reference plane about whose axis the pole of a satellite's orbit precesses. From a previously derived solution for the secular motion of an orbiter about a small body in a SRP dominated environment, we find that SRP acting alone will cause an initially circular orbit to precess around the pole of the primary's heliocentric orbital plane. When the gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations act in concert, the resulting equilibrium planes turn out to be qualitatively different, in some cases, from those obtained without considering the radiation pressure. The warping of the surfaces swept out by the modified equilibria as the semi-major axis varies depends critically on the cross-sectional area of the body exposed. These results, together with an adiabatic invariance argument on Poynting-Robertson drag, provide a natural qualitative explanation for the initial albedo dichotomy of Saturn's moon, Iapetus.

  3. Lamb dip asymmetry in lasers with plane-parallel resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tache, J.P.; Le Floch, A.; Le Naour, R.

    1986-09-01

    The Lamb dip asymmetry due to linear or nonlinear lenslike effects is investigated in lasers with plane-parallel resonators. The experiments are performed using diffracted light spectroscopy. It is shown that the frequency-dependent diffraction losses are essential in determining Lamb dip asymmetry, regardless of the origin of the lenslike effects.

  4. Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Alex

    2015-09-16

    The Aquantis 2.5 MW Ocean Current Generation Device technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) is a derivation of wind power generating technology (a means of harnessing a slow moving fluid) adapted to the ocean environment. The Aquantis Project provides an opportunity for accelerated technological development and early commercialization, since it involves the joining of two mature disciplines: ocean engineering and wind turbine design. The Aquantis Current Plane (C-Plane) technology is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from a current flow. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced, continuous, base-load, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  5. Angle amplifying optics using plane and ellipsoidal reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Alexander J.

    1977-01-01

    An optical system for providing a wide angle input beam into ellipsoidal laser fusion target illumination systems. The optical system comprises one or more pairs of centrally apertured plane and ellipsoidal mirrors disposed to accept the light input from a conventional lens of modest focal length and thickness, to increase the angular divergence thereof to a value equivalent to that of fast lenses, and to direct the light into the ellipsoidal target illumination system.

  6. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  7. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolt, Thomas L.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. With the superconducting metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  8. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  9. Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - ...

  10. Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based ...

  11. Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Focal plane wavefront sensing and control for ground-based imaging ...

  12. In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting ACS, San Francisco 9-14, 2006, presented by Tim Bekkedahl htmwg_bekkedahl.pdf (478.05 KB) More Documents & Publications In-Plane Conductivity Testing Procedures and Results Requirements for Samples Procedure for Performing In-Plane Membrane Conductivity Testing

  13. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: insulation contractors; general contractors; builders; home remodelers; mechanical contractors; and homeowners, as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 1. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; 2. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; 3. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation. Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  14. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.B.; Seib, D.H.; Stetson, S.B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.; Schoenwald, J.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10 x 50 element Si:As Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off wavelength = 28 ..mu..m) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity band conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear radiation hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in this paper is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increase quantum efficiency (particular at short wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the Blocked-Impurity-Band detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Read noise and dark current for different temperatures have been measured and are also described. The hybrid array performance achieved clearly demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  15. Plane shock wave studies of Westerly granite and Nugget sandstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.B.; Anderson, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    Plane shock wave experiments were performed by using a light-gas gun on dry and water-saturated Westerly granite and dry Nugget sandstone. Changes in the slopes of the shock velocity versus particle velocity curves at 2 to 3 GPa and 1 to 2 GPa for dry granite and for dry sandstone, respectively, are attributed to the onset of pore collapse. However, there is little apparent loss of shear strength in either dry rock over the stress range of the experiments (i.e., 9.3 GPa in Westerly granite and 9.2 GPa in Nugget sandstone). Agreement between the shock wave data and quasistatic, uniaxial strain data for the dry rock implies the absence of rate-dependence in uniaxial strain. The shock data on saturated granite agree well with those for dry granite, thus suggesting there was no loss in shear strength as a result of pore pressure buildup.

  16. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  17. Identifying logical planes formed of compute nodes of a subcommunicator in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Kristan D.; Faraj, Daniel A.

    2016-03-01

    In a parallel computer, a plurality of logical planes formed of compute nodes of a subcommunicator may be identified by: for each compute node of the subcommunicator and for a number of dimensions beginning with a first dimension: establishing, by a plane building node, in a positive direction of the first dimension, all logical planes that include the plane building node and compute nodes of the subcommunicator in a positive direction of a second dimension, where the second dimension is orthogonal to the first dimension; and establishing, by the plane building node, in a negative direction of the first dimension, all logical planes that include the plane building node and compute nodes of the subcommunicator in the positive direction of the second dimension.

  18. Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project 13_aquantismhk_da_alexfleming.pptx (2.33 MB) More Documents & Publications Aquantis 2.5MW Ocean Current Generation Device 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review Compiled Presentations: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies CX-005670: Categorical

  19. The new integrals in the complex plane resulting from the coherent state formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popov, Dušan E-mail: nicolina.pop@et.upt.ro; Pop, Nicolina E-mail: nicolina.pop@et.upt.ro; Şimon, Simona

    2013-11-13

    From the geometric point of view, it exists a one-to-one correspondence between the coherent states (CSs) | z, λ > and the points in the complex plane z. Consequently, the eigenvalues of the quantum operators will be numbers in the complex plane. In the paper we have deduced some new useful integrals in the complex plane - by using the expression of the Husimi's function for some oscillators: the harmonic and the pseudoharmonic one.

  20. In-Plane Conductivity Testing Procedures and Results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Plane Conductivity Testing Procedures and Results In-Plane Conductivity Testing Procedures and Results This presentation on conductivity testing was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007. htmwg_bekktech.pdf (354.02 KB) More Documents & Publications Requirements for Samples High Temperature Membrane Working Group Minutes Progress and Status on Through-Plane Resistance and Conductivity Measurement of Fuel Cell Membranes

  1. Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a ...

  2. Harnessing the Power of the Sun, Solar Impulse Plane Lands in DC Area

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Today, Secretary Moniz spoke at an event welcoming the arrival of the solar-powered Solar Impulse plane at Dulles International Airport near Washington, D.C.

  3. Results from electrostatic calibrations for measuring the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Q.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Lombardo, F. C.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Onofrio, R.

    2010-05-15

    We report on measurements performed on an apparatus aimed to study the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane configuration. The electrostatic calibrations evidence anomalous behaviors in the dependence of the electrostatic force and the minimizing potential upon distance. We discuss analogies and differences of these anomalies with respect to those already observed in the sphere-plane configuration. At the smallest explored distances we observe frequency shifts of non-Coulombian nature preventing the measurement of the Casimir force in the same range. We also report on measurements performed in the parallel-plane configuration, showing that the dependence on distance of the minimizing potential, if present at all, is milder than in the sphere-plane or cylinder-plane geometries. General considerations on the interplay between the distance-dependent minimizing potential and the precision of Casimir force measurements in the range relevant to detect the thermal corrections for all geometries are finally reported.

  4. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to themore » strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.« less

  5. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

    2013-05-21

    A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

  6. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  7. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.; Arvanitidis, J.; Ves, S.; Komninou, Ph.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Tsiakatouras, G.; Tsagaraki, K.; Georgakilas, A.; Christofilos, D.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the M-shape dependence of the (112{sup }0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults, and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.

  8. Effects of Out-of-Plane Disorder on the Nodal Quasiparticle and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by out-of-plane disorder through the enhancement of the anti-nodal gap and the depression of the superconducting gap in the nodal region. Authors: Hashimoto, M. Publication...

  9. Effects of Out-of-Plane Disorder on the Nodal Quasiparticle and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The results indicate that the superconductivity is significantly depressed by out-of-plane disorder through the enhancement of the anti-nodal gap and the depression of the ...

  10. Detection of trans–cis flips and peptide-plane flips in protein structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Touw, Wouter G.; Joosten, Robbie P.; Vriend, Gert

    2015-07-28

    A method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need either a trans–cis flip or a peptide-plane flip. A coordinate-based method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need correction either by a peptide-plane flip or by a trans–cis inversion of the peptide bond. When applied to the whole Protein Data Bank, the method predicts 4617 trans–cis flips and many thousands of hitherto unknown peptide-plane flips. A few examples are highlighted for which a correction of the peptide-plane geometry leads to a correction of the understanding of the structure–function relation. All data, including 1088 manually validated cases, are freely available and the method is available from a web server, a web-service interface and through WHAT-CHECK.

  11. On the observation of multiple volume reflection from different planes inside one bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidi, Vincenzo; Mazzolari, Andrea; Tikhomirov, Victor

    2010-06-15

    An interpretation of the first experiment on the observation of 400 GeV proton multiple volume reflection from different skew planes of one bent crystal (MVROC) is given. The possibilities of experimental observation of MVROC at lower particle energies are demonstrated. New features of the effect of particle capture into the channeling regime by bent skew planes are revealed as well as optimal choice of main crystal axis, crystal thickness, and beam orientation with respect to the crystal is discussed.

  12. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  13. 2011 HM{sub 102}: DISCOVERY OF A HIGH-INCLINATION L5 NEPTUNE TROJAN IN THE SEARCH FOR A POST-PLUTO NEW HORIZONS TARGET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Alex H.; Holman, Matthew J.; McLeod, Brian A.; Buie, Marc W.; Borncamp, David M.; Spencer, John R.; Stern, S. Alan; Osip, David J.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Fabbro, Sebastian; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan D.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.; Gay, Pamela L.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Tholen, David J.; and others

    2013-04-15

    We present the discovery of a long-term stable L5 (trailing) Neptune Trojan in data acquired to search for candidate trans-Neptunian objects for the New Horizons spacecraft to fly by during an extended post-Pluto mission. This Neptune Trojan, 2011 HM{sub 102}, has the highest inclination (29. Degree-Sign 4) of any known member of this population. It is intrinsically brighter than any single L5 Jupiter Trojan at H{sub V} {approx} 8.18. We have determined its gri colors (a first for any L5 Neptune Trojan), which we find to be similar to the moderately red colors of the L4 Neptune Trojans, suggesting similar surface properties for members of both Trojan clouds. We also present colors derived from archival data for two L4 Neptune Trojans (2006 RJ{sub 103} and 2007 VL{sub 305}), better refining the overall color distribution of the population. In this document we describe the discovery circumstances, our physical characterization of 2011 HM{sub 102}, and this object's implications for the Neptune Trojan population overall. Finally, we discuss the prospects for detecting 2011 HM{sub 102} from the New Horizons spacecraft during its close approach in mid- to late-2013.

  14. Unusual dynamic properties of water near the ice-binding plane of hyperactive antifreeze protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuffel, Anna; Czapiewski, Dariusz; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-07

    The dynamical properties of solvation water of hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana (CfAFP) are analyzed and discussed in context of its antifreeze activity. The protein comprises of three well-defined planes and one of them binds to the surface of ice. The dynamical properties of solvation water around each of these planes were analyzed separately; the results are compared with the dynamical properties of solvation water of ice around its two crystallographic planes: basal and prism. Three main conclusions are inferred from our investigations. The first one is that the solvation shell of CfAFP does not seem to be particularly far-ranged, at least not beyond what is usually observed for proteins that do not interact with ice. Therefore, it does not appear to us that the antifreeze activity is enhanced by a long-ranged retardation of water mobility. Also the correlation between the collective mobility of water and the collective mobility of protein atoms highly resembles the one measured for the protein that does not interact with ice. Our second conclusion is that the dynamical properties of solvation water of CfAFP are non-uniform. The dynamics of solvation water of ice-binding plane is, in some respects, different from the dynamics of solvation water of the two remaining planes. The feature that distinguishes the dynamics of solvation water of the three planes is the activation energy of diffusion process. The third conclusion is that—from the three analyzed solvation shells of CfAFP—the dynamical properties of solvation water of the ice-binding plane resemble the most the properties of solvation water of ice; note, however, that these properties still clearly differ from the dynamic properties of solvation water of ice.

  15. Large-sized out-of-plane stretchable electrodes based on poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Namsun; Lee, Jongho; Kim, Sohee

    2014-12-15

    This paper describes a reliable fabrication method of stretchable electrodes based on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The electrode traces and pads were formed in out-of-plane structures to improve the flexibility and stretchability of the electrode array. The suspended traces and pads were attached to the PDMS substrate via parylene posts that were located nearby the traces and under the pads. As only conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques were used, the out-of-plane electrode arrays were clearly fabricated at wafer level with high yield and reliability. Also, bi-layer out-of-plane electrodes were formed through additional fabrication steps in addition to mono-layer out-of-plane electrodes. The mechanical characteristics such as the stretchability, flexibility, and foldability of the fabricated electrodes were evaluated, resulting in stable electrical connection of the metal traces with up to 32.4% strain and up to 360° twist angle over 25 mm. The durability in stretched condition was validated by cyclic stretch test with 10% and 20% strain, resulting in electrical disconnection at 8600 cycles when subjected to 20% strain. From these results, it is concluded that the proposed fabrication method produced highly reliable, out-of-plane and stretchable electrodes, which would be used in various flexible and stretchable electronics applications.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The energy efficiency-based financial benefits of adding exterior insulation are well accepted by the building industry, and using exterior insulation as the drainage plane is the next logical step. This case study focuses on the field implementation of taped board insulation as the drainage plane in both new and retrofit residential applications, and provides information and recommendations for insulation contractors, general contractors, builders, remodelers, mechanical contractors, and homeowners. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues, and durability issues are more important than saving energy. Three significant items are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: first, horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists, use superior materials; and, frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  17. Angular-dependent Raman study of a- and s-plane InN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filintoglou, K.; Katsikini, M. Arvanitidis, J.; Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Vouroutzis, N.; Ves, S.; Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. A.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.; Zoumakis, N.

    2015-02-21

    Angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study nonpolar a-plane (11{sup ¯}20) and semipolar s-plane (101{sup ¯}1) InN epilayers. The intensity dependence of the Raman peaks assigned to the vibrational modes A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 1}(TO), and E{sub 2}{sup h} on the angle ψ that corresponds to rotation around the growth axis, is very well reproduced by using expressions taking into account the corresponding Raman tensors and the experimental geometry, providing thus a reliable technique towards assessing the sample quality. The s- and a-plane InN epilayers grown on nitridated r-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) exhibit good crystalline quality as deduced from the excellent fitting of the experimental angle-dependent peak intensities to the theoretical expressions as well as from the small width of the Raman peaks. On the contrary, in the case of the s-plane epilayer grown on non-nitridated r-plane sapphire, fitting of the angular dependence is much worse and can be modeled only by considering the presence of two structural modifications, rotated so as their c-axes are almost perpendicular to each other. Although the presence of the second variant is verified by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, angular dependent Raman spectroscopy offers a non-destructive and quick way for its quantification. Rapid thermal annealing of this sample did not affect the angular dependence of the peak intensities. The shift of the E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup h} Raman peaks was used for the estimation of the strain state of the samples.

  18. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effect—Tuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-04-21

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  19. ONE PLANE FOR ALL: MASSIVE STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES LIE ON THE SAME MASS FUNDAMENTAL PLANE AT z ? 0 AND z ? 0.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Franx, Marijn; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-02-01

    Scaling relations between galaxy structures and dynamics have been studied extensively for early- and late-type galaxies, both in the local universe and at high redshifts. The abundant differences between the properties of disky and elliptical, or star-forming and quiescent, galaxies seem to be characteristic of the local universe; such clear distinctions begin to disintegrate as observations of massive galaxies probe higher redshifts. In this paper we investigate the existence of the mass fundamental plane of all massive galaxies (? ? 100 km s{sup 1}). This work includes local galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.07) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, in addition to 31 star-forming and 72 quiescent massive galaxies at intermediate redshift (z ? 0.7) with absorption-line kinematics from deep Keck-DEIMOS spectra and structural parameters from Hubble Space Telescope imaging. In two-parameter scaling relations, star-forming and quiescent galaxies differ structurally and dynamically. However, we show that massive star-forming and quiescent galaxies lie on nearly the same mass fundamental plane, or the relationship between stellar mass surface density, stellar velocity dispersion, and effective radius. The scatter in this relation (measured about log ?) is low: 0.072 dex (0.055 dex intrinsic) at z ? 0 and 0.10 dex (0.08 dex intrinsic) at z ? 0.7. This 3D surface is not unique: virial relations, with or without a dependence on luminosity profile shapes, can connect galaxy structures and stellar dynamics with similar scatter. This result builds on the recent finding that mass fundamental plane has been stable for early-type galaxies since z ? 2. As we now find that this also holds for star-forming galaxies to z ? 0.7, this implies that these scaling relations of galaxies will be minimally susceptible to progenitor biases owing to the evolving stellar populations, structures, and dynamics of galaxies through cosmic time.

  20. High-precision method for determining the position of laser beam focal plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malashko, Ya I; Kleimenov, A N; Potemkin, I B; Khabibulin, V M

    2013-12-31

    The method of wavefront doubled-frequency spherical modulation for determining the laser beam waist position has been simulated and experimentally studied. The error in determining the focal plane position is less than 10{sup -5} D. The amplitude of the control doubled-frequency electric signal is experimentally found to correspond to 12% of the total radiation power. (laser beams)

  1. Tests and analyses for fully plastic fracture mechanics of plane strain mode I crack growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, F.A.; Parks, D.M.; Kim, Y.J.

    1995-12-31

    Under monotonic loading, structures should ideally be ductile enough to provide continued resistance during crack growth. For fully plastic crack growth in low strength alloys, existing asymptotic solutions for elastic-plastic growing cracks are not applicable because they reach the fracture strain only in regions small compared to the inhomogeneities of the actual fracture process. For the limiting case of non-hardening fully-plastic plane strain crack growth, in a number of geometries and loadings the near-tip fields are characterized in terms of three parameters: an effective angle 2{theta}{sub s} between a pair of slip planes, and the normal stress {sigma}{sub s} and the increment of displacement {delta}u{sub s} across the planes. This three-parameter characterization is in contrast to the one- or two-parameter (K or J and T or Q) characterization in linear or non-linear elastic fracture mechanics. These {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and {delta}u{sub s} parameters are found form the far-field geometries and loadings through slip line fields or least upper bound analyses based on circular arcs. The resulting crack growth, in terms of the crack tip opening angle (CTOA), is a function of {theta}{sub s}, {sigma}{sub s}, and the material. The geometry of the crack growing between two moving slip planes emanating from its tip reduces this function to the critical fracture shear strain left behind the slip planes, {gamma}f, as a function of {sigma}{sub s}. {gamma}f({sigma}{sub s}) is found theoretically from a hole initiation and growth model. It is also found from preliminary fully plastic crack growth experiments on unequally grooved specimens with fixed-grip extension or 4-point bending of a 1018 CF steel.

  2. Coherent imaging with two-dimensional focal-plane arrays: design and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Emery, M.S.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Miller, G.H.; Richards, R.K.; Sitter, D.N.

    1997-09-01

    Scanned, single-channel optical heterodyne detection has been used in a variety of lidar applications from ranging and velocity measurements to differential absorption spectroscopy. We describe the design of a coherent camera system that is based on a two-dimensional staring array of heterodyne receivers for coherent imaging applications. Experimental results with a single HgCdTe detector translated in the image plane to form a synthetic two-dimensional array demonstrate the ability to obtain passive heterodyne images of chemical vapor plumes that are invisible to normal video infrared cameras. We describe active heterodyne imaging experiments with use of focal-plane arrays that yield hard-body Doppler lidar images and also demonstrate spatial averaging to reduce speckle effects in static coherent images. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  3. Water adsorption induced in-plane domain switching on BaTiO{sub 3} surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Wang, B. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study, the influences of the adsorption of water molecules on the changes in the atomic and electric structures of BaTiO{sub 3} surface were investigated using ab initio calculation. Water molecules are molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface, which makes electrons transfer from water molecules to the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. The redistribution of electrons in the BaTiO{sub 3} surface layers weakens the Ba-O interactions and strengthens the Ti-O interactions, so that the Ti atom shifts in TiO{sub 2} plane, i.e., an in-plane domain switching. The adsorption of water molecules on BaTiO{sub 3} surfaces also results in a reduction in the surface rumpling.

  4. In-plane electric fields in magnetic islands during collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Lijen; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Torbert, Roy B.; Bessho, Naoki; Daughton, William; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2012-11-15

    Magnetic islands are a common feature in both the onset and nonlinear evolution of magnetic reconnection. In collisionless regimes, the onset typically occurs within ion-scale current layers leading to the formation of magnetic islands when multiple X lines are involved. The nonlinear evolution of reconnection often gives rise to extended electron current layers (ECL) which are also unstable to formation of magnetic islands. Here, we show that the excess negative charge and strong out-of-plane electron velocity in the ECL are passed on to the islands generated therein, and that the corresponding observable distinguishing the islands generated in the ECL is the strongly enhanced in-plane electric fields near the island core. The islands formed in ion-scale current layers do not have these properties of the ECL-generated islands. The above result provides a way to assess the occurrence and importance of extended ECLs that are unstable to island formation in space and laboratory plasmas.

  5. Analysis of Mode III Elastodynamic Cracked Plane using the Fractal Two-Level Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, J.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2010-05-21

    In this study, the fractal two-level finite element method, which has mainly been used for static cracked plane problems, is applied to the cracked plane problem. Using the transformation process in the proposed method, the infinite dimension of the finite element matrices that are assembled for a singular region is made finite in terms of the dynamics stress intensity factors directly, and thus the computational time can be reduced significantly. The Newmark time integration scheme is then used to obtain the dynamic stress intensity factors. The results from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement with those of classical methods. The main drawback of the time integration scheme is that numerical oscillations are induced in some cases.

  6. Scattering in graphene associated with charged out-of-plane impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yue Goswami, Aditi; Liu, Feilong; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2014-12-21

    A charged impurity outside the plane of a graphene layer contributes to scattering of electrons (and holes) in the graphene. The interaction occurs through two distinct mechanisms associated with the charge: (1) the (screened) Coulomb potential, and (2) the electric field perpendicular to the graphene plane that causes a spatially varying Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Both types of scattering are examined, with the screened potential self-consistently calculated in nonlinear Thomas-Fermi approximation. Different selection rules for the two mechanisms lead to qualitative differences in the differential scattering cross-sections. Using accepted parameters for the Rashba interaction, the latter is found to make only a very small contribution to the scattering associated with a remote charge.

  7. Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xian-Rong Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen; Peng, Ru-Wen; Siddons, D. P.

    2014-11-03

    Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

  8. A MILLIMETER-WAVE GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY WITH THE BICEP POLARIMETER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, E. M.; Keating, B. G.; Barron, D.; Kaufman, J. P.; Matsumura, T.; Dowell, C. D.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Culverhouse, T. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E.; Ade, P.; Barkats, D.; Battle, J. O.; Leitch, E. M.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Kuo, C. L.

    2011-11-10

    In order to study inflationary cosmology and the Milky Way Galaxy's composition and magnetic field structure, Stokes I, Q, and U maps of the Galactic plane covering the Galactic longitude range 260 Degree-Sign < l < 340 Degree-Sign in three atmospheric transmission windows centered on 100, 150, and 220 GHz are presented. The maps sample an optical depth 1 {approx}< A{sub V} {approx}< 30, and are consistent with previous characterizations of the Galactic millimeter-wave frequency spectrum and the large-scale magnetic field structure permeating the interstellar medium. The polarization angles in all three bands are generally perpendicular to those measured by starlight polarimetry as expected and show changes in the structure of the Galactic magnetic field on the scale of 60 Degree-Sign . The frequency spectrum of degree-scale Galactic emission is plotted between 23 and 220 GHz (including WMAP data) and is fit to a two-component (synchrotron and dust) model showing that the higher frequency BICEP data are necessary to tightly constrain the amplitude and spectral index of Galactic dust. Polarized emission is detected over the entire region within two degrees of the Galactic plane, indicating the large-scale magnetic field is oriented parallel to the plane of the Galaxy. A trend of decreasing polarization fraction with increasing total intensity is observed, ruling out the simplest model of a constant Galactic magnetic field orientation along the line of sight in the Galactic plane. A generally increasing trend of polarization fraction with electromagnetic frequency is found, varying from 0.5%-1.5% at frequencies below 50 GHz to 2.5%-3.5% above 90 GHz. The effort to extend the capabilities of BICEP by installing 220 GHz band hardware is described along with analysis of the new band.

  9. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  10. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua

    2014-08-07

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results.

  11. Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feser, Joseph P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Liu, Jun; Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We previously demonstrated an extension of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) which utilizes offset pump and probe laser locations to measure in-plane thermal transport properties of multilayers. However, the technique was limited to systems of transversely isotropic materials studied using axisymmetric laser intensities. Here, we extend the mathematics so that data reduction can be performed on non-transversely isotropic systems. An analytic solution of the diffusion equation for an N-layer system is given, where each layer has a homogenous but otherwise arbitrary thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles. As a demonstration, we use both TDTR and time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements to obtain thermal conductivity tensor elements of <110> ?-SiO{sub 2}. We show that the out-of-phase beam offset sweep has full-width half-maxima that contains nearly independent sensitivity to the in-plane thermal conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate a Nb-V alloy as a low thermal conductivity TDTR transducer layer that helps improve the accuracy of in-plane measurements.

  12. Method and system of measuring ultrasonic signals in the plane of a moving web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, M.S.; Jackson, T.G.; Wink, W.A.; Knerr, C.

    1996-02-27

    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like is disclosed. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the machine direction, MD, and a cross direction, CD, generally perpendicular to the direction of the traveling web, therefore, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web. 37 figs.

  13. Method and system of measuring ultrasonic signals in the plane of a moving web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Maclin S.; Jackson, Theodore G.; Wink, Wilmer A.; Knerr, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the machine direction, MD, and a cross direction, CD, generally perpendicular to the direction of the traveling web, therefor, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web.

  14. In-plane magnetization behaviors in the Shastry-Sutherland system TbB{sub 4}: Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, J. J.; Li, W. C.; Qin, M. H. E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn; Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M. E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn; Jia, X. T.

    2015-05-07

    The in-plane magnetization behaviors in TbB{sub 4} are theoretically studied using the frustrated classical XY model, including the exchange and biquadratic interactions, and the anisotropy energy. The magnetization curves at various temperatures are simulated, and the magnetic orders are uncovered by the tracking of the spin configurations. In addition, the effects of the in-plane anisotropy and biquadratic interaction on the magnetization curves are investigated in detail. The simulated results suggest that the magnetic anisotropy within the (001) plane owes to the complex interplay between these couplings, and the anisotropy term plays an important role.

  15. Generation of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ions accelerated parallel to the plane of a sandwich target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J. W.; Murakami, M.; Weng, S. M.; Xu, H.; Ju, J. J.; Luan, S. X.; Yu, W.

    2014-12-15

    A new ion acceleration scheme, namely, target parallel Coulomb acceleration, is proposed in which a carbon plate sandwiched between gold layers is irradiated with intense linearly polarized laser pulses. The high electrostatic field generated by the gold ions efficiently accelerates the embedded carbon ions parallel to the plane of the target. The ion beam is found to be collimated by the concave-shaped Coulomb potential. As a result, a quasi-monoenergetic and collimated C{sup 6+}-ion beam with an energy exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon is produced at a laser intensity of 5 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Magnetic soliton transport over topological spin texture in chiral helimagnet with strong easy-plane anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, A. B.; Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Bostrem, I. G.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    We show the existence of an isolated soliton excitation over the topological ground-state configuration in chiral helimagnet with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia exchange and the strong easy-plane anisotropy. The magnetic field perpendicular to the helical axis stabilizes the kink crystal state which plays a role of ''topological protectorate'' for the traveling soliton with a definite handedness. To find new soliton solution, we use the Baecklund transformation technique. It is pointed out that the traveling soliton carries the magnon density and a magnetic soliton transport may be realized.

  17. Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a numerical model incorporating micro-porous layers (MPLs) is presented for simulating water transport within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and MPLs as well as across their interfaces in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. One-dimensional analysis is conducted to investigate the impacts of MPL and GDL properties on the liquid-water profile across the anode GDL-MPL and cathode MPL-GDL regions. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations that take MPLs into account are also carried out to elucidate liquid water transport, particularly through-plane liquid-water profile in a PEM fuel cell. Results from case studies are presented.

  18. Reversal of the cosmic ray density gradient perpendicular to the ecliptic plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinson, D.B.; Kananen, H.

    1982-03-01

    Annual averages of the diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity from neutron monitors in Deep River and Oulu and underground muon telescopes in Bolivia and at Embudo and Socorro, New Mexico, have been determined as a function of the sense of the interplantary magnetic field for the years 1965--1975. These data point to a cosmic ray density gradient, perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, pointing southward prior to 1969 and changing to a northward pointing gradient after the reversal of the sun's polar magnetic field in 1969--1971. This result supports numerical calculations for the prereversal and postreversal field configurations at intermediate and high cosmic ray rigidities.

  19. Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keast, Craig

    2007-02-28

    Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.

  20. Chromatic X-ray magnifying method and apparatus by Bragg reflective planes on the surface of Abbe sphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing sharp, chromatic, magnified images of X-ray emitting objects, are provided. The apparatus, which constitutes an X-ray microscope or telescope, comprises a connected collection of Bragg reflecting planes, comprised of either a bent crystal or a synthetic multilayer structure, disposed on and adjacent to a locus determined by a spherical surface. The individual Bragg planes are spatially oriented to Bragg reflect radiation from the object location toward the image location. This is accomplished by making the Bragg planes spatially coincident with the surfaces of either a nested series of prolate ellipsoids of revolution, or a nested series of spheres. The spacing between the Bragg reflecting planes can be tailored to control the wavelengths and the amount of the X-radiation that is Bragg reflected to form the X-ray image.

  1. Electronic and crystal structure changes induced by in-plane oxygen vacancies in multiferroic YMnO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Shaobo; Meng, Qingping; Li, Mengli; Duan, Wenhui; Zhao, Y. G.; Sun, X. F.; Zhu, Yimei; Zhu, Jing

    2016-02-08

    Here, the widely spread oxygen vacancies (VO) in multiferroic materials can strongly affect their physical properties. However, their exact influence has rarely been identified in hexagonal manganites. Here, with the combined use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and first-principles calculations, we have systematically studied the electronic and crystal structure modifications induced by VO located at the same Mn atomic plane (in-plane VO). Our TEM experiments reveal that the easily formed in-plane VO not only influence the electronic structure of YMnO3 but alter the in-plane Wyckoff positions of Mn ions, which may subsequently affect the intraplane and interplane exchange interaction ofmore » Mn ions. The ferroelectricity is also impaired due to the introduction of VO. Further calculations confirm these electronic and structural changes and modifications. Our results indicate that the electronic and crystal structure of YMnO3 can be manipulated by the creation of VO.« less

  2. Discovery of a GeV Blazar Shining Through the Galactic Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellini, A.; /Padua U., Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Bolte, M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Cheung, C.C.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Civano, F.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Donato, D.; /NASA, Goddard; Fuhrmann, L.; /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron.; Funk, S.; Healey, S.E.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hill, A.B.; /Joseph Fourier U.; Knigge, C.; /Southampton U.; Madejski, G.M.; Romani, R.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Santander-Garcia, M.; /IAC, La Laguna /Isaac Newton Group /Laguna U., Tenerife; Shaw, M.S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Steeghs, D.; /Warwick U.; Torres, M.A.P.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Van Etten, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovered a new gamma-ray source near the Galactic plane, Fermi J0109+6134, when it flared brightly in 2010 February. The low Galactic latitude (b = -1.2{sup o}) indicated that the source could be located within the Galaxy, which motivated rapid multi-wavelength follow-up including radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We report the results of analyzing all 19 months of LAT data for the source, and of X-ray observations with both Swift and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We determined the source redshift, z = 0.783, using a Keck LRIS observation. Finally, we compiled a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) from both historical and new observations contemporaneous with the 2010 February flare. The redshift, SED, optical line width, X-ray obsorption, and multi-band variability indicate that this new Gev source is a blazar seen through the Galactic plane. Because several of the optical emission lines have equivalent width > 5 {angstrom}, this blazar belongs in the flat-spectrum radio quasar category.

  3. The plane strain shear fracture of the advanced high strength steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Li

    2013-12-16

    The “shear fracture” which occurs at the high-curvature die radii in the sheet metal forming has been reported to remarkably limit the application of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. However, this unusual fracture behavior generally cannot be predicted by the traditional forming limit diagram (FLD). In this research, a new experimental system was developed in order to simulate the shear fracture, especially at the plane strain state which is the most common state in the auto-industry and difficult to achieve in the lab due to sample size. Furthermore, the system has the capability to operate in a strain rate range from quasi-static state to the industrial forming state. One kinds of AHSS, Quenching-Partitioning (QP) steels have been performed in this test and the results show that the limiting fracture strain is related to the bending ratio and strain rate. The experimental data support that deformation-induced heating is an important cause of “shear fracture” phenomena for AHSS: a deformation-induced quasi-heating caused by smaller bending ratio and high strain rate produce a smaller limiting plane strain and lead a “shear fracture” in the component.

  4. Building America Case Study: Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: Insulation contractors, General contractors, Builders, Home remodelers, Mechanical contractors, and Homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and home builders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 4. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible 5. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials 6. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  5. Verification of theoretically computed spectra for a point rotating in a vertical plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, D.C.; Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    A theoretical model is modified and tested that produces the power spectrum of the alongwind component of turbulence as experienced by a point rotating in a vertical plane perpendicular to the mean wind direction. The ability to generate such a power spectrum, independent of measurement, is important in wind turbine design and testing. The radius of the circle of rotation, its height above the ground, and the rate of rotation are typical for those for a MOD-OA wind turbine. Verification of this model is attempted by comparing two sets of variances that correspond to individual harmonic bands of spectra of turbulence in the rotational frame. One set of variances is calculated by integrating the theoretically generated rotational spectra; the other is calculated by integrating rotational spectra from real data analysis. The theoretical spectrum is generated by Fourier transformation of an autocorrelation function taken from von Karman and modified for the rotational frame. The autocorrelation is based on dimensionless parameters, each of which incorporates both atmospheric and wind turbine parameters. The real data time series are formed by sampling around the circle of anemometers of the Vertical Plane Array at the former MOD-OA site at Clayton, New Mexico.

  6. THE STAR-FORMATION RELATION FOR REGIONS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE: THE EFFECT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans II, Neal J.; Battersby, Cara

    2014-12-20

    We examined the relations between molecular gas surface density and star-formation rate surface density in an 11deg{sup 2} region of the Galactic plane. Dust continua at 1.1mm from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and 22 ?m emission from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey were used as tracers of molecular gas and the star-formation rate, respectively, across the Galactic longitude of 31.5 ? l ? 20.5 and Galactic latitude of 0.5 ? b ? 0.5. The relation was studied over a range of resolutions from 33'' to 20' by convolving images to larger scales. The pixel-by-pixel correlation between 1.1mm and 22 ?m increases rapidly at small scales and levels off at the scale of 5'-8'. We studied the star-formation relation based on a pixel-by-pixel analysis and on an analysis of the 1.1mm and 22 ?m peaks. The star-formation relation was found to be nearly linear with no significant changes in the form of the relation across all spatial scales, and it lies above the extragalactic relation from Kennicutt. The average gas-depletion time is ?200 Myr and does not change significantly at different scales, but the scatter in the depletion time decreases as the scale increases.

  7. Zero-flux planes, flux reversals and diffusion paths in ternary and quaternary diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayananda, M.A.

    1986-05-23

    During isothermal multicomponent diffusion, interdiffusion fluxes of individual components can go to zero at zero-flux planes (ZFP) and exhibit flux reversals from one side to the other of such planes. Interdiffusion fluxes as well as the locations and compositions of ZFPs for components are determined directly from the concentration profiles of diffusion couples without the need for prior knowledge of interdiffusion coefficients. The development and identification of ZFPs is reviewed with the aid of single phase and two-phase diffusion couples investigated in the Cu-Ni-Zn system at 775/sup 0/C. ZFP locations in the diffusion zone nearly correspond to sections where the activity of a component is the same as its activity in either of the terminal alloys of a couple. Path slopes at ZFPs are uniquely dictated by the atomic mobility and thermodynamic data for the components. Discontinuous flux reversals for the components can also occur at interfaces in multiphase couples. Identification of ZFPs is also presented for diffusion in the Cu-Ni-Zn-Mn quaternary system. Analytical representation of diffusion paths for both ternary and quaternary diffusion couples is presented with the aid of characteristic path parameters.

  8. Assessment of approximate computational methods for conical intersections and branching plane vectors in organic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikiforov, Alexander; Gamez, Jose A.; Thiel, Walter; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Filatov, Michael

    2014-09-28

    Quantum-chemical computational methods are benchmarked for their ability to describe conical intersections in a series of organic molecules and models of biological chromophores. Reference results for the geometries, relative energies, and branching planes of conical intersections are obtained using ab initio multireference configuration interaction with single and double excitations (MRCISD). They are compared with the results from more approximate methods, namely, the state-interaction state-averaged restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham method, spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory, and a semiempirical MRCISD approach using an orthogonalization-corrected model. It is demonstrated that these approximate methods reproduce the ab initio reference data very well, with root-mean-square deviations in the optimized geometries of the order of 0.1 or less and with reasonable agreement in the computed relative energies. A detailed analysis of the branching plane vectors shows that all currently applied methods yield similar nuclear displacements for escaping the strong non-adiabatic coupling region near the conical intersections. Our comparisons support the use of the tested quantum-chemical methods for modeling the photochemistry of large organic and biological systems.

  9. Glide-plane symmetry and superconducting gap structure of iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yan; Berlijn, Tom; Hirschfeld, Peter J.; Scalapino, Douglas J.; Maier, Thomas A.

    2015-03-10

    We consider the effect of glide-plane symmetry of the Fe-pnictogen/chalcogen layer in Fe-based superconductors on pairing in spin fluctuation models. Recent theories propose that so-called ?-pairing states with nonzero total momentum can be realized and possess such exotic properties as odd parity spin singlet symmetry and time-reversal symmetry breaking. Here we show that when there is orbital weight at the Fermi level from orbitals with even and odd mirror reflection symmetry in z, ? pairing is inevitable; however, we conclude from explicit calculation that the gap function appearing in observable quantities is identical to that found in earlier pseudocrystal momentum calculations with 1 Fe per unit cell.

  10. Time resolved photo-luminescent decay characterization of mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soehnel, Grant

    2015-01-20

    The minority carrier lifetime is a measurable material property that is an indication of infrared detector device performance. To study the utility of measuring the carrier lifetime, an experiment has been constructed that can time resolve the photo-luminescent decay of a detector or wafer sample housed inside a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar. Motorized stages allow the measurement to be scanned over the sample surface, and spatial resolutions as low as 50µm have been demonstrated. A carrier recombination simulation was developed to analyze the experimental data. Results from measurements performed on 4 mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays show strong correlationmore » between spatial maps of the lifetime, dark current, and relative response.« less

  11. Line-plane broadcasting in a data communications network of a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Berg, Jeremy E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-06-08

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for line-plane broadcasting in a data communications network of a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes connected together through the network, the network optimized for point to point data communications and characterized by at least a first dimension, a second dimension, and a third dimension, that include: initiating, by a broadcasting compute node, a broadcast operation, including sending a message to all of the compute nodes along an axis of the first dimension for the network; sending, by each compute node along the axis of the first dimension, the message to all of the compute nodes along an axis of the second dimension for the network; and sending, by each compute node along the axis of the second dimension, the message to all of the compute nodes along an axis of the third dimension for the network.

  12. Line-plane broadcasting in a data communications network of a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Berg, Jeremy E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for line-plane broadcasting in a data communications network of a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes connected together through the network, the network optimized for point to point data communications and characterized by at least a first dimension, a second dimension, and a third dimension, that include: initiating, by a broadcasting compute node, a broadcast operation, including sending a message to all of the compute nodes along an axis of the first dimension for the network; sending, by each compute node along the axis of the first dimension, the message to all of the compute nodes along an axis of the second dimension for the network; and sending, by each compute node along the axis of the second dimension, the message to all of the compute nodes along an axis of the third dimension for the network.

  13. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-28

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au{sup 2+} and 100 MeV Au{sup 7+} ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  14. Basal-plane thermal conductivity of few-layer molybdenum disulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun; Ou, Eric; Shi, Li; Pettes, Michael Thompson; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-19

    We report the in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended exfoliated few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) samples that were measured by suspended micro-devices with integrated resistance thermometers. The obtained room-temperature thermal conductivity values are (4450) and (4852) W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for two samples that are 4 and 7 layers thick, respectively. For both samples, the peak thermal conductivity occurs at a temperature close to 120?K, above which the thermal conductivity is dominated by intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering although phonon scattering by surface disorders can still play an important role in these samples especially at low temperatures.

  15. Glide-plane symmetry and superconducting gap structure of iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yan; Berlijn, Tom; Hirschfeld, Peter J.; Scalapino, Douglas J.; Maier, Thomas A.

    2015-03-10

    We consider the effect of glide-plane symmetry of the Fe-pnictogen/chalcogen layer in Fe-based superconductors on pairing in spin fluctuation models. Recent theories propose that so-called η-pairing states with nonzero total momentum can be realized and possess such exotic properties as odd parity spin singlet symmetry and time-reversal symmetry breaking. Here we show that when there is orbital weight at the Fermi level from orbitals with even and odd mirror reflection symmetry in z, η pairing is inevitable; however, we conclude from explicit calculation that the gap function appearing in observable quantities is identical to that found in earlier pseudocrystal momentum calculations with 1 Fe per unit cell.

  16. Topologically Massive Yang-Mills field on the Null-Plane: A Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcarcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2010-11-12

    Non-abelian gauge theories are super-renormalizable in 2+1 dimensions and suffer from infrared divergences. These divergences can be avoided by adding a Chern-Simons term, i.e., building a Topologically Massive Theory. In this sense, we are interested in the study of the Topologically Massive Yang-Mills theory on the Null-Plane. Since this is a gauge theory, we need to analyze its constraint structure which is done with the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We are able to find the complete set of Hamiltonian densities, and build the Generalized Brackets of the theory. With the GB we obtain a set of involutive Hamiltonian densities, generators of the evolution of the system.

  17. Strained-layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F.; Young, Erik W.; Cich, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  18. On the smoothness of electric fields near plane gratings of cylindrical conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The electric field near an infinite plane grating of equally spaced round rods at the same potential, forming the boundary of a uniform field, is determined analytically to good accuracy by conformal transformations and evaluated numerically. This contribution, which has a frankly pedagogical flavor, to the Klaus Halbach Festschrift is offered to honor his displayed mastery of conformal techniques. Although the numerical work and the form of its presentation are new, the transformation used is not original. However, to locate its antecedents in an archival journal it was necessary to seek out a paper published in 1923 (close to the year of his birth, and of mine), in a place obscure to modern physicists, so the authors efforts cannot be said to replicate recent published work. A new insight is obtained in the form of a simple estimate of departures from field uniformity at all distances from rods of any size.

  19. Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Weile; Fu, Jiyun; Cao, Zongyan; Wang, Long; Chi, Xuebin; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2013-10-15

    Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP.

  20. Glide-plane symmetry and superconducting gap structure of iron-based superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yan; Berlijn, Tom; Hirschfeld, Peter J.; Scalapino, Douglas J.; Maier, Thomas A.

    2015-03-10

    We consider the effect of glide-plane symmetry of the Fe-pnictogen/chalcogen layer in Fe-based superconductors on pairing in spin fluctuation models. Recent theories propose that so-called η-pairing states with nonzero total momentum can be realized and possess such exotic properties as odd parity spin singlet symmetry and time-reversal symmetry breaking. Here we show that when there is orbital weight at the Fermi level from orbitals with even and odd mirror reflection symmetry in z, η pairing is inevitable; however, we conclude from explicit calculation that the gap function appearing in observable quantities is identical to that found in earlier pseudocrystal momentummore » calculations with 1 Fe per unit cell.« less

  1. Specific heat of twisted bilayer graphene: Engineering phonons by atomic plane rotations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nika, Denis L. [E. Pokatilov Laboratory of Physics and Engineering of Nanomaterials, Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of CaliforniaRiverside, Riverside, California, 92521 (United States); Cocemasov, Alexandr I. [E. Pokatilov Laboratory of Physics and Engineering of Nanomaterials, Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Balandin, Alexander A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of CaliforniaRiverside, Riverside, California, 92521 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    We have studied the phonon specific heat in single-layer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene. The calculations were performed using the Born-von Karman model of lattice dynamics for intralayer atomic interactions and spherically symmetric interatomic potential for interlayer interactions. We found that at temperature T?planes.

  2. A SOUTHERN SKY AND GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY FOR BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Udalski, Andrzej; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Poleski, Radoslaw; Soszynski, Igor; Szymanski, Michal K.; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2011-10-15

    About 2500 deg{sup 2} of sky south of declination -25{sup 0} and/or near the Galactic Plane were surveyed for bright outer solar system objects. This survey is one of the first large-scale southern sky and Galactic Plane surveys to detect dwarf planets and other bright Kuiper Belt Objects in the trans-Neptunian region. The survey was able to obtain a limiting R-band magnitude of 21.6. In all, 18 outer solar system objects were detected, including Pluto which was detected near the Galactic center using optimal image subtraction techniques to remove the high stellar density background. Fourteen of the detections were previously unknown trans-Neptunian objects, demonstrating that the southern sky had not been well searched to date for bright outer solar system objects. Assuming moderate albedos, several of the new discoveries from this survey could be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus could be considered dwarf planets. Combining this survey with previous surveys from the northern hemisphere suggests that the Kuiper Belt is nearly complete to around 21st magnitude in the R band. All the main dynamical classes in the Kuiper Belt are occupied by at least one dwarf-planet-sized object. The 3:2 Neptune resonance, which is the innermost well-populated Neptune resonance, has several large objects while the main outer Neptune resonances such as the 5:3, 7:4, 2:1, and 5:2 do not appear to have any large objects. This indicates that the outer resonances are either significantly depleted in objects relative to the 3:2 resonance or have a significantly different assortment of objects than the 3:2 resonance. For the largest objects (H < 4.5 mag), the scattered disk population appears to have a few times more objects than the main Kuiper Belt (MKB) population, while the Sedna population could be several times more than that of the MKB.

  3. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup }0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80?W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup }0)//?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup }0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup }0)

  4. Single-Crystalline B12As2 on m-plane (1100) 15R-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen,H.; Wang, G.; Dudley, M.; Xu, Z.; Edgar, J.; Batten, T.; Kuball, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystal, heteroepitaxial growth of icosahedral B12As2 (IBA, a boride semiconductor) on m-plane 15R-SiC is demonstrated. Previous studies of IBA on other substrates, i.e., (111)Si and (0001)6H-SiC, produced polycrystalline and twinned epilayers. In contrast, single-crystalline and untwinned IBA was achieved on m-plane 15R-SiC. Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography, Raman spectroscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm the high quality of the films. High quality growth is shown to be mediated by ordered nucleation of IBA on (474) substrate facets. This work demonstrates that m-plane 15R-SiC is a good substrate choice to grow high-quality untwinned IBA epilayers for future device applications.

  5. Micromagnetic study of spin transfer switching with a spin polarization tilted out of the free layer plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D. Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Kent, Andrew D.

    2015-05-07

    We present the results of zero temperature macrospin and micromagnetic simulations of spin transfer switching of thin film nanomagnets in the shape of an ellipse with a spin-polarization tilted out of the layer plane. The perpendicular component of the spin-polarization is shown to increase the reversal speed, leading to a lower current for switching in a given time. However, for tilt angles larger than a critical angle, the layer magnetization starts to precess about an out-of-plane axis, which leads to a final magnetization state that is very sensitive to simulation conditions. As the ellipse lateral size increases, this out-of-plane precession is suppressed, due to the excitation of spatially non-uniform magnetization modes.

  6. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductance values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators’ decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.

  7. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductance values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.

  8. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductancemore » values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators’ decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.« less

  9. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorus nanoribbons at temperatures higher than 100 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangwook; Yang, Fan; Suh, Joonki; Yang, Sijie; Lee, Yeonbae; Li, Guo; Sung Choe, Hwan; Suslu, Aslihan; Chen, Yabin; Ko, Changhyun; Park, Joonsuk; Liu, Kai; Li, Jingbo; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao

    2015-10-16

    Black phosphorus attracts enormous attention as a promising layered material for electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. Here we report large anisotropy in in-plane thermal conductivity of single-crystal black phosphorus nanoribbons along the zigzag and armchair lattice directions at variable temperatures. Thermal conductivity measurements were carried out under the condition of steady-state longitudinal heat flow using suspended-pad micro-devices. We discovered increasing thermal conductivity anisotropy, up to a factor of two, with temperatures above 100 K. A size effect in thermal conductivity was also observed in which thinner nanoribbons show lower thermal conductivity. Analysed with the relaxation time approximation model using phonon dispersions obtained based on density function perturbation theory, the high anisotropy is attributed mainly to direction-dependent phonon dispersion and partially to phonon–phonon scattering. Lastly, our results revealing the intrinsic, orientation-dependent thermal conductivity of black phosphorus are useful for designing devices, as well as understanding fundamental physical properties of layered materials.

  10. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorus nanoribbons at temperatures higher than 100 K

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Sangwook; Yang, Fan; Suh, Joonki; Yang, Sijie; Lee, Yeonbae; Li, Guo; Sung Choe, Hwan; Suslu, Aslihan; Chen, Yabin; Ko, Changhyun; et al

    2015-10-16

    Black phosphorus attracts enormous attention as a promising layered material for electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. Here we report large anisotropy in in-plane thermal conductivity of single-crystal black phosphorus nanoribbons along the zigzag and armchair lattice directions at variable temperatures. Thermal conductivity measurements were carried out under the condition of steady-state longitudinal heat flow using suspended-pad micro-devices. We discovered increasing thermal conductivity anisotropy, up to a factor of two, with temperatures above 100 K. A size effect in thermal conductivity was also observed in which thinner nanoribbons show lower thermal conductivity. Analysed with the relaxation time approximation model using phononmore » dispersions obtained based on density function perturbation theory, the high anisotropy is attributed mainly to direction-dependent phonon dispersion and partially to phonon–phonon scattering. Lastly, our results revealing the intrinsic, orientation-dependent thermal conductivity of black phosphorus are useful for designing devices, as well as understanding fundamental physical properties of layered materials.« less

  11. Self-sustaining turbulence in a restricted nonlinear model of plane Couette flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Vaughan L.; Gayme, Dennice F.; Lieu, Binh K.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.; Farrell, Brian F.; Ioannou, Petros J.

    2014-10-15

    This paper demonstrates the maintenance of self-sustaining turbulence in a restricted nonlinear (RNL) model of plane Couette flow. The RNL system is derived directly from the Navier-Stokes equations and permits higher resolution studies of the dynamical system associated with the stochastic structural stability theory (S3T) model, which is a second order approximation of the statistical state dynamics of the flow. The RNL model shares the dynamical restrictions of the S3T model but can be easily implemented by reducing a DNS code so that it retains only the RNL dynamics. Comparisons of turbulence arising from DNS and RNL simulations demonstrate that the RNL system supports self-sustaining turbulence with a mean flow as well as structural and dynamical features that are consistent with DNS. These results demonstrate that the simplified RNL system captures fundamental aspects of fully developed turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows and motivate use of the RNL/S3T framework for further study of wall-turbulence.

  12. On the determination of the polarized parton distribution in the (x,Q2)-plane: a relativistic quark exchange approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazdanpanah, M.M.; Modarres, M.

    2005-05-06

    We perform a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of polarized distribution functions of proton in the (x,Q2)-plane within the scheme of the radiative parton model. The flavor-broken light sea quark distributions is investigated and a comparison is made with the corresponding available experimental data.

  13. In-plane ultrasonic needle tracking using a fiber-optic hydrophone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Wenfeng Desjardins, Adrien E.; Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon J.; Ginsberg, Yuval; David, Anna L.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient guidance of needles to procedural targets is critically important during percutaneous interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging is widely used for real-time image guidance in a variety of clinical contexts, but with this modality, uncertainties about the location of the needle tip within the image plane lead to significant complications. Whilst several methods have been proposed to improve the visibility of the needle, achieving accuracy and compatibility with current clinical practice is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, the authors present a method for directly visualizing the needle tip using an integrated fiber-optic ultrasound receiver in conjunction with the imaging probe used to acquire B-mode ultrasound images. Methods: Needle visualization and ultrasound imaging were performed with a clinical ultrasound imaging system. A miniature fiber-optic ultrasound hydrophone was integrated into a 20 gauge injection needle tip to receive transmissions from individual transducer elements of the ultrasound imaging probe. The received signals were reconstructed to create an image of the needle tip. Ultrasound B-mode imaging was interleaved with needle tip imaging. A first set of measurements was acquired in water and tissue ex vivo with a wide range of insertion angles (15°–68°) to study the accuracy and sensitivity of the tracking method. A second set was acquired in an in vivo swine model, with needle insertions to the brachial plexus. A third set was acquired in an in vivo ovine model for fetal interventions, with insertions to different locations within the uterine cavity. Two linear ultrasound imaging probes were used: a 14–5 MHz probe for the first and second sets, and a 9–4 MHz probe for the third. Results: During insertions in tissue ex vivo and in vivo, the imaged needle tip had submillimeter axial and lateral dimensions. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of the needle tip was found to depend on the insertion angle. With

  14. A THOUSAND SHADOWS OF ANDROMEDA: ROTATING PLANES OF SATELLITES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-20

    In a recent contribution, Bahl and Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in ?-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata etal. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 10{sup 4} km s{sup 1} kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  15. THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES OUT TO z ? 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2014-10-01

    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies, relating the effective radius, velocity dispersion, and surface brightness, has long been recognized as a unique tool for analyzing galaxy structure and evolution. With the discovery of distant quiescent galaxies and the introduction of high sensitivity near-infrared spectrographs, it is now possible to explore the FP out to z ? 2. In this Letter we study the evolution of the FP out to z ? 2 using kinematic measurements of massive quiescent galaxies (M {sub *} > 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}). We find preliminary evidence for the existence of an FP out to z ? 2. The scatter of the FP, however, increases from z ? 0 to z ? 2, even when taking into account the larger measurement uncertainties at higher redshifts. We find a strong evolution of the zero point from z ? 2 to z ? 0: ?log{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ?( 0.49 0.03)z. In order to assess whether our spectroscopic sample is representative of the early-type galaxy population at all redshifts, we compare their rest-frame gz colors with those from a larger mass complete sample of quiescent galaxies. At z > 1 we find that the spectroscopic sample is bluer. We use the color offsets to estimate a mass-to-light ratio (M/L) correction. The implied FP zero point evolution after correction is significantly smaller: ?log{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ?( 0.39 0.02)z. This is consistent with an apparent formation redshift of z{sub form}=6.62{sub ?1.44}{sup +3.19} for the underlying population, ignoring the effects of progenitor bias. A more complete spectroscopic sample is required at z ? 2 to properly measure the M/L evolution from the FP evolution.

  16. THE RELATION BETWEEN MID-PLANE PRESSURE AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN GALAXIES: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, Robert; Hernandez, Jose; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2012-12-20

    Molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is the primary component of the reservoirs of cold, dense gas that fuel star formation in our Galaxy. While the H{sub 2} abundance is ultimately regulated by physical processes operating on small scales in the interstellar medium (ISM), observations have revealed a tight correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen in nearby spiral galaxies and the pressure in the mid-plane of their disks. This empirical relation has been used to predict H{sub 2} abundances in galaxies with potentially very different ISM conditions, such as metal-deficient galaxies at high redshifts. Here, we test the validity of this approach by studying the dependence of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation on environmental parameters of the ISM. To this end, we follow the formation and destruction of H{sub 2} explicitly in a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with different ISM parameters. We find that a pressure-H{sub 2} relation arises naturally in our simulations for a variety of dust-to-gas ratios or strengths of the interstellar radiation field in the ISM. Fixing the dust-to-gas ratio and the UV radiation field to values measured in the solar neighborhood results in fair agreement with the relation observed in nearby galaxies with roughly solar metallicity. However, the parameters (slope and normalization) of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation vary in a systematical way with ISM properties. A particularly strong trend is the decrease of the normalization of the relation with a lowering of the dust-to-gas ratio of the ISM. We show how this trend and other properties of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation arise from the atomic-to-molecular phase transition in the ISM caused by a combination of H{sub 2} formation, destruction, and shielding mechanisms.

  17. AN IMAGE-PLANE ALGORITHM FOR JWST'S NON-REDUNDANT APERTURE MASK DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-10

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σ{sub CP} (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σ{sub CP} < 10{sup –4} radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  18. In-Plane Electronic Anisotropy of Underdoped ___122___ Fe-Arsenide Superconductors Revealed by Measurements of Detwinned Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Ian Randal

    2012-05-08

    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and ARPES measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  19. Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Yampolskiy, Vladislav; Alekseev, Valerie; Son, Valentin

    2001-01-01

    According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

  20. Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator: Magnetothermoelectric transport on the (011) plane of SmB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Hua; Dai, Jianhui; Xu, Zhu -an; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-25

    Motivated by the high sensitivity to Fermi surface topology and scattering mechanisms in magnetothermoelectric transport, we have measured the thermopower and Nernst effect on the (011) plane of the proposed topological Kondo insulator SmB6. These experiments, together with electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements, suggest that the (011) plane also harbors a metallic surface with an effective mass on the order of 10–102 m0. The surface and bulk conductances are well distinguished in these measurements and are categorized into metallic and nondegenerate semiconducting regimes, respectively. As a result, electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing scattering and also contributemore » to the heavy surface state.« less

  1. Octupolar out-of-plane magnetic field structure generation during collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-06-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic field, generated by fast magnetic reconnection, during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse, was studied with a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code, using both closed (flux conserving) and open boundary conditions on a square grid. It was discovered that the well known quadrupolar structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field gains four additional regions of opposite magnetic polarity, emerging near the corners of the simulation box, moving towards the X-point. The emerging, outer, magnetic field structure has opposite polarity to the inner quadrupolar structure, leading to an overall octupolar structure. Using Ampere's law and integrating electron and ion currents, defined at grid cells, over the simulation domain, contributions to the out-of-plane magnetic field from electron and ion currents were determined. The emerging regions of opposite magnetic polarity were shown to be the result of ion currents. Magnetic octupolar structure is found to be a signature of X-point collapse, rather than tearing mode, and factors relating to potential discoveries in experimental scenarios or space-craft observations are discussed.

  2. In-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in the machine direction with transducers in rotating wheels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, M.S.; Jackson, T.G.; Knerr, C.

    1998-02-17

    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the MD and CD, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web. 37 figs.

  3. In-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in the machine direction with transducers in rotating wheels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Maclin S.; Jackson, Theodore G.; Knerr, Christopher

    1998-02-17

    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the MD and CD, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web.

  4. Mismatch relaxation by stacking fault formation of AlN islands in AlGaN/GaN structures on m-plane GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Grzegory, Izabella

    2011-08-08

    We study the mismatch relaxation of 2-5 nm thin elongated AlN islands formed during growth of AlGaN on bulk m-plane GaN by molecular beam epitaxy. The relaxation of these m-plane AlN layers is anisotropic and occurs through the introduction of stacking faults in [0001] planes during island coalescence, while no relaxation is observed along the perpendicular [1120] direction. This anisotropy in the mismatch relaxation and the formation of stacking faults in the AlN islands are explained by the growth mode of the AlN platelets and their coalescence along the [0001] direction.

  5. It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's Super-ion Building Blocks | U.S. DOE Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science (SC) It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's Super-ion Building Blocks Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 07.25.16 It's a Bird,

  6. Magnetization reversal induced by in-plane current in Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures with perpendicular magnetic easy axis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, C.; Yamanouchi, M. Ikeda, S.; Sato, H.; Fukami, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    We investigate in-plane current-induced magnetization reversal under an in-plane magnetic field in Hall bar shaped devices composed of Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures with perpendicular magnetic easy axis. The observed relationship between the directions of current and magnetization switching and Ta thickness dependence of magnetization switching current are accordance with those for magnetization reversal by spin transfer torque originated from the spin Hall effect in the Ta layer.

  7. Correction of the near threshold behavior of electron collisional excitation cross-sections in the plane-wave Born approximation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kilcrease, D. P.; Brookes, S.

    2013-08-19

    The modeling of NLTE plasmas requires the solution of population rate equations to determine the populations of the various atomic levels relevant to a particular problem. The equations require many cross sections for excitation, de-excitation, ionization and recombination. Additionally, a simple and computational fast way to calculate electron collisional excitation cross-sections for ions is by using the plane-wave Born approximation. This is essentially a high-energy approximation and the cross section suffers from the unphysical problem of going to zero near threshold. Various remedies for this problem have been employed with varying degrees of success. We present a correction procedure formore » the Born cross-sections that employs the Elwert–Sommerfeld factor to correct for the use of plane waves instead of Coulomb waves in an attempt to produce a cross-section similar to that from using the more time consuming Coulomb Born approximation. We compare this new approximation with other, often employed correction procedures. Furthermore, we also look at some further modifications to our Born Elwert procedure and its combination with Y.K. Kim's correction of the Coulomb Born approximation for singly charged ions that more accurately approximate convergent close coupling calculations.« less

  8. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-11-09

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  9. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, P.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa Tsai, C. L.; Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C.; Lee, C.-M.

    2014-06-28

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe} = 0–10 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0 nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe} ≥ 3.0 nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10 nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  10. Current-perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance in spin-valves with AgSn alloy spacers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Read, J. C.; Nakatani, T. M.; Smith, Neil; Choi, Y.-S.; York, B. R.; Brinkman, E.; Childress, J. R.

    2015-07-28

    We investigate the use of AgSn alloys as the spacer layer in current-perpendicular-to-the-plane magnetoresistance devices. Alloying with Sn increases resistivity but results in a reasonably long (>10 nm) spin-diffusion length, so large magnetoresistance can be achieved with thin AgSn spacers. Compared to Ag thin films, AgSn forms smaller grain sizes, reduced roughness, and exhibits less interdiffusion upon annealing, resulting in decreased interlayer magnetic coupling in exchange biased spin-valves. AgSn also shows improved corrosion resistance compared to Ag, which is advantageous for nanofabrication, including magnetic recording head sensors. Combining a AgSn spacer with Co-based Heusler alloy ferromagnet in an exchange biased, polycrystalline trilayer thinner than 12 nm results in magnetoresistance values up to 15% at room temperature.

  11. Simulation of the signals of a pancake-type transducer caused by a plane defect of arbitrary form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beda, P.I.; Putnikov, Yu.G.

    1994-10-01

    Redistribution of eddy currents caused by a defect is represented by a multitude of the fine circular contours located in that portion of the area of significant eddy currents associated with the defect. The current in the contours of the model {Delta}I{sub km} is expressed in terms of the primary current of each defect I{sub km} and the function of influence of the defect calculated with use of equivalent electrical circuits. The discretely distributed density of eddy currents is considered as an external current in the Helmholtz equation by solution of which an equation is obtained for the eddy current transducer voltage introduced by the defect. The method presented for calculation of eddy current transducer signals from a plane defect may be used in many cases for any type of pancake, solenoid, submersible, screen, and other transducers and for any form of object of inspection when the rule of spatial distribution of the eddy current density is known.

  12. Ru/FeCoB double layered film with high in-plane magnetic anisotropy field of 500 Oe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, Ken-ichiro; Hashimoto, Atsuto; Matsuu, Toshimitsu; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2009-04-01

    FeCoB layers prepared on Ru underlayer possess a high saturation magnetization M{sub s} and a high in-plane magnetic anisotropy filed H{sub k}. Effects of preparation conditions were investigated. Low Ar gas pressure condition and thicker film thickness were effective to attain distortion of FeCo crystallite. As the crystallinity of Ru underlayer became higher, higher H{sub k} was induced. The accumulation of anisotropic stress in the film caused by the oblique incidences of depositing atoms with high energy seems to be one of the important effects to attain high anisotropy field. It was succeeded to prepare the Ru/FeCoB film with high H{sub k} of 500 Oe.

  13. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  14. Characterization of winds through the rotor plane using a phased array SODAR and recommendations for future work.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deola, Regina Anne

    2010-02-01

    Portable remote sensing devices are increasingly needed to cost effectively characterize the meteorology at a potential wind energy site as the size of modern wind turbines increase. A short term project co-locating a Sound Detection and Ranging System (SODAR) with a 200 meter instrumented meteorological tower at the Texas Tech Wind Technology Field Site was performed to collect and summarize wind information through an atmospheric layer typical of utility scale rotor plane depths. Data collected identified large speed shears and directional shears that may lead to unbalanced loads on the rotors. This report identifies suggestions for incorporation of additional data in wind resource assessments and a few thoughts on the potential for using a SODAR or SODAR data to quantify or investigate other parameters that may be significant to the wind industry.

  15. Terahertz intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmunds, C.; Malis, O.; Shao, J.; Shirazi-HD, M.; Manfra, M. J.

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate THz intersubband absorption (15.6–26.1 meV) in m-plane AlGaN/GaN quantum wells. We find a trend of decreasing peak energy with increasing quantum well width, in agreement with theoretical expectations. However, a blue-shift of the transition energy of up to 14 meV was observed relative to the calculated values. This blue-shift is shown to decrease with decreasing charge density and is, therefore, attributed to many-body effects. Furthermore, a ∼40% reduction in the linewidth (from roughly 8 to 5 meV) was obtained by reducing the total sheet density and inserting undoped AlGaN layers that separate the wavefunctions from the ionized impurities in the barriers.

  16. Theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of two-dimensional polaritons in an in-plane harmonic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Lozovik, Yurii E.; Snoke, David W.

    2008-04-15

    Recent experiments have shown that it is possible to create an in-plane harmonic potential trap for a two-dimensional (2D) gas of exciton polaritons in a microcavity structure, and evidence has been reported of Bose-Einstein condensation of polaritons accumulated in this type of trap. We present here the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superfluidity of the exciton polaritons in a harmonic potential trap. Along the way, we determine a general method for defining the superfluid fraction in a 2D trap, in terms of angular momentum representation. We show that in the continuum limit, as the trap becomes shallower, the superfluid fraction approaches the 2D Kosterlitz-Thouless limit, while the condensate fraction approaches zero, as expected.

  17. Influence of growth temperature and temperature ramps on deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, A. M.; Kelchner, K.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Speck, J. S.

    2013-12-02

    The dependence of deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on bulk m-plane GaN substrates as a function of growth temperature (T{sub g}) and T{sub g} ramping method was investigated using deep level optical spectroscopy. Understanding the influence of T{sub g} on GaN deep level incorporation is important for InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) because GaN quantum barrier (QB) layers are grown much colder than thin film GaN to accommodate InGaN QW growth. Deep level spectra of low T{sub g} (800?C) GaN films grown under QB conditions were compared to deep level spectra of high T{sub g} (1150?C) GaN. Reducing T{sub g}, increased the defect density significantly (>50) through introduction of emergent deep level defects at 2.09?eV and 2.9?eV below the conduction band minimum. However, optimizing growth conditions during the temperature ramp when transitioning from high to low T{sub g} substantially reduced the density of these emergent deep levels by approximately 40%. The results suggest that it is important to consider the potential for non-radiative recombination in QBs of LED or LD active regions, and tailoring the transition from high T{sub g} GaN growth to active layer growth can mitigate such non-radiative channels.

  18. BNSF Railway Matt Rose Executive Chairman

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TEN HOMES OUT OF ETHANOL TO FILL THE TANKS OF OVER 1.6 BILLION* AVERAGE SIZED VEHICLES Source: BNSF internal data, Jan. 1, 2014 through Dec. 31., 2014. *Ethanol makes up 10% of a ...

  19. Field-current phase diagrams of in-plane spin transfer torque memory cells with low effective magnetization storage layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Emeterio Alvarez, L.; Lacoste, B.; Rodmacq, B.; Sousa, R. C. Dieny, B.; Pakala, M.

    2014-05-07

    Field-current phase diagrams were measured on in-plane anisotropy Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}B{sub 20} magnetic tunnel junctions to obtain the spin transfer torque (STT) field-current switching window. These measurements were used to characterise junctions with varying free layer thicknesses from 2.5 down to 1.1 nm having a reduced effective demagnetizing field due to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at CoFeB/MgO interface. Diagrams were obtained with 100 ns current pulses, of either same or alternating polarity. When consecutive pulses have the same polarity, it is possible to realize the STT switching even for conditions having a low switching probability. This was evidenced in diagrams with consecutive pulses of alternating polarity, with 100% switching obtained at 4.7 MA/cm{sup 2}, compared to the lower 3.4 MA/cm{sup 2} value for same polarity pulses. Although the low level of the current density window is higher in alternating polarity diagrams, the field window in both diagrams is the same and therefore independent of the pulse polarity sequence.

  20. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  1. Effect of the out-of-plane stress on the properties of epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films with nano-pillar array on Si-substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Gang; Xie, Qiyun; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Dongmei

    2015-08-21

    A nonlinear thermodynamic formalism has been proposed to calculate the physical properties of the epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films containing vertical nano-pillar array on Si-substrate. The out-of-plane stress induced by the mismatch between film and nano-pillars provides an effective way to tune the physical properties of ferroelectric SrTiO{sub 3} films. Tensile out-of-plane stress raises the phase transition temperature and increases the out-of-plane polarization, but decreases the out-of-plane dielectric constant below Curie temperature, pyroelectric coefficient, and piezoelectric coefficient. These results showed that by properly controlling the out-of-plane stress, the out-of-plane stress induced paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation will appear near room temperature. Excellent dielectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric properties of these SrTiO{sub 3} films similar to PZT and other lead-based ferroelectrics can be expected.

  2. A CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction coupled to an in-plane exchange-biased magnetic layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, M. Chong, H.; Vu, Q. B.; Vo, T.; Brooks, R.; Stamper, H.; Bennett, S.; Piccirillo, J.

    2015-05-25

    We report a stack structure which utilizes an in-plane exchange-biased magnetic layer to influence the coercivity of the bottom CoFeB layer in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction. By employing a thickness wedge deposition technique, we were able to study various aspects of this stack using vibrating sample magnetometer including: (1) the coupling between two CoFeB layers as a function of MgO thickness; and (2) the coupling between the bottom CoFeB and the in-plane magnetic layer as a function of Ta spacer thickness. Furthermore, modification of the bottom CoFeB coercivity allows one to measure tunneling magnetoresistance and resistance-area product (RA) of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB in this pseudo-spin-valve format using current-in-plane-tunneling technique, without resorting to (Co/Pt){sub n} or (Co/Pd){sub n} multilayer pinning.

  3. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  4. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  5. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface. Annual technical progress report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  6. Structure and switching of in-plane ferroelectric nano-domains in strained PbxSr1-xTiO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzen, Sylivia; Nesterov, Okeksiy; Rispens, Gregory; Heuver, J. A.; Bark, C; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Noheda, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale ferroelectrics, the active elements of a variety of nanoelectronic devices, develop denser and richer domain structures than the bulk counterparts. With shrinking device sizes understanding and controlling domain formation in nanoferroelectrics is being intensely studied. Here we show that a precise control of the epitaxy and the strain allows stabilizing a hierarchical domain architecture in PbxSr1-xTiO3 thin films, showing periodic, purely in-plane polarized, ferroelectric nano-domains that can be switched by a scanning probe.

  7. Composition dependence of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode in YBa2Cu3O6+x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stercil, F.; Egami, T.; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Yethiraj, Mohana; Chung, J.-H.; Arai, M.; Frost, C.; Dogan, F.

    2008-01-01

    An inelastic pulsed neutron scattering study was performed on the dependence of the dispersion and spectral intensity of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode on doped charge density. The measurements were made in the time-of-flight mode with the multiangle position sensitive spectrometer of the ISIS facility on single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x=0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.95). The focus of the study is the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode, which is known for strong electron-phonon coupling and unusual dependence on composition and temperature. It is shown that the dispersions for the samples with x=0.35, 0.6, and 0.7 are similar to the superposition of those for x=0.15 and 0.95 samples, and cannot be explained in terms of the structural anisotropy. It is suggested that the results are consistent with the model of nanoscale electronic phase separation, with the fraction of the phases being dependent on the doped charge density.

  8. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  9. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore » around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  10. Mechanical stress measurement by an achromatic optical digital speckle pattern interferometry strain sensor with radial in-plane sensitivity: experimental comparison with electrical strain gauges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Armando Albertazzi, G. Jr.; Kapp, Walter A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper shows the optical setup of a radial in-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer which uses an axis-symmetrical diffractive optical element (DOE) to obtain double illumination. The application of the DOE gives in-plane sensitivity which only depends on the grating period of the DOE instead of the wavelength of the laser used as illumination source. A compact optical layout was built in order to have a portable optical strain sensor with a circular measurement area of about 5 mm in diameter. In order to compare its performance with electrical strain sensors (strain gauges), mechanical loading was generated by a four-point bending device and simultaneously monitored by the optical strain sensor and by two-element strain gauge rosettes. Several mechanical stress levels were measured showing a good agreement between both sensors. Results showed that the optical sensor could measure applied mechanical strains with a mean uncertainty of about 5% and 4% for the maximum and minimum principal strains, respectively.

  11. Quaternary AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well on vicinal c-plane substrate for high emission intensity of green wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Pak, Y. Eugene; Park, Chang Young; Mishra, Dhaneshwar; Yoo, Seung-Hyun; Cho, Yong-Hee Shim, Mun-Bo; Kim, Sungjin

    2015-05-14

    Electronic and optical properties of non-trivial semipolar AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well (QW) structures are investigated by using the multiband effective-mass theory and non-Markovian optical model. On vicinal c-plane GaN substrate miscut by a small angle (??plane, the AlInGaN/InGaN system is shown to have ?3 times larger spontaneous emission peak intensity than the conventional InGaN/GaN system at green wavelength. It is attributed to much larger optical matrix element of the quaternary AlInGaN/InGaN system, derived from the reduction of internal electric field induced by polarizations. This effect exceeds the performance-degrading factor of smaller quasi-Fermi-level separation for the quaternary AlInGaN/InGaN system than that for the conventional InGaN/GaN system. Results indicate that the use of quaternary III-nitride QWs on vicinal substrates may be beneficial in improving the performance of optical devices emitting green light.

  12. Electron acceleration and emission in a field of a plane and converging dipole wave of relativistic amplitudes with the radiation reaction force taken into account

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bashinov, Aleksei V; Gonoskov, Arkady A; Kim, A V; Marklund, Mattias; Mourou, G; Sergeev, Aleksandr M

    2013-04-30

    A comparative analysis is performed of the electron emission characteristics as the electrons move in laser fields with ultra-relativistic intensity and different configurations corresponding to a plane or tightly focused wave. For a plane travelling wave, analytical expressions are derived for the emission characteristics, and it is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes qualitatively even when the wave intensity is much less than that in the case of the radiation-dominated regime. An important conclusion is drawn that the electrons in a travelling wave tend to synchronised motion under the radiation reaction force. The characteristic features of the motion of electrons are found in a converging dipole wave, associated with the curvature of the phase front and nonuniformity of the field distribution. The values of the maximum achievable longitudinal momenta of electrons accelerated to the centre, as well as their distribution function are determined. The existence of quasi-periodic trajectories near the focal region of the dipole wave is shown, and the characteristics of the emission of both accelerated and oscillating electrons are analysed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  13. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of {approx}100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to a {approx}1 {mu}m spot at 12 keV. A high-contrast symmetric diffraction pattern of the nanocube is observed in the forward far field. An image of the nanocube is successfully reconstructed by an iterative phasing method and its half-period resolution is 3.0 nm. This method does not only dramatically improve the spatial resolution of x-ray microscopy but also is a key technology for realizing single-pulse diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  14. Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive film-shape memory alloy composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin Xu, Jia

    2014-05-07

    Stochastic bifurcation and fractal and chaos control of a giant magnetostrictive filmshape memory alloy (GMFSMA) composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation were studied. Van der Pol items were improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of both GMF and SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of a GMFSMA composite cantilever plate subjected to in-plane harmonic and stochastic excitation was developed. The probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was obtained, and the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The conditions of noise-induced chaotic response were obtained in the stochastic Melnikov integral method, and the fractal boundary of the safe basin of the system was provided. Finally, the chaos control strategy was proposed in the stochastic dynamic programming method. Numerical simulation shows that stochastic Hopf bifurcation and chaos appear in the parameter variation process. The boundary of the safe basin of the system has fractal characteristics, and its area decreases when the noise intensifies. The system reliability was improved through stochastic optimal control, and the safe basin area of the system increased.

  15. Current-induced electrical self-oscillations across out-of-plane threshold switches based on VO{sub 2} layers integrated in crossbars geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, A.; Leroy, J.; Crunteanu, A.

    2014-04-21

    Electrically activated metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is widely studied from both fundamental and practical points of view. It can give valuable insights on the currently controversial phase transition mechanism in this material and, at the same time, allows the development of original MIT-based electronic devices. Electrically triggered insulator-metal transitions are demonstrated in novel out-of-plane, metal-oxide-metal type devices integrating a VO{sub 2} thin film, upon applying moderate threshold voltages. It is shown that the current-voltage characteristics of such devices present clear negative differential resistance effects supporting the onset of continuous, current-driven phase oscillations across the vanadium dioxide material. The frequencies of these self-sustained oscillations are ranging from 90 to 300 kHz and they may be tuned by adjusting the injected current. A phenomenological model of the device and its command circuit is developed, and allows to extract the analytical expressions of the oscillation frequencies and to simulate the electrical oscillatory phenomena developed across the VO{sub 2} material. Such out-of-plane devices may further contribute to the general understanding of the driving mechanism in metal-insulator transition materials and devices, a prerequisite to promising applications in high speed/high frequency networks of oscillatory or resistive memories circuits.

  16. Distributions of gamma-ray bursts and blazars in the L {sub p}-E {sub p}-plane and possible implications for their radiation physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyu, Fen; Liang, En-Wei; Liang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Na; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Jin, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-09-20

    We present a spectral analysis for a sample of redshift-known gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed with Fermi/GBM. Together with the results derived from our systematical spectral energy distribution modeling with the leptonic models for a Fermi/LAT blazar sample, we compare the distributions of the GRBs and the blazars by plotting the synchrotron peak luminosity (L {sub s}) and the corresponding peak photon energy E {sub s} of blazars in the L {sub p}-E {sub p}-plane of GRBs, where L {sub p} and E {sub p} are the peak luminosity and peak photon energy of the GRB time-integrated ?f {sub ?} spectrum, respectively. The GRBs are in the high-L {sub p}, high-E {sub p} corner of the plane and a tight L {sub p}-E {sub p} relation is found, i.e., L{sub p}?E{sub p}{sup 2.13{sub ?}{sub 0}{sub .}{sub 4}{sub 6}{sup +{sup 0{sup .{sup 5{sup 4}}}}}}. Both flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and low-synchrotron peaking BL Lac objects (LBLs) are clustered in the low-E {sub p}, low-L {sub p} corner. Intermediate- and high-synchrotron peaking BL Lac objects (IBLs and HBLs) have E {sub s} ? 2 10{sup 3}-10{sup 2} keV and L {sub s} ? 10{sup 44}-10{sup 47} erg s{sup 1}, but no dependence of L {sub s} on E {sub s} is found. We show that the tight L{sub p} -E{sub p} relation of GRBs is potentially explained with the synchrotron radiation of fast-cooling electrons in a highly magnetized ejecta, and the weak anti-correlation of L {sub s}-E {sub s} for FSRQs and LBLs may be attributed to synchrotron radiation of slow-cooling electrons in a moderately magnetized ejecta. The distributions of IBLs and HBLs in the L {sub p}-E {sub p}-plane may be interpreted with synchrotron radiation of fast-cooling electrons in a matter-dominated ejecta. These results may present a unified picture for the radiation physics of relativistic jets in GRBs and blazars within the framework of the leptonic synchrotron radiation models.

  17. Cold plate with combined inclined impingement and ribbed channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-12-22

    Heat transfer devices and methods for making the same that include a first enclosure having at least one inlet port; a second enclosure having a bottom plate and one or more dividing walls to establish channels, at least one internal surface of each channel having rib structures to create turbulence in a fluid flow; and a jet plate connecting the first enclosure and the second enclosure having impinging jets that convey fluid from the first enclosure to the channels, said impinging jets being set at an angular deviation from normal to cause local acceleration of fluid and to increase a local heat transfer rate.

  18. Electronic structure of the ingredient planes of the cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CuO6+δ: A comparison study with Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan -Feng Lv; Gu, G. D.; Wang, Wen -Lin; Ding, Hao; Wang, Yang; Ding, Ying; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; et al

    2016-04-15

    By means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, we report on the electronic structures of the BiO and SrO planes of the Bi2Sr2CuO6+δ (Bi-2201) superconductor prepared by argon-ion bombardment and annealing. Depending on post annealing conditions, the BiO planes exhibit either a pseudogap (PG) with sharp coherence peaks and an anomalously large gap magnitude of 49 meV or van Hove singularity (vHS) near the Fermi level, while the SrO is always characteristic of a PG-like feature. This contrasts with the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) superconductor where vHS occurs solely on the SrO plane. We disclose the interstitial oxygen dopants (δ in the formulas)more » as a primary cause for the occurrence of vHS, which are located dominantly around the BiO and SrO planes, respectively, in Bi-2201 and Bi-2212. This is supported by the contrasting structural buckling amplitude of the BiO and SrO planes in the two superconductors. Furthermore, our findings provide solid evidence for the irrelevance of PG to the superconductivity in the two superconductors, as well as insights into why Bi-2212 can achieve a higher superconducting transition temperature than Bi-2201, and by implication, the mechanism of cuprate superconductivity.« less

  19. Compositional modulated atomic layer stacking and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of CoPt alloy sputtered films with close-packed plane orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Shin Nozawa, Naoki; Hinata, Shintaro; Takahashi, Migaku; Shibuya, Kazunari; Hoshino, Kazuya; Awaya, Satoru

    2015-05-07

    An atomic layer stacking structure in hexagonal close packed (hcp) Co{sub 100?x}Pt{sub x} alloy films with c-plane sheet texture was directly observed by a high-angle annular dark-field imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of sequential and/or compositional atomic layer stacking structure and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub u}?=?K{sub u1}?+?K{sub u2}) revealed that (1) integrated intensity of the superlattice diffraction takes the maximum at x?=?20 at. % and shows broadening feature against x for the film fabricated under the substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) of 400?C. (2) Compositional separation structure in atomic layers is formed for the films fabricated under T{sub sub}?=?400?C. A sequential alternative stacking of atomic layers with different compositions is hardly formed in the film with x?=?50 at. %, whereas easily formed in the film with x?=?20 at. %. This peculiar atomic layer stacking structure consists of in-plane-disordered Pt-rich and Pt-poor layers, which is completely different from the so-called atomic site ordered structure. (3) A face centered cubic atomic layer stacking as faults appeared in the host hcp atomic layer stacking exists in accompanies with irregularities for the periodicity of the compositional modulation atomic layers. (4) K{sub u1} takes the maximum of 1.4??10{sup 7?}erg/cm{sup 3} at around x?=?20 at. %, whereas K{sub u2} takes the maximum of 0.7??10{sup 7?}erg/cm{sup 3} at around x?=?40 at. %, which results in the maximum of 1.8??10{sup 7?}erg/cm{sup 3} of K{sub u} at x?=?30 at. % and a shoulder in compositional dependence of K{sub u} in the range of x?=?3060 at. %. Not only compositional separation of atomic layers but also sequential alternative stacking of different compositional layers is quite important to improve essential uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  20. Influence of in-plane and bridging oxygen vacancies of SnO{sub 2} nanostructures on CH{sub 4} sensing at low operating temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonu, Venkataramana Das, A. Prasad, Arun K.; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala

    2014-12-15

    Role of O defects in sensing pollutant with nanostructured SnO{sub 2} is not well understood, especially at low temperatures. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were grown by soft chemistry route followed by subsequent annealing treatment under specific conditions. Nanowires were grown by chemical vapor deposition technique. A systematic photoluminescence (PL) investigation of O defects in SnO{sub 2} nanostructures revealed a strong correlation between shallow donors created by the in-plane and the bridging O vacancies and gas sensing at low temperatures. These SnO{sub 2} nanostructures detected methane (CH{sub 4}), a reducing and green house gas at a low temperature of 50?C. Response of CH{sub 4} was found to be strongly dependent on surface defect in comparison to surface to volume ratio. Control over O vacancies during the synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanomaterials, as supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and subsequent elucidation for low temperature sensing are demonstrated.

  1. Measurement of XeI and XeII velocity in the near exit plane of a low-power Hall effect thruster by light induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dancheva, Y.; Biancalana, V.; Pagano, D.; Scortecci, F.

    2013-06-15

    Near exit plane non-resonant light induced fluorescence spectroscopy is performed in a Hall effect low-power Xenon thruster at discharge voltage of 250 V and anode flow rate of 0.7 mg/s. Measurements of the axial and radial velocity components are performed, exciting the 6s{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o}{yields}6p{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2} transition at 823.16 nm in XeI and the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}{yields}6p[3]{sub 5/2}{sup o} transition at 834.724 nm in XeII. No significant deviation from the thermal velocity is observed for XeI. Two most probable ion velocities are registered at a given position with respect to the thruster axis, which are mainly attributed to different areas of creation of ions inside the acceleration channel. The spatial resolution of the set-up is limited by the laser beam size (radius of the order of 0.5 mm) and the fluorescence collection optics, which have a view spot diameter of 8 mm.

  2. Correlation of anomalous write error rates and ferromagnetic resonance spectrum in spin-transfer-torque-magnetic-random-access-memory devices containing in-plane free layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evarts, Eric R.; Rippard, William H.; Pufall, Matthew R.; Heindl, Ranko

    2014-05-26

    In a small fraction of magnetic-tunnel-junction-based magnetic random-access memory devices with in-plane free layers, the write-error rates (WERs) are higher than expected on the basis of the macrospin or quasi-uniform magnetization reversal models. In devices with increased WERs, the product of effective resistance and area, tunneling magnetoresistance, and coercivity do not deviate from typical device properties. However, the field-swept, spin-torque, ferromagnetic resonance (FS-ST-FMR) spectra with an applied DC bias current deviate significantly for such devices. With a DC bias of 300 mV (producing 9.9 × 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}) or greater, these anomalous devices show an increase in the fraction of the power present in FS-ST-FMR modes corresponding to higher-order excitations of the free-layer magnetization. As much as 70% of the power is contained in higher-order modes compared to ≈20% in typical devices. Additionally, a shift in the uniform-mode resonant field that is correlated with the magnitude of the WER anomaly is detected at DC biases greater than 300 mV. These differences in the anomalous devices indicate a change in the micromagnetic resonant mode structure at high applied bias.

  3. Dependence of the critical temperature of high-temperature cuprate superconductors on hoppings and spin correlations between CuO{sub 2} planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, I. A., E-mail: macplay@mail.ru; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Shneider, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    The influence of interlayer hoppings on the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) in bilayer cuprates has been studied. The parameter of hopping between layers is expressed as t{sub Up-Tack }(k) = t{sub Up-Tack }(cos(k{sub x}) - cos(k{sub y})){sup 2} and treated as a small perturbation for the states of two CuO{sub 2} planes described by the t-t Prime -t Double-Prime -J* model. In the generalized mean field approximation for d{sub x}{sup 2} - y{sup 2} symmetry of the superconducting gap, neither the interlayer hopping or exchange interaction, nor the pair hopping between CuO{sub 2} layers provides an additional mechanism of Cooper pair formation or an increase in T{sub c}. In the concentration dependence of T{sub c}, the bilayer splitting of the upper Hubbard band of quasi-holes is manifested as two peaks with temperatures slightly lower than the maximum T{sub c} for a single-layer cuprate. Interlayer antiferromagnetic spin correlations suppress bilayer splitting.

  4. Possible origin of the nonmonotonic doping dependence of the in-plane resistivity anisotropy of Ba(Fe1-xTx)₂As₂ (T=Co, Ni and Cu)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuo, Hsueh-Hui; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Riggs, Scott C.; Yu, Leo; McMahon, Peter L.; De Greve, Kristiaan; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Analytis, James G.; Fisher, Ian R.

    2011-08-15

    The in-plane resistivity anisotropy has been measured for detwinned single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xNix)₂As₂ and Ba(Fe1-xCux)₂As₂. The data reveal a nonmonotonic doping dependence, similar to previous observations for Ba(Fe1-xCox)₂As₂. Magnetotransport measurements of the parent compound reveal a nonlinear Hall coefficient and a large linear term in the transverse magnetoresistance. Both effects are rapidly suppressed with chemical substitution over a similar compositional range as the onset of the large in-plane resistivity anisotropy. This suggests that the relatively small in-plane anisotropy of the parent compound in the spin-density wave state is due to the presence of an isotropic, high mobility pocket of themore » reconstructed Fermi surface. Progressive suppression of the contribution to the conductivity arising from this isotropic pocket with chemical substitution eventually reveals the underlying in-plane anisotropy associated with the remaining Fermi surface pockets« less

  5. NEAR-INFRARED H{sub 2} AND CONTINUUM SURVEY OF EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS. II. COMPLETE CENSUS FOR THE NORTHERN GALACTIC PLANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hsu-Tai; Karr, Jennifer; Su, Yu-Nung; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Takami, Michihiro; Liao, Wei-Ting; Froebrich, Dirk; Ioannidis, Georgios; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Duan, Hao-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    We discuss 94 Extended Green Objects (EGOs) in the northern Galactic plane cataloged by Cyganowski et al., based on near-infrared narrow H{sub 2} (2.122 ?m) and continuum observations from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. This data set is three times larger than the one in our previous study and is unbiased by preselection. As discussed in the previous paper, the morphologies of the 4.5 ?m emission generally resemble those of the near-infrared continuum, but are different from those of the H{sub 2} emission. Of our sample, only 28% of EGOs with H{sub 2} emission show similar morphologies between 4.5 ?m and H{sub 2} emission. These results suggest that the 4.5 ?m emission mainly comes from scattered continuum from the embedded young stellar objects, and partially from H{sub 2} emission. About half of EGOs are associated with H{sub 2} outflows, if the H{sub 2} outflow incompleteness is considered. The H{sub 2} outflow detection rate for EGOs with K-band detections (61%) is significantly higher than for those without K-band detections (36%). This difference may be due to the fact that both H{sub 2} and K-band emissions are associated with outflows, i.e., H{sub 2} emission and K-band continuum are associated with shocks and outflow cavities, respectively. We also compared the correlation between the H{sub 2} outflows and Class I 44 GHz methanol masers from the literature. The methanol masers can be located upstream or downstream of the H{sub 2} outflows and some bright H{sub 2} spots or outflows are not associated with methanol masers, suggesting that methanol masers and H{sub 2} emission trace different excitation conditions.

  6. Source-plane reconstruction of the giant gravitational arc in A2667: A candidate Wolf-Rayet galaxy at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Covone, Giovanni; Jullo, Eric; Richard, Johan; Izzo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Very Large Telescope imaging and spectroscopic data of a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.0334 in the lensing cluster A2667. Using this high-resolution imaging, we present an updated lens model that allows us to fully understand the lensing geometry and reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc gives a unique opportunity to view the structure of a high-redshift disk galaxy. We find that the lensed galaxy of A2667 is a typical spiral galaxy with a morphology similar to the structure of its counterparts at higher redshift, z ∼ 2. The surface brightness of the reconstructed source galaxy in the z {sub 850} band reveals the central surface brightness I(0) = 20.28 ± 0.22 mag arcsec{sup –2} and a characteristic radius r{sub s} = 2.01 ± 0.16 kpc at redshift z ∼ 1. The morphological reconstruction in different bands shows obvious negative radial color gradients for this galaxy. Moreover, the redder central bulge tends to contain a metal-rich stellar population, rather than being heavily reddened by dust due to high and patchy obscuration. We analyze the VIMOS/integral field unit spectroscopic data and find that, in the given wavelength range (∼1800-3200 Å), the combined arc spectrum of the source galaxy is characterized by a strong continuum emission with strong UV absorption lines (Fe II and Mg II) and shows the features of a typical starburst Wolf-Rayet galaxy, NGC 5253. More specifically, we have measured the equivalent widths of Fe II and Mg II lines in the A2667 spectrum, and obtained similar values for the same wavelength interval of the NGC 5253 spectrum. Marginal evidence for [C III] 1909 emission at the edge of the grism range further confirms our expectation.

  7. Shipping container response to three severe railway accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.; Murty, S.S.; Witte, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The probability of damage and the potential resulting hazards are analyzed for a representative rail shipping container for three severe rail accident scenarios. The scenarios are: (1) the rupture of closure bolts and resulting opening of closure lid due to a severe impact, (2) the puncture of container by an impacting rail-car coupler, and (3) the yielding of container due to side impact on a rigid uneven surface. The analysis results indicate that scenario 2 is a physically unreasonable event while the probabilities of a significant loss of containment in scenarios 1 and 3 are extremely small. Before assessing the potential risk for the last two scenarios, the uncertainties in predicting complex phenomena for rare, high- consequence hazards needs to be addressed using a rigorous methodology.

  8. Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112{sup }2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yun; Liu, Wei; Chen, Rui; Tiam Tan, Swee; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang; Sun, Handong; Wei Sun, Xiao; Erdem, Talha; Zhao, Yuji; DenBaars, Steven P. E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org; Nakamura, Shuji; Volkan Demir, Hilmi E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org

    2014-04-07

    The characteristics of electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) emission from GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on (112{sup }2) semipolar plane and (0001) polar plane have been comparatively investigated. Through different bias-dependent shifting trends observed from the PL and time-resolved PL spectra (TRPL) for the two types of LEDs, the carrier dynamics within the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) region is systematically analyzed and the distinct field-dependent emission kinetics are revealed. Moreover, the polarization induced internal electric field has been deduced for each of the LEDs. The relatively stable emission behavior observed in the semipolar LED is attributed to the smaller polarization induced internal electric field. The study provides meaningful insight for the design of quantum well (QW) structures with high radiative recombination rates.

  9. Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator: Magnetothermoelectric transport on the (011) plane of SmB6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Hua; Dai, Jianhui; Xu, Zhu -an; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-25

    Motivated by the high sensitivity to Fermi surface topology and scattering mechanisms in magnetothermoelectric transport, we have measured the thermopower and Nernst effect on the (011) plane of the proposed topological Kondo insulator SmB6. These experiments, together with electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements, suggest that the (011) plane also harbors a metallic surface with an effective mass on the order of 10–102 m0. The surface and bulk conductances are well distinguished in these measurements and are categorized into metallic and nondegenerate semiconducting regimes, respectively. As a result, electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing scattering and also contribute to the heavy surface state.

  10. Inductively coupled plasmareactive ion etching of c- and a-plane AlGaN over the entire Al composition range: Effect of BCl{sub 3} pretreatment in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Amit P.; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Azizur Rahman, A.; Gokhale, Maheshwar R.; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2013-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP)reactive ion etching (RIE) patterning is a standard processing step for UV and optical photonic devices based on III-nitride materials. There is little research on ICP-RIE of high Al-content AlGaN alloys and for nonpolar nitride orientations. The authors present a comprehensive study of the ICP-RIE of c- and a-plane AlGaN in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasma over the entire Al composition range. The authors find that the etch rate decreases in general with increasing Al content, with different behavior for c- and a-plane AlGaN. They also study the effect of BCl{sub 3} deoxidizing plasma pretreatment. An ICP deoxidizing BCl{sub 3} plasma with the addition of argon is more efficient in removal of surface oxides from Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N than RIE alone. These experiments show that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N etching is affected by the higher binding energy of AlN and the higher affinity of oxygen to aluminum compared to gallium, with oxides on a-plane AlGaN more difficult to etch as compared to oxides on c-plane AlGaN, specifically for high Al composition materials. The authors achieve reasonably high etch rate (?350 nm/min) for high Al-content materials with a smooth surface morphology at a low DC bias of ??45 VDC.

  11. Yttria-stabilized zirconia buffered silicon to optimize in-plane electrical conductivity of [Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}]{sub 0.62}[CoO{sub 2}] thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, T.; Griesser, A.; Klein, O.; Fischer, M.; Schreck, M.; Karl, H.

    2014-05-05

    The monolithic integration of thermoelectric generators and magnetoresistive functionality on the basis of misfit cobaltate [Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}]{sub 0.62}[CoO{sub 2}] thin films into silicon technology is a prerequisite for their application in miniaturized electric circuits. Here, we report on [Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}]{sub 0.62}[CoO{sub 2}] thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-silicon with a thin epitaxial yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layer. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal that high quality c-axis oriented heteroepitaxial [Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}]{sub 0.62}[CoO{sub 2}] films with a 12-fold in-plane rotational symmetry can be grown, which exhibit remarkable lower electrical resistivity compared to those with random in-plane orientation. This result is explained by energetically preferred epitaxial growth directions of the pseudo hexagonal [CoO{sub 2}] sublayer in monoclinic [Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3}]{sub 0.62}[CoO{sub 2}] onto the cubic (001)-YSZ surface leading to a highly symmetric in-plane mutual orientation of the charge transporting CoO{sub 2} sublayer domains.

  12. Out-of-plane spin-orientation dependent magnetotransport properties in the anisotropic helimagnet CR1/3NbS2 [Spin-Orbit Coupling Induced Anisotropy in the Magnetotransport of the Chiral Helimagnet Cr1=3NbS2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bornstein, Alexander C.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Ghimire, Nirmal J.; Mandrus, David G.; Parker, David S.; Lee, Minhyea

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has been crucial for controlling magnetic anisotropy in magnetic multilayer films. It has been shown that electronic structure can be altered via interface SOC by varying the superlattice structure, resulting in spontaneous magnetization perpendicular or parallel to the plane. In lieu of magnetic thin films, we study the similarly anisotropic helimagnet Cr1/3NbS2 where the spin-polarization direction, controlled by the applied magnetic field, can modify the electronic structure. As a result, the direction of spin polarization can modulate the density of states and in turn affect the in-plane electrical conductivity. In Cr1/3NbS2, we foundmore » an enhancement of in-plane conductivity when the spin polarization is out-of-plane as compared to in-plane spin polarization. This is consistent with the increase in density of states near the Fermi energy at the same spin configuration, found from first-principles calculations. We also observe unusual field dependence of the Hall signal in the same temperature range. This is unlikely to originate from the noncollinear spin texture but rather further indicates strong dependence of electronic structure on spin orientation relative to the plane.« less

  13. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of the MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.

  14. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  15. PlaneCarbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    drive our cars or fly in an airplane or simply using electricity generated by coal fired power plants. These activities are increasing the levels of certain naturally occurring...

  16. 70007 X PLANE MODULE ASSY 127 -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AUTHORIZATION BY THIS UNIVERSITY IS PROHIBITED. .0005 .013 1 xxxx x 132 x.xxxx x.xxx SHEET DRAWN APPROVED CHECKED SCALE THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION D SIZE DWG NO OF...

  17. U & V PLANE MODULE ASSY 127 - S

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 . 2 5 . 5 2 . 8 0 1 . 7 2 2.54 R 34.4 2.46 R C L RAD OF GROOVE OF GROOVE RAD .25 .36 REF 1.24 C L 34.4 .32 C L OF FIBER UPPER COMB LH SHOWN, RH IS OPPOSITE - SEE SHT 2 FIBER...

  18. Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing SummaryORNL researchers have developed a pioneering power alternative to batteries using directional reactive power. Batteries are currently the primary option for...

  19. Precision Laser Annealing of Focal Plane Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, Daniel A.; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew Lea; Verley, Jason C.; Jenkins, Mark W.

    2015-09-01

    We present results from laser annealing experiments in Si using a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser. Exposure with laser at fluence values above the damage threshold of commercially available photodiodes results in electrical damage (as measured by an increase in photodiode dark current). We show that increasing the laser fluence to values in excess of the damage threshold can result in annealing of a damage site and a reduction in detector dark current by as much as 100x in some cases. A still further increase in fluence results in irreparable damage. Thus we demonstrate the presence of a laser annealing window over which performance of damaged detectors can be at least partially reconstituted. Moreover dark current reduction is observed over the entire operating range of the diode indicating that device performance has been improved for all values of reverse bias voltage. Additionally, we will present results of laser annealing in Si waveguides. By exposing a small (<10 um) length of a Si waveguide to an annealing laser pulse, the longitudinal phase of light acquired in propagating through the waveguide can be modified with high precision, <15 milliradian per laser pulse. Phase tuning by 180 degrees is exhibited with multiple exposures to one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at fluence values below the morphological damage threshold of an etched Si waveguide. No reduction in optical transmission at 1550 nm was found after 220 annealing laser shots. Modeling results for laser annealing in Si are also presented.

  20. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, P.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1998-07-14

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated. 20 figs.

  1. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Maclin S.; Brodeur, Pierre H.; Jackson, Theodore G.

    1998-01-01

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  2. Crystal orientation dependence of current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance of pseudo spin-valves with epitaxial Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) Heusler alloy layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiamin; Hono, K.; Li, Songtian; Furubayashi, T. Takahashi, Y. K.

    2014-06-21

    The magnetoresistive (MR) properties of Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) (CFGG) Heusler alloy-based current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance pseudo-spin-valves (PSVs) are investigated. The PSV films are epitaxially grown on a sapphire (112{sup ¯}0) substrate with an Ag or Cu spacer layer, and their magnetoresistive properties are compared with those of PSV grown on MgO(001) substrates. For substrates with an Ag spacer, the PSV with the (001)[110]{sub CFGG}//(001)[010]{sub Ag} interface grown on MgO(001) exhibits a higher MR output compared with the (110)[001]{sub CFGG}//(111)[11{sup ¯}0]{sub Ag} interface grown on sapphire (112{sup ¯}0). In contrast, a higher MR output is obtained using a Cu spacer with the (110)[001]{sub CFGG}//(111)[11{sup ¯}0]{sub Cu} interface. These results demonstrate that the MR outputs depend upon the crystal orientation at the interface, and that interfaces with a small misfit tend to exhibit a larger MR output. This indicates the influence of crystal orientation as well as lattice mismatch upon the interfacial spin scattering asymmetry.

  3. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: Coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2016-04-15

    Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surfacemore » as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single-and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. As a result, a multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.« less

  4. Tuning of in-plane optical anisotropy by inserting ultra-thin InAs layer at interfaces in (001)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J. L.; Cheng, S. Y.; Lai, Y. F.; Zheng, Q.

    2015-01-07

    The in-plane optical anisotropy (IPOA) in (001)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) with different well widths varying from 2?nm to 8?nm has been studied by reflectance difference spectroscopy. Ultra-thin InAs layers with thickness ranging from 0.5 monolayer (ML) to 1.5 ML have been inserted at GaAs/AlGaAs interfaces to tune the asymmetry in the QWs. It is demonstrated that the IPOA can be accurately tailored by the thickness of the inserted ultra-thin InAs layer at the interfaces. Strain-induced IPOA has also been extracted by using a stress apparatus. We find that the intensity of the strain-induced IPOA decreases with the thickness of the inserted InAs layer, while that of the interface-induced IPOA increases with the thickness of the InAs layer. Theoretical calculations based on 6 band k ? p theory have been carried out, and good agreements with experimental results are obtained. Our results demonstrate that, the IPOA of the QWs can be greatly and effectively tuned by inserting an ultra-thin InAs layer with different thicknesses at the interfaces of QWs, which does not significantly influence the transition energies and the transition probability of QWs.

  5. Electronic properties of quasi one-dimensional quantum wire models under equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, E.; Micu, C.; Racolta, D.

    2013-11-13

    In this paper one deals with the theoretical derivation of energy bands and of related wavefunctions characterizing quasi 1D semiconductor heterostructures, such as InAs quantum wire models. Such models get characterized this time by equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of dimensionless magnitude a under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields of magnitude B. We found that the orientations of the field can be selected by virtue of symmetry requirements. For this purpose one resorts to spin conservations, but alternative conditions providing sensible simplifications of the energy-band formula can be reasonably accounted for. Besides the wavenumber k relying on the 1D electron, one deals with the spin-like s=±1 factors in the front of the square root term of the energy. Having obtained the spinorial wavefunction, opens the way to the derivation of spin precession effects. For this purpose one resorts to the projections of the wavenumber operator on complementary spin states. Such projections are responsible for related displacements proceeding along the Ox-axis. This results in a 2D rotation matrix providing both the precession angle as well as the precession axis.

  6. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of themore » MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.« less

  7. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).

  8. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at anmore » altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).« less

  10. Is it a bird? Or a plane? It's a solar plane!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Impulse -- a solar-powered aircraft -- is pushing the boundaries of innovation. Learn how our SunShot Initiative takes a similar approach to advancing game-changing, clean energy breakthroughs.

  11. Elliptic flow: transition from out-of-plane to in-plane emissionin Au + Au collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkenburg, C.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Alexander, J.M.; Anderson, M.; Best, D.; Brady, F.P.; Case, T.; Caskey, W.; Cebra, D.; Chance, J.L.; Chung, P.; Cole, B.; Crowe, K.; Das, A.C.; Draper, J.E.; Elmaani, A.; Gilkes, M.L.; Gushue, S.; Heffner, M.; Hirsch, A.S.; Hjort, E.L.; Huo,L.; Justice, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.C.; Klay, J.; Krofcheck, D.; Lacey, R.A.; Lauret, J.; Law, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.M.; McGrath, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Odyniec, G.; Olson, D.L.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Porile, N.T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Romero, J.L.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schroeder, L.; Srivastava, B.; Stone, N.T.B.; Symons,T.J.M.; Whitfield, J.; Wienold, T.; Witt, R.; Wood, L.; Zhang, W.N.; E895Collaboration; Danielewicz, P.; Gossiaux, P.B.

    1999-07-31

    We have measured the proton elliptic flow excitation function for the Au+Au system spanning the beam energy range (2-8)A GeV. The excitation function shows a transition from negative to positive elliptic flow at a beam energy, Etr {approx} 4A GeV. Detailed comparisons with calculations from a relativistic Boltzmann equation are presented. The comparisons suggest a softening of the nuclear equation of state from a stiff form (K {approx} 380 MeV) at low beam energies (Ebeam < 2A GeV) to a softer form (K {approx} 210 MeV) at higher energies ( Ebeam < 4A GeV) where the calculated baryon density rho {approx} 4 rho 0.

  12. Method for fabrication of high temperature superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Ma, Beihai; Miller, Dean

    2009-07-14

    A layered article of manufacture and a method of manufacturing same is disclosed. A substrate has a biaxially textured MgO crystalline layer having the c-axes thereof inclined with respect to the plane of the substrate deposited thereon. A layer of one or more of YSZ or Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and then a layer of CeO.sub.2 is deposited on the MgO. A crystalline superconductor layer with the c-axes thereof normal to the plane of the substrate is deposited on the CeO.sub.2 layer. Deposition of the MgO layer on the substrate is by the inclined substrate deposition method developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Preferably, the MgO has the c-axes thereof inclined with respect to the normal to the substrate in the range of from about 10.degree. to about 40.degree. and YBCO superconductors are used.

  13. A HIGHLY INCLINED ORBIT FOR THE 110 DAY PERIOD M-DWARF COMPANION KOI-368.01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, George; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2013-10-20

    We report the detection of asymmetry in the transit light curves of the 110 day period companion to KOI-368, a rapidly rotating A-dwarf. The significant distortion in the transit light curve is attributed to spin-orbit misalignment between the transiting companion and the gravity darkened host star. Our analysis was based on 11 long cadence and 2 short cadence transits of KOI-368.01 from the Kepler mission, as well as stellar parameters determined from our follow-up spectroscopic observation. We measured the true obliquity between the orbit normal and the stellar rotation axis to be 69{sub -10}{sup +9o}. We also find a secondary eclipse event with depth 29 ± 3 ppm at phase 0.59, from which the temperature of the companion is constrained to 3060 ± 50 K, indicating that KOI-368.01 is a late M-dwarf. The eccentricity is also calculated from the eclipse to be 0.1429 ± 0.0007. The long period, high obliquity, and low eccentricity of KOI-368.01 allow us to limit a number of proposed theories for the misalignment of binary systems.

  14. A Search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Highly Inclined Events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu, P

    2011-12-30

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associatedmore » systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE < 1.74 x 10-7 GeV cm-2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1 x 1017eV < E < 1 x 1020 eV.« less

  15. In-plane orientation effects on the electronic structure stability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Abstract not provided. Authors: McCarty, Kevin F. ; Nie, Shu ; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid ; Luca Moreschini ; Aaron Bostwick ; Eli Rotenberg Publication Date: 2010-12-01 OSTI ...

  16. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attractedmore » great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.« less

  17. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.

  18. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, Ernst T. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

  19. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1985-11-21

    This disclosure describes a free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

  20. Event-plane decorrelation over pseudorapidity and its effect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2013-01-31 OSTI Identifier: 1101997 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 1;...

  1. Cross-plane thermal properties of transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muratore, C.; Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 ; Varshney, V.; Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio 45432 ; Gengler, J. J.; Spectral Energies LLC, Dayton, Ohio 45431 ; Hu, J. J.; Bultman, J. E.; University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469 ; Smith, T. M.; Shamberger, P. J.; Roy, A. K.; Voevodin, A. A.; Qiu, B.; Ruan, X.

    2013-02-25

    In this work, we explore the thermal properties of hexagonal transition metal dichalcogenide compounds with different average atomic masses but equivalent microstructures. Thermal conductivity values of sputtered thin films were compared to bulk crystals. The comparison revealed a >10 fold reduction in thin film thermal conductivity. Structural analysis of the films revealed a turbostratic structure with domain sizes on the order of 5-10 nm. Estimates of phonon scattering lengths at domain boundaries based on computationally derived group velocities were consistent with the observed film microstructure, and accounted for the reduction in thermal conductivity compared to values for bulk crystals.

  2. Nonlinear interaction of plane elastic waves (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 58 GEOSCIENCES; POROUS MATERIALS; WAVE PROPAGATION; ...

  3. OUT-OF-PLANE SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF SC COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTRODUCTION Steel-plate composite (SC) structures have been used to expedite ... Behavior of steel materials in the inelastic range up to fracture, iii. Interaction ...

  4. Plane wave method for elastic wave scattering by a heterogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This method is based upon the spatial Fourier transform of the seismic displacement-discontinuity (SDD) boundary conditions (also called linear slip interface conditions), and ...

  5. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  6. Determining Planes Along Which Earthquakes Occur- Method of Applicatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities Activities (1) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Areas (1) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Identification of MHF Fracture Planes and Flow Paths- a Correlation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (Dreesen, Et Al., 1987) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Well Log Data At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Dreesen, Et Al., 1987) Areas...

  8. Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology.

  9. Precision Laser Annealing of Focal Plane Arrays (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    No reduction in optical transmission at 1550 nm was found after 220 annealing laser shots. Modeling results for laser annealing in Si are also presented. less Authors: Bender, ...

  10. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1988-02-23

    Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped. 5 figs.