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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Schools - Lightning Causing Electric Equipment Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents the investigation of damage to a school's electronic controls and integrated circuit boards within their fire alarm and clock/bell system when there are lightning storms.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Did high-altitude EMP (electromagnetic pulse) cause the Hawaiian streetlight incident  

SciTech Connect

Studies of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects on civilian and military systems predict results ranging from severe destruction to no damage. Convincing analyses that support either extreme are rare. The Hawaiian streetlight incident associated with the Starfish nuclear burst is the most widely quoted observed damage. We review the streetlight characteristics and estimate the coupling between the Starfish EMP and a particular streetlight circuit identified as one of the few that failed. Evidence indicates that the damage was EMP-generated. The main contributing factors were the azimuthal angle of the circuit relative to the direction of EMP propagation, and the rapid rise of the EMP signal. The azimuthal angle provided coherent buildup of voltage as the EMP swept across the transmission line. The rapid rise allowed substantial excitation before the canceling effects of ground reflections limited the signals. Resulting voltages were at the threshold for causing the observed fuse damage and are consistent with this damage occurring in only some of the strings in the systems. 15 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Vittitoe, C.N.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Use of incident databases for cause and consequence analysis and national estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many incidents have occurred because industries have ignored past incidents or failed to learn lessons from the past. Incident databases provide an effective option for managing large amounts of information about the past incidents. Analysis of data stored in existing databases can lead to useful conclusions and reduction of chemical incidents and consequences of incidents. An incident database is a knowledge based system that can give an insight to the situation which led to an incident. Effective analysis of data from a database can help in development of information that can help reduce future incidents: cause of an incident, critical equipment, the type of chemical released, and the type of injury and victim. In this research, Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) database has been analyzed focusing on manufacturing events in Texas from 1993-2004. Between thirteen to sixteen states have participated in the HSEES incident reporting system and it does not include all the near miss incidents. Petroleum related incidents are also excluded from the HSEES system. Studies show that HSEES covers only 37% of all incidents in the US. This scaling ratio was used to estimate the total universe size.

Obidullah, A.S.M.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Natural completions - overcoming the damage caused by drilling and perforations  

SciTech Connect

Natural completions are suggested as a way to avoid or overcome damage to the formation caused by drilling and perforating. Formation damage may take the form of plugged passageways which remain closed because formation pressure does not exceed that of the plug material. Natural completions refer to using maximum differential pressure toward the wellbore, so that such obstructions in passageways can less easily exist. The method allows the formation pressure to backsurge perforation tunnels immediately following detonation of the guns, with the objectives of obtaining deep, clean perforations with the crushed zone and debris completely removed from the perforations. Procedures for natural completions are described and illustrated. A case history is given where the natural completion method restores productivity of a well.

Perry, G.; Smith, G.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Insured Lightning-Caused Property Damage in Three Western States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insurance claims resulting from lightning damage in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming were analyzed during the period from 1987 to 1993. Most claims were from personal accounts, while some were commercial.

Ronald L. Holle; Raúl E. López; Lowell J. Arnold; John Endres

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Incident  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a fire at an oilfield waste disposal facility (hereafter, disposal facility) near Rosharon, Texas, south of Houston. The fire occurred as two vacuum trucks were off-loading liquid wastes from oil and gas production wells. The trucks arrived at the disposal facility within a few minutes of each other and were parked approximately 16 feet apart. The two drivers got out of their trucks, left the engines running, and told the disposal facility employees that the trucks were to be drained and rinsed out. Both drivers then went to the drivers ’ shed to complete paperwork and to wait for the washout to be completed. (1) The fire was caused by the ignition of hydrocarbon vapor released during the off-loading of basic

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE TO WASTE PACKAGES CAUSED BY SEISMIC EVENTS DURING POST-CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents methodology and results of an analysis of damage due to seismic ground motion for waste packages emplaced in a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A series of three-dimensional rigid body kinematic simulations of waste packages, pallets, and drip shields subjected to seismic ground motions was performed. The simulations included strings of several waste packages and were used to characterize the number, location, and velocity of impacts that occur during seismic ground motion. Impacts were categorized as either waste package-to-waste package (WP-WP) or waste package-to-pallet (WP-P). In addition, a series of simulations was performed for WP-WP and WP-P impacts using a detailed representation of a single waste package. The detailed simulations were used to determine the amount of damage from individual impacts, and to form a damage catalog, indexed according to the type, angle, location and force/velocity of the impact. Finally, the results from the two analyses were combined to estimate the total damage to a waste package that may occur during an episode of seismic ground motion. This study addressed two waste package types, four levels of peak ground velocity (PGV), and 17 ground motions at each PGV. Selected aspects of waste package degradation, such as effective wall thickness and condition of the internals, were also considered. As expected, increasing the PGV level of the vibratory ground motion increases the damage to the waste packages. Results show that most of the damage is caused by WP-P impacts. TAD-bearing waste packages with intact internals are highly resistant to damage, even at a PGV of 4.07 m/s, which is the highest level analyzed.

Alves, S W; Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Gerhard, M; Buscheck, T A

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

9

Number of lightning discharges causing damage to lightning arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems  

SciTech Connect

Damage by lightning discharges to lightning arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of lightning arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a lightning current. The lightning currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a lightning discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the lightning current increases, which greatly reduces the number of lightning discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of lightning arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of lightning discharges per year which damage lightning arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.

Nikiforov, E. P. [Electric Power Scientific Research Institute (VNIIE), branch of OAO 'NTTs Elektroenergetika' (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Evaluating and Avoiding Heat Recovery Steam Generator Tube Damage Caused by Duct Burners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), supplemental firing in duct burners introduces the potential for serious HRSG tube failure and damage. Duct burners that are specified, designed, and operated properly can produce a number of significant benefits. This report will assist operators in accruing these benefits.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

130 The Journal of Ocean Technology Spindrift Copyright Journal of Ocean Technology 2012 Planning for oil spill response requires identifying key hazards that could cause an incident,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, GIS data, and personnel. It activated its Disaster Response Team to provide assistance to users and services through its disaster response web site. These included an online oil spill plume trajectory model Planning for oil spill response requires identifying key hazards that could cause an incident, an analysis

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

12

{beta}-carboline derivatives: Novel photosensitizers that intercalate into DNA to cause direct DNA damage in photodynamic therapy  

SciTech Connect

Novel 1,3,9-trisubstituted {beta}-carboline derivatives were found to exhibit DNA photocleavage properties under visible light irradiation in a cell-free system, which could be reduced by antioxidant vitamin E. Their photo-cytotoxicity to human tumor cell line HeLa was confirmed, in which apoptosis only contributed a small part to the cell death, and necrosis was the dominating outcome of HeLa cells in photodynamic therapy (PDT) using {beta}-carboline derivatives. Different from other clinical PDT drugs, {beta}-carboline derivatives were demonstrated to be able to distribute in the nucleus and intercalate into DNA, and consequently cause direct DNA damage by photochemical reaction products in PDT, which was proved by the distinct DNA tails in the comet assay and the considerable amount of DNA damaged cells quantified by flow cytometry. This mechanism could be the explanation for the delay of cell proliferation at DNA synthesis and mitosis.

Guan Huaji [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liu Xiaodong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Peng Wenlie [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Cao Rihui [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ma Yan [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Hongsheng [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xu Anlong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Therapeutic Functional Genes, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 135 Xin Gang Xi Road, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls36@zsu.edu.cn

2006-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Quantitative effect of combined chemotherapy and fractionated radiotherapy on the incidence of radiation-induced lung damage: A prospective clinical study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of radiological changes compatible with radiation-induced lung damage as determined by computed tomography (CT), and subsequently calculate the dose effect factors (DEF) for specified chemotherapeutic regimens. Radiation treatments were administered once daily, 5 days-per-week. Six clinical protocols were evaluated: ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and DTIC) followed by 35 Gy in 20 fractions; MOPP (nitrogen mustard, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) followed by 35 Gy in 20; MOPP/ABVD followed by 35 Gy in 20; CAV (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and vincristine) followed by 25 Gy in 10; and 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) concurrent with either 50-52 Gy in 20-21 or 30-36 Gy in 10-15 fractions. CT examinations were taken before and at predetermined intervals following radiotherapy. CT evidence for the development of radiation-induced damage was defined as an increase in lung density within the irradiated volume. The radiation dose to lung was calculated using a CT-based algorithm to account for tissue inhomogeneities. Different fractionation schedules were converted using two isoeffect models, the estimated single dose (ED) and the normalized total dose (NTD). The actuarial incidence of radiological pneumonitis was 71% for the ABVD, 49% for MOPP, 52% for MOPP/ABVD, 67% for CAV, 73% for 5-FU radical, and 58% for 5-FU palliative protocols. Depending on the isoeffect model selected and the method of analysis, the DEF was 1.11-1.14 for the ABVD, 0.96-0.97 for the MOPP, 0.96-1.02 for the MOPP/ABVD, 1.03-1.10 for the CAV, 0.74-0.79 for the 5-FU radical, and 0.94 for the 5-FU palliative protocols. DEF were measured by comparing the incidence of CT-observed lung damage in patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy to those receiving radiotherapy alone. The addition of ABVD or CAV appeared to reduce the tolerance of lung to radiation. 40 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Mah, K.; Van Dyk, J.; Braban, L.E.; Hao, Y.; Keane, T.J. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Poon, P.Y. (Univ. of British Columbia (Canada))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected. The unexpected volume effect in the rat might have consequences for treatment strategies in radiotherapy, implicating not only salivary glands but also other organs with a seemingly homogeneous distribution of radiosensitive elements, a situation wherein volume effects have not been anticipated up to now.

Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Cotteleer, Femmy [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The cardiotoxicity and myocyte damage caused by small molecule anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors is correlated with lack of target specificity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the new anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. However, the use of some of these results in cardiotoxicity. Large-scale profiling data recently made available for the binding of 7 of the 9 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases has allowed us to correlate kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with TKI-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The tyrosine kinase selectivity scores, but not the serine-threonine kinase scores, were highly correlated with the myocyte damaging effects of the TKIs. Additionally, we showed that damage to myocytes gave a good rank order correlation with clinical cardiotoxicity. Finally, strength of TKI binding to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) was highly correlated with myocyte damage, thus possibly implicating this kinase in contributing to TKI-induced cardiotoxicity.

Hasinoff, Brian B., E-mail: B_Hasinoff@UManitoba.c [Faculty of Pharmacy, Apotex Centre, University of Manitoba, 750 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0T5 (Canada)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

MERIS Full Resolution data for mapping level-of-damage caused by forest fires: the Valencia de Alcántara event in August 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper concerns an estimation of burned area and fire severity levels in the area affected by the Valencia de Alcántara forest fire, an event that took place near the border between Portugal and Spain in August 2003. 'Level-of-damage' and 'fire ...

F. González-Alonso; S. Merino-De-Miguel; A. Roldán-Zamarrón; S. García-Gigorro; J. M. Cuevas

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Arc Flash Issues in Transmission and Substation Environments: Modeling of Incident Thermal Energy of Long Arcs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arc flashes are a serious hazard that may put people in life-threatening situations and cause great damage to existing assets. The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) introduced requirements for electric utilities to perform arc flash hazard assessment of their facilities operating at and above 1000 V. Most methods available at this time for analyzing the incident thermal energy of arc flash were developed for low and medium-voltage industri...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

18

Blast vibrations and other potential causes of damage in homes near a large surface coal mine in Indiana. Report. of investigations/1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines studied seven homes near Evansville, IN, that had various degrees of damage that the owners attributed to vibrations from surface coal mine blasting. Researchers monitored vibration and airblast impacts, crack behavior before and after blasts, and dynamic structural responses to blasting and other sources. Level-loop surveys were performed to quantify possible settlement and subsidence. These results were combined with State and coal company measurements to determine if recent vibration characteristics, airblast propagations, or structural responses were typical of results found in historical studies that produced criteria for safe blasting and regulatory limits.

Siskind, D.E.; Crum, S.V.; Plis, M.N.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Comparative analysis of hydrogen fire and explosion incidents: quarterly report No. 2, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Additional hydrogen incident reports compiled during this quarter have increased the size of the computerized data base to a current total of 280 incidents. Listings of 165 incidents that have occurred in industrial and transportation operations since 1968 are presented here. Sample case histories in six different cause categories are provided together with a discussion of common safety problems contributing to these incidents. Some of these problems are inadequate detection measures for hydrogen leaks and fires and ineffective purging with inert gas. A preliminary comparison of losses due to natural gas fires/explosions and hydrogen incidents indicates that hydrogen explosions have been, on the average, four-to-six times as damaging as natural gas explosions. Some tentative explanations for this result are presented but await confirmation from a more sophisticated statistical analysis.

Zalosh, R.G.; Short, T.P.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Causes of Pipeline Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Types of defects that can cause pipeline failures...pipe body Mechanical damage Environmental causes Corrosion (external or internal) Hydrogen-stress cracking External stress corrosion cracking Internal sulfide-stress cracking Hydrogen blistering Fatigue Miscellaneous causes Secondary loads Weldments to pipe surface Wrinkle bends Internal combustion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Incident Handling Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Incident Handling Activities. Since 1989 the National Institute of Standards ...

22

Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As advances continue to be made in laser technology there is an increasing demand for materials that have high thresholds for laser-induced damage. Laser damage occurs when light is absorbed, creating defects in the crystal lattice. These defects can lead to the emission of atoms, ions and molecules from the sample. One specific field where laser damage is of serious concern is semiconductor lithography, which is beginning to use light at a wavelength of 157 nm. CaF2 is a candidate material for use in this new generation of lithography. In order to prevent unnecessary damage of optical components, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for laser damage and the factors that serve to enhance it. In this research, we study various aspects of laser interactions with CaF2, including impurity absorbance and various forms of damage caused by incident laser light. Ultraviolet (UV) laser light at 266 nm with both femtosecond (fs) and nanosecond (ns) pulse widths is used to induce ion and neutral particle emission from cleaved samples of CaF2. The resulting mass spectra show significant differences suggesting that different mechanisms for desorption occur following excitation using the different pulse durations. Following irradiation by ns pulses at 266 nm, multiple single-photon absorption from defect states is likely responsible for ion emission whereas the fs case is driven by a multi-photon absorption process. This idea is further supported by the measurements made of the transmission and reflection of fs laser pulses at 266 nm, the results of which reveal a non-linear absorption process in effect at high incident intensities. In addition, the kinetic energy profiles of desorbed Ca and K contaminant atoms are different indicating that a different mechanism is responsible for their emission as well. Overall, these results show that purity plays a key role in the desorption of atoms from CaF2 when using ns pulses. On the other hand, once the irradiance reaches high levels, like that of the fs case, significant desorption is possible due to multi-photon absorption by the intrinsic material.

Espana, A.; Joly, A.G.; Hess, W.P.; Dickinson, J.T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Incident Handling at BMDO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Adverse events such as natural disasters and power ... for damage by ensuring response actions are ... We must prioritize our responses to have the ...

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

Maheras, Anastasia Francis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Using Landsat to Identify Thunderstorm Damage in Agricultural Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During 12 and 18 August 1999, severe thunderstorms produced damaging winds and hail that caused an estimated $50 million in damage to agriculture in west-central Illinois. Landsat-7 imagery was obtained to determine the arealextent of damage and ...

Mace L. Bentley; Thomas L. Mote; Paporn Thebpanya

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Overview of Incidents Related to Live Working  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary of progress in the research on injury and fatality information among workers who perform energized (live) and/or de-energized work. While every effort is made in the industry to avoid incidents during work on energized and de-energized lines, they do occur, and there are lessons embedded within every incident from which the utility industry can benefit, if the incidents are thoroughly analyzed, root causes are identified, and corrective actions are taken. The primary objective of...

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

July 2013 Cyber Incident  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a recent cyber incident that occurred at the end of July and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of federal employee Personally Identifiable...

28

January 2013 Cyber Incident  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a recent cyber incident that occurred in mid-January 2013 which targeted the Headquarters' network and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of...

29

July 2013 Cyber Incident  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a cyber incident that occurred at the end of July and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of federal employee Personally Identifiable Information ...

30

Incidents of Security Concern  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NOT MEASUREMENT NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1210-2012 September 2012 DOE STANDARD Incidents of Security Concern U.S. Department of Energy AREA SANS Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1210-2012 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1210-2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS PARAGRAPH PAGE FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................ IV INCIDENTS OF SECURITY CONCERN......................................................................................1 1. SCOPE ....................................................................................................................................1 2. PURPOSE...............................................................................................................................1

31

Incident Investigation and Reporting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a model procedure for incident investigations based on an examination of programs at fourteen utilities believed to have good and effective procedures. The model was compiled by an expert who also drew on materials from other industries. An outline presents the basic procedure while the main text discusses in more detail alternate methods that may be preferable for a specific utility.

2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

32

Field Guide: Turbine Steam Path Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam path damage, particularly of blades, has long been recognized as a leading cause of steam turbine unavailability for large fossil fuel plants. Damage to steam path components by various mechanisms continues to result in significant economic impact domestically and internationally. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report TR-108943, Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice, Volumes 1 and 2, was prepared to compile the most recent knowledge about turbine steam path damage: identifying th...

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #472: June 4, 2007 The Causes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Another 25% of congestion is caused by traffic incidents, such as crashes and disabled vehicles. Other causes for congestion include bad weather, work zones, poor signal...

34

Cambium Damage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cambium Damage Cambium Damage Name: Jamie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If the bark from the lower part of trees (elm trees) is almost completly removed (in this case by animals)to a height of about 8ft, is it possible that the trees will still live? What can be done to help the trees? Replies: If the tree has been girdled, that is, the bark and cambium layer beneath it, has been removed completely around the tree, then it will die. If there is any portion of the bark remaining it may live, but if that remaining is small it probably will die fairly soon due to general decline. If the cambium layer has not been destroyed it may recover, but once the bark is stripped away it is most likely doomed because of the likelihood of invasion by fungi, insects, etc. A local forester or landscaper might be able to offer more help if they see it.

35

Sources of Data on Freezing Rain and Resulting Damages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Freezing rain produces major damages each year in the United States, and various affected groups continue to seek data on the incidence and losses produced by freezing rain. The various kinds of data available about freezing rain and related ...

Stanley A. Changnon; Tamara G. Creech

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation damage of materials has long been of fundamental interest, especially since the growth of laser technology. One such source of damage comes from UV laser light. Laser systems continue to move into shorter wavelength ranges, but unfortunately are limited by the damage threshold of their optical components. For example, semiconductor lithography is making its way into the 157nm range and requires a material that can not only transmit this light (air cannot), but also withstand the highly energetic photons present at this shorter wavelength. CaF2, an alkaline earth halide, is the chosen material for vacuum UV 157 nm excimer radiation. It can transmit light down to 120 nm and is relatively inexpensive. Although it is readily available through natural and synthetic sources, it is often times difficult to find in high purity. Impurities in the crystal can result in occupied states in the band gap that induce photon absorption [2] and ultimately lead to the degradation of the material. In order to predict how well CaF2 will perform under irradiation of short wavelength laser light, one must understand the mechanisms for laser-induced damage. Laser damage is often a two-step process: initial photons create new defects in the lattice and subsequent photons excite these defects. When laser light is incident on a solid surface there is an initial production of electron-hole (e-h) pairs, a heating of free electrons and a generation of local heating around optically absorbing centers [3]. Once this initial excitation converts to the driving energy for nuclear motion, the result is an ejection of atoms, ions and molecules from the surface, known as desorption or ablation [3]. Secondary processes further driving desorption are photoabsorption, successive excitations of self-trapped excitons (STE's) and defects, and ionization of neutrals by incident laser light [3]. The combination of laser-induced desorption and the alterations to the electronic and geometrical structure of the lattice result in defect formation. In the material CaF2 some of these defects take the form of F-centers, an electron trapped at a halogen vacancy [4], and H-centers, a F2- molecular ion at a single lattice site [5]. While the F-centers are stable, the H-centers are transient but can form into aggregates that are stable. There are many different configurations the defects can take based on the relative position of F and H centers in the lattice and this is extensively discussed in literature [1,4,5]. Once these defects have formed they cause further absorption of light, which ultimately induces particle emission and the production of even more defects. Various forms of laser-induced damage of CaF2 have been studied. For example, the mechanism for photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of F+ from CaF2 (111) is discussed in ref. 6 and the energy threshold, distribution and kinetics governing electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) is investigated in ref. 7. The desorption of neutral Ca and F atoms has also been explored [1]. In this paper I focus on the emission of ions and neutrals from CaF2 under the irradiation of pulsed laser light at 266 nm, in addition to a brief study of its purity and transmittance.

Espana, Aubrey L.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Ductile damage model with void coalescence  

SciTech Connect

A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. Underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. Implementation of the model in hydrocodes is discussed.

Tonks, D.L.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Chemical damage due to drilling operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The drilling of geothermal wells can result in near wellbore damage of both the injection wells and production wells if proper precautions are not taken. Very little specific information on the chemical causes for drilling damage that can directly be applied to the drilling of a geothermal well in a given situation is available in the literature. As part of the present work, the sparse literature references related to the chemical aspects of drilling damage are reviewed. The various sources of chemically induced drilling damages that are related to drilling operations are summarized. Various means of minimizing these chemical damages during and after the drilling of a geothermal well are suggested also.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

1982-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

Excitation optimization for damage detection  

SciTech Connect

A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Priest Rapids Dam flow curtailment: Incident report, January 7, 1961  

SciTech Connect

This incident report deals with mechanical damage (caused by falling rocks) to the power line supplying station power, Priest Rapids Dam lost all generating flow at 4:23 p.m., cutting discharge from 71,700 cfs to about 12,000 cfs. Within five minutes, spillway gates were opened, bringing river flow back to greater than 36,000 cfs in about 10 minutes. The flow at 181-B dropped from 72,000 cfs to a minimum of 56,000 cfs at about 5:25 p.m. Priest Rapids generators returned to service at 4:45 p.m., the indicated flow at the gauge reaching 71,700 cfs again at about 8:00 p.m. River temperatures at the gauge increased 0.5 C following the interruption, but not at 181-B. Prompt HAPO notification of the flow reduction as provided for in the agreement between the PUD and the AEC was not made on this occasion; the first notice came from the 251 Substation.

Kramer, H.A.; Corley, J.P.

1961-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality  

SciTech Connect

This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Ron, E. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Thompson, D.E. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) George Washington Univ., Rockville, MD (United States) Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan)); Soda, Midori (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

RFI - Comments on Computer Security Incident Coordination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 21:49 To: incidentcoordination@nist.gov Subject: Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response ...

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

Training reduces stuck pipe costs and incidents  

SciTech Connect

Properly administered initial and refresher stuck pipe training courses have dramatically reduced the cost and number of stuck pipe incidents for many companies worldwide. These training programs have improved operator and contractor crew awareness of stuck pipe risks and fostered a team commitment in averting such incidents. The success is evident in the achievements of the companies sponsoring such training. Preventing and minimizing stuck pipe is the most significant benefit of stuck pipe training, but crews also benefit from becoming more knowledgeable about the drilling program and equipment operation. The paper discusses stuck pipe costs, stuck pipe training, prevention of stuck pipes, well bore stability, geopressured formation, reactive formation, reactive formations, unconsolidated formations, mobile formations, fractured and faulted formations, differential sticking, 8 other causes of stuck pipe, and freeing stuck pipe.

Watson, B. (Global Marine Drilling Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Smith, R. (Randy Smith Drilling School, Lafayette, LA (United States))

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

45

Damage tracker: a cloud and mobile system for collecting damage information after natural disasters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tornadoes and other natural disasters frequently cause large amounts of damage to buildings and infrastructure. An important part of learning from these events is assessing key damage-indicators within the affected area. Researchers can analyze these ... Keywords: cloud, geo-tagging, natural disaster, tornado

Chris Hodapp, Matt Robbins, Jeff Gray, Andrew Graettinger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System is a database used to collect and analyze DOE and DOE contractor reports of injuries, illnesses, and other accidents that occur during DOE...

47

A SAS-macro for estimation of the cumulative incidence using Poisson regression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In survival analyses, we often estimate the hazard rate of a specific cause. Sometimes the main focus is not the hazard rates but the cumulative incidences, i.e., the probability of having failed from a specific cause prior to a given time. The cumulative ... Keywords: Competing risks, Cox regression, Cumulative incidence, Hazard rate, Poisson regression, Survival analysis

Berit Lindum Waltoft

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and others who require it. This report summarizes the rise in frequency of cyber attacks, describes the perpetrators, and identifies the means of attack. This type of analysis, when used in conjunction with vulnerability analyses, can be used to support a proactive approach to prevent cyber attacks. CSSC will use this document to evolve a standardized approach to incident reporting and analysis. This document will be updated as needed to record additional event analyses and insights regarding incident reporting. This report represents 120 cyber security incidents documented in a number of sources, including: the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) Industrial Security Incident Database, the 2003 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey, the KEMA, Inc., Database, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Energy Incident Database, the INL Cyber Incident Database, and other open-source data. The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) database was also interrogated but, interestingly, failed to yield any cyber attack incidents. The results of this evaluation indicate that historical evidence provides insight into control system related incidents or failures; however, that the limited available information provides little support to future risk estimates. The documented case history shows that activity has increased significantly since 1988. The majority of incidents come from the Internet by way of opportunistic viruses, Trojans, and worms, but a surprisingly large number are directed acts of sabotage. A substantial number of confirmed, unconfirmed, and potential events that directly or potentially impact control systems worldwide are also identified. Twelve selected cyber incidents are presented at the end of this report as examples of the documented case studies (see Appendix B).

Robert J. Turk

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Schools - CPU Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents the investigation of computers in a school computer lab that were being damaged.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Corrosion and Hydrogen Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Advanced Materials and Reservoir Engineering for Extreme Oil & Gas Environments: Corrosion and Hydrogen Damage Sponsored by: TMS ...

51

MIDAS : minor incident decision analysis software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MIDAS is the minor incident decision analysis software that acts as an advisory tool for plant decision makers and operators to analyze the available decision alternatives for resolving minor incidents. The minor incidents ...

Horng, Tze-Chieh, 1964-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

LANL responds to radiological incident  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LANL responds to radiological incident LANL responds to radiological incident LANL responds to radiological incident Multiple tests indicate no health risks to public or employees. August 27, 2012 Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center(LANSCE). Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The contamination poses no danger to the public. The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), a multidisciplinary accelerator facility used for both civilian and national security research. The Laboratory has determined that about a dozen people

53

Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FEMA 358, 0510 Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program U.S. Department of Energy TRANSPORTATION AND INCIDENT RESPONSE Q&A About Incident Response Q...

54

Cyber Security Incidents, Information Technology Division, ITD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reporting Computing Security Incidents Reporting Computing Security Incidents Incident Reporting Hotline: 631-344-8484 Security Incidents A computer security incident can range from a simple virus to the disclosure of sensitive information. Incidents can be minor, important, or significant. Incidents that must be reported include computer or network related activity, internal or external to the Laboratory, that may impact the Laboratory's mission. Examples of such activities include: the possibility of: loss of data; denial of services; compromise of computer security; unauthorized access to data that the Laboratory is required to control by law, regulation, or DOE orders; investigative activity by legal, law enforcement, bureaucratic, or political authorities; or a public relations embarrassment.

55

Ductile damage modeling based on void coalescence and percolation theories  

SciTech Connect

A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included, and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. The underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. The model is intended for hydrocode based computer simulation. An experimental program is underway to validate the model.

Tonks, D.L.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effect of Emergency Argon on FCF Operational Incidents  

SciTech Connect

The following report presents analyses of operational incidents which are considered in the safety analysis of the FCF argon cell and the effect that the operability of the emergency argon system has on the course of these incidents. The purpose of this study is to determine if the emergency argon system makes a significant difference in ameliorating the course of these incidents. Six incidents were considered. The following three incidents were analyzed. These are: 1. Cooling failing on 2. Vacuum Pump Failing on 3. Argon Supplies Failing on. In the remaining three incidents, the emergency argon supply would have no effect on the course of these transients since it would not come on during these incidents. The transients are 1. Loss of Cooling 2. Loss of power (Differs from above by startup delay till the Diesel Generators come on.) 3. Cell rupture due to an earthquake or other cause. The analyses of the first three incidents are reported on in the next three sections. This report is issued realizing the control parameters used may not be optimum, and additional modeling must be done to model the inertia of refrigeration system, but the major conclusion concerning the need for the emergency argon system is still valid. The timing of some events may change with a more accurate model but the differences between the transients with and without emergency argon will remain the same. Some of the parameters assumed in the analyses are Makeup argon supply, 18 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -6 iwg., shuts off when pressure is = -3.1 iwg. 170,000 ft3 supply. Min 1/7th always available, can be cross connected to HFEF argon supply dewar. Emergency argon supply, 900 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -8 iwg. shuts off when pressure is =-4 iwg. reservoir 220 ft3, refilled when tank farm pressure reduces to 1050 psi which is about 110 ft3.

Charles Solbrig

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Guest Editorial: Laser Damage  

SciTech Connect

Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mühlig and S. Bublitz; B. Cho, E. Danielewicz, and J. Rudisill; W. Palm et al; and J. Lu et al.). Statistical treatment of measurements of the laser-damage threshold (J. Arenberg) and the relationship to damage mechanisms (F. Wagner et al.) represent the large subfield of laser-damage measurements. Various aspects of multilayer coating and thin-film characterization are considered in papers by B. Cho, J. Rudisill, and E. Danielewicz (spectral shift in multilayer mirrors) and R. Weber et al. (novel approach to damage studies based on third-harmonic generation microscopy). Of special interest for readers is the paper by C. Stolz that summarizes the results of four “thin-film damage competitions” organized as a part of the Laser Damage Symposium. Another paper is devoted to thermal annealing of damage precursors (N. Shen et al.). Finally, the influence of nano-size contamination on initiation of laser damage by ultrashort pulses is considered in paper of V. Komolov et al.

Vitaly Gruzdev, Michelle D. Shinn

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation is exposed to a series of fluids and operations that can reduce its productive capacity. Any process that causes a loss in the productivity of an oil-, gas-, or water-saturated formation has a damaging effect on the reservoir. These damage mechanisms predominantly fall into three major classifications: mechanical, chemical, and biological. Underbalanced drilling operations involve drilling a portion of the wellbore at fluid pressures less than that of the target formation. This technology has been used to prevent or minimize problems associated with invasive formation damage, which often greatly reduces the productivity of oil and gas reservoirs, mainly in openhole horizontal-well applications. Underbalanced drilling is not a solution for all formation-damage problems. Damage caused by poorly designed and/or executed underbalanced drilling programs can equal or exceed that which may occur with a well-designed conventional overbalanced drilling program. Four techniques are currently available to achieve underbalanced conditions while drilling. These include using lightweight drilling fluids, injecting gas down the drillpipe, injecting gas into a parasite string, and using foam. This study provides an analysis of a number of potential damage mechanisms present when drilling underbalanced. It describes each one and its influence on the productivity of a well. Additionally it presents a general description of the different techniques that can be applied to carry out successful, cost-effective UBD operations, and discusses how these techniques may be used to reduce or eliminate formation damage.

Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Damage Survey of Hurricane Andrew and Its Relationship to the Eyewall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A damage map documenting Hurricane Andrew's destructive land fall over southern Florida is presented. Vectors that represent the direction of winds causing damage to trees and structures are shown along with an F-scale rating in order to assess ...

Roger M. Wakimoto; Peter G. Black

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Lightning Casualties and Damages in the United States from 1959 to 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning-caused fatalities, injuries, and damage reports for the United States are listed in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration publication Storm Data. Previously published studies of lightning casualties and damages in the ...

E. Brian Curran; Ronald L. Holle; Raúl E. López

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Quantitative study of oilfield casing damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carrying on the analysis to the cause of casing failure based on engineering factors and geological factors, and choosing the improved analytic hierarchy process to have a quantitative study for oilfield of the casing failure, improved the influence ... Keywords: analytical hierarchy process (AHP), casing damage, quantitative analysis

Deng Rui; Zhang Liang; Guo Haimin

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Cyber Incident Information | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Services » Guidance » Privacy » Cyber Incident Information Services » Guidance » Privacy » Cyber Incident Information Cyber Incident Information July 2013 Cyber Incident The Department of Energy has confirmed a cyber incident that occurred at the end of July and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of federal employee Personally Identifiable Information (PII). January 2013 Cyber Incident The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a cyber incident that occurred in mid-January 2013 which targeted the Headquarters' network and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of employee and contractor Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Tips to Monitor Your Identity Here is a suggested list of tips to monitor and protect yourself. Assistive Technology Forms Guidance Capital Planning Information Collection Management

64

Definition: Angle of incidence | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Angle of incidence Angle of incidence Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Angle of incidence In reference to solar energy systems: the angle a ray of sun makes with a line perpendicular to a surface; for example, a surface directly facing the sun has an angle of incidence of zero, and a surface parallel to the sun (such as a sunrise striking a horizontal rooftop) has an angle of incidence of 90°. Sunlight with an incident angle of 90° tends to be absorbed, while lower angles tend to be reflected.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Angle of incidence is a measure of deviation of something from "straight on", for example: in the approach of a ray to a surface, or the angle at which the wing or horizontal tail of an airplane is installed on the fuselage, measured relative to the axis of the fuselage.

65

JC3 Incident Reporting | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Management » JC3 Incident Reporting Management » JC3 Incident Reporting JC3 Incident Reporting JC3 Incident Reporting Procedures U.S. Department of Energy Facilities/Contractors Only DOE O 205.1-B Chg 2 4.(c)(13) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CYBER SECURITY PROGRAM requires a defined "process for incident reporting that requires all cyber security incidents involving information or information systems, including privacy breaches, under DOE or DOE contractor control must be identified, mitigated, categorized, and reported to the Joint Cybersecurity Coordination Center (JC3) in accordance with JC3 procedures and guidance." This document outlines the referenced JC3 reporting procedures and guidance to facilitate your reporting and CIRC's response activity. CIRC should be informed of all reportable cyber security incidents as specified below.

66

Large Waves In The Gulf Of Mexico Caused By Hurricane Ivan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large waves generated by Hurricane Ivan caused extensive damage to the offshore oil industry and to the coastal areas on the Gulf of Mexico. This damage and the wave conditions have received considerable media coverage. There has been ...

Vijay G. Panchang; Dongcheng Li

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Control of Damage to Museum Objects by Optical Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control of Damage to Museum Objects by Optical Radiation Control of Damage to Museum Objects by Optical Radiation Speaker(s): Eliyahu Ne'eman Date: June 7, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 This Presentation is based on CIE Publication 157:2004 which has been recently published. It is the report of CIE Technical Committee 3-22 with the same title. Leading experts on Museum lighting from Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand and the USA, took part in writing this document. The two processes by which exposure to light may cause damage are photochemical action and radiant heating effect. These processes are examined and the characteristics of damage caused to museum objects are described. Recent research, which has aimed to relate the extent of exposure of materials to measures of damage

68

Primary Radiation Damage Formation  

SciTech Connect

The physical processes that give rise to changes in the microstructure, and the physical and mechanical properties of materials exposed to energetic particles are initiated by essentially elastic collisions between atoms in what has been called an atomic displacement cascade. The formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism are described to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the primary variables cascade energy and irradiation temperature are discussed, along with a range of secondary factors that can influence damage formation.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Significant factors in rail freight accidents: A statistical analysis of predictive and severity indices in the FRA accident/incident data base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Federal Railroad Association maintains a file of carrier-reported accidents and incidents that meet threshold criteria for damage cost and/or casualties. Using a five year period from this data base, an investigation was conducted into the relationship between quantifiable risk factors and accident frequency and severity. Specific objectives were to identify key variables in accidents, formulate a model to predict future accidents, and assess the relative importance of these variables from the perspective of routing and shipping decision making. The temporal factors YEAR and MONTH were found to be significant predictors of risk; accident severity was greatest for accidents caused by track and roadbed defects. Train speed was an indicator of accident severity; track class and training tonnage were inversely proportional to accident severity. Investigation of the data base is continuing, with a final report expected by late summer. 15 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

Lee, Tze-San; Saricks, C.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

BDS Thin Film UV Antireflection Laser Damage Competition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UV antireflection coatings are a challenging coating for high power laser applications as exemplified by the use of uncoated Brewster's windows in laser cavities. In order to understand the current laser resistance of UV AR coatings in the industrial and university sectors, a double blind laser damage competition was performed. The coatings have a maximum reflectance of 0.5% at 355 nm at normal incidence. Damage testing will be performed using the raster scan method with a 7.5 ns pulse length on a single testing facility to facilitate direct comparisons. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes and coating materials will also be shared.

Stolz, C J

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Heavy ion radiation damage simulations for CMOS image sensors Henok Mebrahtua  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heavy ion radiation damage simulations for CMOS image sensors Henok Mebrahtua , Wei Gaoa , Paul J, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT Damage in CMOS image sensors caused by heavy ions and range of ions in matter) simulation results of heavy ion radiation damage to CMOS image sensors

Hornsey, Richard

72

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

73

Dynamic detection of nuclear reactor core incident  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surveillance, safety and security of evolving systems are a challenge to prevent accident. The dynamic detection of a hypothetical and theoretical blockage incident in the Phenix nuclear reactor is investigated. Such an incident is characterized by abnormal ... Keywords: Contrast, Dynamic detection of perturbations, Evolving system, Fast-neutron reactor, Neighbourhood, Noise

Laurent Hartert; Danielle Nuzillard; Jean-Philippe Jeannot

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Incident detection using the Standard Normal Deviate model and travel time information from probe vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One application of travel time information explored in this thesis is freeway incident detection. It is vital to develop reliable methods for automatically detecting incidents to facilitate the quick response and removal of incidents before they cause breakdowns in traffic flow. The use of real-time travel time data to monitor freeway conditions has the advantages over conventional loop detectors of taking into account the dynamic, longitudinal nature of traffic flow and requiring data from only a portion of the traffic stream. This study employed the Standard Normal Deviate (SND) Model to test the feasibility of using travel time data to detect lane blocking incidents. The fundamental concept of the SND Model was based on the comparison of real-time travel time data to historical travel time data for given freeway segments during specified times. The travel time and incident reports used were collected through the Real-Time Traffic Information System (RTTIS) in the north freeway corridor of Houston, Texas using probe vehicles equipped with cellular telephones. The data were compiled on 39 freeway links from October 1991 through August 1992 on weekdays during morning and afternoon data collection periods. The results of incident detection tests, applying the SND Model to incident and travel time me data from the North Freeway, indicated high successful incident detection rates. However, high false alarm rates also resulted from the SND Model test applications. An optimum SND value of 2.0 was observed for the North Freeway test data. At this value the SND tests produced successful incident detection rates of 70 percent and higher during both the morning and afternoon periods. False alarm rates were also 70 percent. The best results were achieved on those freeway sections where the most incident and travel time data had been collected. The overall results of the incident detection tests on the North Freeway demonstrated that the SND Model was a feasible incident detection algorithm, but required an extensive historical travel time data base.

Mountain, Christopher Eugene

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Precipitation and Damaging Floods: Trends in the United States, 1932–97  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The poor relationship between what climatologists, hydrologists, and other physical scientists call floods, and those floods that actually cause damage to life or property, has limited what can be reliably said about the causes of observed trends ...

Roger A. Pielke Jr.; Mary W. Downton

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

ORISE: Incident Command System (ICS) Training  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incident Command System (ICS) Training Incident Command System (ICS) Training The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) supports the emergency response community by promoting interagency cooperation and developing training that enhances response efforts. An example of such support involves the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Emergency Response and its compliance efforts toward the Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 (HSPD-5), which includes the implementation of National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and the National Response Framework (NRF). The ICS, which has been recognized for its training curricula that has exceeded national standards, is an on-scene, all-hazard incident management concept that was originally designed for emergency management agencies, but

77

Chapter_11_Incidents_of_Security_Concern  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Incidents of Security Concern This chapter covers the DOE HQ implementation of DOE Order 470.4B, Safeguards and Security Program, Attachment 5, Incidents of Security Concern. HS-91 manages the HQ Security Incidents Program. Incidents of Security Concern (henceforth referred to as Incidents) are actions, inactions, or events that are believed to: * Pose threats to national security interests and/or DOE assets * Create potentially serious or dangerous security situations * Significantly affect the safeguards and security program's capability to protect DOE safeguards and security interests * Indicate failure to adhere to security procedures * Reveal that the system is not functioning properly, by identifying and/or mitigating potential threats (e.g., detecting suspicious activity, hostile acts, etc.).

78

Low permeability filter cake limits damage from high-pH drilling fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changing the particle size distribution in high-pH drilling fluids and perforating underbalanced helped protect sensitive reservoirs from formation damage. In several wells drilled in a carboniferous reservoir system in China, invasion of the high-pH filtrate from the drilling and workover fluids seriously damaged the formation. An in-depth reservoir study determined the cause of the formation damage and led to the development of new field procedures to prevent damage in future wells. Details are described.

Wu, Z.; Hu, Y. [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong (China)

1997-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Denise Munoz 1 , Albert Davalos 1 , Francis Rodier 1 , Misako Kawahara 1 , Judith Campisi 1,2 and Steven Yannone 1,3 1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 84-171, Berkeley CA 94720; 2 Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945; 3 Corresponding author Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytologically detectable as large nuclear foci that contain phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), the adaptor protein 53BP1, and several other proteins that participate in the sensing and processing of DNA damage (DNA damage foci). In normal human cells, moderately high IR (0.5-1 Gy) doses cause the rapid appearance of these foci (acute DNA damage foci), which gradually disappear

80

Market Damages and the Economic Waste Fallacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robert E. Scott, The Case for Market Damages; Revisiting thethey pay less than full market damages but when buyerssellers recover full market damages. As a consequence,

Scott, Robert E.; Schwartz, Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Links between persistent DNA damage, genome instability, and aging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Links between persistent DNA damage, genome instability, and aging Links between persistent DNA damage, genome instability, and aging William Dynan Medical College of Georgia Abstract There is considerable overlap between cellular and molecular changes that occur in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and those that occur during aging. Both processes are characterized by accumulation of persistent DNA damage ("wear and tear" on the genome), accumulation of protein and lipid oxidation products, loss of regenerative capacity at the cellular and tissue level, and increased incidence of cancer. These observations support a hypothesis that exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation accelerates normal, aging-related tissue changes. We have investigated this hypothesis using a genetically tractable model organism, the Japanese medaka fish. The medaka is a whole-animal vertebrate

82

Definition: Cyber Security Incident | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Security Incident Security Incident Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Cyber Security Incident Any malicious act or suspicious event that: Compromises, or was an attempt to compromise, the Electronic Security Perimeter or Physical Security Perimeter of a Critical Cyber Asset, or, Disrupts, or was an attempt to disrupt, the operation of a Critical Cyber Asset.[1] Related Terms Electronic Security Perimeter References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Cyber_Security_Incident&oldid=480296" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version

83

JC3 Incident Reporting | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy FacilitiesContractors Only DOE O 205.1-B Chg 2 4.(c)(13) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CYBER SECURITY PROGRAM requires a defined "process for incident reporting that requires all...

84

Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FEMA 358, 05/10 FEMA 358, 05/10 Q A RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program U.S. Department of Energy TRANSPORTATION AND INCIDENT RESPONSE Q&A About Incident Response Q Q Law Enforcement ____________________________________ Fire ___________________________________________ Medical ____________________________________________ State Radiological Assistance ___________________________ Local Government Official ______________________________ Local Emergency Management Agency ___________________ State Emergency Management Agency ___________________ HAZMAT Team ______________________________________ Water Pollution Control ________________________________ CHEMTEL (Toll-free US & Canada) 1-800-255-3924 _________ CHEMTREC (Toll-free US & Canada) 1-800-424-9300 _______

85

AMI Cyber Security Incident Response Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is intended to be used by system and asset owners to assist in the preparation and response to AMI cyber security incidents. This document was developed by conducting interviews with EPRI members, AMI asset owners, and vendors, regarding practices involved in responding to AMI cyber security incidents and mapping the responses to requirements put forth by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Open Smart Grid (Open-SG) Working ...

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Minimizing formation damage during gravel pack operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for minimizing formation damage caused by intrusive fluids prior to a gravel packing operation in loosely consolidated formations penetrated by at least one well. The method comprises: filling the casing of the well with an underbalanced completion fluid; placing within the well a removable packer capable of isolating the space between the casing and the formation from the downhole well pressure; setting through the packer a first tubing suitable for perforating and stabilizing the flow of fluids into the well; perforating the casing; and introducing a blocking agent into the formation via the perforations which agent upon solidification is sufficient to minimize formation damage by avoiding the introduction of formation fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

87

Parens Patriae Litigation to Redress Societal Damages from the BP Oil Spill: The Latest Stage in the Evolution of Crimtorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil slick polluted "the precious wetlands, bays, and estuaries of Louisiana'sLouisiana seeks compensation for damages caused by the oil spill to its "marshes, wetlands,

Rustad, Michael L.; Koenig, Thomas H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Identifying structural damage from images  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photographs of damaged buildings in Bam, Iran. . . . . . . .patches of Bam, Iran. . . . . . . . . Photo pictures ofBitemporal images of an urban region of Bam, Iran. . . . .

Chen, ZhiQiang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Corrosion Damage Models and Sustainability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Corrosion Damage Models and Sustainability ... Abstract Scope, The ability of industry to make sustainable choices in the future that optimize ...

90

Rapid Damage Assessment Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Imagery: Tools and Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to growing population, as well as human migration to disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid damage assessment and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques and tools are important in disaster damage assessment and reporting activities. In this review, we will look into the state of the art techniques in damage assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Graesser, Jordan B [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accident Recordkeeping and Reporting Accident Recordkeeping and Reporting Accident/Incident Recordkeeping and Reporting CAIRS logo Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System CAIRS Database The Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System is a database used to collect and analyze DOE and DOE contractor reports of injuries, illnesses, and other accidents that occur during DOE operations. Injury and Illness Dashboard The Dashboard provides an alternate interface to CAIRS information. The initial release of the Dashboard allows analysis of composite DOE-wide information and summary information by Program Office, and site. Additional data feature are under development. CAIRS Registration Form CAIRS is a Government computer system and, as such, has security requirements that must be followed. Access to the

92

Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Southeast Iran  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background and Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a well-known consequence of chronic liver disease (CLD). The aim of this study was to extract the HCC incidence rate in the province of Kerman, located in southern part of Iran, and compare the data with other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All medical records related to HCC were collected through hospitals or outpatient services in public or private centers. The records of all oncology, radiotherapy, and pathology centers in Kerman province were actively searched between 1999 and 2006. The annual incidence of HCC around the country was calculated, using the

A Rticle; Sodaif Darvish Moghaddam; Ali-akbar Haghdoost; Seyed Hamed Hoseini; Rashid Ramazani; Mohammad Rezazadehkermani

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Conservation of Severely Damaged Paper Using Passivation Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work examined the use of passivation polymers in the conservation of severely damaged paper. It specifically investigated the use of this functional polymer treatment to address the issues of damage to paper caused by waterlogging, mold, and internal acidity. Several experiments were designed and conducted to examine the effects of the polymers in the conservation of papers compromised by these conditions. Paper artifacts from the Bonfire Memorabilia Collection were selected and conserved using treatment protocols that included the use of the passivation polymers. The conservation of some of the damaged papers from this culturally important site demonstrated the effectiveness of the polymer treatment in real-world conservation situations. This dissertation established that the use of passivation polymers adds strength and stability to severely damaged paper.

Eilert, Eloise

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

First results from electron-photon damage equivalence studies on a generic ethylene-propylene rubber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a simulator adequacy assessment program, the relative effectiveness of electrons and photons to produce damage in a generic ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) has been investigated. The investigation was limited in extent in that a single EPR material, in three thickness, was exposed to Cobalt-60 photons and three electron beam energies. Basing material damage on changes in the EPR mechanical properties elongation and tensile strength, we observed that EPR damage was a smoothly varying function of absorbed energy and independent of irradiating particle type. EPR damage tracked equally well as a function of both incident particle energy and material front surface dose. Based on these preliminary data, we tentatively concluded that a correlation between particle, particle energy, and material damage (as measured by changes in material elongation and/or tensile strength) has been demonstrated. 14 figs.

Buckalew, W.H.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

96

Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage  

SciTech Connect

A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

Incident and Disaster Tolerance/Response Policy COEIDTR01  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incident and Disaster Tolerance/Response Policy COE­IDTR­01 1.0 Purpose To provide College faculty or disaster within a College-operated network closet. 2.0 Scope 2.1 Incident Response: Incident response for developing and implementing Disaster Tolerance/Recovery plans. 3.0 Policy 3.1 Incident Response: Any desktop

Demirel, Melik C.

98

Root Causes of Circumferential Cracking in Waterwalls of Supercritical Units: State-of-Knowledge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circumferential cracking on the waterwalls has again become a significant problem for many supercritical units, especially with the implementation of low-NOx systems. Damage typically consists of multiple, parallel cracks perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tube and to the direction of maximum tensile stress. There can be numerous potential causes, and the choice of the appropriate control strategy will depend on identifying the underlying cause(s) for a particular outbreak of damage. This repo...

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

99

NUCLEAR INCIDENT CAPABILITIES, KNOWLEDGE & ENABLER LEVERAGING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The detonation of a 10 Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) is a serious scenario that the United States must be prepared to address. The likelihood of a single nuclear bomb exploding in a single city is greater today than at the height of the Cold War. Layered defenses against domestic nuclear terrorism indicate that our government continues to view the threat as credible. The risk of such an event is further evidenced by terrorists desire to acquire nuclear weapons. The act of nuclear terrorism, particularly an act directed against a large population center in the United States, will overwhelm the capabilities of many local and state governments to respond, and will seriously challenge existing federal response capabilities. A 10 Kiloton IND detonation would cause total infrastructure damage in a 3-mile radius and levels of radiation spanning out 3,000 square miles. In a densely populated urban area, the anticipated casualties would be in excess of several hundred thousand. Although there would be enormous loss of life, housing and infrastructure, an IND detonation is a recoverable event. We can reduce the risk of these high-consequence, nontraditional threats by enhancing our nuclear detection architecture and establishing well planned and rehearsed plans for coordinated response. It is also important for us to identify new and improved ways to foster collaboration regarding the response to the IND threat to ensure the demand and density of expertise required for such an event is postured and prepared to mobilize, integrate, and support a myriad of anticipated challenges. We must be prepared to manage the consequences of such an event in a deliberate manner and get beyond notions of total devastation by adopting planning assumptions around survivability and resiliency. Planning for such a scenario needs to be decisive in determining a response based on competencies and desired outcomes. It is time to synthesize known threats and plausible consequences into action. Much work needs to be accomplished to enhance nuclear preparedness and to substantially bolster and clarify the capacity to deploy competent resources. Until detailed plans are scripted, and personnel and other resources are postured, and exercised, IND specific planning remains an urgent need requiring attention and action. Although strategic guidance, policies, concepts of operations, roles, responsibilities, and plans governing the response and consequence management for the IND scenario exist, an ongoing integration challenge prevails regarding how best to get capable and competent surge capacity personnel (disaster reservists) and other resources engaged and readied in an up-front manner with pre-scripted assignments to augment the magnitude of anticipated demands of expertise. With the above in mind, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) puts science to work to create and deploy practical, high-value, cost-effective nuclear solutions. As the Department of Energy's (DOE) applied research and development laboratory, SRNL supports Savannah River Site (SRS) operations, DOE, national initiatives, and other federal agencies, across the country and around the world. SRNL's parent at SRS also employs more than 8,000 personnel. The team is a great asset that seeks to continue their service in the interest of national security and stands ready to accomplish new missions. Overall, an integral part of the vision for SRNL's National and Homeland Security Directorate is the establishment of a National Security Center at SRNL, and development of state of the science capabilities (technologies and trained technical personnel) for responding to emergency events on local, regional, or national scales. This entails leveraging and posturing the skills, knowledge and experience base of SRS personnel to deliver an integrated capability to support local, state, and federal authorities through the development of pre-scripted requests for assistance, agreements, and plans. It also includes developing plans, training, exercises, recruitment strategies, and processes to e

Kinney, J.; Newman, J.; Goodwyn, A.; Dewes, J.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

100

Steam Turbine Blade Failure Root Cause Analysis Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam Turbine Blade Failure Root Cause Analysis Guide is a concise reference written for operators to plan and conduct an investigation into the most probable causes of a steam turbine blade (bucket) failure. The report provides both an overview and step-by-step approach to identifying the damage mechanisms most common to turbine blade failures. It proceeds to show how damage mechanisms are related to the operating history prior to the blades failure and how they are evaluated to establish their role as ...

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

Wells, M.A. [Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stearns, L.J. [Shaw Environmental, Inc, Monroeville, PA (United States); Davie, A.D. [Shaw Environmental, Inc, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Day, E. [PELL Resources Company, Manassas, VA (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents  

SciTech Connect

There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

1999-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

Radiation damage considerations  

SciTech Connect

The designs of nuclear fission and fusion power plants do not, in general, appear to make unusual demands on materials in terms of mechanical- property requirements. Radiation environments produce unique effects on the composition, microstructure, and defect population of these alloys, resulting in time-dependent and time-independent changes in mechanical properties. To illustrate these problems, the materials needs of the core of a Liquid-Metal Fast- Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) and of the first wall of a fusion reactor are discussed. In the case of the LMFBR core, the phenomenon of void swelling causes serious design problems, and a search is being made for a low-swelling alloy that has adequate mechanical properties. The fusion reactor poses different problems because the neutron energy is high (14 MeV) and is accompanied by a high flux of charged particles. The long-term choices for a wall material have been narrowed to vanadium and niobium alloys. In the search for low-swelling alloys, it has become clear that minor elements play an important role in determining the nature of the radiation effects. The segregation of minor elements to void surfaces and the dispersion and reformation of second-phase precipitates are two important radiation-induced phenomena that require additional study in view of their influence on void swelling and high-temperature properties. (auth)

Frost, B.R.T.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Abstract--Grazing incidence metal mirrors in laser-driven IFE power plants are subject to a variety of threats that result  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract--Grazing incidence metal mirrors in laser-driven IFE power plants are subject to a variety [4] at UCSD, and help define design windows for the GIMM in a laser-driven IFE power plant's wave scattering theory to evaluate degradation of the beam performance. For a damaged surface

Tillack, Mark

106

Detailed Root Cause Analysis of SG Tube ODSCC Indications within ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack Growth Rates of Irradiated Commercial Stainless Steels in BWR and PWR ... Detailed Root Cause Analysis of SG Tube ODSCC Indications within the Tube Sheets of NPP Biblis Unit A .... Radiation Damage in Fe-C-Met Model Alloys ... Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior near the Fusion Boundary of Dissimilar Weld

107

Microstructural Characterization of Damage Mechanisms of Graphite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Damage  ...

108

Electric-Field Enhancement by Nodular Defects in Multilayer Coatings Irradiated at Normal and 45 (degree) Incidence  

SciTech Connect

The standing-wave electric-field profile within multilayer coatings is significantly perturbated by a nodular defect. The intensity, which is proportional to the electric field squared, is increased in the high index material by {>=}3x at normal incidence and {>=}12x at 45 degrees incidence angle. Therefore it is not surprising that nodular defects are initiation sites of laser-induced damage. In this study, the impact of reflectance-band centering and incident angle are explored for a 1 {micro}m diameter nodular defect seed overcoated with a 24 layer high-reflector constructed of quarter-wave thick alternating layers of hafnia and silica. The modeling was performed using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis code.

Stolz, C J; Genin, F Y; Pistor,T V

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

109

DNA damage induced clusterin expression - A sensitive measure of genomic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

damage induced clusterin expression - A sensitive measure of genomic damage induced clusterin expression - A sensitive measure of genomic instability David Boothman University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Abstract Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is a glycoprotein secreted from cells following exposure to genotoxic stress, and sCLU expression is elevated in many different disease states. sCLU is a pro-survival protein that acts as a molecular chaperone to remove cell debris caused by trauma to cells and tissues in vivo. sCLU expression is extremely sensitive to oxidative stress and DNA damage and can be induced by low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), as low as 2 cGy. We previously demonstrated that sCLU was induced after LDIR by activation of the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and downstream stimulation of Src/MAPK/Erk-1/2 to promote binding of the Egr-1

110

Effects of ballistic damage on the dynamics of composite driveshafts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research program is to study the dynamics of a composite driveshaft before and after ballistic damage is incurred. Driveshafts are tested under static and dynamic loads to obtain material, mechanical, and vibrational characteristics. In the dynamic tests, driveshafts with and without ballistic damage are observed to determine the critical speeds. The torsional modulus, the longitudinal modulus, and Poisson's ratio are determined from the static tests. Computational models are used to perform parametric studies and to complement the experimental program. Numerical simulations incorporate both beam and shell theory into the analysis. Additionally, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) was used to help determine the extent of the damage caused by the projectile.

Ayers, Thomas Ray

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NIST Calls for Suggestions to Speed Computer Incident ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Calls for Suggestions to Speed Computer Incident Teams Responses. From NIST Tech Beat: June 28, 2013. ...

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

112

Nervous breakdown causes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nervous breakdown causes Nervous breakdown causes Name: Renee Nuckols Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Physiologically, what causes a mental/nervous breakdown besides normal everyday stress? Is it a process that kills neurons? Also please include some internal and external symptoms that occur prior to, during, and after a nervous breakdown. Replies: "Nervous breakdown" may be a misnomer, though. What "breaks down" is not so much the nerves and neurons, but the adrenal glands. A more accurate term would be the "exhaustion phase of the general adaption syndrome," but obviously that is quite a mouthful. Excessive STRESS is what can cause "nervous breakdowns." Stress includes the obvious things like exam pressures, trouble with parents or teachers, peer pressure, but also includes things like a significant personal achievement, making a major purchase, changes in routines of life (sleeping, eating habits), moving to a different part of town - even the change in seasons and temperatures. It can come from almost anything which causes a disturbance in normal living. Stress triggers a number of physiological changes collectively termed "GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME." There are three phases: 1) alarm, 2) resistance, and 3) exhaustion. These phases are controlled and regulated by the adrenal glands. Your adrenal glands lie just above your kidneys and are composed of inner and outer parts. The inner part is called the adrenal medulla, and it secretes the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. These hormones help your body deal with stressful situations. If you were alone and met a gang in some back alley, your adrenal glands would flood your body with the hormones, your blood pressure, heart rate, sweat production would shoot way high! Your body is in a "FIGHT or FLIGHT" mode. (Just thinking about getting in such a situation may have caused some stress!) Well, whenever your body deals with smaller stresses, the same hormones are released. The outer part of the adrenal glands is the adrenal cortex. They also produce hormones, but slightly different ones: glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids. Glucocorticoids can increase blood sugar levels profoundly, while mineralcorticoids affect mineral excretion. These hormones are largely responsible for helping the body deal with prolonged stress. They help provide extra energy and blood supply. For instance, if you had a whole week of finals, your adrenal cortex would work overtime as you burn the midnight oil studying. These instances are the "resistance" phase of the general adaptation syndrome.

113

Implementation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center(FRMAC) - Emergency Phase  

SciTech Connect

Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt a National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation programs and activities, as well as in support of those actions taken to assist state and local entities. This system provides a consistent nationwide template to enable federal, state, local, and tribal governments, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity, including acts of catastrophic terrorism. This document identifies the operational concepts of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center's (FRMAC) implementation of the NIMS/ICS response structure under the National Response Plan (NRP). The construct identified here defines the basic response template to be tailored to the incident-specific response requirements. FRMAC's mission to facilitate interagency environmental data management, monitoring, sampling, analysis, and assessment and link this information to the planning and decision staff clearly places the FRMAC in the Planning Section. FRMAC is not a mitigating resource for radiological contamination but is present to conduct radiological impact assessment for public dose avoidance. Field monitoring is a fact-finding mission to support this effort directly. Decisions based on the assessed data will drive public protection and operational requirements. This organizational structure under NIMS is focused by the mission responsibilities and interface requirements following the premise to provide emergency responders with a flexible yet standardized structure for incident response activities. The coordination responsibilities outlined in the NRP are based on the NIMS/ICS construct and Unified Command (UC) for management of a domestic incident. The NRP Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex (NUC) further provides requirements and protocols for coordinating federal government capabilities to respond to nuclear/radiological Incidents of National Significance (INS) and other radiological incidents. When a FRMAC is established, it operates under the parameters of NIMS as defined in the NRP. FRMAC and its operations have been modified to reflect NIMS/ICS concepts and principles and to facilitate working in a Unified Command structure. FRMAC is established at or near the scene of the incident to coordinate radiological monitoring and assessment and is established in coordination with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS); the coordinating agency; other federal agencies; and state, local, and tribal authorities. However, regardless of the coordinating agency designation, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) coordinates radiological monitoring and assessment activities for the initial phases of the offsite federal incident response through the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) and FRMAC assets. Monitoring and assessment data are managed by FRMAC in an accountable, secure, and retrievable format. Monitoring data interpretations, including exposure rate contours, dose projections, and any requested radiological assessments are to be provided to the DHS; to the coordinating agency; and to state, local, and tribal government agencies.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Field Guide: Bearing Damage Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report 1021780, Manual of Bearing Failures and Repair in Power Plant Rotating Equipment, 2011 Update, is a comprehensive document on the subject of fluid film bearing damage modes. This field guide provides a pocket reference based upon the content of that report. ...

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mechanisms for microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To provide insight into the mechanisms of microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles, experimental studies were performed to correlate microvascular damage to the dynamics of bubble-vessel interactions. High-speed photomicrography was used to record single microbubbles interacting with microvessels in ex vivo tissue, under the exposure of short ultrasound pulses with a center frequency of 1 MHz and peak negative pressures (PNP) ranging from 0.8-4 MPa. Vascular damage associated with observed bubble-vessel interactions was either indicated directly by microbubble extravasation or examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. As observed previously, the high-speed images revealed that ultrasound-activated microbubbles could cause distention and invagination of adjacent vessel walls, and could form liquid jets in microvessels. Vessel distention, invagination, and liquid jets were associated with the damage of microvessels whose diameters were smaller than those of maximally expanded microbubbles. However, vessel invagination appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the damage of relative large microvessels.

Chen Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Matula, Thomas J. [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology and Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (United States); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

116

Properly designed underbalanced drilling fluids can limit formation damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drilling fluids for underbalanced operations require careful design and testing to ensure they do not damage sensitive formations. In addition to hole cleaning and lubrication functions, these fluids may be needed as kill fluids during emergencies. PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. used a systematic approach in developing and field testing a nondamaging drilling fluid. It was for use in underbalanced operations in the Glauconitic sandstone in the Westerose gas field in Alberta. A lab study was initiated to develop and test a non-damaging water-based drilling fluid for the horizontal well pilot project. The need to develop an inexpensive, nondamaging drilling fluid was previously identified during underbalanced drilling operations in the Weyburn field in southeastern Saskatchewan. A non-damaging fluid is required for hole cleaning, for lubrication of the mud motor, and for use as a kill fluid during emergencies. In addition, a nondamaging fluid is required when drilling with a conventional rig because pressure surges during connections and trips may result in the well being exposed to short periods of near balanced or overbalanced conditions. Without the protection of a filter cake, the drilling fluid will leak off into the formation, causing damage. The amount of damage is related to the rate of leak off and depth of invasion, which are directly proportional to the permeability to the fluid.

Churcher, P.L.; Yurkiw, F.J. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bietz, R.F.; Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for developing an emergency response plan, as outlined in OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.120(q), for facility response. This model has been adopted and applied to work for response to transportation accidents involving radioactive material or other hazardous materials incidents Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure.docx More Documents & Publications Handling and Packaging a Potentially Radiologically Contaminated Patient Decontamination Dressdown at a Transportation Accident Involving Radioactive Material Medical Examiner/Coroner on the Handling of a Body/Human Remains that are Potentially Radiologically Contaminated

118

Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors  

SciTech Connect

Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Church, E.L. (Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ (USA). Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Root Cause Analysis Program Manual, Rev 0 Page 1 ofROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL LBNL Pub-5519 (2), Rev. 0Cause Analysis Program Manual, Rev 0 Page 2 of 15 REVISION

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Damage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in a nuclear reactor in a realistic time frame. XMAT's delivery of fragment ions at fission fragment energies achieves 25 dpahr. Reactor materials experience a range of dose...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

What Causes Violent Crime?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study uses panel data of intentional homicide and robbery rates for a sample of developed and developing countries for the period 1970-1994, based on information from the United Nations World Crime Surveys, to analyze the determinants of national crime rates both across countries and over time. A simple model of the incentives to commit crimes is proposed, which explicitly considers possible causes of the persistence of crime over time (criminal inertia). A panel-data based GMM methodology is used to estimate a dynamic model of national crime rates. This estimator controls for unobserved country-specific effects, the joint endogeneity of some of the explanatory variables, and the existence of some types of measurement errors afflicting the crime data. The results show that increases in income inequality raise crime rates, crime tends to be counter-cyclical, and criminal inertia is significant.

Pablo Fajnzylber; Daniel Lederman; Norman Loayza

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Keeping track of the damage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News Archives: News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed Keeping track of the damage Scientists resolve long-standing mystery of ion-solid interactions Reprinted with kind permission from ScienceWise - Science Magazine of the Australian National University JANUARY 27, 2009 Bookmark and Share Dr. Patrick Kluth and Claudia Schnohr. Silica (silicon dioxide) is the most abundant mineral in the earth's crust and consequently is a core component in many rocks. It's quite common for such rocks to also contain natural traces of materials like uranium that undergo slow radioactive decay. This radioactivity produces energetic particles that smash through the surrounding silica creating tracks of localized damage in their wake.

123

Effects of clone, silvicultural, and miticide treatments on cottonwood leafcurl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) damage in plantation Populus  

SciTech Connect

Aculops lobuliferus (Keifer) is a little known pest of plantation Populus spp., which is capable of causing substantial damage. This is the first documented occurrence of A. lobuliferus in South Carolina. Previous anecdotal data indicated clonal variation in Populus susceptibility to A. lobuliferus damage. A damage rating scale was created to monitor mite damage in 2000-2001 in a short-rotation woody crop plantation; damage descriptions and seasonal phenology also were recorded. Foliar damage and terminal mortality were monitored on two Populus deltoides Bartr. clones, ST66 and S7C15, receiving one of three silvicultural treatments (irrigated, fertilized or both) or no treatment (control). In 2001, early season foliar damage ratings were significantly higher on clone S7C15; however, damage on clone ST66 was greater after miticide treatments later in the year. Terminal mortality did not differ between clones. Silvicultural treatments significantly affected foliar damage levels in both clones. Application of a commercially available miticide significantly reduced A. lobuliferus damage levels. This study demonstrates that A. lobuliferus damage levels can be influenced by Populus clone and silvicultural treatment. Foliar and terminal damage levels observed in this study indicate the potential for substantial economic impact of A. lobuliferus on plantation Populus. Although an effective control method may be to select and plant resistant Populus clones, chemical control remains a viable option.

Coyle, David, R.

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Recent Racial Incidents in Higher Education: A Contemporary Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Racial Incidents in Higher Education 1987b. "King Wants1988. "Hispanics Higher Education's Missing People." Change12-65. Chronicle of Higher Education. 1987. "Racial Brawl

Farrell, Walter C. Jr.; Jones, Cloyzelle K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

ORISE: Incident Management Training Put to Test in Gulf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In his after-action analysis, Haley has been surprised by the number of similarities in response planning, even when disaster scenarios differ dramatically. "Like this incident,...

127

Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Model Recovery Procedure contains the recommended elements for developing and conducting recovery planning at transportation incident scene...

128

Breaker concentrations required to improve the permeability of proppant packs damaged by concentrated linear and borate-crosslinked fracturing fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the concentrations of an oxidative breaker required to reduce significantly the proppant-pack permeability damage caused by aqueous hydraulic fracturing fluids. Long-term, proppant-pack permeability testing was used to evaluate linear and borate-crosslinked gels. Results indicate that increasing the breaker concentration can reduce proppant-pack permeability damage very effectively.

Brannon, H. (BJ Services (United States)); Pulsinelli, R.J. (Dowell Schlumberger, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Rapid Damage eXplorer (RDX): A Probabilistic Framework for Learning Changes From Bitemporal Images  

SciTech Connect

Recent decade has witnessed major changes on the Earth, for example, deforestation, varying cropping and human settlement patterns, and crippling damages due to disasters. Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to the growing population, as well as human migration to the disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid assessment of these changes and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Change detection using high-resolution satellite images is a primary tool in assessing damages, monitoring biomass and critical infrastructures, and identifying new settlements. In this demo, we present a novel supervised probabilistic framework for identifying changes using very high-resolution multispectral, and bitemporal remote sensing images. Our demo shows that the rapid damage explorer (RDX) system is resilient to registration errors and differing sensor characteristics.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

PLUTONIUM RELEASE INCIDENT OF NOVEMBER 20, 1959  

SciTech Connect

A nonnuclear explosion involving an evaporator occurred in a shielded cell in the Radiochemical Processing Pilot Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on Nov. 20, 1959. Plutonium was released from the processing cell, probably as an aerosol of fine particles of plutonium oxide. It is probable that this evaporator system had accumulated -1100 g of nitric acid-insoluble plutonium in the steam stripper packing; the explosion released an estimated 150 g inside Cell 6, with about 135 g in the evaporator subcell, and about 15 g in the larger main cell. No radioactive material was released from the ventilation stacks; no contamination of grounds and facilities occurred outside of a relatively small area of OaK Ridge National Laboratory immediately adjacent to the explosion. No one was injured by the explosion, and no one received more than 2% of a lifetime body burden of plutonium or an overexposure to sources of ionizing radiation either at the time of the incident or daring subsequent cleanup operations. The explosion is considerdd to be the result of rapid reaction of nitrated organic compounds formed by the inadvertent nitration of about 14 liters of a proprietary decontaminating reagent. In cleanup the contamination was bonded to the nearby street and building surfaces with tar, paint, roofing compound, or masonry sealer, as appropriate to the surface. Decontamination of the interior of the pilot-plant building, except the processing cells, was 95% complete on Sept. 1, 1960. Decontamination of the processing cells was delayed 8 months until building modifications could be made to improve containment. Modifications to the pilot plant have been proposed which will preclude dischanges into the laboratory area and its environment of concentrations or amounts of radioactive materials that would be injurious to health or interfere with other laboratory programs. (auth)

King, L.J.; McCarley, W.T.

1961-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

132

An Isolated Winter Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flash Causing Damage and Injury in Connecticut  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An isolated lightning flash at 1436:52 UTC 11 February 1996 struck and destroyed a house in Burlington, Connecticut, injuring an occupant of the house. A flash detected simultaneously by the National Lightning Detection Network was within 1.1 km ...

Ronald L. Holle; Raúl E. López; Kenneth W. Howard; Kenneth L. Cummins; Mark D. Malone; E. Philip Krider

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A numerical evaluation of damages caused by asynchronous motors to the environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years a slow but progressive increase in the world's temperatures has been consistently recorded. To oppose this global warming trend, two especially important actions are the monitoring and reduction of greenhouse emissions, in large quantity ... Keywords: electric motor operation and consumption, emissions and pollution, environmental sustainability

Francesco Muzi; Luigi Passacantando

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation fuels, oil-production ?elds, motor-vehiclethe production of crude oil used to make motor fuel, thethe production of crude oil used to make motor fuel, the

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation fuels, oil-production fields, motor-vehiclethe production of crude oil used to make motor fuel, thethe production of crude oil used to make motor fuel, the

Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

FIB/SEM Determination of Sub-surface Damage Caused by Micro ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P1-04: 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear ... P1-15: Gating System Optimisation Design Study of a Cast Automobile ... P2-27: Characterization of Carbonate Rocks through X-ray Microtomography.

137

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. (1982). Assessment of crop loss from ozone. Journal of1984). Assessing impacts of ozone on agricultural crops: II.crop yield functions and alternative exposure statistics.

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. T. Tingey, Assessment of Crop Loss From Air Pollutants,,Assessing Impacts of Ozone on Agricultural Crops: II.Crop Yield Functions and Alternative Exposure Statistics",

Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Has the Conversion of Natural Wetlands to Agricultural Land Increased the Incidence and Severity of Damaging Freezes in South Florida?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On several occasions, winter freezes have wrought severe destruction on Florida agriculture. A series of devastating freezes around the turn of the twentieth century, and again during the 1980s, were related to anomalies in the large-scale flow ...

Curtis H. Marshall; Roger A. Pielke Sr.; Louis T. Steyaert

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Database of Incidents and Near Misses in Switching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, EPRI published a Technical Update report, "Database of Incidents and Near Misses in Power Switching" (EPRI report 1016830), which introduced a report format and form designed to allow utilities to submit reports of power switching-related incidents to a shared database. This new report summarizes work performed on the database in 2009.

2009-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A survey SCADA of and critical infrastructure incidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze several cyber-security incidents involving critical infrastructure and SCADA systems. We classify these incidents based on Source Sector, Method of Operations, Impact, and Target Sector. Using this standardized taxonomy we can ... Keywords: critical infrastructure, cyber attack, cyber security, information assurance and security, scada, security

Bill Miller; Dale Rowe

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers  

SciTech Connect

Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

Wise, J.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501  

SciTech Connect

A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

144

Nanofoams Response to Radiation Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process; (2) np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa; (3) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams with highest and intermediate flux, while no SFTs were observed with lowest flux; (4) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams at RT, whereas no SFTs were observed at LNT irradiation; (5) The diffusivity of vacancies in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and thus collapse. As a result, SFTs were formed; (6) The high flux created much more damage/time, vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nastasi, Michael [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68508; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis [PLS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551; Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Inst. Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, 5500 Argentina; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

Active and Knowledge-based Process Safety Incident Retrieval System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sustainability and continued development of the chemical industry is to a large extent dependent on learning from past incidents. The failure to learn from past mistakes is rather not deliberate but due to unawareness of the situation. Incident databases are excellent resources to learn from past mistakes; however, in order to be effective, incident databases need to be functional in disseminating the lessons learned to users. Therefore, this research is dedicated to improving user accessibility of incident databases. The objective of this research is twofold. The first objective is improving accessibility of the database system by allowing the option of word search as well as folder search for the users. This will satisfy research needs of users who are aware of the hazards at hand and need to access the relevant information. The second objective is to activate the database via integration of the database with an operational software. This will benefit research needs of users who are unaware of the existing hazards. Literature review and text mining of Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) database short reports are employed to develop an initial taxonomy, which is then refined and modified by expert review. The incident reports in MARS database is classified to the right folders in the taxonomy and implemented in a database system based on Microsoft Excel, where the users can retrieve information using folder search as well as word search option via a user friendly interface. A program coded in JAVA is prepared for integrating the incident database with a Management of Change (MOC) software prototype. A collection of keywords on hazardous substances and equipment is prepared. If the keywords exist in the MOC interface, they will be highlighted, and with the click of a button, will return up to ten relevant incident reports. Using an active and knowledge-based system, people can learn from incidents and near-misses and will be more active to reduce the frequency of recurring incidents.

Khan, Sara Shammni

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Schools - Electronic Equipment Damage Due to Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents the investigation of damage to a school's phone equipment, security alarm, and network computer system during a lightning storm.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

WEB RESOURCE: Radiation Damage in Materials - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... Topic Title: WEB RESOURCE: Radiation Damage in Materials Topic Summary: Allen, Todd. Lecture notes for Univ. of Wisconsin course

148

Detection and Location of Damage on Pipelines  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL has developed and successfully tested a real-time pipeline damage detection and location system. This system uses porous metal resistive traces applied to the pipe to detect and locate damage. The porous metal resistive traces are sprayed along the length of a pipeline. The unique nature and arrangement of the traces allows locating the damage in real time along miles of pipe. This system allows pipeline operators to detect damage when and where it is occurring, and the decision to shut down a transmission pipeline can be made with actual real-time data, instead of conservative estimates from visual inspection above the area.

Karen A. Moore; Robert Carrington; John Richardson

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Natural Resource Damages Assessment | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Council Report Calls for Official Natural Resource Damage Assessment for LANL NRDA PreAssessment Screen, January 2010 Factsheet: Los Alamos National Laboratory...

150

Wind Damage in Washington, DC, 1975  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a large region in the Eastern United States was subjected to severe winds. ... Bureau of Standards (NBS) conducted a limited study of wind damage to ...

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

151

NDE, Foreign Object Damage, and Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Ceramic Matrix Composites: NDE, Foreign Object Damage, and .... used in cylindrical liners, pistons, rings and combustion chamber for ...

152

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the criteria defined in DOE Order 231.1A. Root Cause: TheProgram Department of Energy Order (DOE O) 231.1A, Change 1,

Gravois, Melanie C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Climate Influences on Meningitis Incidence in Northwest Nigeria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Northwest Nigeria is a region with high risk of meningitis. In this study, the influence of climate on monthly meningitis incidence was examined. Monthly counts of clinically diagnosed hospital-reported cases of meningitis were collected from ...

Auwal F. Abdussalam; Andrew J. Monaghan; Vanja M. Dukic; Mary H. Hayden; Thomas M. Hopson; Gregor C. Leckebusch; John E. Thornes

154

The Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0787 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cyber Security Incident Management Program, Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0787 The Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0787 The Department of Energy operates numerous interconnected computer networks and systems to help accon~plishit s strategic missions in the areas of energy, defense, science, and the environment. These systems are frequently subjected to sophisticated cyber attacks that could potentially affect the Department's ability to carry out its mission. During Fiscal Year 2006, the Department experienced 132 incidents of sufficient severity to require reporting to law enforcement, an increase of 22 percent over the prior year. These statistics, troubling as they may be, are not unique to the Department; they are, in fact, reflective of a trend in cyber attacks throughout the government.

155

Public health: emergency management: capability analysis of critical incident response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the 9/11 terrorist incident, homeland security efforts and the readiness of local emergency management agencies have become focal points in the war on terrorism. A significant issue faced by front line responders has been the significant increase ...

Thomas F. Brady

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

ORISE: REAC/TS Medical Management of Radiation Incidents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medical Management of Radiation Incidents As part of its primary mission for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS)...

157

Estimation of Incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation from GOES Visible Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is an important parameter for terrestrial ecosystem models. Because of its high temporal resolution, the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations are very suited to ...

Tao Zheng; Shunlin Liang; Kaicun Wang

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Efficiency of critical incident management systems: Instrument development and validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is much literature in the area of emergency response management systems. Even so, there is in general a lacuna of literature that deals with the issue of measuring the effectiveness of such systems. The aim of this study is to develop and validate ... Keywords: Critical incident management system (CIMS), Decision support, Emergency response systems, Instrument, Measurement, Media richness theory, National incident management systems (NIMS), Validation

Jin Ki Kim; Raj Sharman; H. Raghav Rao; Shambhu Upadhyaya

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A plastic damage approach for confined concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many situations in which it is necessary to increase the capacity of structures in use. This need maybe either for a change of use or because the structures have suffered some damage or have shown little resistance in case of extreme loads ... Keywords: Concrete, Confinement, Damage, Dilation, Fiber reinforced composites, Plasticity

B. M. Luccioni; V. C. Rougier

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Damage from methamphetamine abuse documented  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dennis Tartaglia, 212 481-7000, dennist@mbooth.com or Karen McNulty Walsh, 631 344-8350 go to home page Dennis Tartaglia, 212 481-7000, dennist@mbooth.com or Karen McNulty Walsh, 631 344-8350 go to home page 01-16 March 1, 2001 Researchers Document Brain Damage, Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Function from Methamphetamine Abuse "Speed" Shows More Neurotoxic Effects Than Heroin, Cocaine, or Alcohol UPTON, NY -- Two studies by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory provide evidence for the first time that abuse of methamphetamine -- the drug commonly known as "speed" -- is associated with physiological changes in two systems of the human brain. The changes are evident even for abusers who have not taken the drug for a year or more. The studies also found that methamphetamine abusers have reduced cognitive and motor functions, even at one year after quitting the drug. The findings appear in the March issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study, AFM was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to a Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage and increased conductivity in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam.

Teague, L.; Duff, M.

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

A new damage testing system for detailed evaluation of damage behavior of bulk KDP and DKDP  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new damage testing approach and instrumentation that provides quantitative measurements of bulk damage performance versus fluence for several frequencies. A major advantage of this method is that it can simultaneously provide direct information on pinpoint density and size, and beam obscuration. This allows for more accurate evaluation of material performance under operational conditions. Protocols for laser conditioning to improve damage performance can also be easily and rapidly evaluated.This damage testing approach has enabled us to perform complex experiments toward probing the fundamental mechanisms of damage initiation and conditioning.

DeMange, P; Negres, R A; Carr, C W; Radousky, H B; Demos, S G

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

163

Erosion damage of nearby plasma-facing components during a disruption on the divertor plate  

SciTech Connect

Intense energy flow from the disrupting plasma during, a thermal quench will cause a sudden vapor cloud to form above the exposed divertor area. The vapor-cloud layer has been proved to significantly reduce the subsequent energy flux of plasma particles to the original disruption location. However, most of the incoming plasma energy is quickly converted to intense photon radiation emitted by heating of the vapor cloud. This radiation energy can cause serious erosion damage of nearby components not directly exposed to the disrupting, plasma. The extent of this ``secondary damage`` will depend on the divertor design, disrupting plasma parameters, and design of nearby components. The secondary erosion damage of these components due to intense radiation can exceed that of the original disruption location.

Hassanein, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Konkashbaev, I. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

TGF-.beta. antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-.beta. antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-.beta. antibody or a TGF-.beta. latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H. (Oakland, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Relay node placement in structurally damaged wireless sensor networks via triangular steiner tree approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have many applications which operate in hostile environments. Due to the harsh surroundings, WSNs may suffer from a large scale damage that causes many nodes to fail simultaneously and the network to get partitioned into ... Keywords: Fault-tolerance, Network segmentation, Relay node placement, Wireless sensor networks

Fatih Senel; Mohamed Younis

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

TGF-{beta} antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-{beta} antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-{beta} antibody or a TGF-{beta} latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Minimizing formation damage under adverse conditions during gravel pack operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for minimizing formation damage caused by intrusive fluids prior to a gravel packing operation in loosely consolidated formations penetrated by at least one well comprising: (a) filling the casing of the well with an underbalanced completion fluid; (b) placing within the well a removable packer capable of isolating the space between the casing and the formation from the downhole well pressure; (c) setting through the packer a first tubing suitable for perforating and stabilizing the flow of fluids into the well; (d) perforating the casing; (e) introducing a blocking agent into the formation via the perforations which agent upon solidification is sufficient to minimize formation damage by avoiding the introduction of formation fluids where the agent is a gel; (f) causing the blocking agent to solidify while forming a solidified plug within the well and a solid mass within the adjacent washed out portion of the formation; (g) removing the first tubing from the well; (h) placing within the well a second tubing having a slotted portion therein sufficient to allow gravel packing of the well and the formation; (i) removing the solidified plug from the wellbore along with solidified gel from the washed-out portion of the formation; and (j) placing a gravel pack within the well and the washed-out portion of the formation via the second tubing which consolidates the formation.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Shu, P.

1989-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

168

RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect

Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Métral, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermo-Poroelastic Modeling of Reservoir Stimulation and Microseismicity Using Finite Element Method with Damage Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stress and permeability variations around a wellbore and in the reservoir are of much interest in petroleum and geothermal reservoir development. Water injection causes significant changes in pore pressure, temperature, and stress in hot reservoirs, changing rock permeability. In this work, two- and three-dimensional finite element methods were developed to simulate coupled reservoirs with damage mechanics and stress-dependent permeability. The model considers the influence of fluid flow, temperature, and solute transport in rock deformation and models nonlinear behavior with continuum damage mechanics and stress-dependent permeability. Numerical modeling was applied to analyze wellbore stability in swelling shale with two- and three-dimensional damage/fracture propagation around a wellbore and injection-induced microseismic events. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the displacement, pore pressure, temperature, and solute concentration problems. Solute mass transport between drilling fluid and shale formation was considered to study salinity effects. Results show that shear and tensile failure can occur around a wellbore in certain drilling conditions where the mud pressure lies between the reservoir pore pressure and fracture gradient. The fully coupled thermo-poro-mechanical FEM simulation was used to model damage/fracture propagation and microseismic events caused by fluid injection. These studies considered wellbore geometry in small-scale modeling and point-source injection, assuming singularity fluid flux for large-scale simulation. Damage mechanics was applied to capture the effects of crack initiation, microvoid growth, and fracture propagation. The induced microseismic events were modeled in heterogeneous geological media, assuming the Weibull distribution functions for modulus and permeability. The results of this study indicate that fluid injection causes the effective stress to relax in the damage phase and to concentrate at the interface between the damage phase and the intact rock. Furthermore, induced-stress and far-field stress influence damage propagation. Cold water injection causes the tensile stress and affects the initial fracture and fracture propagation, but fracture initiation pressure and far-field stress are critical to create a damage/fracture plane, which is normal to the minimum far-field stress direction following well stimulation. Microseismic events propagate at both well scale and reservoir-scale simulation; the cloud shape of a microseismic event is affected by permeability anisotropy and far-field stress, and deviatoric horizontal far-field stress especially contributes to the localization of the microseismic cloud.

Lee, Sang Hoon

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

ORISE: REAC/TS Radiological Incident Medical Consultation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiological Incident Medical Consultation Radiological Incident Medical Consultation Radiological Incident Medical Consultation The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a comprehensive capability to respond effectively to medical emergencies involving radiological or nuclear materials. Through the management of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), ORISE provides advice and consultation to emergency personnel responsible for the medical management of radiation accidents. REAC/TS strengthens hospital preparedness for radiation emergencies by preparing and educating first responders, medical personnel and occupational health professionals who will provide care to patients with a radiation injury or illness. REAC/TS staff provide medical advice,

172

US DOE/NNSA Response to 2011 Fukushima Incident- Data and Documentatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

US DOENNSA Response to 2011 Fukushima Incident- Data and Documentation US DOENNSA Response to 2011 Fukushima Incident- Data and Documentation NNSADataRepositoryGuide.pdf...

173

Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

174

Dealing with Storm-Damaged Trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many homeowners need help caring for or removing damaged trees after a natural disaster. This publication explains what a certified arborist is and how to select one. It also cautions against burning debris downed by a storm.

Kirk, Melanie; Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

175

Dealing with Storm-Damaged Trees (Spanish)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many homeowners need help caring for or removing damaged trees after a natural disaster. This publication explains what a certified arborist is and how to select one. It also cautions against burning debris downed by a storm.

Kirk, Melanie; Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Tornado Damage Estimation Using Polarimetric Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the use of tornadic debris signature (TDS) parameters to estimate tornado damage severity using Norman, Oklahoma (KOUN), polarimetric radar data (polarimetric version of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler radar). ...

David J. Bodine; Matthew R. Kumjian; Robert D. Palmer; Pamela L. Heinselman; Alexander V. Ryzhkov

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a process for etching a material such as LiNbO{sub 3} by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

Arnold, G.W. Jr.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Brannon, P.J.

1988-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

178

Reference Poster: Turbine Bearing Damage Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Damage to turbine and generator bearings accounts for a significant amount of lost generation in the power industry. There are numerous known damage mechanisms affecting these bearings, and as part of EPRI’s technology transfer efforts, we have developed a reference poster. This poster provides clear, concise, and visual information for a wide variety of mechanisms and is meant to supplement related EPRI projects. By providing an overview of various issues as well as information on how to ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

179

Rail transportation risk and accident severity: A statistical analysis of variables in FRA's accident/incident data base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Federal Railroad Administration (US DOT) maintains a file of carrier-reported railroad accidents and incidents that meet stipulated threshold criteria for damage cost and/or casualties. A thoroughly-cleaned five-year time series of this data base was subjected to unbiased statistical procedures to discover (a) important causative variables in severe (high damage cost) accidents and (b) other key relationships between objective accident conditions and frequencies. Just under 6000 records, each representing a single event involving rail freight shipments moving on mainline track, were subjected to statistical frequency analysis, then included in the construction of classification and regression trees as described by Breimann et al. (1984). Variables related to damage cost defined the initial splits,'' or branchings of the tree. An interesting implication of the results of this analysis with respect to transportation of hazardous wastes by rail is that movements should be avoided when ambient temperatures are extreme (significantly 80{degrees}F), but that there should be no a priori bias against shipping wastes in longer train consists. 2 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

Saricks, C.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Janssen, I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Biological and Medical Research Div.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

R-damage cassette (incorporated brass sleeve)  

SciTech Connect

The R-Damage series of ten experiments is part of a long-term collaboration with RFNC/VNIIEF in pulsed power technology. These experiments use a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage, which allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions and post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis. Dynamic in-situ experimental velocimetry diagnostics are also employed. LANL is responsible for the design of the experimental load and velocimetry system. VNIIEF is responsible for the design and construction of the driving explosive magnetic generator. Eight of the experiments in the planned series have been completed. Thus far, data has been collected about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry, the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime, and the behavior of material recollected after complete failure. The final two experiments will continue the study of material recollected after complete failure. The load assembly shown is similar to that employed in the previous two experiments, with some modiflications for easier assembly.

Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ABSTRACT: Ion-Induced Damage Accumulation and Electron-Beam ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 27, 2007... Ion-Induced Damage Accumulation and Electron-Beam-Enhanced ... damage accumulation in strontium titanate from 1.0 MeV Au irradiation

182

Clustered DNA Damage Spectrum in Primary Human Hematopoietic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

94805 Villejuif Cedex France Clustered DNA Damages Induced by Low Radiation Doses Irradiation of cells with low doses of X- or -rays induces clustered damages in mammalian...

183

Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental monitoring stations, canyons Stations supporting Santa...

184

Reactor Loose Part Damage Assessments on Steam Generator Tube Sheets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??PROCTOR, WILLIAM CYRUS. Reactor Loose Part Damage Assessments on Steam Generator Tube Sheets. (Under the direction of Joseph Michael Doster). Damage from loose parts inside… (more)

Proctor, William Cyrus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag subjected to charged particles. The radiation effects in irradiated nanograined Fe are also investigated for comparison. Radiation responses in these nanostructured metallic films suggest that immiscible incoherent Ag/Ni multilayers are more resistant to radiation in comparison to their monolithic counterparts. Their mechanical properties and radiation response show strong layer thickness dependence in terms of radiation hardening and defect density. Coherent twin boundaries can interact with stacking fault tetrahedral and remove them effectively. Twin boundaries can actively absorb radiation induced defects and defect clusters resulting in boundary migration. Size dependence is also found in nanograins where fewer defects exhibit in films with smaller grains.

Yu, Kaiyuan

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Managing Incidents in Smart Grids à la Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last decade, the Cloud Computing paradigm has emerged as a panacea for many problems in traditional IT infrastructures. Much has been said about the potential of Cloud Computing in the context of the Smart Grid, but unfortunately it is still ... Keywords: Smart Grid, SCADA systems, Incident Management, Cloud Computing, Cryptography, Searchable Encryption

Cristina Alcaraz; Isaac Agudo; David Nunez; Javier Lopez

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

SSM/I Brightness Temperature Corrections for Incidence Angle Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incidence angles of the SSM/I radiometers on the DMSP satellites vary from satellite to satellite and exhibit variations of up to 1.5° during one orbit. The effects of these variations on the measured brightness temperatures are investigated ...

Rolf Fuhrhop; Clemens Simmer

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Database of Incidents and Near Misses in Power Switching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the preliminary results of a research task sponsored by EPRI's Power Switching Safety and Reliability (PSS&R) project to develop a report format and form that will allow multiple utilities to submit reports of power switching-related incidents to a shared database.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

189

Causes of Paint Film Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Common causes of paint film defects...Dip, flow, roller, spray Improper applicator/metering roll speeds Roller Undesirable pattern Swelling of roll Roller Roll improperly ground Roller Foreign material on roll Roller Poor spray gun technique Spray Runs (curtains, sags) Too much solvent Dip, flow, spray Paint surface or drying atmosphere...

190

CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN  

SciTech Connect

The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can be used by operators to guide treatment selection in wells with significant non-darcy damage component. In addition, the effectiveness of the remediation treatment designed to reduce damage caused by the inorganic precipitate siderite was measured, and the benefits of this work are extrapolated to the entire U.S. storage industry. Similarly the potential benefits realized from more effective identification and treatment of wells with significant nondarcy damage component are also presented, and these benefits are also extrapolated to the entire U.S. storage industry.

J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

NIST SP 800-61 Revision 2, Computer Security Incident ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... those caused by natural disasters, power failures ... are reflected in response operations. ... addition, following standardized responses should minimize ...

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

192

A fiber damage model for early stage consolidation of metal-coated fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous fiber reinforced titanium matrix composites (TMCs) possess combinations of specific modulus, strength, and creep resistance that are well suited for a variety of aerospace applications. Recent studies of the high temperature consolidation of titanium alloy coated {alpha}-alumina fiber tows and SiC monofilaments have both revealed the widespread occurrence of fiber bending and fracture during early stage consolidation. This damage was shown to arise from the bending of unaligned fibers during consolidation and was found to be affected by the mechanical behavior of the metal-metal contacts at fiber crossovers. To predict the incidence of fiber fracture during early stage high temperature consolidation, a time-temperature dependent micromechanical model incorporating the evolving contact geometry and mechanical behavior of both the metal matrix and the ceramic fibers has been combined with a statistical representation of crossovers in the pre-consolidated layup. The damage predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental results. The model has subsequently been used to explore the effects of fiber strength, matrix constitutive properties and the processing conditions upon the incidence of fiber fracture. It reveals the existence of a temperature dependent pressurization rate below which fracture is relatively unlikely. This critical pressure rate can be significantly increased by the enhanced superplasticity of the initially nanocrystalline coating.

Warren, J.; Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies  

SciTech Connect

More than 30 years ago, population-based tumor registries were established in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report, the first of a series of papers on cancer incidence, describes methodological aspects of the tumor registries and discusses issues of data quality in the context of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, the major atomic bomb survivor population. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are characterized by active case ascertainment based on abstraction of medical records at area hospitals, augmented by tissue registries operational in the area and a number of clinical and pathological programs undertaken over the years among the atomic bomb survivors. Using conventional measures of quality, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries have a death certificate-only (DCO) rate of less than 9%, a mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio of about 50%, and a histological verification (HV) rate in excess of 70%, which place these registries among the best in Japan and comparable to many established registries worldwide. All tumor registry data pertaining to the LSS population were assembled, reviewed and handled with special attention given to the quality and uniformity of data based on standardized procedures. Special studies and monitoring programs were also introduced to evaluate the quality of the tumor incidence data in the LSS. Analyses were performed to examine the quality of incidence data overall and across various substrata used for risk assessment such as age, time and radiation dose groups. No significant associations were found between radiation dose and data quality as measured by various indices. These findings warrant the use of the present tumor registry-based data for studies of cancer incidence in the atomic bomb survivors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Preston, D.L. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Soda, Midori (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan)); Ron, E. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Ochikubo, Sumio (Hiroshima Perfectural Medical Association (Japan)); Ikeda, Takayoshi (Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Terasaki, Masayuki (Nagasaki City Medical Association (Japan)); Thompson, D.E. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan) Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) George Washington Univ., Rockville, MD (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Application of a model to the evaluation of flood damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the initial results of a common methodology for the evaluation of damage produced by a flood. A model has been developed for flood damage estimation based on a geographic information system (GIS). It could be used by land administration ... Keywords: Damage evaluation, Flood, GIS, Hydraulic modelling, Stage---damage curves

F. Luino; C. G. Cirio; M. Biddoccu; A. Agangi; W. Giulietto; F. Godone; G. Nigrelli

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service Table of Contents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service Table of Contents i TEXAS WILDLIFE DAMAGE MANAGMENT.............................................................................................................................. 2 #12;Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service, Texas A&M University System Page 1 TEXAS WILDLIFE-651-2880 karen.s.dulaney@usda.gov #12;Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service, Texas A&M University System Page

Wilkins, Neal

196

EFFECT OF CREVICE FORMER ON CORROSION DAMAGE PROPAGATION  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are: (1) To determine the effect of the crevice former on the localized corrosion damage propagation; (2) FOCUS on post initiation stage, crevice propagation and arrest processes; (3) Determine the evolution of damage--severity, shape, location/distribution, damage profile; and (4) Model of crevice corrosion propagation, i.e. the evolution of the crevice corrosion damage profile.

J.H. Payer; U. Landau; X. Shan; A.S. Agarwal

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Assessing Hail and Freeze Damage to Field Corn and Sorghum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a crop has been damaged by hail, it is important to be able to gauge the extent of the damage, the potential for recovery of the damaged crop, and the actions that might be necessary to maximize the recovery process. This publication tells how to assess hail damage.

Livingston, Stephen

1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Microsoft Word - SWPAIceStormDamage_021109.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1/09 1/09 Contacts: Beth Nielsen William Hiller Phone: 918-595-6762 918-595-6697 Email: elizabeth.nielsen@swpa.gov william.hiller@swpa.gov 1 of 1 TULSA, OK - A major segment of 161-kilovolt (kV) transmission line was returned to service around 6:00 p.m. on Tuesday, February 10, 2009, as Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern), an agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), continued its efforts to repair damage caused by a January 26-27, 2009 ice storm in Arkansas and Missouri that affected 300 miles of Southwestern's 1,380-mile, high-voltage transmission system. Southwestern Operations reported early February 11, 2009, that repairs to the line stretching from Dardanelle Dam, near Russellville, Arkansas, to the Hilltop Switching Station near Marshall,

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201

Radiation-damage calculations with NJOY  

SciTech Connect

Atomic displacement, gas production, transmutation, and nuclear heating can all be calculated with the NJOY nuclear data processing system using evaluated data in ENDF/B format. Using NJOY helps assure consistency between damage cross sections and those used for transport, and NJOY provides convenient interface formats for linking data to application codes. Unique features of the damage calculation include a simple momentum balance treatment for radiative capture and a new model for (n, particle) reactions based on statistical model calculations. Sample results for iron and nickel are given and compared with the results of other methods.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Mann, F.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Boundary conditions for NLTE polarized radiative transfer with incident radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarized NLTE radiative transfer in the presence of scattering in spectral lines and/or in continua may be cast in a so-called reduced form for six reduced components of the radiation field. In this formalism the six components of the reduced source function are angle-independent quantities. It thus reduces drastically the storage requirement of numerical codes. This approach encounters a fundamental problem when the medium is illuminated by a polarized incident radiation, because there is a priori no way of relating the known (and measurable) Stokes parameters of the incident radiation to boundary conditions for the reduced equations. The origin of this problem is that there is no unique way of deriving the radiation reduced components from its Stokes parameters (only the inverse operation is clearly defined). The method proposed here aims at enabling to work with arbitrary incident radiation field (polarized or unpolarized). In previous works an ad-hoc treatment of the boundary conditions, applying to case...

Faurobert, Marianne; Atanackovic, Olga

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Selection of drilling fluids for minimizing coalbed damage. Final report, December 1981-February 1983. [Effect on permeability of coal bed near the well  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following conclusions have been drawn from work performed in this project: (1) both of the fluids tested (a KC1/CaCl2 brine and drilling mud filtrate) caused a loss in permeability when flowed through coal; (2) the damage mechanism for brine is undetermined, but the major part of the damage from mud filtrate appears to be related to particulate matter plugging flow channels; (3) a decrease in net confining pressure, caused by drilling overbalanced, can increase the risk of formation damage; and (4) an increase in net confining pressure, caused by drilling underbalanced, can also lead to permeability losses. The three potential formation damage mechanisms have been particulate plugging, clay swelling and/or migration, and relative permeability effects. Laboratory investigations have added a fourth - pressure effects.

Rose, R.E.; Foh, S.E.; Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Tornado Damage Survey at Moore, Oklahoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 4 May 1999, the Wind Science and Engineering Research Center at Texas Tech University dispatched three survey teams to the Oklahoma City area to conduct a tornado damage survey. The author was the leader of one of the teams whose purpose was ...

Timothy P. Marshall

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi (PhD)

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

206

A SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS INVOLVING USAEC SHIPMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, 1957-1961  

SciTech Connect

Data are summarized on incidents that have been sustained by the AEC in the transport of radioactive materials from 1957 through 1981. In the period covered by this report there were 47 incidents reported. Twenty-nine did not result in the release of radioactive materials. Of the remaining 18 cases there was none that involved any serious radiological consequences or involved costly cleanup. Six of the incidents involved onsite movements of materials. The incidents are classified in accordance with the type of radiation release that occurred, mode of transport, and type of incident. Photographs are included for a number of the incidents. (C.H.)

Patterson, D.E.; DeFatta, V.P.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Feature: Washing Your Laundry in Public - An Analysis of Recent High-Publicity Security Incidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is, reportedly, a significant rise in the frequency of information security incidents. Quite obviously, there is a very significant rise in the public reporting of such incidents. Whereas all of us are more or less experienced in protecting our ...

Matthew Pemble

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Effect of Operational Transients on Boiler Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is increasingly the case that utility systems demand more flexibility in a unit's ability to respond to dispatch requirements, which can create a conflict between maximizing efficient operation and limiting damage accumulation. A boiler can be operated in various cycling modes and can be subjected to planned and unplanned transients associated with load following, minimum load operation, forced cooling, variable pressure operation, increased ramp rates, increased attemperation, over-temperature operat...

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

210

Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Evaluation of Coal Combustion Product Damage Cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published an assessment that identified 67 coal combustion product (CCP) management with groundwater or surface water impacts that were categorized as proven or potential damage cases. This report provides further evaluation of these cases, including additional data obtained from power companies and public sources. Volume 1 provides an overview and summary of findings, and Volume 2 provides descriptions of individual cases.

2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

212

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing from a gas condensate reservoir. Questions were raised about whether flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. In the most recent work done by Adedeji Ayoola Adeyeye, this subject was studied when the effects of reservoir depletion were minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. He also used an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture along with a linear model as an adequate analogy. He concluded that the skin due to liquid build-up is not enough to prevent lower flowing bottomhole pressures from producing more gas. This current study investigated the condensate damage at the face of the hydraulic fracture in transient and boundary dominated periods when the effects of reservoir depletion are taken into account. As a first step, simulation of liquid flow into the fracture was performed using a 2D 1-phase simulator in order to help us to better understand the results of gas condensate simulation. Then during the research, gas condensate models with various gas compositions were simulated using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Evaluation of Coal Combustion Product Damage Cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published an assessment that identified 67 coal combustion product (CCP) management facilities with groundwater or surface water impacts that were categorized as proven or potential damage cases. This report provides further evaluation of these cases, including additional data obtained from power companies and public sources. Volume 1 provides an overview and summary of findings, and Volume 2 provides descriptions of individual cases.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

ORISE: DeepwaterHorizon and Nuclear & Radiological Incidents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wi l l i a m H a l e y Wi l l i a m H a l e y B r a d P o t t e r C o mm o n C h a l l e n g e s a n d S o l u t i o n s J u n e 2 0 1 1 D e e p w a t e r H o r i z o n a n dN u c l e a r & R a d i o l o g i c a l I n c i d e n t s The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill shares many of the same challenges associated with a radiological incident like the one considered in the Empire 09 1 exercise or even a much larger nuclear incident. By analyzing experiences during Deepwater Horizon, these challenges can be identified by the interagency in advance of a radiological or nuclear emergency and solutions made available. Establishing and staffing a UnifiEd Command strUCtUrE The demands of Deepwater Horizon challenged the traditional response construct envisioned by national planning systems.

215

A SUMMARY OF INCIDENTS INVOLVING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES, JANUARY-DECEMBER 1956  

SciTech Connect

Pertinert details of the incidents are given. Some are illustrated with photographs or diagrams. (M.H.R.)

Hayes, D.F.

1957-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

McClellan, CA 95652 and J. Volk, FNAL, Batavia, Il 60510,current range Wolf and J. Volk, “Radiation Damage StudiesJ. Spencer, Z. Wolf and J. Volk, “Radiation Damage diation

Spencer, J.; Anderson, S. D.; Wolf, Z.; Volk, J. T.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Damages to DNA that result in neoplastic transformation  

SciTech Connect

Some topics discussed are: correlation between carcinogens and mutagens; defective DNA repair in uv-damaged xeroderma pigmentosum cells; analysis of nucleotide damage to DNA following exposure to chemicals or radiations; photoreactivation in uv-irradiated Escherichia coli; tumor development in fish; excision repair as an aid in identifying damage; detection of excision repair; role of endonucleases in repair of uv damage; and alkylation products and tumors. (HLW)

Setlow, R.B.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Analysis of Pump-Turbine S Instability and Reverse Waterhammer Incidents in Hydropower Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic systems continually experience dynamic transients or oscillations which threaten the hydroelectric plant from extreme water hammer pressures or resonance. In particular, the minimum pressure variations downstream of the turbine runner during the load rejection or other events may cause dangerous water column separation and subsequent rejoinder. Water column separation can be easily observed from the measurements of site transient tests, and has indeed caused serious historical damages to the machine and water conveyance system. Several technical issues regarding water column separation in draft tubes, including S instability of turbine characteristic curves, numerical instability and uncertainty of computer programs, are discussed here through case studies and available model and site test data. Catastrophic accidents experienced at a Kaplan turbine and in a long tailrace tunnel project, as well as other troubles detected in a more timely fashion, are revisited in order to demonstrate the severity of reverse water hammer. However, as there is no simple design solutions for such complex systems, this paper emphasizes that the design of hydraulic systems is always difficult, difficulties that are compounded when the phenomena in question are non-linear (water hammer), dynamic (involving wave interaction and complex devices of turbines, controls, and electrical systems), and non-monotonic (severity of response is seldom simply connected to severity of load as with vibrations and resonance, and the complexity of transient loads), and thus may lead to high economic and safety challenges and consequences.

Pejovic, Dr. Stanislav [University of Toronto; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto; Gajic, Prof. Aleksandar [University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous.

Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18 deg. asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage ({Phi}) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation ({Psi}) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation ({Theta}) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

Smither, R. K.; Fernandez, P. B.; Mills, D. M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Graber, T. J. [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

HERS experiment cause for confidence.  

SciTech Connect

At last April's Affordable Comfort conference, I conducted a small HERS (home energy ratings) experiment to examine the relative variability of ratings in new and older homes. The experiment grew out of discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Senior Researcher Mark Ternes and EPA Energy Specialist Mia South about how good the HERS tools currently employed in the new homes market are at identifying cost-effective conservation measures in existing homes. Older homes present challenges for raters that may not generally exist in new construction. These include the absence of blueprints, the inability to interview the builder, the difficulty of identifying the operating efficiency of installed equipment, and different envelope characteristics within the home caused by partial remodels over the years. For precisely these reasons, the need for accurate ratings of older homes is acute. The efficacy of ratings in existing homes hinges on two questions: How accurate are the ratings in existing homes? and, How much does accuracy matter to the selection of conservation measures? A small experiment was organized to test the variability of ratings. Two homes were chosen to represent the very broad spectra that raters can find in the new-construction and existing-home housing stock. The new home in Park Ridge, Illinois, is typical in size and layout of the homes being built in the suburbs around Chicago. This four-bedroom, two-story house with finished basement measures slightly more than 4,000 ft{sup 2}, including the basement. The older home is located in Elgin, Illinois, and was built before 1940, probably sometime in the '20s or '30s. This two-bedroom house has a basement in which the furnace, water heater, clothes washer, and dryer are located. The raters disagreed as to whether the basement should be considered part of the conditioned space. Excluding the basement area, the house measurement approximately 1,000 ft{sup 2}. The rating process included a site visit to measure the homes features, inspection of the blueprints for the new home (none existed for the Elgin home), and a blower door test. After the raters completed their analysis, I examined the effect that the variability of ratings for the Elgin home had on choices for energy conservation measures. Although the sample was small, the results of this experiment are valuable. They may be summarized as follows: First, the ratings that different analysts estimated varied more widely for the older home than they did for the new home. Second, for the older home, the identification of cost-effective energy conservation measures was insensitive to the variation in ratings. Clearly, these findings need to be verified in further experiments. But it is noteworthy that the separate ratings of the new home were in such good agreement, and that cost-effective efficiency recommendations can be arrived at even when divergences exist in the absolute rating value. These findings also suggest that it is appropriate to have confidence in ratings as a tool for identifying cost-effective energy measures in older housing stock.

Cavallo, J. D.; Energy Systems

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing a gas condensate reservoir and questions were raised about how much drop in flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. Previous attempts to answer these questions have been from the perspective of a radial model. Condensate builds up in the reservoir as the reservoir pressure drops below the dewpoint pressure. As a result, the gas moving to the wellbore becomes leaner. With respect to the study by El-Banbi and McCain, the gas production rate may stabilize, or possibly increase, after the period of initial decline. This is controlled primarily by the condensate saturation near the wellbore. This current work has a totally different approach. The effects of reservoir depletion are minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. It also assumes an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture and uses a linear model. During the research, gas condensate simulations were performed using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums  

SciTech Connect

The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, most treatises about steam turbines have concentrated on thermo-dynamics or design. In contrast, the primary focus of this book is on the problems that occur in the turbine steam path. Some of these problems have been long known to the industry, starting as early as A. Stodola's work at the turn of the century in which mechanisms such as solid particle erosion, corrosion and liquid droplet damage were recognized. What we have tried to do here is to provide, in a single, comprehensive refere...

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

225

Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor building  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes assumptions and procedures used to perform thermal damage analysis caused by post loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) hydrogen deflagration at Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. Examination of available photographic evidence yields data on the extent and range of thermal and burn damage. Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. A control pendant from the polar crane located in the top of the reactor building sustained asymmetric burn damage of decreasing degree from top to bottom. Evidence suggests the polar-crane pendant side that experienced heaviest damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations approximate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building and support for an estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen.

Alvares, N.J.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Calculation of complex DNA damage induced by ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper is devoted to the analysis of the complex damage of DNA irradiated by ions. The assessment of complex damage is important because cells in which it occurs are less likely to survive because the DNA repair mechanisms may not be sufficiently effective. We study the flux of secondary electrons through the surface of nucleosomes and calculate the radial dose and the distribution of clustered damage around the ion's path. The calculated radial dose distribution is compared to simulations. The radial distribution of the complex damage is found to be different from that of the dose. A comparison with experiments may solve the question of what is more lethal for the cell, damage complexity or absorbed energy. We suggest a way to calculate the probability of cell death based on the complexity of the damage. This work is done within the framework of the phenomenon-based multiscale approach to radiation damage by ions.

Surdutovich, Eugene [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gallagher, David C. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Solov'yov, Andrey V. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Connecting Chromatin Modifying Factors to DNA Damage Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Cells are constantly damaged by factors that can induce DNA damage. Eukaryotic cells must rapidly load DNA repair proteins onto damaged chromatin during the DNA damage response (DDR). Chromatin-remodeling complexes use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and have well-established functions in transcription. Emerging lines of evidence indicate that chromatin-remodeling complexes are important and may remodel nucleosomes during DNA damage repair. New studies also reveal that ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling is involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction pathways, and interaction and modification of DDR-related proteins that are specifically and intimately connected with the process of DNA damage. This article summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between chromatin remodeling and DNA damage response.

Weiwei Lai; Hongde Li; Shuang Liu; Yongguang Tao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Application of nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy to discern material damage  

SciTech Connect

Materials containing structural damage have a far greater nonlinear elastic response than materials with no structural damage. This is the basis for nonlinear wave diagnostics of damage, methods which are remarkably sensitive to the detection and progression of damage in materials. Here the authors describe one nonlinear method, the application of harmonics and sum and difference frequency to discern damage in materials. The method is termed Nonlinear Wave Modulation Spectroscopy (NWMS). It consists of exciting a sample with continuous waves of two separate frequencies simultaneously, and inspecting the harmonics of the two waves, and their sum and difference frequencies (sidebands). Undamaged materials are essentially linear in their response to the two waves, while the same material, when damaged, becomes highly nonlinear, manifested by harmonics and sideband generation. The authors illustrate the method by experiments on uncracked and cracked plexiglass and sandstone samples, and by applying it to intact and damaged engine components.

Johnson, P.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sutin, A. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States); Abeele, K.E.A. van den [Catholic Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Building Physics

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Proton damage effects on light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effects of 16-MeV proton irradiation on the performance of a variety of light emitting diodes (LED's) emitting between 820 and 1300 nm. Total light output and current were measured at room temperature as a function of forward bias prior to and following a sequence of room temperature 16-MeV proton irradiations. Our results indicate that the relative amount of proton-induced degradation from one LED type to another is similar to that observed for neutron and gamma irradiations. More specifically, the most sensitive device is the amphoterically Si-doped GaAs LED which is characterized by a long preirradiation minority carrier lifetime. The most resistant LEDs are the high radiance GaAlAs (820 nm) and InGaAsP (1300 nm) LEDs. As in the case of Si devices, the degradation rate per irradiating particle fluence is significantly greater for proton irradiation of these LEDs than it is for neutron exposure. Neutron damage data presented herein indicate that the ratio of proton-to-neutron degradation rates can be as high as 100. Lifetime-damage constant products for constant current operation are calculated for each LED type and vary from 1.5 x 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 2//p for the InGaAsP LED to 1.1 x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2//p for the amphoterically Si-doped GaAs LED.

Rose, B.H.; Barnes, C.E.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

fund in the event of certain nuclear incidents. Section 934 authorizes the Secretary of Energy (''Secretary'') to issue regulations establishing a retrospective risk pooling...

231

Federal Response Assets for a Radioactive Dispersal Device Incident  

SciTech Connect

If a large scale RDD event where to occur in New York City, the magnitude of the problem would likely exceed the capabilities of City and State to effectively respond to the event. New York State could request Federal Assistance if the United States President has not already made the decision to provide it. The United States Federal Government has a well developed protocol to respond to emergencies. The National Response Framework (NRF) describes the process for responding to all types of emergencies including RDD incidents. Depending on the location and type of event, the NRF involves appropriate Federal Agencies, e.g., Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), United States Coast Guard (USCG), Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Justice (DOJ), Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Federal response to emergencies has been refined and improved over the last thirty years and has been tested on natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes and floods), man-made disasters (oil spills), and terrorist events (9/11). However, the system has never been tested under an actual RDD event. Drills have been conducted with Federal, State, and local agencies to examine the initial (early) phases of such an event (TopOff 2 and TopOff 4). The Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) incidents issued by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in August 2008 has never been fully tested in an interagency exercise. Recently, another exercise called Empire 09 that was situated in Albany, New York was conducted. Empire 09 consists of 3 different exercises be held in May and June, 2009. The first exercise, May 2009, involved a table top exercise for phase 1 (0-48 hours) of the response to an RDD incident. In early June, a full-scale 3- day exercise was conducted for the mid-phase response (48 hours +). A few weeks later, a one day full-scale exercise was conducted for the late phase (recovery) response to an RDD event. The lessons learned from this study are not available as of June 30, 2009. The objective of this report is to review and summarize anticipated Federal and State response actions and the roles and responsibilities of various agencies (DHS, EPA, DOE, NY-DEP, NY-DEC) with respect to decontamination issues that would arise from a radiological dispersion device (RDD), e.g., dirty bomb attack. These issues arise in the late phase of the response (48 hours and beyond) after the area has been stabilized and forensic information has been obtained. Much of the information provided in this report is taken directly from published guidance that is readily available.

Sullivan,T.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE INCIDENCE OF GALACTIC TIDAL FEATURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a sample of 54 galaxy clusters (0.04 < z < 0.15) containing 3551 early-type galaxies suitable for study, we identify those with tidal features both interactively and automatically. We find that {approx}3% have tidal features that can be detected with data that reach a 3{sigma} sensitivity limit of 26.5 mag arcsec{sup -2}. Regardless of the method used to classify tidal features, or the fidelity imposed on such classifications, we find a deficit of tidally disturbed galaxies with decreasing clustercentric radius that is most pronounced inside of {approx}0.5 R{sub 200}. We cannot distinguish whether the trend arises from an increasing likelihood of recent mergers with increasing clustercentric radius or a decrease in the lifetime of tidal features with decreasing clustercentric radius. We find no evidence for a relationship between local density and the incidence of tidal features, but our local density measure has large uncertainties. We find interesting behavior in the rate of tidal features among cluster early-types as a function of clustercentric radius and expect such results to provide constraints on the effect of the cluster environment on the structure of galaxy halos, the build-up of the red sequence of galaxies, and the origin of the intracluster stellar population.

Adams, Scott M.; Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Development of metrology instruments for grazing incidence mirrors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effective utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) from high-brightness sources requires the use of optical components with very smooth surfaces and extremely precise shapes. Most manufacturers are not capable of measuring the figure and finish quality of the aspheric optics required for use in grazing incidence beam lines. Over the past several years we have developed measurement techniques and metrology instrumentation that have allowed us to measure the surface profile and roughness of large cylinder optics, up to one meter in length. Based on our measurements and feedback, manufacturers have been able to advance the state-of-the-art in mirror fabrication and are now able to produce acceptable components. Our analysis techniques enable designers to write meaningful specifications and predict the performance of real surfaces in their particular beamline configurations. Commercial instruments are now available for measuring surface microroughness with spatial periods smaller than about one millimeter. No commercial instruments are available for measuring the surface figure on cylindrical aspheres over long spatial periods, from one millimeter up to one meter. For that reason we developed a Long Trace Profiler (LTP) that measures surface profile over the long period range in a non-contact manner to extremely high accuracy. Examples of measured surfaces and data analysis techniques will be discussed, and limitations on the quality of optical surfaces related to intrinsic material properties will also be discussed. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Church, E.L. (Army Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (USA)); Qian, Shi-nan (China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH (China). Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Liu, Wuming (Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

K. Slifer

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavements are a major part of the infrastructure in the United States. Moisture damage of these pavements is a significant problem. To predict and prevent this kind of moisture damage a great deal of research has been performed on this issue in past. This study validates an analytical approach based on surface energy aimed at assessing moisture damage. Two types of bitumen and three aggregates are evaluated in the study. The two types of bitumen represent very different chemical extremes and the three aggregates (a limestone, siliceous gravel, and granite) represent a considerable range in mineralogy. Moisture damage was monitered as a change in dynamic modulus with load cycles. The analysis demonstrates the need to consider mixture compliance as well as bond energy in order to predict moisture damage. Mixtures with the two types of bitumen and each aggregate with and without hydrated lime were evaluated. The hydrated lime substantially improved the resistance of the mixture to moisture damage.

Shah, Brij D.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} federal nuclear facility, located in western South Carolina along the Savannah

Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} federal nuclear facility, located in western South Carolina along the Savannah

Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

1\\ performance hv the Toxic Avengers theater group dramatizes an incident in which an worker suffered brain damage at a toxic waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this case, partly because the :ttl movement is itself rooted in what be termed the 'South within the North

Kammen, Daniel M.

239

Plasma particle and energy reflection at a wall with an obliquely incident magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The particle and energy reflection coefficients are calculated for a plasma incident at a wall with an obliquely incident magnetic field. The salient result of these calculations is that the reflection coefficients can approach unity when the magnetic field is incident at grazing angles. This reflection of particles and energy will be an important process in determining the particle and energy balance in the edge plasma.

Knize, R.J.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Erosion and Sediment Damages and Economic Impacts of Potential 208 Controls: A Summary of Five Watershed Studies in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report summarizes results of economic analyses of erosion and sedimentation in five agricultural watersheds in Texas (see fig. 1). Economic analyses of the study areas considered both the on-farm economics of soil conservation and the economic consequences of various sedimentation control options. These topics were joined in the studies because they deal with different facets of the same problem. Unlike some potential pollutants, soil particles transported from a farmer's field that may become a problem downstream are a valuable resource, not a waste product. Because soil is valuable in itself, some level of soil conservation is going to be economically desirable even if downstream damages are not present or are not considered by the farmer. Results of the studies show that soil conservation does indeed pay in many situations and that its value is greater the longer the planning horizon of a farmer. This suggests that an educational program in this regard may reduce sediment damage while increasing farm income at the same time . Sediment can cause environmental damage (off-site costs) both directly and indirectly. Directly, the soil particles can cause environmental damage by filling up reservoirs and flood control structures and by deposition in other places. Indirectly, sediment can cause environmental costs by carrying plant nutrients that are potential pollutants. For the study watersheds, no evidence was found that the concentration of plant nutrients in the water posed health hazards to livestock or humans, nor caused undue eutrophication in the watersheds. Consequently, the study focused on off-site sediment damages resulting from shortened economic lives of reservoir and flood control structures and from sediment deposition in the watershed. Annualized off-site sediment damages ranged from a high of 26 cents per ton of gross erosion in Lake Lavon watershed to 14 cents per ton of gross erosion in Duck Creek, to 13.5 cents per ton of gross erosion in Lower Running Water Draw, to a negligible amount in Turkey Creek and Cameron County. These estimates are considerably lower than off-site sediment damages in corn belt watersheds (Lee & Guntermann). Policy Options for Controlling Sediment Public policies that can be implemented to abate off-site sediment damages include direct regulation, provision of economic incentives, education, and public investment. For point sources of pollutants, regulations are typically directed toward the pollutant at or near the point of emission into waterways. However, this is infeasible with non-point sources such as sediment because they enter waterways at an infinite number of points. Hence, regulations must be directed toward the practices that cause erosion and thus sedimentation. The economic incentive option includes alternatives such as Federal or State cost-sharing for adoption of conservation practices, and disincentives such as taxes or penalties on erosion. Education is a viable policy option in situations where producers are not adopting soil conservation practices that would be profitable. In these situations a successful education program would increase producer's income as well as reducing off-site sediment damages. Public investment could be used to pay for dredging sediment from reservoirs and flood control structures to prevent loss of flood control, water supply and recreational benefits. Social benefits and costs of various policy options based on direct regulation, taxation, and provision of economic incentives were estimated for three watersheds: Lake Lavon, Duck Creek, and Lower Running Water Draw. Items considered in the benefit-cost analysis were: (a) farm income consequences; (b) off-site sediment damages abated; (c) governmental cost or revenue; and (d) administration and enforcement costs associated with each policy. The major conclusion of this social benefit and cost analysis is that off-site damages are not large enough to warrant controls on agricultural activities in any of the watersheds; that i

Taylor, C. R.; Reneau, D. R.; Harris, B. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Analysis of the HSEES Chemical Incident Database Using Data and Text Mining Methodologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical incidents can be prevented or mitigated by improving safety performance and implementing the lessons learned from past incidents. Despite some limitations in the range of information they provide, chemical incident databases can be utilized as sources of lessons learned from incidents by evaluating patterns and relationships that exist between the data variables. Much of the previous research focused on studying the causal factors of incidents; hence, this research analyzes the chemical incidents from both the causal and consequence elements of the incidents. A subset of incidents data reported to the Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) chemical incident database from 2002-2006 was analyzed using data mining and text mining methodologies. Both methodologies were performed with the aid of STATISTICA software. The analysis studied 12,737 chemical process related incidents and extracted descriptions of incidents in free-text data format from 3,316 incident reports. The structured data was analyzed using data mining tools such as classification and regression trees, association rules, and cluster analysis. The unstructured data (textual data) was transformed into structured data using text mining, and subsequently analyzed further using data mining tools such as, feature selections and cluster analysis. The data mining analysis demonstrated that this technique can be used in estimating the incident severity based on input variables of release quantity and distance between victims and source of release. Using the subset data of ammonia release, the classification and regression tree produced 23 final nodes. Each of the final nodes corresponded to a range of release quantity and, of distance between victims and source of release. For each node, the severity of injury was estimated from the observed severity scores' average. The association rule identified the conditional probability for incidents involving piping, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene in the value of 0.19, 0.04, 0.12, and 0.04 respectively. The text mining was utilized successfully to generate elements of incidents that can be used in developing incident scenarios. Also, the research has identified information gaps in the HSEES database that can be improved to enhance future data analysis. The findings from data mining and text mining should then be used to modify or revise design, operation, emergency response planning or other management strategies.

Mahdiyati, -

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

NIST SP 800-83, Guide to Malware Incident Prevention and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Special Publication 800-83 Sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security Guide to Malware Incident Prevention and Handling ...

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

ORNL analysis predicts losses from extreme weather damage could...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORNL analysis predicts losses from extreme weather damage could double by 2050 Researcher tackles unprecedented county-by-county economic loss forecast Research in impacts,...

244

A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II. Presentation Title, A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling ...

245

Brief Review of Building Damage by The 2011 Tohoku Japan ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the coast of Japan, damages of many buildings and residential land by ... BRI) and the National Institute for Land & Infrastructure Management (NILIM ...

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

246

MEASUREMENT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF DAMAGED ENERGETIC MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

We recently conducted damaged experiments on three explosives (mechanical damage on LX-04 and thermal experiments on HPP and PBXN-9) and characterized the effect of damage on some material properties. The MTS equipment was used to apply compressive cycling to LX-04 pressed parts and the results showed that older LX-04 parts became mechanically weaker than newer parts. After repeated compressive cycling for over 20,000 times, older LX-04 parts failed but newer LX-04 parts survived. Thermal insults were applied to PBXN-9 and HPP at 180 C and 200 C, respectively in unconfined conditions for several hours. The thermally-damaged HPP sample suffered 12.0% weight losses and a volume expansion of 20% was observed. Porosity of the damaged HPP increased to 25% after thermal exposure, which led to higher gas permeability. Burn rates of damaged PBXN-9 were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of pristine samples but burn rates of damaged HPP were only slightly higher than those of pristine HPP. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability at high temperatures were made on HPP samples and the results showed that the gas permeability increased by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude.

Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Dehaven, M; Chidester, S; Glascoe, L; Hoffman, M; Maienschein, J L

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

247

COURSE NOTES: Radiation Damage in Metals (NEEP 541)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 10, 2007 ... "Radiation Damage in Metals (NEEP 541)." Department of Engineering Physics. Fall 2005. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Launch Site

248

Neutronics and radiation damage calculations for fusion reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some of the neutronics calculations that have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assess radiation damage problems in fusion reactors are presented and discussed.

Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Gabriel, T.A.; Santoro, R.T.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Understanding How Damages Are Determined in Patent Litigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding How Damages Are Determined in Patent Litigation. Arnold B. Silverman. The owner of a U.S. patent has the right to prevent others from making , ...

250

Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation Francis Cucinotta NASA Johnson Space Center Abstract Modular systems...

251

Identification of Damage Modes in Ceramic Matrix Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis and Modeling of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) in Ceramic Matrix ... and Microstructure of Alumina Composites for Energy Efficient Sliding Systems.

252

Lumber-Wood Products - ASDs and Lighting Ballasts Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents the investigation of equipment damage to adjustable speed drives (ASDs) and lighting ballasts at a hardwood floor manufacturing facility.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS REPORT OF PLUTONIUM SPILL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... research reactor, supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in ... root cause analysis of a major oil pipeline rupture and spill in a ...

254

Coccidioidomycosis Incidence in Arizona Predicted by Seasonal Precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The environmental mechanisms that determine the inter-annual and seasonal variability in incidence of coccidioidomycosis are unclear. In this study, we use Arizona coccidioidomycosis case data for 1995–2006 to generate a timeseries of monthly estimates of exposure rates in Maricopa County, AZ and Pima County, AZ. We reveal a seasonal autocorrelation structure for exposure rates in both Maricopa County and Pima County which indicates that exposure rates are strongly related from the fall to the spring. An abrupt end to this autocorrelation relationship occurs near the the onset of the summer precipitation season and increasing exposure rates related to the subsequent season. The identification of the autocorrelation structure enabled us to construct a ‘‘primary’ ’ exposure season that spans August-March and a ‘‘secondary’ ’ season that spans April– June which are then used in subsequent analyses. We show that October–December precipitation is positively associated with rates of exposure for the primary exposure season in both Maricopa County (R = 0.72, p = 0.012) and Pima County (R = 0.69, p = 0.019). In addition, exposure rates during the primary exposure seasons are negatively associated with concurrent precipitation in Maricopa (R = 20.79, p = 0.004) and Pima (R = 20.64, p = 0.019), possibly due to reduced spore dispersion. These associations enabled the generation of models to estimate exposure rates for the primary exposure season. The models explain 69 % (p = 0.009) and 54 % (p = 0.045) of the variance in the study period for Maricopa and Pima counties, respectively. We did not find any significant predictors for exposure rates during the secondary season. This study

James D. Tamerius; Andrew C. Comrie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

On the Incidence and Kinematics of Strong Mg II Absorbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of two investigations into the nature of strong (rest equivalent width > 1.0 Ang) Mg II absorption systems at high redshift. The first line of questioning examines the complete SDSS- DR3 set of quasar spectra to determine the evolution of the incidence of strong Mg II absorption. The redshift evolution of the comoving line-of-sight number density, l(x), is characterized by a roughly constant value at z > 0.8, indicating that the product of the number density and gas cross-section of halos hosting strong Mg II is unevolving at these redshifts. At z gas cross-section to strong Mg II absorption and therefore a decline in the physical processes relevant to such absorption. This evolution roughly tracks the global evolution of the SFR density. The decrease of l(x) is more pronounced for larger equivalent width systems. We also present the results of a search for strong Mg II absorption in 91 high resolution quasar spectra, which allow us to investigate the kinematics of such systems. These systems are characterized by the presence of numerous components spread over a ~200 km/s velocity width and the presence of more highly ionized species, which display kinematic profiles similar to the corresponding Mg II absorption. We consider these results in light of two competing theories to explain strong Mg II absorption: post-starburst, SN-driven galactic winds and accreting gas in the halos of massive galaxies. The later model is disfavored by the absence of evolution in l(x) at z > 1. We argue that the strong Mg II phenomenon primarily arises from feedback processes in relatively low mass galactic halos related to star formation.

Gabriel E. Prochter; Jason X. Prochaska; Scott Burles

2004-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

256

Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort  

SciTech Connect

High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)] [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark) [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark)] [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: {yields} Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. {yields} We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. {yields} No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. {yields} Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

Kulich, M., E-mail: kulich@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Sokolovska 83, CZ-186 75 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Rericha, V. [Regional Hospital Pribram (Czech Republic)] [Regional Hospital Pribram (Czech Republic); Rericha, R. [Center of Epidemiological Studies, Pribram (Czech Republic)] [Center of Epidemiological Studies, Pribram (Czech Republic); Shore, D.L. [Westat, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)] [Westat, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, D.P. [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method and apparatus for reducing diffraction-induced damage in high power laser amplifier systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-focusing damage caused by diffraction in laser amplifier systems may be minimized by appropriately tailoring the input optical beam profile by passing the beam through an aperture having a uniform high optical transmission within a particular radius r.sub.o and a transmission which drops gradually to a low value at greater radii. Apertures having the desired transmission characteristics may readily be manufactured by exposing high resolution photographic films and plates to a diffuse, disk-shaped light source and mask arrangement.

Campillo, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Newnam, Brian E. (Los Alamos, NM); Shapiro, Stanley L. (Los Alamos, NM); Terrell, Jr., N. James (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

An analysis of the kinetics of thermal damage and movement of damage front in laser irradiated egg white  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some of the major applications of laser surgery involve the photocoagulation of diseased tissue, with minimal or no damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. There is a growing need for a model for the quantification of thermal damage. The models presently available in the literature assume biological tissue to be composed of a single component having a single rate of damage. But recent studies have shown that a distribution of rate parameters rather than a single rate parameter, best describes the process of thermal coagulation. This study assumes tissue to be composed of two or more components, having different rates of damage. The results of this model are then used to find an effective rate of damage for a single rate model which would yield the same end concentrations as the multi rate model. Results indicate that the difference between the single rate and the multi rate predictions is highly predominant for relatively lower power settings, for the biokinetic coefficient values used in this research. As the power is increased, a single rate model effectively describes a multi rate model, in the prediction of damage and movement of damage front. The movement of damage front was also studied experimentally using Digital Image Processing techniques. The damage model predicted by this study qualitatively follows the theoretical models available in the literature.

Azeemi, Aamer Amjed

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Radiation damage to amorphous carbon thin films irradiated by multiple 46.9 nm laser shots below the single-shot damage threshold  

SciTech Connect

High-surface-quality amorphous carbon (a-C) optical coatings with a thickness of 45 nm, deposited by magnetron sputtering on a silicon substrate, were irradiated by the focused beam of capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar extreme ultraviolet laser (CDL=capillary-discharge laser; XUV=extreme ultraviolet, i.e., wavelengths below 100 nm). The laser wavelength and pulse duration were 46.9 nm and 1.7 ns, respectively. The laser beam was focused onto the sample surface by a spherical Sc/Si multilayer mirror with a total reflectivity of about 30%. The laser pulse energy was varied from 0.4 to 40 muJ on the sample surface. The irradiation was carried out at five fluence levels between 0.1 and 10 J/cm{sup 2}, accumulating five different series of shots, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40. The damage to the a-C thin layer was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC) optical microscopy. The dependence of the single-shot-damaged area on pulse energy makes it possible to determine a beam spot diameter in the focus. Its value was found to be equal to 23.3+-3.0 mum using AFM data, assuming the beam to have a Gaussian profile. Such a plot can also be used for a determination of single-shot damage threshold in a-C. A single-shot threshold value of 1.1 J/cm{sup 2} was found. Investigating the consequences of the multiple-shot exposure, it has been found that an accumulation of 10, 20, and 40 shots at a fluence of 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}, i.e., below the single-shot damage threshold, causes irreversible changes of thin a-C layers, which can be registered by both the AFM and the DIC microscopy. In the center of the damaged area, AFM shows a-C removal to a maximum depth of 0.3, 1.2, and 1.5 nm for 10-, 20- and 40-shot exposure, respectively. Raman microprobe analysis does not indicate any change in the structure of the remaining a-C material. The erosive behavior reported here contrasts with the material expansion observed earlier [L. Juha et al., Proc. SPIE 5917, 91 (2005)] on an a-C sample irradiated by a large number of femtosecond pulses of XUV high-order harmonics.

Juha, L.; Hajkova, V.; Vorlicek, V. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chalupsky, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Ritucci, A.; Reale, A.; Zuppella, P. [Department of Physics, University of L'Aquila, gc Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-INFN), 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila (Italy); Stoermer, M. [GKSS Research Center, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Detection of Storm Damage Tracks with EOS Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (pathlength and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explores the ...

Gary J. Jedlovec; Udaysankar Nair; Stephanie L. Haines

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Micro-crack Damage Evolution of Fracturing Rock Chaotic Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chaotic theory and bifurcation of modern nonlinear science were used to study the evolution of micro-cracks under the hydraulic fracturing of the rock mass characteristics, the tensor damage variable which described the chao evolution of micro-cracks ... Keywords: chaos theory, bifurcation theory, damage evolution

Zhaowan Chun; Wang Tingting

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Components of an Incident Management Simulation and Gaming Framework and Related Developments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nation's emergency responders need to work in a coordinated, well-planned manner to best mitigate the impact of an emergency incident. They need to be trained and ready to act in view of the increased security threat. The training has been traditionally ... Keywords: architecture, component, emergency response, gaming, incident management, integration, modeling, simulation

Sanjay Jain; Charles R. Mclean

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

On the Surface Temperature Sensitivity of the Reflected Shortwave, Outgoing Longwave, and Net Incident Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global-mean top-of-atmosphere incident solar radiation (ISR) minus the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and the reflected shortwave radiation (RSW) is the net incident radiation (NET). This study analyzes the global-mean NET sensitivity to a ...

Hartmut H. Aumann; Alexander Ruzmaikin; Ali Behrangi

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Effects of Pulse Duration on Bulk Laser Damage in 350-nm Raster-Scanned DKDP  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present the results of bulk damage experiments done on Type-I1 DKDP triple harmonic generator crystals that were raster conditioned with 351-355 nm wavelengths and pulse durations of 4 and 23.2 ns. In the first phase of experiments 20 different scan protocols were rastered into a sample of rapid growth DKDP. The sample was then rastered at damage-causing fluences to determine the three most effective protocols. These three protocols were scanned into a 15-cm sample of conventional-growth DKDP and then exposed to single shots of a I-cm beam from LLNL's Optical Sciences Laser at fluences ranging from 0.5 - 1.5X of the 10% damage probability fluence and nominal pulse durations of 0.1,0.3,0.8,3.2,7.0 and 20 ns. The experiment showed that pulse durations in the 1-3 ns range were much more effective at conditioning than pulses in the 16.3 ns range and that the multiple pass 'peak fluence' scan was more effective than the single pass 'leading edge' scan for 23.2 ns XeF scans.

Runkel, M; Bruere, J; Sell, W; Weiland, T; Milam, D; Hahn, D E; Nostrand, M C

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Collisionless absorption of light waves incident on overdense plasmas with steep density gradients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Collisionless absorption of laser light incident on overdense plasmas with steep density gradients is studied analytically and numerically. For the normal incidence case, it is shown that both sheath inverse bremsstrahlung and the anomalous skin effect are limiting cases of the same collisionless absorption mechanism. Using particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, the effects of finite sheath-transit time and finite density gradient are investigated. The analyses are extended to oblique incident cases. For p-polarized obliquely incident light, the results are significantly different from those for the normal incidence case. Most noticeable is the absorption enhancement for the p-polarized light due to the interaction of the electrons with the normal (parallel to the density gradient) component of the laser electric field in the sheath region.

Yang, T.Y.B.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.

1995-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario  

SciTech Connect

Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

268

Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice, Volume 2: Damage Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, most treatises about steam turbines have concentrated on thermo-dynamics or design. In contrast, the primary focus of this book is on the problems that occur in the turbine steam path. Some of these problems have been long known to the industry, starting as early as A. Stodola's work at the turn of the century in which mechanisms such as solid particle erosion, corrosion and liquid droplet damage were recognized. What we have tried to do here is to provide, in a single, comprehensive refere...

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cause Marketing: Spillover Effects of Cause-Related Products in a Product Portfolio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The number of firms carrying a cause-related product has significantly increased in recent years. We consider a duopoly model of competition between firms in two products to determine which products a firm will link to a cause. We first test the behavioral ... Keywords: cause marketing, experimental economics, marketing and pricing strategy, product policy

Aradhna Krishna; Uday Rajan

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Feasibility of impact-acoustic emissions for detection of damaged wheat kernels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A non-destructive, real time device was developed to detect insect damage, sprout damage, and scab damage in kernels of wheat. Kernels are impacted onto a steel plate and the resulting acoustic signal analyzed to detect damage. The acoustic signal was ... Keywords: Acoustic emissions, Insect damage kernels, Neural network, Sorting, Spectral analysis

Tom C. Pearson; A. Enis Cetin; Ahmed H. Tewfik; Ron P. Haff

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Damage Development on Stone Armored Breakwaters and Revetments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

method to calculate damage progression on a rubble-mound breakwater, revetment, or jetty trunk armor layer. The methods apply to uniform-sized armor stone (0.75W50 ? W50 ? 1.25W50, W50 = median weight of armor stone) as well as riprap (0.125W50 ? W50 ? 4W50) exposed to depthlimited wave conditions. The equations discussed herein are primarily intended to be used as part of a life-cycle analysis, to predict the damage for a series of storms throughout the lifetime of the structure. This lifecycle analysis including damage prediction allows engineers to balance initial cost with expected maintenance costs in order to reduce the overall cost of the structure. The equations are intended to provide a tool for accurate damage estimates in order to reduce the possibility of unexpected maintenance costs. INTRODUCTION: Rubble-mound breakwater, revetment, and jetty projects require accurate damage prediction as part of life-cycle analyses. But few studies have been conducted to determine damage progression on stone armor layers for variable wave conditions over the life of a structure. Previous armor stability lab studies were intended to determine damage for the peak of a design storm. As such, most previous laboratory studies were begun with an undamaged

Jeffery A. Melby

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Geomechanical modeling of reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and casing damage at the Belridge diatomite field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic, and historical well failure, production, and injection data were analyzed to guide development of three-dimensional geomechanical models of the Belridge diatomite field, California. The central premise of the numerical simulations is that spatial gradients in pore pressure induced by production and injection in a low permeability reservoir may perturb the local stresses and cause subsurface deformation sufficient to result in well failure. Time-dependent reservoir pressure fields that were calculated from three-dimensional black oil reservoir simulations were coupled uni-directionally to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir models included nearly 100,000 gridblocks (100--200 wells), and covered nearly 20 years of production and injection. The geomechanical models were meshed from structure maps and contained more than 300,000 nodal points. Shear strain localization along weak bedding planes that causes casing dog-legs in the field was accommodated in the model by contact surfaces located immediately above the reservoir and at two locations in the overburden. The geomechanical simulations are validated by comparison of the predicted surface subsidence with field measurements, and by comparison of predicted deformation with observed casing damage. Additionally, simulations performed for two independently developed areas at South Belridge, Sections 33 and 29, corroborate their different well failure histories. The simulations suggest the three types of casing damage observed, and show that although water injection has mitigated surface subsidence, it can, under some circumstances, increase the lateral gradients in effective stress, that in turn can accelerate subsurface horizontal motions. Geomechanical simulation is an important reservoir management tool that can be used to identify optimal operating policies to mitigate casing damage for existing field developments, and applied to incorporate the effect of well failure potential in economic analyses of alternative infilling and development options.

FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; DEITRICK,G.L.; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; DEROUFFIGNAC,E.P.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Incorporation of the effect of the composite electric fields of molecular ions as a simulation tool for biological damage due to heavy ion irradiation II  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a theoretical study of the DNA damage due to the effect of the composite electric fields of H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions produced from the irradiation of a heavy ion onto a cell. It is found that a much larger number of electrons, which are produced from electron impact ionization, is trapped near the track of an incident ion in the case of C{sup 6+} ion irradiation with the energy of 3 MeV/u than that of proton irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation of carbon ions may produce a larger number of cluster DNA damage than that in the irradiation of protons. This may lead to the understanding of relative biological effectiveness (RBE).

Moribayashi, Kengo [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7, Umemidai, Kizugawa-city, 619-0215 (Japan) and Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe City, 610-0394 (Japan)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

274

Damage to residential structures from surface mine blasting  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has studied the problem of cracking in residential structure walls from vibrations produced by blasting in surface mines. Direct observations were made of blasting damage consisting primarily of cosmetic cracking.

Siskind, D.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Shock induced multi-mode damage in depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent dynamic damage studies on depleted uranium samples have revealed mixed mode failure mechanisms leading to incipient cracking as well as ductile failure processes. Results show that delamination of inclusions upon compression may provide nucleation sites for damage initiation in the form of crack tip production. However, under tension the material propagates cracks in a mixed shear localization and mode-I ductile tearing and cracking. Cracks tips appear to link up through regions of severe, shear dominated plastic flow. Shock recovery experiments were conducted on a 50 mm single stage light gas gun. Serial metallographic sectioning was conducted on the recovered samples to characterize the bulk response of the sample. Experiments show delaminated inclusions due to uniaxial compression without damage propagation. Further results show the propagation of the damage through tensile loading to the incipient state, illustrating ductile processes coupled with mixed mode-I tensile ductile tearing, shear localization, and mode-I cracking in depleted uranium.

Koller, Darcie D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Development of Damage Tolerant Inco 718 for High Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

697-712. 7. M. Chang et al, Damage tolerance of alloy 718 turbine disc material,. Superalloys. 92, ed. S. Antolovitch et al. (Warrendale,. PA : TMS 1992) 446-456.

277

Spectral identification of ozone-damaged pine needles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Needles were collected from ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees at three sites in the Sierra Nevada, and were assembled into 504 samples and grouped according to five dominant live needle conditions-green, winter fleck, sucking insect damage, scale insect ...

A. V. Di Vittorio; G. S. Biging

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Jet Engine Coatings Resist Volcanic Ash Damage - Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Posted on: 4/27/2011 12:00:00 AM... Concerns about the damage that volcanic ash clouds can inflict on aircraft engines resulted in last year's $2 billion ...

279

Windspeed Analyses of Tornadoes Based on Structural Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Documentation is presented for the tornadoes of 28 June 1979 in the Iowa towns of Manson and Algona. Analyses of failed engineered and nonengineered structures are presented with an emphasis on those studies of observed damage that can form the ...

Amde M. Wolde-Tinsae; Max L. Porter; Donald I. McKeown

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Fast neutron Damage Studies on NdFeB Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Spencer, Z. Wolf and J. Volk, “Radiation Damage StudiesMcClellan, CA 95652 and J. Volk, FNAL, Batavia, Il 60510,PI), James E. Spencer, James T. Volk and Zachary R. Wolf, “

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Radiation Damage Studies with Hadrons on Materials and Electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SLAC-PUB-10534 July 2004 Radiation Damage Studies withJ. Spencer. , Z. Wolf, SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA M.J. Spencer ? Z. Wolf, SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fast neutron Damage Studies on NdFeB Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Level Dosimeters used in the SLAC Photon andNeutron Fields”, SLAC-PUB-8517, 2002. [7] G. Gross, J.SLAC-PUB-11219 May2005 Fast Neutron Damage Studies on NdFeB

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Activation and radiation damage in the environment of hadron accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A component which suffers radiation damage usually also becomes radioactive, since the source of activation and radiation damage is the interaction of the material with particles from an accelerator or with reaction products. However, the underlying mechanisms of the two phenomena are different. These mechanisms are described here. Activation and radiation damage can have far-reaching consequences. Components such as targets, collimators, and beam dumps are the first candidates for failure as a result of radiation damage. This means that they have to be replaced or repaired. This takes time, during which personnel accumulate dose. If the dose to personnel at work would exceed permitted limits, remote handling becomes necessary. The remaining material has to be disposed of as radioactive waste, for which an elaborate procedure acceptable to the authorities is required. One of the requirements of the authorities is a complete nuclide inventory. The methods used for calculation of such inventories are presented,...

Kiselev, Daniela

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Microsoft Word - SWPAIceStormDamage_021009.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy (DOE), continues to make steady progress in its efforts to restore transmission lines in Arkansas and Missouri damaged during an ice storm on January 26-27,...

287

Microsoft Word - SWPAIceStormDamage_020609.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy (DOE), continues to make steady progress in its efforts to restore transmission lines in Arkansas and Missouri damaged during a January 27-28, 2009 ice...

288

Normalized Hurricane Damages in the United States: 1925–95  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hurricanes are the costliest natural disasters in the United States. Understanding how both hurricane frequencies and intensities vary from year to year as well as how this is manifested in changes in damages that occur is a topic of great ...

Roger A. Pielke Jr.; Christopher W. Landsea

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. and Gupta, R. , “Radiation Resistant Magnets for the RIARADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS A. F.HTS materials in high radiation environments requires that

Zeller, A.F.; Ronningen, R.M.; Godeke, A.; Heilbronn, L.H.; McMahan-Norris, P.; Gupta, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of DNA Damage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Deficiency Arnold C. Huang,1,2 Chantal Courtemanche,1,2 Nicole Kerry,1,2 Susan T. Mashiyama,1,2 Michael Fenech,3...

291

Tropical Cyclone Damages in China 1983–2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on damage records released by the Department of Civil Affairs of China, direct economic losses and casualties associated with tropical cyclones that made landfall over China during 1983–2006 are examined. In an average year, landfalling ...

Qiang Zhang; Qiufeng Liu; Liguang Wu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Evaluation of Explosive Cleaning Damage in Ferritic Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities have reported boiler tube damage after explosive cleaning to control or remove slag deposits. The damage typically consists of tube crushing, denting, microcracking, and inner diameter (ID) initiated cracking. Because the latter two might not propagate through tube wall thickness initially, these types of cracking are not commonly detected during the cleaning process. However, tube failures after the boiler resumed service have been attributed to these ID-related cracking. Many utilities have r...

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa Rica | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa Rica Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa Rica Jump to: navigation, search Name Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa Rica Agency/Company /Organization Resources for the Future Sector Energy Focus Area Conventional Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.rff.org/RFF/Documen Country Costa Rica UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa Rica[1] Abstract "Although fuel taxes are a practical means of curbing vehicular air pollution, congestion, and accidents in developing countries-all of which are typically major problems-they are often opposed on distributional

294

A Simple Physical Model to Estimate Incident Solar Radiation at the Surface from GOES Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a model designed to estimate the incident solar radiation at the suface from GOES satellite brightness measurements in clear and cloudy conditions. In this simple physical model, the effect of Rayleigh scattering is taken into account. ...

Catherine Gautier; Georges Diak; Serge Masse

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Lagrangian Drifter Dispersion in the Surf Zone: Directionally Spread, Normally Incident Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian drifter statistics in a surf zone wave and circulation model are examined and compared to single- and two-particle dispersion statistics observed on an alongshore uniform natural beach with small, normally incident, directionally ...

Matthew Spydell; Falk Feddersen

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The Use of DFDR Information in the Analysis of a Turbulence Incident over Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital flight data recorder (DFDR) tapes from commercial aircraft can provide useful information about the mesoscale environment of severe turbulence incidents. Air motion computations from these data and their errors are briefly described. An ...

Peter F. Lester; Orhan Sen; R. E. Bach Jr.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Recent breast cancer incidence trends according to hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study cohort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

breast cancer incidence trends according to hormone therapyA, Ward E, Thun MJ: Recent trends in breast cancer incidencein France: a paradoxical trend. Bull Cancer 10. Katalinic A,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

US DOE/NNSA and DoD Response to 2011 Fukushima Incident: Radiological...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

US DOENNSA and DoD Response to 2011 Fukushima Incident: Radiological Soil Samples BusinessUSA DataTools Apps Challenges Let's Talk BusinessUSA You are here Data.gov ...

299

Some Effects of the Yellowstone Fire Smoke Cloud on Incident Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of the 1988 Yellowstone National Park fire, smoke cloud on incident broadband and spectral solar irradiance was studied using measurements made at the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, Golden, ...

Roland L. Hulstrom; Thomas L. Stoffel

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement Techniques  

SciTech Connect

A material subjected to radiation damage will usually experience changes in its physical properties. Measuring these changes in the physical properties provides a basis to study radiation damage in a material which is important for a variety of real world applications from reactor materials to semiconducting devices. When investigating radiation damage, the relative sensitivity of any given property can vary considerably based on the concentration and type of damage present as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. By measuring multiple physical properties, these differing sensitivities can be leveraged to provide greater insight into the different aspects of radiation damage accumulation, thereby providing a broader understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this report, self-damage from {alpha}-particle decay in Pu is investigated by measuring two different properties: magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. The results suggest that while the first annealing stage obeys second order chemical kinetics, the primary mechanism is not the recombination of vacancy-interstitial close pairs.

McCall, S K; Fluss, M J; Chung, B W

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of Moisture Damage Test Methods for Evaluatingart and Critical Review of Test Methods. ” NCAT Report No.Pavement Moisture-Damage Test. ” Transportation Research

Lu, Qing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Two gas storage fields were studied for this project. Overisel field, operated by Consumer's Energy, is located near the town of Holland, Michigan. Huntsman Storage Unit, operated by Kinder Morgan, is located in Cheyenne County, Nebraska near the town of Sidney. Wells in both fields experienced declining performance over several years of their annual injection/production cycle. In both fields, the presence of hydrocarbons, organic materials or production chemicals was suspected as the cause of progressive formation damage leading to the performance decline. Core specimens and several material samples were collected from these two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

Lawrence J. Pekot

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

Estimate of Undulator Magnet Damage Due to Beam Finder Wire Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beam Finder Wire (BFW) devices will be installed at each break in the Undulator magnet line. These devices will scan small wires across the beam causing some electrons to lose energy through bremsstrahlung. The degraded electrons are subsequently detected downstream of a set of vertical dipole magnets after they pass through the vacuum chamber. This signal can then be used to accurately determine the beam position with respect to the BFW wire. The choice of the wire diameter, scan speed, and operating parameters, depends on the trade-off between the signal size and the radiation damage to the undulator magnets. In this note I estimate the rate of undulator magnet damage that results from scanning as a function of, wire size, scan speed, and average beam current. A separate analysis of the signal size was carried out by Wu. The damage estimate is primarily based on two sources: the first, Fasso, is used to estimate the amount of radiation generated and then absorbed by the magnets; the second, Alderman et. al., is used to estimate the amount of damage the magnet undergoes as a result of the absorbed radiation. Fasso performed a detailed calculation of the radiation, including neutron fluence, that results from a the electron beam passing through a 100 micron diamond foil inserted just in front of the undulator line. Fasso discussed the signficance of various types of radiation and stated that photoneutrons probably play a major role. The estimate in this paper assumes the neutron fluence is the only significant cause of radiation-induced demagnetization. The specific results I use from Fasso's paper are reproduced here in Figure 1, which shows the radial distribution of the integrated neutron fluence per day in the undulator magnets, and Figure 2, which shows the absorbed radiation dose all along the undulator line. In the longitudinal dimension, Fasso's calculation, (see Figure 2), shows that the radiation dose is widely distributed all along the undulator line, but is highest around 70 m from the front of the undulator line where the foil is. At the 70 m point, for the purpose of calculating the demagnetization, I chose a conservative estimate for the effective neutron flux of 1.0 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/day. As can be seen in Figure 1, this choice is representative of the flux nearest the beam where it is the highest. A less conservative estimate, but perhaps more accurate, estimate of the effective flux, would be the average flux in the magnet block, which is roughly one half as much.

Welch, J.

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

304

Header and Drum Damage: Theory and Practice: Volume 1: Information Common to All Damage Types; Volume 2: Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Headers and drums represent two of the largest and most expensive components in boilers. Particularly in the case of high-temperature headers, there are considerable safety concerns when operating aging plants, and some notable failures have occurred. For these reasons, understanding the types of damage that can accumulate and dealing with that damage are vital to the safe and economic operation of fossil power plants.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPENDIX A MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES #12;A-1 APPENDIX A MEASURING IMPACTS TO BIRDS CAUSED BY WIND TURBINES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Differential composition of wind turbines at wind energy used is the number of fatalities per wind turbine per year (Anderson et al. 1999). This metric has

306

Left-over Windows Cause Window Clutter... But What Causes Left-over Windows?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Left-over Windows Cause Window Clutter... But What Causes Left-over Windows? Julie Wagner1 that they can return to later. However, users also struggle with window clutter, facing an increasing number of `left-over windows' that get in the way. Our goal is to understand how users create and cope with left

307

Factors Causing Unexpected Variations in Ada Benchmarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmarks are often used to describe the performance of computer systems. This report considers factors that may cause Ada benchmarks to produce inaccurate results. Included are examples from the ongoing benchmarking efforts of the Ada Embedded Systems Testbed (AEST) Project using bare target computers with several Ada compilers. 1. Introduction One of the goals of the Ada Embedded Systems Testbed (AEST) Project is to assess the readiness of the Ada programming language and Ada tools for developing embedded systems. The benchmarking and instrumentation subgroup within the AEST Project is running various suites of Ada benchmarks to obtain data on the real-time performance of Ada on a number of different target systems. The purpose of this report is to categorize the factors which cause anomalous results to be produced by the benchmarks. Some of these factors have been observed, while others are more speculative in nature. All these factors should be understood if accurate, comparable,...

Neal Altman; Neal Altman

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Avoiding Flicker Caused by a Tire Shredder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowing that nonlinear loads or loads with significant variations can cause sudden voltage fluctuations, or flicker, a utility decided to take preemptive action before adding a large tire shredder to its system. A flicker screening study was conducted, using a software that has been developed by EPRI that allowed the modeling of the load cycle. From the modeling results, several recommendations were made to keep flicker at an acceptable level.

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined as the progressive loss of structural integrity of the mixture that is primarily caused by the presence of moisture in liquid or vapor state. Moisture damage is associated with the development of different physical, mechanical, and chemical processes occurring within the microstructure of the mixture at different intensities and rates. Although there have been important advancements in identifying and characterizing this phenomenon, there is still a lack of understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring at the microscopic level. This situation has motivated the research work reported in this dissertation. The main objective of this dissertation is to formulate and apply a numerical micromechanical model of moisture-induced damage in asphalt mixtures. The model focuses on coupling the effects of moisture diffusion—one of the three main modes of moisture transport within asphalt mixtures—with the mechanical performance of the microstructure. Specifically, the model aims to account for the effect of moisture diffusion on the degradation of the viscoelastic bulk matrix of the mixture (i.e., cohesive degradation) and on the gradual deterioration of the adhesive bonds between the aggregates and the asphalt matrix (i.e., adhesive degradation). The micromechanical model was applied to study the role of some physical and mechanical properties of the constitutive phases of the mixtures on the susceptibility of the mixture to moisture damage. The results from this analysis suggest that the diffusion coefficients of the asphalt matrix and aggregates, as well as the bond strength of the aggregate-matrix interface, have the most influence on the moisture susceptibility of the mixtures. The micromechanical model was further used to investigate the influence of the void phase of asphalt mixtures on the generation of moisture-related deterioration processes. Two different probabilistic-based approaches were used to accomplish this objective. In the first approach, a volumetric distribution of air voids sizes measured using X-Ray Computed Tomography in a dense-graded asphalt mixture was used to generate probable void structures in a microstructure of an asphalt mixture. In the second approach, a stochastic modeling technique based on random field theory was used to generate probable air voids distributions of the mixture. In this second approach, the influence of the air voids was accounted for by making the physical and mechanical properties of the asphalt matrix dependent on probable voids distributions. Although both approaches take into consideration the characteristics of the air void phase on the mechanical response of the mixtures subjected to moist environments, the former explicitly introduces the air phase within the microstructure while the latter indirectly includes its effects by modifying the material properties of the bulk matrix. The results from these simulations demonstrated that the amount, variability and location of air voids are decisive in determining the moisture-dependent performance of asphalt mixtures. The results from this dissertation provide new information on the kinetics of moisture damage mechanisms in asphalt mixtures. In particular, the results obtained from applying the micromechanical model permitted identification of the relative influence of the characteristics of the constitutive phases of a mixture on its moisture-related mechanical performance. This information can be used as part of design methodologies of asphalt mixtures, and/or as an input in life-cycle analysis models and maintenance programs of road infrastructure.

Caro Spinel, Silvia

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Incipient and Progressive Damage in Polyethylene Under Extreme Tensile Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (Dyn-Ten-Ext) test was developed at LANL by Gray and coworkers to probe the tensile response of materials at large strains (>1) and high strain-rates (>1000/s) by firing projectiles through a conical die at 300-700 m/s. This technique has recently been applied to various polymers, such as the fluoropolymers PTFE (Teflon) and the chemically similar PCTFE, which respectively exhibited catastrophic fragmentation and distributed dynamic necking. This work details investigations of the Dyn-Ten-Ext response of high density polyethylene, both to failure and sub-critical conditions. At large extrusion ratios ({approx}7.4) and high velocities, such as those previously employed, HDPE catastrophically fragmented in a craze-like manner in the extruded jet. At more modest extrusion ratios and high velocities the specimen extruded a stable jet that ruptured cleanly, and at lower velocities was recovered intact after sustaining substantial internal damage. Thermomechanical finite element simulations showed that the damage corresponded to a locus of shear stress in the presence of hydrostatic tension. X-ray computed tomography corroborated the prediction of a shear damage mechanism by finding the region of partially damaged material to consist of macroscopic shear-mode cracks nearly aligned with the extrusion axis, originating from the location of damage inception.

Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Daniel Tito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

Length-scale Effects in Cascade Damage Production in Iron  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations provide an atomistic description of the processes that control primary radiation damage formation in atomic displacement cascades. An extensive database of simulations describing cascade damage production in single crystal iron has been compiled using a modified version of the interatomic potential developed by Finnis and Sinclair. This same potential has been used to investigate primary damage formation in nanocrystalline iron in order to have a direct comparison with the single crystal results. A statistically significant number of simulations were carried out at cascade energies of 10 keV and 20 keV and temperatures of 100 and 600K to make this comparison. The results demonstrate a significant influence of nearby grain boundaries as a sink for mobile defects during the cascade cooling phase. This alters the residual primary damage that survives the cascade event. Compared to single crystal, substantially fewer interstitials survive in the nanograined iron, while the number of surviving vacancies is similar or slightly greater than the single crystal result. The fraction of the surviving interstitials contained in clusters is also reduced. The asymmetry in the survival of the two types of point defects is likely to alter damage accumulation at longer times.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Kamenski, Paul J [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evolution of oxidation and creep damage mechanisms in HIPed silicon nitride materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several yttria-fluxed, hot-isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides have been tensile creep tested at temperatures representative of gas turbine engines. Creep and oxidation assisted damage mechanisms concurrently evolve when these materials are tested at high temperatures and low stresses (i.e., long exposure times at temperature). Atmospheric creep testing results in creation of oxygen and yttrium gradients across the radial dimension. High concentrations of oxygen and yttrium coincide with dense populations of lenticular-shaped cavities near the surface of crept specimens. The center of the tensile specimens was devoid of oxygen or yttrium; in addition, lenticular cavities were rare. The gradient in lenticular-cavity concentration is coincident with the oxygen and yttrium gradients. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) also occurs in these HIPed silicon nitrides when they are subjected to stress at high temperatures in ambient air. The size of this damage zone increases when the temperature is higher and/or the applied stress is lower. Stress-corrosion cracking initiates at the surface of the tensile specimen and advances radially inwards. What nucleates SCC has not yet been identified, but it is believed to result from a stress-concentrator (e.g., machining damage) at the surface and its growth is a result of coalescence of microcracks and cavities. The higher concentration of oxygen and yttrium in the grain boundaries near the specimen`s surface lessens the local high temperature mechanical integrity; this is believed to be associated with the growth of the SCC zone. This SCC zone continues to grow in size during tensile loading until it reaches a critical size which causes fracture.

Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Kirkland, T.P.; More, K.L.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Prevention of a wrong-location misadministration through the use of an intradepartmental incident learning system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A series of examples are presented in which potential errors in the delivery of radiation therapy were prevented through use of incident learning. These examples underscore the value of reporting near miss incidents. Methods: Using a departmental incident learning system, eight incidents were noted over a two-year period in which fields were treated 'out-of-sequence,' that is, fields from a boost phase were treated, while the patient was still in the initial phase of treatment. As a result, an error-prevention policy was instituted in which radiation treatment fields are 'hidden' within the oncology information system (OIS) when they are not in current use. In this way, fields are only available to be treated in the intended sequence and, importantly, old fields cannot be activated at the linear accelerator control console. Results: No out-of-sequence treatments have been reported in more than two years since the policy change. Furthermore, at least three near-miss incidents were detected and corrected as a result of the policy change. In the first two, the policy operated as intended to directly prevent an error in field scheduling. In the third near-miss, the policy operated 'off target' to prevent a type of error scenario that it was not directly intended to prevent. In this incident, an incorrect digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) was scheduled in the OIS for a patient receiving lung cancer treatment. The incorrect DRR had an isocenter which was misplaced by approximately two centimeters. The error was a result of a field from an old plan being scheduled instead of the intended new plan. As a result of the policy described above, the DRR field could not be activated for treatment however and the error was discovered and corrected. Other quality control barriers in place would have been unlikely to have detected this error. Conclusions: In these examples, a policy was adopted based on incident learning, which prevented several errors, at least one of which was potentially severe. These examples underscore the need for a rigorous, systematic incident learning process within each clinic. The experiences reported in this technical note demonstrate the value of near-miss incident reporting to improve patient safety.

Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Harris, Kendra; Terezakis, Stephanie [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

A simplified implementation of a gradient-enhanced damage model with transient length scale effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gradient-enhanced damage models with constant gradient activity suffer from spurious damage growth at high deformation levels. This issue was resolved by Geers et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 160(1---2):133---153, 1998) by expressing the gradient ... Keywords: Continuum damage mechanics, Gradient-enhanced damage models, Regularized media, Transient internal length scale

S. Saroukhani; R. Vafadari; A. Simone

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted Environmental Award Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted Environmental Award April 22, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An exceptional waste management project at a Texas Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site following Hurricane Ike in 2008 has won a DOE Environmental Sustainability (EStar) Award for Waste/Pollution Prevention. The award recognizes the SPR Storm Recovery Debris Waste Management Project at the Big Hill storage complex near Beaumont, Texas, which was heavily impacted by Hurricane Ike in September 2008. Selected annually by an independent panel of judges, EStar awards recognize environmental sustainability projects and programs that reduce risks and impacts, protect

316

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Protects against DNA Damage in Low  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Protects against DNA Damage in Low Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Protects against DNA Damage in Low Dose γ-Irradiated Cells Edouard Azzam New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center Abstract We have previously shown that exposure to low dose/low dose rate γ-rays can protect normal human and rodent cells against oxidative/clastogenic damages induced spontaneously or by a subsequent challenge dose of ionizing radiation. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these effects, we used amine-specific isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based approach to identify induced proteolytic events. Intriguingly, the Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) was significantly up-regulated after 10cGy (0.2cGy/h) but not after 4 Gy (1 Gy/min) in several strains of normal human fibroblasts maintained in 2- or

317

Interface modeling to predict well casing damage for big hill strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect

Oil leaks were found in well casings of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interface between the caprock and top of salt. This damage could be caused by interface movement induced by cavern volume closure due to salt creep. A three dimensional finite element model, which allows each cavern to be configured individually, was constructed to investigate shear and vertical displacements across each interface. The model contains interfaces between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interface behavior in a realistic manner. This analysis results indicate that the casings of Caverns 105 and 109 failed by shear stress that exceeded shear strength due to the horizontal movement of the top of salt relative to the caprock, and tensile stress due to the downward movement of the top of salt from the caprock, respectively. The casings of Caverns 101, 110, 111 and 114, located at the far ends of the field, are predicted to be failed by shear stress in the near future. The casings of inmost Caverns 107 and 108 are predicted to be failed by tensile stress in the near future.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Low energy electron induced damage to plasmid DNA pQE30  

SciTech Connect

Low energy electrons (LEEs) are produced in copious amounts by the primary radiation used in radiation therapy. The damage caused to the DNA by these secondary electrons in the energy range 5-22 eV has been studied to understand their possible role in radiation induced damage. Electrons are irradiated on dried films of plasmid DNA (pQE30) and analysed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Single strand breaks (SSBs) induced by LEE to supercoiled plasmid DNA show resonance structures at 7, 12, and 15 eV for low doses and 6, 10, and {approx}18 eV at saturation doses. The present measurements have an overall agreement with the literature that LEEs resonantly induce SSBs in DNA. Resonant peaks in the SSBs induced by LEEs at 7, 12, and 15 eV with the lowest employed dose in the current study are somewhat different from those reported earlier by two groups. The observed differences are perhaps related to the irradiation dose, conditions and the nature of DNA employed, which is further elaborated.

Kumar, S. V. K.; Pota, Tasneem; Peri, Dinakar; Dongre, Anushka D.; Rao, Basuthkar J. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2012-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences 35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Follow-up Audit of the Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0878  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department's Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program DOE/IG-0878 December 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits & Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 11, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Follow-up Audit of the Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program" INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy operates numerous networks and systems to help accomplish its strategic missions in the areas of energy, defense, science and the environment. The systems are frequently subjected to sophisticated cyber attacks that could impact the Department's

322

EP&R Standards Project Report: Technical Review of National Incident Management Standards  

SciTech Connect

The importance and necessity for a fully developed and implemented National Incident Management System (NIMS) has been demonstrated in recent years by the impact of national events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Throughout the history of emergency response to major disasters, especially when multiple response organizations are involved, there have been systemic problems in the consistency and uniformity of response operations. Identifying national standards that support the development and implementation of NIMS is key to helping solve these systemic problems. The NIMS seeks to provide uniformity and consistency for incident management by using common terminology and protocols that will enable responders to coordinate their efforts to ensure an efficient response.

Stenner, Robert D.

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

323

Incident-Energy Dependent Quenching of the Analyzing Power in Pre-Equilibrium Composite Particle Emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proton-induced pre-equilibrium process in the energy range of 100 to 160 MeV, which leads to emission of composite ejectiles such as {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particles, is discussed. New cross section and analyzing power measurements for the (p,{sup 3}He) reaction on {sup 93}Nb at an incident energy of 160 MeV are presented, and these are found to be in agreement with the prediction of a statistical multistep theoretical formulation. The observed quenching of the analyzing power is also reproduced well by the theory. The results are consistent with earlier work at lower incident energies and other nuclear species.

Cowley, A. A. [Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dimitrova, S. S. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zyl, J. J. van [Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

324

Analysis of the incidence angle of the beam radiation on CPC. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator  

SciTech Connect

Analytic expressions have been derived for the projected incidence angles {var theta}{sub 1} and {var theta}{sub 2} from a two-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator solar collector. For a CPC the fraction of the incident rays on the aperture at angle {var theta}, which reaches the absorber, depends only on the {var theta}{sub 1} angle. In this paper, a mathematical expression for {var theta}{sub 1} and {var theta}{sub t} has been calculated to determine the times at which acceptance of the sun's beam radiation begins and ceases for a CPC consisting of arbitrary orientation.

Pinazo, J.M.; Canada, J.; Arago, F. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mutations of the GREAT gene cause cryptorchidism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession no. AF453828 In humans, failure of testicular descent (cryptorchidism) is one of the most frequent congenital malformations, affecting 1–3 % of newborn boys. The clinical consequences of this abnormality are infertility in adulthood and a significantly increased risk of testicular malignancy. Recently, we described a mouse transgene insertional mutation, crsp, causing high intraabdominal cryptorchidism in homozygous males. A candidate gene Great (G-protein-coupled receptor affecting testis descent), was identified within the transgene integration site. Great encodes a seven-transmembrane receptor with a close similarity to the glycoprotein hormone receptors. The Great gene is highly expressed in the gubernaculum, the ligament that controls testicular movement during development, and therefore may be responsible for mediating hormonal signals that affect testicular descent. Here we show that genetic targeting of the Great gene in mice causes infertile bilateral intraabdominal cryptorchidism. The mutant gubernaculae fail to differentiate, indicating that the Great gene controls their development. Mutation screening of the human GREAT gene was performed using DHPLC analysis of the genomic DNA from 60 cryptorchid patients. Nucleotide variations in GREAT cDNA were found in both the patient and the control populations. A unique missense mutation (T222P) in the ectodomain of the GREAT receptor was identified in one of the patients. This mutant receptor fails to respond to ligand stimulation, implicating the GREAT gene in the etiology in some cases of cryptorchidism in humans.

Ivan P. Gorlov; Aparna Kamat; Natalia V. Bogatcheva; Eric Jones; Dolores J. Lamb; Anne Truong; Colin E. Bishop; Ken Mcelreavey; Er I. Agoulnik

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

17.423 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Examines the causes of war, with a focus on practical measures to prevent and control war. Topics covered include: causes and consequences of national misperception; military strategy and policy as cause of war; US foreign ...

Van Evera, Stephen

327

Analysis of Building Damages of Paste Backfill Mining under Villages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to realize coal mining in safety without moving villages, increase coal recovery ratio, solve the conflict of mining and panel relays, the scheme of paste backfill mining under villages in Xiaotun coal mine is executed, and the surface subsidence ... Keywords: Mining under Villages, Paste Backfilling, Damage Assessment, Displacement, Deformation

Chai Hua-bin; Zou You-feng; Guo Wen-bing; Chen Jun-jie

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide Irradiated in Fission Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events1. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors.

Heinisch, Howard L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Weber, William J.; Williford, Rick E.

2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

329

Considerations for Planting Corn into Damaged Fields of Wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many folks are still assessing the condition of wheat fields damaged by the low temperatures of the past week. In some situations, additional damage to wheat has occurred from standing water in fields due to frequent rains this winter and spring. Some growers may decide replanting damaged wheat fields to corn is a viable economic option. Some of the key considerations for doing so are described in this article. Killing the Remaining Stand of Wheat For damaged wheat fields that will be planted to corn, complete and timely control of the existing wheat is more important than if planting to soybean. Corn is more sensitive to early-season weed competition than soybean. Living wheat plants are essentially weeds and can absorb nitrogen and make it unavailable for the corn plants during the same growing season. Use of a glyphosate-based burndown program should include the use of glyphosate at 1.5 lb ae/A + 2.4-D at 1-2 pts/A. The herbicide 2,4-D is needed to control glyphosateresistant marestail which is very prevalent in southern Indiana and help with control of emerged common lambsquarter and ragweed. Apply in a spray volume of 10 to 15 GPA

Bill Johnson; Tony Vyn; Jim Camberato; Christian Krupke; Rl (bob Nielsen; Depts Of Botany; Plant Pathology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

Weiss, J.D.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of hurricane damage, which ...

Kerry Emanuel

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Crop-Hail Damage in the Midwest Corn Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crop-hail damage in the ten Midwest corn belt states is examined during the period 1957–81. Estimates of crop losses due to hail are made from hail insurance data for each state and each significant crop in the region. The crop-hail losses are ...

Harry J. Hillaker Jr.; Paul J. Waite

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Computational simulation of electromigration induced damage in copper interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current density levels are expected to increase by orders of magnitude in next generation power electronics and nanoelectronics. Electromigration which occur under high current density is the major concern for the nanoelectronics industry. Using a general ... Keywords: copper interconnects, damage mechanics, electromigration, electronics packaging reliability, thin film

Cemal Basaran; Minghui Lin; Shidong Li

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Probabilistic fatigue damage prognosis using maximum entropy approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al., 1979). Therefore, fatigue damage accumulation is stochastic in nature. Several physical models, parameter estimation and future inspection and maintenance need to be carefully included for risk assessment studies have been reported to combine the information obtained from inspection with the physical model

Liu, Yongming

336

Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

Not Available

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi (PhD)

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

DAMAGE TO COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS EXPOSED TO NUCLEAR EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

One equipment control building designed to be blast resistant and two each of three standardized types of metal warehouse or utility buildings were exposed to the effects of a nuclear device detonation. One of the utility buildings was frameless, with deeply corrugated wall and roof sections; a second was very largely frameless, utilizing interlocking channel sections; and in the third the aluininum-panel wall and roof covering was supported by girts and purlins, which in turn were supported by steel frames. Because of atmospheric conditions at the time of an earlier detonation in the test series, one of each of the three types of utility buildings was exposed to approximately 0.7 psi overpressure before the planned test. In the planned test one of each of the three types was exposed to approximately 3.0 psi overpressure and one to 1.3 psi, with the intention of bracketing their overpressure survival range and obtaining data for possible economic redesign for improved blast resistance. The equipment control building utilized continuous-welded steel frames and reinforced-gypsum curtain-wall construction. The control building was exposed to approximately 4.1 psi, in the anticipated fringe zone of major structural damage, to determine its protective capabilities. The blast-resistant equipment control building was nat structurally damaged by the blast, thus exceeding the expectations of the design. Each of the three utility buildings received severe damage at the near range, one being completely destroyed, whereas at the far range the damage in every case was repairable. The test results are discussed, and recommendations for improved designs are made. Damage records during the unexpected test and at the far range in the planned test are correlated by means of dynamic analyses with pressuretime data and studies of structural resintance. Pressure-time information is appended. (auth)

Johnston, B.G.

1956-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Critical Incident and Disaster Response Policy Commencement Date: 9 December, 1992  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Critical Incident and Disaster Response Policy Commencement Date: 9 December, 1992 Category STATEMENT 5.1 The University shall establish a comprehensive and integrated Disaster Response Plan and appropriate measures are in place to prevent predictable or potential disasters and possible critical

340

nicter: a large-scale network incident analysis system: case studies for understanding threat landscape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have been developing the Network Incident analysis Center for Tactical Emergency Response (nicter), whose objective is to detect and identify propagating malwares. The nicter mainly monitors darknet, a set of unused IP addresses, to observe global ... Keywords: correlation analysis, malware analysis, network monitoring

Masashi Eto; Daisuke Inoue; Jungsuk Song; Junji Nakazato; Kazuhiro Ohtaka; Koji Nakao

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Oscillating two stream instability at the resonance of obliquely incident radiation in inhomogeneous plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The growth rate and the threshold value were calculated for the oscillating two-stream instability for an electromagnetic wave obliquely incident on an inhomogeneous plasma. The localization of the instability is found to be in the overdense region near the threshold and to shift toward the local plasma resonance when the pump intensity increases. (auth)

Kuo, Y.Y.; Oberman, C.; Liu, C.S.; Troyon, F.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Emergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-492-6025. For Non-Emergency Fire and Natural Gas Questions call the CU Fire Marshall @ 303-492-4042. AdditionalEmergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas leaks, the following actions should be taken: 1) Life Safety First 2) Evacuate Immediate Area 3

Colorado at Boulder, University of

343

Revised rail-stop exposure model for incident-free transport of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a model for estimating railstop doses that occur during incident-free transport of nuclear waste by rail. The model, which has been incorporated into the RADTRAN III risk assessment code, can be applied to general freight and dedicated train shipments of waste.

Ostmeyer, R.M.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

Yang, Tengfei [Peking University; Taylor, Caitlin A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kong, Shuyan [Peking University; Wang, Chenxu [Peking University; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Huang, Xuejun [Peking University; Xue, Jianming [Peking University; Yan, Sha [Peking University; Wang, Yugang [Peking University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

Griffin, O. M.

1980-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

346

Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously present increases. The reduction of LIDT does not occur when the 2 pulses are temporally separated. This paper will also present dual wavelength LIDT results of commercial dichroic beam-combining optics simultaneously exposed with laser light at 1054nm/2.5ns and 532nm/7ns.

Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Leverage Causes Fat Tails and Clustered Volatility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We build a very simple model of leveraged asset purchases with margin calls. Investment funds use what is perhaps the most basic financial strategy, called 'value investing', i.e. systematically attempting to buy underpriced assets. When funds do not borrow, the price fluctuations of the asset are normally distributed and uncorrelated across time. All this changes when the funds are allowed to leverage, i.e. borrow from a bank, to purchase more assets than their wealth would otherwise permit. When funds use leverage, price fluctuations become heavy tailed and display clustered volatility, similar to what is observed in real markets. Previous explanations of fat tails and clustered volatility depended on 'irrational behavior', such as trend following. We show that the immediate cause of the increase in extreme risks in our model is the risk control policy of the banks: A prudent bank makes itself locally safer by putting a limit to leverage, so when a fund exceeds its leverage limit, it must partially repay it...

Thurner, Stefan; Geanakoplos, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents numerical modeling of excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, and fluid-pressure responses during excavation of the TSX tunnel at the underground research laboratory (URL) in Canada. Four different numerical models were applied, using a wide range of approaches to model damage and permeability changes in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnel. Using in situ calibration of model parameters the modeling could reproduce observed spatial distribution of damage and permeability changes around the tunnel, as a combination of disturbance induced by stress redistribution around the tunnel and by the drill-and-blast operation. The modeling showed that stress-induced permeability increase above the tunnel is a result of micro and macrofracturing under high deviatoric (shear) stress, whereas permeability increases alongside the tunnel as a result of opening of existing microfractures under decreased mean stress. The remaining observed fracturing and permeability changes around the periphery of the tunnel were attributed to damage from the drill-and-blast operation. Moreover, a reasonably good agreement was achieved between simulated and observed excavation-induced pressure responses around the TSX tunnel for 1 year following its excavation. The simulations showed that these pressure responses are caused by poroelastic effects as a result of increasing or decreasing mean stress, with corresponding contraction or expansion of the pore volume. The simulation results for pressure evolution were consistent with previous studies, indicating that the observed pressure responses could be captured in a Biot model using a relatively low Biot-Willis coefficient, {alpha} {approx} 0.2, a porosity of n {approx} 0.007, and a relatively low permeability of k {approx} 2 x 10{sup -22} m{sup 2}, which is consistent with the very tight, unfractured granite at the site.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Borgesson, Lennart; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Hernelind, Jan; Jing, Lanru; Kobayashi, Akira; Nguyen, Son

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Neutron damage reduction in a traveling wave reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traveling wave reactors are envisioned to run on depleted or natural uranium with no need for enrichment or reprocessing, and in a manner which requires little to no operator intervention. If feasible, this type of reactor has significant advantages over conventional nuclear power systems. However, a practical implementation of this concept is challenging as neutron irradiation levels many times greater than those in conventional reactors appear to be required for a fission wave to propagate. Radiation damage to the fuel and cladding materials presents a significant obstacle to a practical design. One possibility for reducing damage is to soften the neutron energy spectrum. Here we show that using a uranium oxide fuel form will allow a shift in the neutron spectrum that can result in at least a three fold decrease in dpa levels for fuel cladding and structural steels within the reactor compared with the dpa levels expected when using a uranium metal fuel. (authors)

Osborne, A. G.; Deinert, M. R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Mass spectrometric studies of laser damage in calcium fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both electron impact- and laser-ionization-mass spectrometry have been used to prove the material spalled from CaF/sub 2/ surfaces by the fundamental (1.06..mu..) and harmonic (355 nm and 266 nm) outputs from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. We have identified a number of gas phase products, including Ca, CaF and tentatively, CaF/sub 2/, and have measured their translational and internal energy distributions. Results suggest that while the 1.06..mu.. experiments can be adequately modeled in terms of a single damage mechanism (likely avalanche breakdown), the short-wavelength results suggest the onset of second mechanism, perhaps multiphoton absorption. This is consistent with both the observed bimodal velocity distribution following short-wavelength damage, and with the decrease in CaF vibrational and rotational excitation.

Nogar, N.S.; Apel, E.C.; Estler, R.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 46 J/cm/sup 2/ for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Rainer, F.; Hildum, E.A.; Milam, D.

1987-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

352

Influence of radiation damage on ruby as a pressure gauge  

SciTech Connect

This study tackles the question if ruby crystals, irradiated with energetic heavy ions, can still be used as reliable pressure sensors. The problem is linked to novel irradiation experiments, exposing pressurized samples to swift heavy-ion beams. In order to test and quantify a possible influence of radiation damage on the laser-induced fluorescence lines of ruby (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr{sup 3+}), small crystals were exposed to different heavy ions (Xe, Au, and U) with kinetic energies of several giga-electron volt at ambient as well as high-pressure conditions. With increasing fluence (ions/cm{sup 2}), the R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} lines shift both to lower wavelengths which leads to an underestimation of the pressure. An empirical correction term {epsilon} is proposed to include the irradiation damage effect into the commonly employed ruby calibration scale.

Schuster, B. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Weikusat, C.; Miletich, R. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234-236, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Trautmann, C.; Neumann, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fujara, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Unfolding linac photon spectra and incident electron energies from experimental transmission data, with direct independent validation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In a recent computational study, an improved physics-based approach was proposed for unfolding linac photon spectra and incident electron energies from transmission data. In this approach, energy differentiation is improved by simultaneously using transmission data for multiple attenuators and detectors, and the unfolding robustness is improved by using a four-parameter functional form to describe the photon spectrum. The purpose of the current study is to validate this approach experimentally, and to demonstrate its application on a typical clinical linac. Methods: The validation makes use of the recent transmission measurements performed on the Vickers research linac of National Research Council Canada. For this linac, the photon spectra were previously measured using a NaI detector, and the incident electron parameters are independently known. The transmission data are for eight beams in the range 10-30 MV using thick Be, Al and Pb bremsstrahlung targets. To demonstrate the approach on a typical clinical linac, new measurements are performed on an Elekta Precise linac for 6, 10 and 25 MV beams. The different experimental setups are modeled using EGSnrc, with the newly added photonuclear attenuation included. Results: For the validation on the research linac, the 95% confidence bounds of the unfolded spectra fall within the noise of the NaI data. The unfolded spectra agree with the EGSnrc spectra (calculated using independently known electron parameters) with RMS energy fluence deviations of 4.5%. The accuracy of unfolding the incident electron energy is shown to be {approx}3%. A transmission cutoff of only 10% is suitable for accurate unfolding, provided that the other components of the proposed approach are implemented. For the demonstration on a clinical linac, the unfolded incident electron energies and their 68% confidence bounds for the 6, 10 and 25 MV beams are 6.1 {+-} 0.1, 9.3 {+-} 0.1, and 19.3 {+-} 0.2 MeV, respectively. The unfolded spectra for the clinical linac agree with the EGSnrc spectra (calculated using the unfolded electron energies) with RMS energy fluence deviations of 3.7%. The corresponding measured and EGSnrc-calculated transmission data agree within 1.5%, where the typical transmission measurement uncertainty on the clinical linac is 0.4% (not including the uncertainties on the incident electron parameters). Conclusions: The approach proposed in an earlier study for unfolding photon spectra and incident electron energies from transmission data is accurate and practical for clinical use.

Ali, E. S. M.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Ionizing Radiation Standards, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council, M-35 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R5 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Summary of radiation damage studies on rare earth permanent magnets  

SciTech Connect

With the proposed use of permanent magnets for both the NLC and the VLHC the issue flux loss due to radiation damage needs to be fully understood. There exist many papers on the subject. There are many difficulties in drawing conclusions from all of these data. First there is the difference methods of dosimetry, second different types of magnets and magnetic arrangements, and third different manufacturers of magnet material. This paper provides a summary of the existing literature on the subject.

J. T. Volk

2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

A micromechanics based ductile damage model for anisotropic titanium alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hot-workability of Titanium (Ti) alloys is of current interest to the aerospace industry due to its widespread application in the design of strong and light-weight aircraft structural components and engine parts. Motivated by the need for accurate simulation of large scale plastic deformation in metals that exhibit macroscopic plastic anisotropy, such as Ti, a constitutive model is developed for anisotropic materials undergoing plastic deformation coupled with ductile damage in the form of internal cavitation. The model is developed from a rigorous micromechanical basis, following well-known previous works in the field. The model incorporates the porosity and void aspect ratio as internal damage variables, and seeks to provide a more accurate prediction of damage growth compared to previous existing models. A closed form expression for the macroscopic yield locus is derived using a Hill-Mandel homogenization and limit analysis of a porous representative volume element. Analytical expressions are also developed for the evolution of the internal variables, porosity and void shape. The developed yield criterion is validated by comparison to numerically determined yield loci for specific anisotropic materials, using a numerical limit analysis technique developed herein. The evolution laws for the internal variables are validated by comparison with direct finite element simulations of porous unit cells. Comparison with previously published results in the literature indicates that the new model yields better agreement with the numerically determined yield loci for a wide range of loading paths. Use of the new model in continuum finite element simulations of ductile fracture may be expected to lead to improved predictions for damage evolution and fracture modes in plastically anisotropic materials.

Keralavarma, Shyam Mohan

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

EPRI-SQUG Damage-Indicating Parameter Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information assembled for the purpose of developing damage-indicating parameters (DIPs) for power plant equipment. An existing Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) seismic experience database is used to develop candidate DIP values associated with two database sites subjected to earthquake events. The two sites are described, the candidate DIPs are derived from the recorded site motions, and the equipment items at these sites are categorized according to performance during an ear...

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

357

Damage tolerance design procedures for an automotive composite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Among the durability issues of concern in the use of composites in automobile structures is the damaging effects that low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) might have on strength and stiffness. This issue was experimentally investigated, and recommended design evaluation procedures were developed for a candidate automotive structural composite--a structural reaction injection-molded polyurethane reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass fibers. Two test facilities were built to cover the range of impacts of interest--a pendulum device to characterize the effects of relative heavy objects at low velocities and an air gun to characterize the effects of relatively light objects at higher velocities. In all cases, the test specimen was a 9 x 9 x 1/8-in.-thick plate clamped on an 8-in.-diam circle. Sixty-five impact tests were performed. Included were tests using various impactor sizes and weights, tests at {minus}40 F, and tests on specimens that has been presoaked in water or exposed to battery acid. Damage areas were determined using ultrasonic C-scans, and the resulting areas were found to correlate with the quantity impactor mass to a power times velocity. A design curve was derived from the correlation and validated using dropped brick tests. To evaluate strength and stiffness reductions, the impacted plate specimens were cut into tensile, compressive, and fatigue test specimens that were used to determine reductions as a function of damage area. It was found that for design purposes, the strength reduction could be determined by representing the damage area by a circular hole of equivalent area.

Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Diffusion, Radiation Damage, and Interaction with Point Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2010 ... In nuclear reactors,radiation induced void swelling can cause significant dimensional instability of structural materials and degrade their ...

359

Induction of DNA Damage by Low Dose PET scans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induction of DNA Damage by Low Dose PET scans Induction of DNA Damage by Low Dose PET scans Douglas Boreham McMaster University Abstract This research is focused on assessing the radiation risk associated with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It has been suggested that low dose medical imaging, such as PET scans, carry an added biological risk because they expose the patient to ionizing radiation. PET scanning is an increasingly used nuclear medicine procedure that requires the administration of isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG, E=250 keV β and 511 keV γ) and results in an effective dose to the patient ranging from 7-22 mSv. The radiation induced DNA damage associated with a PET scan was studied in 7-9 week old female wild type Trp53 +/+ mice. Mice were given a PET scan with 18F-FDG and the biological response was assessed in bone marrow using

360

Mechanisms and impact of damage resulting from hydraulic fracturing. Topical report, May 1995-July 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This topical report documents the mechanisms of formation damage following hydraulic fracturing and their impact upon gas well productivity. The categories of damage reviewed include absolute or matrix permeability damage, relative permeability alterations, the damage of natural fracture permeability mechanisms and proppant conductivity impairment. Case studies are reviewed in which attempts are made to mitigate each of the damage types. Industry surveys have been conducted to determine the perceptions of the industry on the topic of formation damage following hydraulic fracturing and to identify key formations in which formation damage is a problem. From this information, technical hurdles and new technology needs are identified and estimates are made of the benefits of developing and applying minimum formation damage technology.

Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.; Almond, S.W.; Himes, R.; Nick, K.E.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Regulation of DNA damage tolerance : studies of the translesion synthesis DNA ploymerase eta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All organisms must control the effects of DNA damage to protect the integrity of their genomes. In addition to DNA repair, this requires DNA damage tolerance pathways, which allow the continuation of essential processes ...

Woodruff, Rachel Van Etten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Piezoelectric-based in-situ damage detection of composite materials for structural health monitoring systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This thesis presents the conclusions of an analytical and experimental survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage ...

Kessler, Seth Stovack, 1977-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

Marquez, Horacio J.

364

In Situ Study of Radiation Damage in Pure Zr and Zircaloy-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, In Situ Study of Radiation Damage in Pure Zr and Zircaloy-2 ... cascades at the early stages of damage development at very low dose (0.01 ...

365

A Case Study: Preparing for the Smart Grids - Identifying Current Practice for Information Security Incident Management in the Power Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry faces the implementation of smart grids, which will introduce new information security threats to the power automation systems. The ability to appropriately prepare for, and respond to, information security incidents, is of utmost ... Keywords: Information security, incident respons, smart grids

Maria B. Line

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Evaluation of the integrated application of intelligent transportation system technologies using stochastic incident generation and resolution modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the use of the microscopic vehicle traffic simulation software PARAMICS to evaluate different incident management implementation alternatives in South Carolina. This study customized the simulation model for random spatial and temporal ... Keywords: freeway service patrol, intelligent transportation systems, traffic incident management, traffic simulation

Yongchang Ma; Ryan Fries; Mashrur Chowdhury; Imran Inamdar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Note: Grazing incidence small and wide angle x-ray scattering combined with imaging ellipsometry  

SciTech Connect

The combination of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) with optical imaging ellipsometry is presented as an upgrade of the available measurement techniques at the wiggler beamline BW4 of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor. The instrument is introduced with the description of the alignment procedure to assure the measurement of imaging ellipsometry and GISAXS/GIWAXS on the same sample spot. To demonstrate the possibilities of the new instrument examples of morphological investigation on films made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester as well as textured poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzo-thia-diazole) are shown.

Koerstgens, V.; Meier, R.; Ruderer, M. A.; Guo, S.; Chiang, H.-Y.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.; Gehrke, R. [HASYLAB, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Incident-energy and system-size dependence of directed flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present STAR's measurements of directed flow for charged hadrons in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 200$ GeV and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity, transverse momentum and centrality. We find that directed flow depends on the incident energy, but not on the system size. We extend the validity of limiting fragmentation hypothesis to different collision systems.

Gang Wang

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Establishing Tower-Top Equipotential Zones--Case-Study of Incidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to provide protection and training for workers who perform work on de-energized and energized lines. This Technical Update report contains the draft script of a new training video on DVD under development on establishing tower-top equipotential zones. The script contains case studies and analysis of specific selected incidents that have occurred in the field. It also includes recommendations for minimizing risks and avoiding elec...

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

Lesperance, Ann M.

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Discovery of ZIP transporters that participate in cadmium damage to testis and kidney  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been known for decades that cadmium (Cd) must enter the cell to cause damage, but there was no mechanism to explain genetic differences in response to Cd toxicity until 2005. Starting with the mouse Cdm locus associated with differences in Cd-induced testicular necrosis between inbred strains, a 24.6-centiMorgan region on chromosome 3 was reduced ultimately to 880 kb; in this segment is the Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 Zn{sup 2+}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} symporter. In endothelial cells of the testis vasculature, Cd-sensitive mice exhibit high ZIP8 expression, Cd-resistant mice exhibit very low expression. A 168.7-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) from a 129S6 (Cd-sensitive) BAC library containing the Slc39a8 gene was inserted into the Cd-resistant C57BL/6J genome: Cd treatment produced testicular necrosis in BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 mice but not in non-transgenic littermates, thereby proving that the Slc39a8 gene is indeed the Cdm locus. Cd-induced renal failure also occurred in these BTZIP8-3 mice. Immunohistochemistry showed highly expressed ZIP8 protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelial apical surface, suggesting that ZIP8 participates in Cd-induced renal failure. Slc39a14, most closely evolutionarily related to Slc39a8, encodes differentially-spliced products ZIP14A and ZIP14B that display properties similar to ZIP8. ZIP8 in alveolar cells brings environmental Cd into the organism and ZIP14 in intestinal enterocytes carries Cd into the organism and into the hepatocyte. We believe these two transporters function endogenously as Zn{sup 2+}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} symporters important in combating inflammation and carrying out other physiological functions; Cd is able to displace the endogenous cation, enter the cell, and produce tissue damage and disease.

He Lei; Wang Bin; Hay, Everett B. [Department of Environmental Health, and Center for Environmental Genetics (CEG), University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, and Center for Environmental Genetics (CEG), University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)], E-mail: dan.nebert@uc.edu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical monitoring strategies. The importance of being able to link population estimates to geographic areas during the course of an RDD incident can be understood intuitively: - The spatial distribution of actual total dose equivalents of ionizing radiation is likely to vary due to changes in meteorological parameters as an event evolves over time; - The size of the geographical area affected also is likely to vary as a function of the actual release scenario; - The ability to identify the location and size of the populations that may be exposed to doses of ionizing radiation is critical to carrying out appropriate treatment and post-event medical monitoring; - Once a spatial interaction model has been validated for a city or a region, it can then be used for simulation and prediction purposes to assess the possible human health consequences of different release scenarios. (authors)

Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T. [Center for Biosecurity Research, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

17.42 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The causes and prevention of interstate war are the central topics of this course. The course goal is to discover and assess the means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. ...

Van Evera, Stephen

374

SunShot Initiative: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why is PV different? to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost Reduction: Why is PV...

375

Weather and other events can cause disruptions to gasoline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weather and other events can cause disruptions to gasoline infrastructure and supply. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration.

376

Proficiency Testing Follow Up Actions and Root Cause ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proficiency Testing Follow Up Actions and Root Cause Analysis. Purpose: Participants will be able to: Identify the 17025 ...

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Weather and other events can cause disruptions to gasoline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. ... Weather and other events can cause disruptions to gasoline infrastructure and ...

378

Case Study of the Failure of two 13.8kV Control & Metering Transformers that caused significant Equipment Damage  

SciTech Connect

The degradation and failure of cast-coil epoxy windings within 13.8kV control power transformers and metering potential transformers has been shown to be dangerous to both equipment and personnel, even though best industrial design practices were followed. Accident scenes will be examined for two events at a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory. Failure modes will be explained and current design practices discussed with changes suggested to prevent a recurrence and to minimize future risk. New maintenance philosophies utilizing partial discharge testing of the transformers as a prediction of end-of-life will be examined.

Dreifuerst, G R; Chew, D B; Mangonon, H L; Swyers, P W

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

379

Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. However, a better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions between CO2, water, and formation rock is necessary before sequestration. These interactions can be evaluated by the change in mineral content in the water before and after injection, or from the change in well injectivity during CO2 injection. It may affect the permeability positively due to rock dissolution, or negatively due to precipitation. Several physical and chemical processes cover the CO2 injection operations; multiphase flow in porous media is represented by the flow of the brine and CO2, solute transportation is represented by CO2 dissolution in the brine forming weak carbonic acid, dissolution-deposition kinetics can be seen in the rock dissolution by the carbonic acid and the deposition of the reaction products, hydrodynamic instabilities due to displacement of less viscous brine with more viscous CO2 (viscous fingering), capillary effects and upward movement of CO2 due to gravity effect. The objective of the proposed work is to correlate the formation damage to the other variables, i.e. pressure, temperature, formation rock type, rock porosity, water composition, sulfates concentration in the water, CO2 volume injected, water volume injected, CO2 to water volumetric ratio, CO2 injection rate, and water injection rate. In order to achieve the proposed objective, lab experiments will be conducted on different rock types (carbonates, limestone and dolomite, and sandstone) under pressure and temperature that simulate the field conditions. CO2 will be used at the supercritical phase and different CO2-water-rock chemical interactions will be addressed. Quantitative analysis of the experimental results using a geochemical simulator (CMG-GEM) will also be performed. The results showed that for carbonate cores, maintaining the CO2/brine volumetric ratio above 1.0 reduced bicarbonate formation in the formation brine and helped in minimizing precipitation of calcium carbonate. Additionally, increasing cycle volume in WAG injection reduced the damage introduced to the core. Sulfate precipitation during CO2 sequestration was primarily controlled by temperature. For formation brine with high total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium sulfate precipitation occurs, even at a low sulfate concentration. For dolomite rock, temperature, injection flow rate, and injection scheme don't have a clear impact on the core permeability, the main factor that affects the change in core permeability is the initial core permeability. Sandstone cores showed significant damage; between 35% and 55% loss in core permeability was observed after CO2 injection. For shorter WAG injection the damage was higher; decreasing the brine volume injected per cycle, decreased the damage. At higher temperatures, 200 and 250 degrees F, more damage was noted than at 70 degrees F.

Mohamed, Ibrahim 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Benefits of Damage Engineering for PMOS Junction Stability  

SciTech Connect

As CMOS devices continue to shrink, the formation of ultra shallow junction (USJ) in the source/drain extension remains to be a key challenge requiring high dopant activation, shallow dopant profile and abrupt junctions. The next generations of sub nano-CMOS devices impose a new set of challenges such as elimination of residual defects resulting in higher leakage, difficulty to control lateral diffusion, junction stability post anneal and junction formation in new materials. To address these challenges for advanced technological nodes beyond 32 nm, it is imperative to explore novel species and techniques. Molecular species such as Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}), a novel doping species and a promising alternative to monomer Boron is of considerable interest due to the performance boost for 22 nm low power and high performance devices. Also, to reduce residual defects, damage engineering methodologies have generated a lot of attention as it has demonstrated significant benefits in device performance. Varian proprietary techniques to perform implants at cold temperatures (PTC II) have demonstrated lower junction leakage, enhanced activation, reduced dopant diffusion and less dopant deactivation due to the reduction of self-interstitial atoms present at the end-of-range (EOR) with low implant temperatures. In this paper, for the first time, there is a comprehensive study of the effect of implant temperature on defect engineering affecting deactivation/reactivation, and it is well established in this paper that colder the implant temperature the better it is for damage engineering with reduced EOR defects and better amorphization. The effect has been studied over a wide range of implant temperature. To understand any difference in deactivation between molecular and monomer Boron and to provide direct comparison equivalent Boron implants, co-implanted with Carbon were also studied. Implants with wide range of temperatures are implemented using PTC II. This paper will also show how damage reduction correlates with optimum junction formation and stability.

Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd [Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc. 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The damage function approach for estimating fuel cycle externalities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the methodology used in a study of fuel cycle externalities sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. The methodology is the damage function approach. This paper describes that approach and discusses its application and limitations. The fuel cycles addressed are those in which coal, biomass, oil, hydro, natural gas and uranium are used to generate electric power. The methodology is used to estimate the physical impacts of these fuel cycles on environmental resources and human health, and the external costs and benefits of these impacts.

Lee, R.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.  

SciTech Connect

The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel \\v Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel \\v Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the $B$-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8~MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3\\% and 0.001 at 90\\% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed.

S. K. Sahu et al

1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

384

USD(AT&L) SUBJECT: DoD Response to U.S. Nuclear Weapon Incidents References: See Enclosure 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(a)), this Instruction: a. Establishes policy and assigns responsibilities for the DoD response to U.S. nuclear weapon incidents in accordance with DoDD 3150.08 (Reference (b)). b. Authorizes DoD support for the Nuclear Weapons Accident Incident Response Subcommittee (NWAIRS) to the Nuclear Command and Control System (NCCS) Committee of Principals (CoP) to address the Federal Government response to U.S. nuclear weapon incidents. 2. APPLICABILITY. This Instruction applies to OSD, the Military Departments, the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) and the Joint Staff, the Combatant Commands,

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

USD(AT&L) SUBJECT: DoD Response to Nuclear and Radiological Incidents References: See Enclosure 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

establish policy and assign responsibilities for the DoD consequence management response to U.S. nuclear weapon incidents and other nuclear or radiological incidents involving materials in DoD custody in accordance with the guidance in National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD) 28, the National Response Framework, and the National Incident Management System (References (b) through (d)). 2. APPLICABILITY. This Directive applies to: a. OSD, the Military Departments, the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Staff, the Combatant Commands, the Office of the Inspector General of the

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water More Documents & Publications Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale

387

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water More Documents & Publications Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

388

ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Electrochemically adsorbed Pb on Ag (111) studied with grazing- incidence x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect

Grazing-incidence x-ray scattering studies of the evolution of electrochemically deposited layers of lead on silver (111) as a function of applied electrochemical potential are presented. Measurements were made with the adsorbed layers in contact with solution in a specially designed sample cell. The observed lead structures are a function of the applied potential and range from an incommensurate monolayer, resulting from underpotential deposition, to randomly oriented polycrystalline bulk lead, resulting from lower deposition potentials. These early experiments demonstrate the ability of in situ x-ray diffraction measurements to determine structures associated with electrochemical deposition. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Kortright, J.B.; Ross, P.N.; Melroy, O.R.; Toney, M.F.; Borges, G.L.; Samant, M.G.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Surface instability of binary compounds caused by sputter yield amplification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is demonstrated that the flat surface of a binary material that is subjected to normal-incidence ion bombardment can be unstable even if the curvature dependence of the sputter yields is negligibly small. This unforeseen instability is brought about by sputter yield amplification, and it results in the formation of a disordered array of nanodots with the lighter of the two atomic species concentrated at the peaks of the dots.

Mark Bradley, R. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fabrication and characterization of fibers with built-in liquid crystal channels and electrodes for transverse incident-light modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on an all-in-fiber liquid crystal (LC) structure designed for the modulation of light incident transverse to the fiber axis. A hollow cavity flanked by viscous conductors is introduced into a polymer matrix, and ...

Wei, Lei

392

Assessment of Incident-Free Transport for Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel to Yucca Mountain Using RADTRAN 5.5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the incident-free radiological impacts associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository using the RADTRAN 5.5 computer code developed by Sandia National Laboratories.

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Characterization and control of formation damage during waterflooding of a high-clay-content reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Permeability damage was suspected as a factor contributing to postcompletion production declines observed during waterflooding of a friable to unconsolidated sandstone. A loss in water injectivity also indicated that near-wellbore damage may have been occurring. This paper summarizes the laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate and understand permeability damage in this formation. The experimental program consisted of primarily coreflooding experiments to evaluate the influence of injection fluid composition, temperature, mineralogy, and flow velocity on permeability damage. The significance of damage during brine injection was observed to be a strong function of mineralogy and injection rate. Permeability losses of greater than or equal to60% were observed in cores from some sand intervals, while little or no damage was apparent in cores from a second zone in identical wells. In the sands that were susceptible to brine damage, a critical velocity below which permeability damage did not occur was repeatedly established. The occurrence of a critical velocity, along with other observations, indicated that the primary damage mechanism was fines migration. Damage could be controlled by maintaining velocities below the critical value or reducing the pH of the injected brine.

Leone, J.A.; Scott, E.M. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (US))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Repair of UV damaged DNA, genes and proteins of yeast and human  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, as well as studying the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins. In addition to its single-stranded DNA-dependent A TPase and DNA helicase activities, we have found that RAD3 protein also possesses DNA-RNA helicase activity, and that like RAD3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RAD3 homolog, rhp3{sup +}, is an essential gene. We have overexpressed the human RAD3 homolog, ERCC2, in yeast to facilitate its purification. The RAD10 protein was purified to homogeneity and shown to bind DNA. ERCC3y, the yeast homolog of the human ERCC-3/XP-B gene, has been sequenced and shown to be essential for viability. The Drosophila and human homologs of RAD6, required for postreplication repair and UV induced mutagenesis, were shown to complement the rad6 {Delta} mutation of yeast. Since defective DNA repair and enhanced neoplasia characterize several human genetic diseases, and repair proteins are highly conserved between yeast and man, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DNA repir in yeast should provide a better understanding of the causes of carcinogenesis.

Prakash, L.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. =}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

Kim, Han Jo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Boland, Patrick J. [Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Meredith, Dennis S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York (United States)] [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

K{alpha} satellite transitions in elements with 12{<=}Z{<=}30 produced by electron incidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emission of x-ray satellite lines in the K{alpha} region of Mg, Si, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn induced by electron incidence was studied by means of wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The satellite lines studied were K{alpha}{sup '}, K{alpha}{sub 3}, K{alpha}{sub 4}, K{alpha}{sub 5}, K{alpha}{sub 6}, and two transitions denoted here as K{alpha}{sub 22} and K{alpha}{sub 12}. Energy shifts with respect to the main K{alpha}{sub 1} diagram line and transition probabilities relative to the whole K{alpha} group were determined for a number of lines through a careful spectral processing. The dependence of these parameters, as well as of the K{beta}:K{alpha} intensity ratio, on the atomic number was compared with previous experimental and theoretical determinations when available. A discussion about the different mechanisms responsible for vacancy creation involved in the production of double-ionization satellites was performed in the light of the results obtained. Finally, the behavior of the satellite intensities as a function of the incidence energy was discussed for silicon.

Limandri, Silvina P.; Carreras, Alejo C.; Trincavelli, Jorge C. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita D. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco (CINDECA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Gamma-Rays from Grazing Incidence Cosmic Rays in the Earth’s Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interactions of grazing incidence, ultra high energy cosmic rays with the earth’s atmosphere may provide a new method of studying energetic cosmic rays with gamma-ray satellites. It is found that these cosmic ray interactions may produce gamma-rays on millisecond time scales which may be detectable by satellites. An extremely low gamma-ray background for transient gamma-ray events and a large area of interaction, the earth’s surface, make the scheme plausible. The effective cross section of detection of interactions for cosmic rays above 1020 eV is found to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than earth based detection techniques. This method may eventually offer an efficient way of probing this region of the cosmic ray energy spectrum where events are scarce. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented for the production of short bursts of gamma-rays based on these grazing incidence encounters with the earth’s atmosphere. Subject headings: atmospheric effects- cosmic rays- Earth- gamma-rays: bursts

Andrew Ulmer

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law enforcement standards and guides identified the following four guides as having content that supports incident management: • TE-02-02 Guide to Radio Communications Interoperability Strategies and Products • OSHA 335-10N Preparing and Protecting Security Personnel in Emergencies • NIJ 181584 Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Guide for Public Safety Personnel • NIJ 181869 A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation In conversations with various state and local law enforcement officials, it was determined that the following National Fire Protection Association (NPFA) standards are generally recognized and tend to be universally used by law enforcement organizations across the country: • NFPA 1600 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs • NFPA 1561 Standard on Fire Department Incident Management Systems • NFPA 472 Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition) • NFPA 473 Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition)

Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

399

A New Definition on Fractal Porous Rock Damage Variable and Study on Evolution Characteristics of Porosity-permeability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considered the fractal characteristic of rock with porosity structure, a rock damage variable which describes rock damage of the reservoir of fractal structure with hydraulic fracturing is defined, and this damage variable that describes the state of ... Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, damage variable, fractal, porosity pore structure, permeability evolving

Zhaowan Chun; Wang Tingting; Ai Chi; Sun Chengyan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Sr3YCo4O10+d and the Ultrafast Redox ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incident causing damage" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 January 2005 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF PIPELINE STEELS: CAUSES AND REMEDIATION P. Sofronis, I. Robertson, D. Johnson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Hydrogen Pipeline...

402

Trends and causes of historical wetland loss in coastal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Get this from a library! Trends and causes of historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana. [Julie Christine Bernier; Geological Survey (U.S.),

403

Primary causes of wetland loss at Madison Bay, Terrebonne ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Get this from a library! Primary causes of wetland loss at Madison Bay, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. [Robert A Morton; Ginger Tiling; Nicholas F ...

404

Microsoft Word - SWPAIceStormDamage_030209.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3/02/09 3/02/09 Contacts: Beth Nielsen William Hiller Phone: 918-595-6762 918-595-6697 Email: elizabeth.nielsen@swpa.gov william.hiller@swpa.gov 1 of 1 TULSA, OK - All the poles have been set in place to restore one of the last two transmission line segments remaining out of service following a January ice storm that damaged 300 miles of transmission line and more than 400 structures owned by Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). The 22 miles that separate Malden and New Madrid, Missouri, are ready to be fitted with new conductor, and the 37.2 mile stretch from New Madrid to Kennett, Missouri, continues to see progress as new transmission structures are constructed daily. Staff from Southwestern's Operations Division reports that the efforts of Southwestern crews and

405

Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karim, Julia Abdul [Reactor Physics Section, Nuclear Power Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

406

MDM Project: Analysis of the Micromechanics Damage Model Suite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report extends a previous study of core algorithms and portability considerations associated with the Micromechanics Damage Model computer software developed by the AFRL Materials Directorate at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. 1 The MDM analysis suite is comprised of four fracture mechanics codes used to establish design criteria for newly developed composite materials, particularly for brittle, heat-resistant composites associated with the fabrication of turbine blades. The MDM codes are based on a semi-analytical approach in which single coated fibers and the surrounding composite material are represented as a nested set of concentric shells (Fig. 1). Stresses and displacements at prescribed points along the length of the cylinder are determined by evaluation of a polynomial function. Numerically challenging conditions arise during the construction of this function. The calculation of matrix exponentials in terms of the full spectrum of eigenvalues associated with the pri...

D. C. O' neal; R. Luczak; N. J. Pagano; H. W. Brown Iii; G. P. Tandon

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A Case Study in Porting Strategy: The Axisymmetric Damage Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The axisymmetric damage model (ADM) is one of four micromechanical stress field models developed and maintained by N. J. Pagano's group at the AFRL Materials Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB. These models serve to establish rigorous field theories to compute accurate stresses and energy release rates for fracture mechanics problems in composite bodies. In turn, these solutions, coupled with experimental research, can establish appropriate failure criteria to be used in the design of composite structures for air and space vehicles. Each of these models is based on Reissner's variational theorem (Reissner, 1950). ADM (Pagano, 1991) is associated with axisymmetric cracking and boundary conditions. Others support fundamentally different cases, i.e. axisymmetric problems incorporating the effects of friction (Tandon and Pagano, 1996), transverse and shear loading and associated cracking patterns in composite cylinders (Pagano and Tandon, 1994), and transverse cracking and delamination pro...

David O' Neal; N. J. Pagano; G. A. Schoeppner; G. P. Tandon

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Monitoring genetic damage to ecosystems from hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Applications of ecological toxicity testing to hazardous waste management have increased dramatically over the last few years, resulting in a greater awareness of the need for improved biomonitoring techniques. Our laboratory is developing advanced techniques to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental contamination on ecosystems. We have developed a novel mutagenesis assay using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is potentially applicable for multimedia studies in soil, sediment, and water. In addition, we are conducting validation studies of a previously developed anaphase aberration test that utilizes sea urchin embryos. Other related efforts include field validation studies of the new tests, evaluation of their potential ecological relevance, and analysis of their sensitivity relative to that of existing toxicity tests that assess only lethal effects, rather than genetic damage.

Anderson, S.L.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Clues about Rheumatoid Arthritis Damage | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Clues about Rheumatoid Arthritis Damage JANUARY 7, 2013 Bookmark and Share Type II collagen fibrils decomposed into their basic aggregates (viewed via X-ray diffraction and TEM). Some parts of the antibody treated samples maintain a loose alignment of the thin-fibrils allowing them to be analyzed with small angle X-ray diffraction (A), and insert B. An 11 and 4.5 nm packing function are apparent, which appear to correspond to the approximate diameter of the thin-fibrils (insert of C) and microfibrils (D). Native thick fibrils are shown in C as a comparison to the decomposition product (thin-fibrils). From O. Antipova and J.P.R.O. Orgel,

410

LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

412

Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matrix acidizing is used in carbonate formations to create wormholes that connect the formation to the wellbore. Hydrochloric acid, organic acids, or mixtures of these acids are typically used in matrix acidizing treatments of carbonate reservoirs. However, the use of these acids in deep wells has some major drawbacks including high and uncontrolled reaction rate and corrosion to well tubulars, especially those made of chrome-based tubulars (Cr-13 and duplex steel), and these problems become severe at high temperatures. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and its based fluids have a major drawback in stimulating shallow (low fracture gradient) formations as they may cause face dissolution (formation surface washout) if injected at low rates. The objective of stimulation of sandstone reservoirs is to remove the damage caused to the production zone during drilling or completion operations. Many problems may occur during sandstone acidizing with Hydrochloric/Hydrofluoric acids (HCl/HF) mud acid. Among those problems: decomposition of clays in HCl acids, precipitation of fluosilicates, the presence of carbonate can cause the precipitation of calcium fluorides, silica-gel filming, colloidal silica-gel precipitation, and mixing between various stages of the treatment. To overcome problems associated with strong acids, chelating agents were introduced and used in the field. However, major concerns with most of these chemicals are their limited dissolving power and negative environmental impact. Glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) a newly developed environmentally friendly chelate was examined as stand-alone stimulation fluid in deep oil and gas wells. In this study we used GLDA to stimulate carbonate cores (calcite and dolomite). GLDA was also used to stimulate and remove the damage from different sandstone cores containing different compositions of clay minerals. Carbonate cores (calcite and dolomite) of 6 and 20 in. length and 1.5 in. diameter were used in the coreflood experiments. Coreflood experiments were run at temperatures ranging from 180 to 300oF. Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyl ethylethylene diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and GLDA were used to stimulate and remove the damage from different sandstone cores at high temperatures. X-ray Computed Topography (CT) scans were used to determine the effectiveness of these fluids in stimulation calcite and dolomite cores and removing the damage from sandstone cores. The sandstone cores used in this study contain from 1 to 18 wt percent illite (swellable and migratable clay mineral). GLDA was found to be highly effective in creating wormholes over a wide range of pH (1.7-13) in calcite cores. Increasing temperature enhanced the reaction rate, more calcite was dissolved, and larger wormholes were formed for different pH with smaller volumes of GLDA solutions. GLDA has a prolonged activity and leads to a decreased surface spending resulting in face dissolution and therefore acts deeper in the formation. In addition, GLDA was very effective in creating wormholes in the dolomite core as it is a good chelate for magnesium. Coreflood experiments showed that at high pH values (pH =11) GLDA, HEDTA, and EDTA were almost the same in increasing the permeability of both Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. GLDA, HEDTA, and EDTA were compatible with Bandera sandstone cores which contains 10 wt percent Illite. The weight loss from the core was highest in case of HEDTA and lowest in case of GLDA at pH 11. At low pH values (pH =4) 0.6M GLDA performed better than 0.6M HEDTA in the coreflood experiments. The permeability ratio (final/initial) for Bandera sandstone cores was 2 in the case of GLDA and 1.2 in the case of HEDTA at pH of 4 and 300oF. At high pH HEDTA was the best chelating agent to stimulate different sandstone cores, and at low pH GLDA was the best one. For Berea sandstone cores EDTA at high pH of 11 was the best in increasing the permeability of the core at 300oF. The low pH GLDA based fluid has been especially designed for high temperature oil well stimulation i

Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Modeling Air-Pollution Damages from Fossil Fuel Use in Urban...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

important indoor pollution sources. We have taken one such model, prepared by the World Bank, and modified it to incorporate damages estimates from human exposure to air...

414

He Ion Irradiation Damage in Fe/W Nanolayer Films - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

He Ion Irradiation Damage in Fe/VV N anolayer Films. Nan Li, X. Zhang. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, ...

415

Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

ENERGYSOLUTIONS' Comment in Response to Notice of Inquiry, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation -75 FR 43945

416

Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

417

The Role of Interfaces on Shock-induced Damage in Two-phase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of lead precipitates at copper grain boundaries on damage nucleation and evolution will be investigated using shock loading and release ...

418

An NDE Study of Impact Damage in Multi-Layered Transparent ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For both transparent and opaque protective systems, low velocity impact damage compromises the structural integrity and increases the likelihood of further ...

419

Radiation Damage Study in Mo by in situ TEM/Ion Irradiation and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The identical material was previously neutron-irradiated at 80C in the HFIR. A direct comparison of defect microstructure was made to correlate damage ...

420

Investigating amino acid residue-level damage using novel proteomic approaches, with application to wool proteins.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Damage to wool is derived from the modification of its constituent proteins, as the dry matter of wool is principally made up of protein. A… (more)

Grosvenor, Anita J.

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421

Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavement Moisture-Damage Test. ” Transportation Researchgreater than five years. 6. Test sections may be necessaryand Parker, F. (1998). “Test for Plastic Fines in Aggregates

Harvey, John T; Lu, Qing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Role of ATM kinase in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage response...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ATM kinase in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage response in human neural stemprogenitor cells and differentiated cell types Adayabalam Balajee Columbia University Medical...

423

Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone.

Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: mwmcdona@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Communicated by Steve Nowlan Competition and Multiple Cause Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

somewhat independently of each other. An added advantage of such multiple cause models is that a few causes parts of the input. In this paper, we use the probabilistic theory that underlies Keeler #12 for training. The input values for the dots are 0 and those for the white boxes are 1. et d ' s (1991

Dayan, Peter

425

Measuring Solar Spectral and Angle-ofIncidence Effects on Photovoltaic Modules and Solar Irradiance Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, two time-of-day dependent factors have complicated the characterization of photovoltaic module and array performance; namely, changes in the solar spectrum over the day and optical effects in the module that vary with the solar angle-of-incidence. This paper describes straightforward methods for directly measuring the effects of these two factors. Measured results for commercial modules, as well as for typical solar irradiance sensors (pyranometers) are provided. The empirical relationships obtained from the measurements can be used to improve the methods used for system design, verification of performance after installation, and diagnostic monitoring of performance during operation. INTRODUCTION It is common knowledge to people familiar with photovoltaic technology that the electrical current generated by photovoltaic devices is influenced by the spectral distribution (spectrum) of sunlight. It is also commonly understood that the spectral distribution of sunlight vari...

David L. King; Jay A. Kratochvil; William E. Boyson

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electromagnetic energy within a magnetic infinite cylinder and scattering properties for oblique incidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we analytically calculate the time-averaged electromagnetic energy stored inside a nondispersive magnetic isotropic cylinder which is obliquely irradiated by an electromagnetic plane wave. An expression for the optical-absorption efficiency in terms of the magnetic internal coefficients is also obtained. In the low absorption limit, we derive a relation between the normalized internal energy and the optical-absorption efficiency which is not affected by the magnetism and the incidence angle. This mentioned relation, indeed, seems to be independent on the shape of the scatterer. This universal aspect of the internal energy is connected to the transport velocity and consequently to the diffusion coefficient in the multiple scattering regime. Magnetism favors high internal energy for low size parameter cylinders, which leads to a low diffusion coefficient for electromagnetic propagation in 2D random media.

Tiago Jose Arruda; Alexandre Souto Martinez

2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

427

Self-Organized Criticality in Daily Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous periodogram power spectral analysis of daily incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) reported at a leading hospital for cardiology in Pune, India for the two-year period June 1992 to May 1994 show that the power spectra follow the universal and unique inverse power law form of the statistical normal distribution. Inverse power law form for power spectra of space-time fluctuations are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and have been identified as signatures of self-organized criticality. The unique quantification for self-organized criticality presented in this paper is shown to be intrinsic to quantumlike mechanics governing fractal space-time fluctuation patterns in dynamical systems. The results are consistent with El Naschie's concept of cantorian fractal spacetime characteristics for quantum systems.

A. M. Selvam; D. Sen; S. M. S. Mody

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Twisted-light-induced intersubband transitions in quantum wells at normal incidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine theoretically the intersubband transitions induced by laser beams of light with orbital angular momentum (twisted light) in semiconductor quantum wells at normal incidence. These transitions become possible in the absence of gratings thanks to the fact that collimated laser beams present a component of the light's electric field in the propagation direction. We derive the matrix elements of the light-matter interaction for a Bessel-type twisted-light beam represented by its vector potential in the paraxial approximation. Then, we consider the dynamics of photo-excited electrons making intersubband transitions between the first and second subbands of a standard semiconductor quantum well. Finally, we analyze the light-matter matrix elements in order to evaluate which transitions are more favorable for given orbital angular momentum of the light beam in the case of small semiconductor structures.

Sbierski, B; Tamborenea, P I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS), established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly the Nevada Test Site) that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The initial NCNS project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment at the NNSS (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks at the Climax stock in northern Yucca Flat. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The data will be used to improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. The first SPE-N test (SPE-N-1) was a “calibration” shot conducted in May 2011, using 100 kilograms (kg) of explosives at the depth of 54.9 meters (m) (180 feet [ft]) in the U-15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m (150 ft) in the same source hole. Following the SPE-N-2 test, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast side, where the core hole penetrated it. The three-dimensional shape and symmetry of the damage zone are unknown at this time. Rather than spherical in shape, the dimensions of the damage zone could be influenced by the natural fracture sets in the vicinity. Geologic characterization of the borehole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for laboratory tests (to be reported by SNL). A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the U-15n#10 angle core hole between the drilled depths of 149 and 155 ft (straight-line distance or range station [RS] from the shot point of 7.5 to 5.7 m). However, several of the fractures observed in the U-15n#10 hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. These fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets. The most distant fracture from the shot point that could be interpreted as having been caused by the explosion was seen at approximately RS 10.0 m. No other possibly explosion-induced fractures are apparent above the fault, but are common starting at RS 5.4 m, which is below the fault. It is unknown how the fault zone might have affected the propagation of seismic waves or how the materials in the fault zone (altered granite, breccia, gouge) were affected by the explosion. From RS 3.3 m to the end of the recovered core at RS 1.6 m, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

,

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

430

Office of Nuclear Energy Response to Fukushima Dai-ichi Incident  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Response to Fukushima Dai-ichi Response to Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident John E. Kelly Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Reactor Technologies Office of Nuclear Energy U.S. Department of Energy June 15, 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactors Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactors Earthquake 3/11 14:36 JST Earthquake 15:41 JST Tsunami Magnitude: 9.0 Generated a 14m Tsunami Many thousands perished More that 100 thousand people were homeless without food, water, or heat 5 Accident Sequence for Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactors  Grid power lost due to the earthquake  Plant experienced station blackout after emergency diesels were damaged by the tsunami (nearly 1 hour later)  Eventual loss of batteries and cooling to control steam driven emergency pumps  Core overheats, cladding oxidizes and melts producing hydrogen

431

Mitigating Lightning Damage at Grower and Shipper of Fresh Vegetables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning-related weather disturbances can cause significant power quality (PQ) issues. Inadequate and poorly maintained lightning protection systems add to the problem and often result in widespread PQ disturbances whose source may be difficult to trace. Facilities encountering such widespread PQ disturbances eventually need a detailed PQ audit to locate, fix, and harden the plant against PQ disturbances. This case study details the findings and recommendations of one such audit conducted at the process...

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

RESULTS FROM CAVITATION DAMAGE EXPERIMENTS WITH MERCURY SPALLATION TARGETS AT THE LANSCE WNR IN 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Damage assessment from proton beam induced cavitation experiments on mercury spallation targets done at the LANSCE WNR facility has been completed. The experiments investigated two key questions for the Spallation Neutron Source target, namely, how damage is affected by flow velocity in the SNS coolant channel geometry, and how damage scales with proton beam intensity at a given constant charge per pulse. With regard to the former question, prior in-beam experiments indicated that the coolant channel geometry with stagnant mercury was especially vulnerable to damage which might warrant a design change. Yet other results indicated a reduction in damage with the introduction of flow. Using more prototypic to the SNS, the 2008 experiment damage results show the channel is less vulnerable than the bulk mercury side of the vessel wall. They also show no benefit from increasing channel flow velocity beyond nominal SNS speeds. The second question probed a consensus belief that damage scales with beam intensity (protons per unit area) by a power law dependence with exponent of around 4. Results from a 2005 experiment did not support this power law dependence but some observations were inconsistent and unexplained. These latest results show weaker damage dependence.

Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Sangrey, Robert L [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Acoustic emission beamforming for enhanced damage detection Gregory C. McLaskeya,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the structure such as cracking or corrosion, but the severity of this problem is not known, and the evolution for detecting damage, such as cracking, as it occurs on or in a structure. In order to gain meaningful the beamforming technique, the azmuthal direction of the location of the damage may be estimated by the stress

Glaser, Steven D.

434

A knowledge-based decision support system for shipboard damage control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operational complexity of modern ships requires the use of advanced applications, called damage control systems (DCSs), able to assist crew members in the effective handling of dangerous events and accidents. In this article we describe the development ... Keywords: Damage control system, Decision support system, Expert system, Kill card, Knowledge-based system, Shipboard management

F. Calabrese; A. Corallo; A. Margherita; A. A. Zizzari

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Estimation of radiation damage at the structural materials of a hybrid reactor by probabilistic neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new approach based on probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) for the radiation damage parameters at the structural material of a nuclear fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have recently been introduced ... Keywords: Atomic displacement, Helium generation, Hybrid reactor, Probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), Radiation damage

Elif Derya íbeyli; Mustafa íbeyli

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Seismic damage identification in buildings using neural networks and modal data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A seismic damage identification method intended for buildings with steel moment-frame structure is presented in this paper. The method has a statistical approach and is based on artificial neural networks and modal variables. It consists of two main ... Keywords: Mass sensitivity, Modal data, Neural networks, Seismic damage identification, Steel frames, Transmission of errors

María P. González; José L. Zapico

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Damage detection by an adaptive real-parameter simulated annealing genetic algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effective algorithm, which combined an adaptive real-parameter genetic algorithm with simulated annealing, is proposed to detect damage occurrence in beam-type structures. The proposed algorithm uses the displacements of static response and natural ... Keywords: Adaptive mechanism, Damage detection, Genetic algorithm, Optimization, Simulated annealing

Rong-Song He; Shun-Fa Hwang

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Free Vibration Analysis of Kirchoff Plates with Damaged Boundaries by the Chebyshev Collocation Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free Vibration Analysis of Kirchoff Plates with Damaged Boundaries by the Chebyshev Collocation for the free vibration analysis of slender Kirchoff plates with both mixed and damaged boundaries an important role in applications of mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering. Studying the free vibration

Butcher, Eric A.

439

The Study of Permeability Change of Fractal Under Fracturing Basing on Damage Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to research the evolution of permeability and damage of fractal rock under hydraulic fracturing, a new damage variable that describing relative reduction of pore amounts as radius is bigger than r any fracturing stage is defined. Assuming the ... Keywords: damagey, fracta, permeabilit

Zhao Wanchun; Ai Chi

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Fast Neutron Radioactivity and Damage Studies on Materials  

SciTech Connect

Many materials and electronics need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) to improve reliability and longevity since both accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large fluences of hadrons, leptons and gammas. Examples include NdFeB magnets, considered for the damping rings, injection and extraction lines and final focus, electronic and electro-optic devices to be utilized in detector readout, accelerator controls and the CCDs required for the vertex detector, as well as high and low temperature superconducting materials (LTSMs) because some magnets will be superconducting. Our first measurements of fast neutron, stepped doses at the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Reactor Center (UCD MNRC) were presented for NdFeB materials at EPAC04 where the damage appeared proportional to the distances between the effective operating point and Hc. We have extended those doses, included other manufacturer's samples and measured induced radioactivities. We have also added L and HTSMs as well as a variety of relevant semiconductor and electro-optic materials including PBG fiber that we studied previously only with gamma rays.

Anderson, S.; Spencer, J.; Wolf, Z.; /SLAC; Gallagher, G.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.; /UC, Davis; Volk, J.; /Fermilab

2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Radiation Damage Study for PHENIX Silicon Stripixel Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon stripixel sensors which were developed at BNL will be installed as part of the RHIC-PHENIX silicon vertex tracker (VTX). RHIC II operations provide luminosity up to 2x10^32 /cm2/s so the silicon stripixel sensors will be exposed to a significant amount of radiation. The most problematic radiation effect for VTX is the increase of leakage current, which degrades the signal to noise ratio and may saturate the readout electronics. We studied the radiation damage using the same diodes as CERN-RD48. First, the proportionality between the irradiation fluence and the increase of leakage current of CERN-RD48 was reproduced. Then beam experiments with stripixel sensor were done in which leakage current was found to increase in the same way as that of thereference diode. A stripixel sensor was also irradiated at the PHENIX interaction region (IR) during the 2006 run. We found the same relation between the integrated luminosity and determined fluence from increase of leakage current. The expected fluence is 3-6x10^12 Neq/cm2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) in RHIC II operations for 10 years. Due to this expected exposure, setting the operating temperature in PHENIX to T< 0 deg. C to suppress leakage current is needed to avoid saturation of preamplifiers.

J. Asai; S. Batsouli; K. Boyle; V. Castillo; V. Cianciolo; D. Fields; C. Haegeman; M. Hoeferkamp; Y. Hosoi; R. Ichimiya; Y. Inoue; M. Kawashima; T. Komatsubara; K. Kurita; Z. Li; D. Lynch; M. Nguyen; T. Murakami; R. Nouicer; H. Ohnishi; R. Pak; K. Sakashita; T. -A. Shibata; K. Suga; A. Taketani; J. Tojo

2007-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

442

Neutron measurements and radiation damage calculations for fusion materials studies  

SciTech Connect

Fusion reactors will generate intense neutron fields, especially at the inner surfaces of containment vessels. With a typical wall loading of 1 MW/m/sup 2/, the yearly neutron fluence will be about 10/sup 26/ n/m/sup 2/. In a material like stainless steel this irradiation will produce about 10 atomic displacements-per-atom (DPA), 100 appM helium, 500 appM hydrogen, and various other transmutations. The gas-to-DPA ratio