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Sample records for incidence multifilter radiometer

  1. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  2. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  3. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  4. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  5. Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Mentor Report and Baseline Surface Radiation Network Submission Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, G.

    2005-03-18

    There are currently twenty-four Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) operating within Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). Eighteen are located within the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region, there is one at each of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, and one is part of the instrumentation of the ARM Mobile Facility. At this time there are four sites, all extended facilities within the SGP, that are equipped for a MFRSR but do not have one due to instrument failure and a lack of spare instruments. In addition to the MFRSRs, there are three other MFRSR derived instruments that ARM operates. They are the Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR), the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) and the Narrow Field of View (NFOV) radiometer. All are essentially just the head of a MFRSR used in innovative ways. The MFR is mounted on a tower and pointed at the surface. At the SGP Central Facility there is one at ten meters and one at twenty-five meters. The NSA has a MFR at each station, both at the ten meter level. ARM operates three NIMFRs; one is at the SGP Central Facility and one at each of the NSA stations. There are two NFOVs, both at the SGP Central Facility. One is a single channel (870) and the other utilizes two channels (673 and 870).

  6. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD): An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA; Riihimaki, L; Shi, Y; Lo, C; Min, Q

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  7. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  8. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  9. ARM - Instrument - nimfr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsnimfr Documentation NIMFR : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Radiometric Picture of the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) General Overview The Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) is a ground-based instrument that provides a time series of the shortwave spectral

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NIMFR (normal incidence multifilter radiometer). The solar tracker was connected to a laptop computer in the ARM instrument shelter and changes in heading were entered Tenth ARM...

  11. Radiometer Characterization System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Radiometer Characterization System The new Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) installed on the Guest Instrument Facility mezzanine (Figure 1) at the SGP central facility will permit side-by-side evaluations of several new and modified broadband radiometers and comparisons with radiometers currently in use. If the new designs or modifications give substantially more accurate measurements, ARM scientists might elect to replace or modify the existing broadband radiometers. The RCS will also

  12. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    59 Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook With subsections for the following derivative instruments: Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) GB Hodges JJ Michalsky January 2011 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research GB Hodges and JJ Michalsky, January 2011, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-059 iii Acronyms and Abbreviations AMF ARM Mobile Facility ARM Atmospheric Radiation

  13. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating solar radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer’s response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument’s responsivity.

  14. Radiometer Calibration Trends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometer Calibration Trends S. M. Wilcox, T. L. Stoffel, and D. R. Myers National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Abstract Calibrations of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) broadband radiometers occur on an annual schedule, made necessary by an expected drift of instrument sensitivity and the possibility of other physical or environmental factors affecting sensitivity. The Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) field

  15. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Gestin, J.F.

    1994-08-02

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  16. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Coram, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Gestin, Jean-Francois (Oudon, FR)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  17. DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook Evaluation of a New Multi-Frequency Microwave Radiometer for Measuring the Vertical Distribution of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Cloud Liquid Water Prepared by James C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory December 4, 2002 For the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program 2 Table of Contents Abstract

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation 2000.09.01 - 2001.03.31 Lead Scientist : James Liljegren For data sets, see below. Abstract The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) is a new 12-channel radiometer developed by Radiometrics Corporation for measuring vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and

  19. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Callibration Process for the Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ... Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  20. Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddedu, MP

    2011-03-17

    The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  1. NREL: MIDC/ARM Radiometer Characterization System (36.606 N, 97.486 W, 320

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    m, GMT-6) ARM Radiometer Characterization System

  2. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm

  3. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  4. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  5. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â?? 300 ?¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  6. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWR status M.P. Cadeddu New radiometers New radiometers ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last...

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  8. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  9. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  10. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsLong-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison 2001.04.01 - 2001.09.30 Lead Scientist : Richard Cederwall For data sets, see below. Summary Make the spare MWR operational. Ingest data from the spare MWR. Input the output data of the spare MWR and ingest to VAP. Provide data to IOP participants.

  13. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  14. Experimental characterization of edge force on the Crookes radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ventura, Austin L.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Gimelshein, Natalia E.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.

    2014-12-09

    The contribution of edge force on the Crookes radiometer is experimentally investigated with three vane geometries. This work examines increasing the force per unit weight of a radiometer vane for applications such as near-space propulsion by increasing the vanes perimeter while decreasing the total surface area of the vane by means of machined holes in the vanes. Experimental results are given for three vane geometries. These results indicate that although force to vane weight ratios can be improved, the maximum force is achieved by a vane geometry that contains no hole features.

  15. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multifilter Radiometer Added to Cessna Payload Bookmark and Share Back at the hangar in Ponca City, a multifilter radiometer is positioned inside the Cessna's new starboard wingtip extension. Downward-facing multifilter radiometers (MFR) are instruments used to measure the intensity and distribution of reflected energy from different surfaces, such as grass or dirt. The relative amount of reflected energy-also called "surface spectral albedo"-is important for determining the amount of

  16. ARM - Instrument - mfrsr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmfrsr Documentation MFRSR : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Radiometric Picture of the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) General Overview The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and

  17. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  18. fu(1)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are derived from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). The mean aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 0.5-micron meter is...

  19. austin-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    depths retrieved from the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) (Min and Harrison 1996). This algorithm is being developed in anticipation of the 94-GHz radar and...

  20. Section 85

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    York, New York Introduction The MultiFilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) (Harrison and Michalsky 1994a, 1994b) measures atmospheric column extinction of the direct...

  1. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optical depths derived from the Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) (Harrison et al. 1994) data are used in our radiative transfer calculations as they have a...

  2. Research Highlight

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    developed, which combines downwelling radiative fluxes at 415 nm, measured by a multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer and liquid water path retrievals from a microwave...

  3. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

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    aerosol occurrences between the two sites. In the case of aerosols, each site fielded a Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) used to infer aerosol optical thickness...

  4. ARM - Datastreams - nimfr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsnimfr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025258 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Example nimfr Archive Data Plot Example nimfr Archive Data Plot Datastream : NIMFR Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR): direct normal irradiances Active Dates 1997.10.16 - 2015.11.06 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument

  5. Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Experiment and WVIOP 2000 V. Y. Leuski and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction A scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer was deployed during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) at the Atmospheric Radiation

  6. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  7. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  8. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  11. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  12. Posters Radar/Radiometer Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Posters Radar/Radiometer Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Drizzle: Analysis Using Data from a Three-Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds G. Feingold Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado A. S. Frisch National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado B. Stevens and W. R. Cotton Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Marine

  13. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U.

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/?(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  14. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  15. Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Shadow-Band Radiometer Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Shadow-Band Radiometer Network M. A. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, and J. J. Bartholomew Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction A network of ship-mounted marine fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) and broadband radiometers have been deployed over the fast four years on several backbone ships, funded jointly by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Sensor Intercomparison

  16. MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE ARCTIC MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic

  17. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  18. A reactionless, bearingless linear shutter mechanism for the multispectral pushbroom imaging radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumel, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program is a multi-laboratory, interagency program as part of DOE`s principal entry into the US Global Change Research Program. Two issues addressed are the radiation budget and its spectral dependence, and radiative and other properties of clouds. Measures of solar flux divergence and energy exchanges between clouds, the earth, its oceans, and the atmosphere through various altitudes are sought. Additionally, the program seeks to provide measurements to calibrate satellite radiance products and validate their associated flux retrieval algorithms. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles fly long, extended missions. MPIR is one of the primary instruments on the ARM-UAV campaigns. A shutter mechanism has been developed and flown as part of an airborne imaging radiometer having application to spacecraft or other applications requiring low vibration, high reliability, and long life. The device could be employed in other cases where a reciprocating platform is needed. Typical shutters and choppers utilize a spinning disc, or in very small instruments, a vibrating vane to continually interrupt incident light or radiation that enters the system. A spinning disk requires some sort of bearings that usually have limited life, and at a minimum introduce issues of reliability. Friction, lubrication and contamination always remain critical areas of concern, as well as the need for power to operate. Dual vibrating vanes may be dynamically well balanced as a set and are frictionless. However, these are limited by size in a practical sense. In addition, multiples of these devices are difficult to synchronize.

  19. Incidents of Security Concern

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1210-2012 September 2012 DOE STANDARD Incidents of Security Concern U.S. Department of Energy AREA SANS Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1210-2012 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1210-2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS PARAGRAPH PAGE FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................ IV INCIDENTS OF SECURITY

  20. July 2013 Cyber Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a cyber incident that occurred at the end of July and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of federal employee Personally Identifiable Information ...

  1. January 2013 Cyber Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has confirmed a recent cyber incident that occurred in mid-January 2013 which targeted the Headquarters' network and resulted in the unauthorized disclosure of...

  2. Incidents of Security Concern

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-03-17

    Sets forth requirements for the DOE Incidents of Security Concern Program, including timely identification and notification of, response to, inquiry into, reporting of, and closure actions for incidents of security concern. Cancels Chapter VII of DOE O 470.1; DOE N 471.3; and Chapter IV of DOE M 471.2-1B (Note: Paragraphs 1 and 2 of Chapter III remain in effect.) Canceled by DOE O 470.4.

  3. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (7486 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  4. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  5. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. DOESC-ARMTR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product A...

  6. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  7. Incident Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Incident Management IC2 (004).jpg The Incident Management Program (IMP) focuses on: threat information sharing critical infrastructure protection active defense incident preparedness. The IMP reports all incidents to the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT), fulfilling statutory requirements and ensuring a coordinated response to cyber attacks. Joint Cybersecurity Coordination Center (JC3) The Joint Cybersecurity Coordination Center (JC3) provides DOE with

  8. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  9. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mfrsr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Instrument Categories...

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mfr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmfr Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Instrument...

  11. Cyber Security Incident Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-01-08

    The manual establishes minimum requirements for a structured cyber security incident detection and management process for detecting, identifying, categorizing, containing, reporting, and mitigating cyber security incidents involving DOE information and information systems operated by DOE or by contractors on behalf of the Department. No cancellations. Admin Chg 1 dated 9-1-09.

  12. Cyber Security Incident Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-01-08

    The manual establishes minimum requirements for a structured cyber security incident detection and management process for detecting, identifying, categorizing, containing, reporting, and mitigating cyber security incidents involving DOE information and information systems operated by DOE or by contractors on behalf of the Department. No cancellations.

  13. Reporting Incidents Of Security Concern

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-04-03

    To enhance the Department of Energy (DOE) Incidents of Security Concern Reporting Program through more consistent reporting, better information tracking, and interactive coordination. DOE N 251.54, dated 07/08/03, extends this directive until 07/08/04. Cancels Deputy Secretary Glauthier memorandum, subject: Reporting Security Incidents, dated 9-7-99.

  14. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-29

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  15. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  16. Cyber Security Incident Management Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-01-08

    The manual establishes minimum requirements for a structured cyber security incident detection and management process for detecting, identifying, categorizing, containing, reporting, and mitigating cyber security incidents involving DOE information and information systems operated by DOE or by contractors on behalf of the Department. Admin Chg 1 dated 9-1-09; Admin Chg 2 dated 12-22-09. Canceled by DOE O 205.1B.

  17. LANL responds to radiological incident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL responds to radiological incident LANL responds to radiological incident Multiple tests indicate no health risks to public or employees. August 27, 2012 Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center(LANSCE). Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The contamination poses no danger to the public. The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The

  18. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and others who require it. This report summarizes the rise in frequency of cyber attacks, describes the perpetrators, and identifies the means of attack. This type of analysis, when used in conjunction with vulnerability analyses, can be used to support a proactive approach to prevent cyber attacks. CSSC will use this document to evolve a standardized approach to incident reporting and analysis. This document will be updated as needed to record additional event analyses and insights regarding incident reporting. This report represents 120 cyber security incidents documented in a number of sources, including: the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) Industrial Security Incident Database, the 2003 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey, the KEMA, Inc., Database, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Energy Incident Database, the INL Cyber Incident Database, and other open-source data. The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) database was also interrogated but, interestingly, failed to yield any cyber attack incidents. The results of this evaluation indicate that historical evidence provides insight into control system related incidents or failures; however, that the limited available information provides little support to future risk estimates. The documented case history shows that activity has increased significantly since 1988. The majority of incidents come from the Internet by way of opportunistic viruses, Trojans, and worms, but a surprisingly large number are directed acts of sabotage. A substantial number of confirmed, unconfirmed, and potential events that directly or potentially impact control systems worldwide are also identified. Twelve selected cyber incidents are presented at the end of this report as examples of the documented case studies (see Appendix B).

  19. Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. You are accessing a...

  20. The Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0787 The Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0787 The Department of Energy operates numerous...

  1. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  2. ARM: G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2008-04-01

    G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

  3. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  4. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  5. Chapter_11_Incidents_of_Security_Concern

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Incidents of Security Concern This chapter covers the DOE HQ implementation of DOE Order 470.4B, Safeguards and Security Program, Attachment 5, Incidents of Security Concern. AU-42 manages the HQ Security Incidents Program. Incidents of Security Concern (henceforth referred to as Incidents) are actions, inactions, or events that are believed to: * Pose threats to national security interests and/or DOE assets * Create potentially serious or dangerous security situations * Significantly affect

  6. JC3 Incident Reporting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management » JC3 Incident Reporting JC3 Incident Reporting technology-785742_960_720.jpg JC3 Incident Reporting Procedures U.S. Department of Energy Facilities/Contractors Only DOE O 205.1-B Chg 2 4.(c)(13) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CYBER SECURITY PROGRAM requires a defined "process for incident reporting that requires all cyber security incidents involving information or information systems, including privacy breaches, under DOE or DOE contractor control must be identified, mitigated,

  7. Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing cloud studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, G.S.; Grotbeck, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    A Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as are relatively inexpensive ({approximately}$IM/copy), well-calibrated,imaging radiometer for aircraft studies of cloud properties. The instrument is designed to fly on an Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) platform at altitudes from the surface up to 20 km. MPIR is being developed to support the Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle portion of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program (ARM/UAV). Radiation-cloud interactions are the dominant uncertainty in the current General Circulation Models used for atmospheric climate studies. Reduction of this uncertainty is a top scientific priority of the US Global Change Research Program and the ARM program. While the DOE`s ARM program measures a num-ber of parameters from the ground-based Clouds and Radiation Testbed sites, it was recognized from the outset that other key parameters are best measured by sustained airborne data taking. These measurements are critical in our understanding of global change issues as well as for improved atmospheric and near space weather forecasting applications.

  8. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  9. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global

  10. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  11. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Measurement Type: Radiometric View Plots AOS Aerosol Observing System Measurement Type: Aerosol View Plots DL Doppler Lidar Measurement Type: Cloud Properties View Plots GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Measurement Type: Radiometric View Plots MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Measurement Type: Surface Meteorology View Plots MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurement Type:

  12. ARM - Datastreams - mfrsr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmfrsr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1023898 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Example mfrsr Archive Data Plot Example mfrsr Archive Data Plot Datastream : MFRSR Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances Active Dates 1996.10.21 - 2016.03.11 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Multifilter

  13. ORISE: Incident Command System (ICS) Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Incident Command System (ICS) Training The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) supports the emergency response community by promoting interagency cooperation and...

  14. Nuclear Incident Team | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Incident Team | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear ...

  15. Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell arteritis with solar cycles By John Greenwald June 15, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A...

  16. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  17. Empirical Evaluation of Four Microwave Radiative Forward Models Based on Ground-Based Radiometer Data Near 20 and 30 GHz

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Empirical Evaluation of Four Microwave Radiative Forward Models Based on Ground-Based Radiometer Data Near 20 and 30 GHz C. Cimini Centre of Excellence on Atmospheric Modeling and Remote Sensing University of L'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy and Science and Technology Corporation Hampton, Virginia E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado S. J.

  18. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  19. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  20. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  1. Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lineweaver, C.H.

    1994-08-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than {approximately}20{degree} is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9{sigma}, > 10{sigma} and > 18{sigma} above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60{degree} due to the 60{degree} separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60{degree} is 0.45%{sub {minus}0.14}{sup +0.18} of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  2. Incident Prevention, Warning, and Response (IPWAR) Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-09-30

    This Manual defines a structured, cohesive, and consistent process for performing incident prevention, warning, and response for DOE's Federal information systems and is consistent with the requirements of Federal laws, Executive orders, national security directives, and other regulations. The Manual also provides requirements and implementation instructions for the Department's Incident Prevention, Warning and Response process, and supplements DOE O 205.1, Department of Energy Cyber Security Management Program, dated 3-21-03. DOE N 205.17 cancels this manual. This manual cancels DOE N 205.4, Handling Cyber Security Alerts and Advisories and Reporting Cyber Security Incidents, dated 3/18/2002.

  3. Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    increased incidents of RA and GCA to be in periodic concert with the cycle of magnetic activity of the sun. During the solar cycle, dramatic changes that can affect space...

  4. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  5. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  6. Improved Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurement Performance: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-294

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Participant to improve rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) performance characterizations. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development for making the RSR a more accurate and fully characterized instrument for solar power technology development and commercial solar power project site assessment. Cooperative R&D is proposed in three areas: instrument calibration, instrument field configuration and operation, and measurement extrapolation and interpolation using satellite images. This work will be conducted at NREL and Participant facilities.

  7. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  8. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1995-06-27

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  9. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1995-06-27

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  10. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  11. Newsletter Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 ANL/EVS/NL-07-09 Technical Contact: Brad W. Orr Phone: 630-252-8665 Email: brad.orr@anl.gov Editor: Donna J. Holdridge Contributor: Lynne Roeder Website: http://www.arm.gov ACRF Southern Great Plains Newsletter is published by Argonne National Laboratory, managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC02-06CH11357. Multifilter Radiometer Added to Cessna Payload Downward-facing multifilter radiometers (MFRs) are instruments used to measure the

  12. ARM - Datastreams - mfr3m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmfr3m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1140239 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MFR3M Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Active Dates 2013.09.18 - 2015.11.14 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Measurements Only measurements considered

  13. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

  14. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 11, Incidents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, Incidents of Security Concern Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 11, Incidents of Security Concern 2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - ...

  15. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National

  16. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  17. An Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by centrally-located operations staff is well established in the area of emergency response, utilization by first responders in the field is uneven. Cost, complexity, and connectivity are often the deciding factors preventing wider adoption. For the past several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing a mobile GIS solution using free and open-source software targeting the needs of front-line personnel. Termed IMPACT, for Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit, this ORNL application can complement existing GIS infrastructure and extend its power and capabilities to responders first on the scene of a natural or man-made disaster.

  18. Personnel Accountability for Non-COOP Incidents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Personnel Accountability for Non-COOP Incidents Personnel Accountability for Non-COOP Incidents This document establishes reporting requirements for non-COOP incidents. PDF icon Personnel Accountability for Non-COOP Incidents Responsible Contacts Bruce Murray HR Policy Advisor E-mail bruce.murray@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-3372 More Documents & Publications Inspection Report: IG-0784 Audit Report: IG-0845 High-Energy, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010)

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inferring Cloud Properties from Narrow-Field-of-View Spectral Radiometers Marshak, A.(a), Knyazikhin, Y.(b), Evans, K.(c), and Wiscombe, W.(a), NASA/GSFC (a), Boston University (b), UMBC/JCET (c) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The most common approach for retrieving cloud optical depth from ground-based observations uses downwelling fluxes measured by pyranometers and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR). The key element in both retrieval

  20. min-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Model-Predicted Total Shortwave with Measurements Under Overcast Cloud Conditions Q. Min and L. C. Harrison Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Abstract We use surface measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site made with the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain time-series of cloud optical depths and mean effective droplet

  1. ARM - Instrument - gndmfr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgndmfr Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Ground Multifilter Radiometer (GNDMFR) Note: gndmfr is currently inactive and/or retired. Active Dates 1970.01.01 - 1970.01.01 Instrument Categories Radiometric, Surface/Subsurface Properties General Overview The Ground Radiation (GNDRAD) collection of radiometers provides each site with continuous measurements of

  2. On the relationship among cloud turbulence, droplet formation and drizzle as viewed by Doppler radar, microwave radiometer and lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1999-09-01

    Cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and lidar remote sensing data acquired during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) are analyzed to address the relationship between (1) drop number concentration and cloud turbulence as represented by vertical velocity and vertical velocity variance and (2) drizzle formation and cloud turbulence. Six cases, each of about 12 hours duration, are examined; three of these cases are characteristic of nondrizzling boundary layers and three of drizzling boundary layers. In all cases, microphysical retrievals are only performed when drizzle is negligible (radar reflectivity{lt}{minus}17dBZ). It is shown that for the cases examined, there is, in general, no correlation between drop concentration and cloud base updraft strength, although for two of the nondrizzling cases exhibiting more classical stratocumulus features, these two parameters are correlated. On drizzling days, drop concentration and cloud-base vertical velocity were either not correlated or negatively correlated. There is a significant positive correlation between drop concentration and mean in-cloud vertical velocity variance for both nondrizzling boundary layers (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and boundary layers that have experienced drizzle (r=0.38). In general, there is a high correlation (r{gt}0.5) between radar reflectivity and in-cloud vertical velocity variance, although one of the boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibited a negative correlation between these parameters. However, in the subcloud region, all boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibit a negative correlation between radar reflectivity and vertical velocity variance. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  3. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  4. Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System CAIRS Database The Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System is a database used to collect and analyze DOE and DOE contractor reports of injuries, illnesses, and other accidents that occur during DOE operations. CAIRS is a Government computer system and, as such, has security requirements that must be followed. Access to the database is open to DOE and DOE contractors. Additional information

  5. NNSA Nuclear/Radiological Incident Response | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dec 1, 2008 The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has over 60 years of nuclear weapons experience in responding to nuclear and radiological accidents and incidents....

  6. ORISE: DeepwaterHorizon and Nuclear & Radiological Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System's Incident Command System was utilized during the response, there were immense command and coordination challenges for the unified management team never before...

  7. The National Traffic Safety Summit Traffic Incident Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Day - Registration 0900 to 1200 Staged Live Vehicle Crash University of Tulsa's Crash Reconstruction Research Consortium 1200 to 1300 Lunch 1300 to 1500 Traffic Incident...

  8. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Model Recovery Procedure contains the recommended elements for developing and conducting recovery planning at transportation incident scene...

  9. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore » and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  10. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  11. Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    As with many professions, safety planners and first responders tend to be specialists in certain areas. To be truly useful, tools should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Thus, general software suites aimed at the professional geographic information system (GIS) community might not be the best solution for a first responder with little training in GIS terminology and techniques. On the other hand, commonly used web-based map viewers may not have the capability tomore » be customized for the planning, response, and recovery (PR&R) mission. Data formats should be open and foster easy information flow among local, state, and federal partners. Tools should be free or low-cost to address real-world budget constraints at the local level. They also need to work both with and without a network connection to be robust. The Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) can satisfy many of these needs while working in harmony with established systems at the local, state, and federal levels. The IMPACT software framework, termed the Geospatial Integrated Problem Solving Environment (GIPSE), organizes tasks, tools, and resources for the end user. It uses the concept of software wizards to both customize and extend its functionality. On the Tasks panel are a number of buttons used to initiate various operations. Similar to macros, these task buttons launch scripts that utilize the full functionality of the underlying foundational components such as the SQL spatial database and ORNL-developed map editor. The user is presented with a series of instruction pages which are implemented with HTML for interactivity. On each page are links which initiate specific actions such as creating a map showing various features. Additional tasks may be quickly programmed and added to the panel. The end user can customize the graphical interface to faciltate its use during an emergency. One of the major components of IMPACT is the ORNL Geospatial Viewer (OGV). It is used to provide various map displays for the Tasks and Maps panels. Unlike typical maps however, the OGV display is highly interactive and can be customized, automated, and animated to meet the needs of the user. It is also a means to both import and export geospatial data from or to existing GIS systems. The built-in simulation capability can be used as the basis of table-top exercises.« less

  12. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  13. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  14. Microsoft Word - NNSS Incident Initial News Release.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 29, 2013 Darwin.morgan@nnsa.doe.gov Incident at Nevada National Security Site LAS VEGAS, NV - Emergency responders are currently responding to an incident on the central portion of the Nevada National Security Site. More information will be released as it becomes available. -30- NSO-13-04

  15. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

  16. MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - - 3:00 3:00 Vetting & Integration Vetting & Integration Best Estimate Best Estimate * * MWR cloud prop., Flux closure, Microphysics MWR cloud prop., Flux closure, Microphysics...

  17. ORISE: REAC/TS Medical Management of Radiation Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Radiation Incidents As part of its primary mission for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) at the Oak...

  18. Effect of Emergency Argon on FCF Operational Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Solbrig

    2011-12-01

    The following report presents analyses of operational incidents which are considered in the safety analysis of the FCF argon cell and the effect that the operability of the emergency argon system has on the course of these incidents. The purpose of this study is to determine if the emergency argon system makes a significant difference in ameliorating the course of these incidents. Six incidents were considered. The following three incidents were analyzed. These are: 1. Cooling failing on 2. Vacuum Pump Failing on 3. Argon Supplies Failing on. In the remaining three incidents, the emergency argon supply would have no effect on the course of these transients since it would not come on during these incidents. The transients are 1. Loss of Cooling 2. Loss of power (Differs from above by startup delay till the Diesel Generators come on.) 3. Cell rupture due to an earthquake or other cause. The analyses of the first three incidents are reported on in the next three sections. This report is issued realizing the control parameters used may not be optimum, and additional modeling must be done to model the inertia of refrigeration system, but the major conclusion concerning the need for the emergency argon system is still valid. The timing of some events may change with a more accurate model but the differences between the transients with and without emergency argon will remain the same. Some of the parameters assumed in the analyses are Makeup argon supply, 18 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -6 iwg., shuts off when pressure is = -3.1 iwg. 170,000 ft3 supply. Min 1/7th always available, can be cross connected to HFEF argon supply dewar. Emergency argon supply, 900 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -8 iwg. shuts off when pressure is =-4 iwg. reservoir 220 ft3, refilled when tank farm pressure reduces to 1050 psi which is about 110 ft3.

  19. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plant accidents (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to

  20. Radioactive Waste Issues in Major Nuclear Incidents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Radioactive Waste Issues in Major Nuclear Incidents Radioactive Waste Issues in Major Nuclear Incidents S.Y. Chen*, Illinois Institute of Technology Abstract: Large amounts of radioactive waste had been generated in major nuclear accidents such as the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine of 1986 and the recent Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan of 2011. The wastes were generated due to the accidental releases of radioactive materials that resulted in widespread contamination throughout the

  1. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 11, Incidents of Security Concern

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 11, Incidents of Security Concern Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for reporting, investigating, and correcting Incidents of Security Concern.

  2. PSM case history: Regulatory compliance can prevent catastrophic incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiihne, E.J.; Mannan, M. [RMT/Jones and Neuse, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration promulgated on February 24, 1992 the Process Safety Management (PSM) rule: 29 CFR 1910.119. The PSM rule represents a holistic program which requires facilities to develop, implement and practice 14 different elements. Each of the 14 elements are significant in the protection of health and safety of all employees and personnel working in and around the plant site. PSM programs developed in compliance with the PSM rule are expected to reduce the probability and consequence of occurrence of hazardous incidents. This paper presents a real life incident that occurred in a plant before a PSM program was put in place. A detailed description of the incident is provided with appropriate discussions of non compliance with the PSM rule. Finally, the paper provides a theoretical scenario where a fully operational PSM program would have prevented the incident. The case history and discussion provided in this paper also reinforces the concept of maintaining process and equipment integrity through multiple barriers of safety. A fully operational PSM program represents such a multiple barrier safety system.

  3. Violation of Laws, Losses, and Incidents of Security Concerns

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-09-15

    To set forth Department of Energy (DOE) procedures to assure timely and effective action relating to violations of criminal, laws, loses, and incidents of security concern to DOE. Cancels DOE O 5631.5. Canceled by DOE O 470.1 of 9-28-1995.

  4. EM-Led Radiological Incident Response Program Receives Honors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A program led by EM’s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) that coordinates analytical capabilities throughout DOE for response to potential national radiological incidents recently received recognition for the best-in-track poster at a waste management conference earlier this year.

  5. NNSA Nuclear/Radiological Incident Response | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Nuclear/Radiological Incident Response | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs

  6. On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS Tomsk, Russia M. A. Sviridenkov and P. P. Anikin A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS Moscow, Russia Introduction The multi-filter rotated shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) provides spectral direct, diffuse, and total horizontal solar irradiance measurements. Because the MFRSR's receiver has a non-Lambertian response, for a correct interpretation of measured radiation an

  7. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for Aerosol Effects on AERI Clear-Sky Radiance at the SGP Ma, Y., and Ellingson, R.G., University of Maryland Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) 10-micron window residuals have been examined relative to the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 0.87-micron optical depth for clear-sky periods during

  8. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Assessment of Aerosol Retrievals from RSS, MFRSR, and CIMEL Data Using EOF Analysis Gianelli, S.M.(a,b), Lacis, A.A.(b), and Carlson, B.E.(b), Columbia University (a), GISS (b) Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The ability to accurately retrieve aerosol size distribrutions using the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) is limited due to the small number of spectral bands (six) and the inability to retrieve a unique value for the effective

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cirrus Optical Depths Derived from GOES-8 and Surface Measurements Min, Q.(a) and Minnis, P.(b), ASRC, SUNY at Albany (a), NASA Langley Research Center (b) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Passive radiometer measurements are used to validate satellite-derived cirrus optical depths over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site during March 2000. Optical depths derived from direct beam measurements by a multifilter rotating

  10. treadwell-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 New Broadband Shortwave Solar Radiation Data Collection System for the Southern Great Plains J. A. Treadwell, T. L. Stoffel, and I. Reda National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Background To improve the data recovery from the Solar and Infrared Radiation Observing System (SIROS), a new data logging system was needed. Experience had shown the original multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR)-based logger and in-line amplifiers were unreliable and difficult to maintain.

  11. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    InactiveInstruments TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Instruments : Tropical Western Pacific Active Retired Active instruments are currently deployed at fixed or mobile facilities or are available through the ARM Aerial Facility. MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

  12. ARM - Datastreams - iapmfr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsiapmfr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1140225 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : IAPMFR In-situ Aerosol Profiles MultiFilter Radiometer (Cessna Aerosol Flights) Active Dates 2007.08.08 - 2016.03.13 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) (IAP)

  13. ARM - Datastreams - mfraaf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmfraaf Documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MFRAAF MFR data collected from the underside of an airplane wing Active Dates 2015.05.07 - 2015.10.13 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by default. Show all measurements

  14. ARM - Datastreams - mfrirt25m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmfrirt25m Documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MFRIRT25M Infrared Thermometer (MFRIRT): upwelling radiance, instantaneous 20-sec at 25-meter height Active Dates 2001.04.01 - 2001.09.26 Measurement Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Originating Instrument Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer (MFRIRT) Measurements The measurements

  15. ARM - Instrument - mfrirt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmfrirt Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer (MFRIRT) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Radiometric Output Datastreams mfrirt25m : Infrared Thermometer (MFRIRT): upwelling radiance, instantaneous 20-sec at 25-meter height Primary Measurements The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

  16. ARM - Campaign Instrument - uv-mfrsr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mfrsr Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Ultraviolet Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Aerosol IOP [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2003.05.01 - 2003.05.31 Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2005.09.12 - 2005.09.22 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered

  17. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Areal Average Albedo VAP Evaluation Data Now Available Bookmark and Share Shown here are (top) screened areal daily average albedo and (bottom) quality check results on field. Shown here are (top) screened areal daily average albedo and (bottom) quality check results on field. A new value-added product (VAP) estimating the surface albedo at Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) spectral wavelengths is now available from the Southern Great Plains (SGP). The Areal Average Albedo

  18. Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arteritis with solar cycles | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell arteritis with solar cycles By John Greenwald June 15, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A coronal mass ejection hurling plasma from the sun (Photo by NASA) A coronal mass ejection hurling plasma from the sun What began as a chat between husband and wife has evolved into an intriguing scientific discovery. The results, published in May in BMJ

  19. Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arteritis with solar cycles | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers correlate incidences of rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell arteritis with solar cycles By John Greenwald June 15, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A coronal mass ejection hurling plasma from the sun (Photo by NASA) A coronal mass ejection hurling plasma from the sun What began as a chat between husband and wife has evolved into an intriguing scientific discovery. The results, published in May in BMJ

  20. ORISE: Incident Management Training Put to Test in Gulf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Incident Management Training Put to Test in Gulf ORISE emergency management staff provided critical support during Deepwater Horizon disaster On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 people and touched off a massive offshore oil spill that continued for more than 12 weeks. U.S. Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education emergency management personnel were among those who traveled to the Gulf to assist

  1. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-09-15

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report 'Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.' The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  2. ORISE: REAC/TS Medical Management of Radiation Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Management of Radiation Incidents As part of its primary mission for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week to consult with officials from any federal, state or local government agency; industries; international governments or organizations; or individuals needing assistance with the medical management of a radiation

  3. Drum Involved in Idaho Incident Not Shippable to WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contacts: Dennis Hurtt U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office (505) 234-7327 Susan Scott Washington TRU Solutions LLC (505) 234-7204 (800) 493-9768 http://www.wipp.carlsbad.nm.us U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews For Immediate Release Drum Involved in Idaho Incident Not Shippable to WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., August 14, 2003, 4:05 p.m. (MDT) - As communicated by the U.S. Department of Energy, and

  4. Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

    2005-01-01

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two regions.

  5. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preview of TWP MFRSR Data Submitter: Chuang, C., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: N/A Figure 1. MFRSR data from the TWP site (97/09/10) Figure 2. Aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent Figure 3. Water vapor derived from MFRSR and MWR Key contributors to this work are Jim Barnard and Will Shaw. The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a ground-based radiometer that uses

  6. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  7. Federal Response Assets for a Radioactive Dispersal Device Incident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan,T.

    2009-06-30

    If a large scale RDD event where to occur in New York City, the magnitude of the problem would likely exceed the capabilities of City and State to effectively respond to the event. New York State could request Federal Assistance if the United States President has not already made the decision to provide it. The United States Federal Government has a well developed protocol to respond to emergencies. The National Response Framework (NRF) describes the process for responding to all types of emergencies including RDD incidents. Depending on the location and type of event, the NRF involves appropriate Federal Agencies, e.g., Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), United States Coast Guard (USCG), Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Justice (DOJ), Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Federal response to emergencies has been refined and improved over the last thirty years and has been tested on natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes and floods), man-made disasters (oil spills), and terrorist events (9/11). However, the system has never been tested under an actual RDD event. Drills have been conducted with Federal, State, and local agencies to examine the initial (early) phases of such an event (TopOff 2 and TopOff 4). The Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) incidents issued by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in August 2008 has never been fully tested in an interagency exercise. Recently, another exercise called Empire 09 that was situated in Albany, New York was conducted. Empire 09 consists of 3 different exercises be held in May and June, 2009. The first exercise, May 2009, involved a table top exercise for phase 1 (0-48 hours) of the response to an RDD incident. In early June, a full-scale 3- day exercise was conducted for the mid-phase response (48 hours +). A few weeks later, a one day full-scale exercise was conducted for the late phase (recovery) response to an RDD event. The lessons learned from this study are not available as of June 30, 2009. The objective of this report is to review and summarize anticipated Federal and State response actions and the roles and responsibilities of various agencies (DHS, EPA, DOE, NY-DEP, NY-DEC) with respect to decontamination issues that would arise from a radiological dispersion device (RDD), e.g., dirty bomb attack. These issues arise in the late phase of the response (48 hours and beyond) after the area has been stabilized and forensic information has been obtained. Much of the information provided in this report is taken directly from published guidance that is readily available.

  8. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to

  9. Fact Sheet Investigation of Incident at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant by

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technical Assessment Team | Department of Energy Fact Sheet Investigation of Incident at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant by Technical Assessment Team Fact Sheet Investigation of Incident at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant by Technical Assessment Team On February 14, 2014, an incident in Panel 7 Room 7 (P7R7) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) underground repository resulted in the release of radioactive material into the environment and contaminated 21 people with low-level radioactivity. The

  10. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen ; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  11. Implementation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center(FRMAC) - Emergency Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-04-01

    Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt a National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation programs and activities, as well as in support of those actions taken to assist state and local entities. This system provides a consistent nationwide template to enable federal, state, local, and tribal governments, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity, including acts of catastrophic terrorism. This document identifies the operational concepts of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center's (FRMAC) implementation of the NIMS/ICS response structure under the National Response Plan (NRP). The construct identified here defines the basic response template to be tailored to the incident-specific response requirements. FRMAC's mission to facilitate interagency environmental data management, monitoring, sampling, analysis, and assessment and link this information to the planning and decision staff clearly places the FRMAC in the Planning Section. FRMAC is not a mitigating resource for radiological contamination but is present to conduct radiological impact assessment for public dose avoidance. Field monitoring is a fact-finding mission to support this effort directly. Decisions based on the assessed data will drive public protection and operational requirements. This organizational structure under NIMS is focused by the mission responsibilities and interface requirements following the premise to provide emergency responders with a flexible yet standardized structure for incident response activities. The coordination responsibilities outlined in the NRP are based on the NIMS/ICS construct and Unified Command (UC) for management of a domestic incident. The NRP Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex (NUC) further provides requirements and protocols for coordinating federal government capabilities to respond to nuclear/radiological Incidents of National Significance (INS) and other radiological incidents. When a FRMAC is established, it operates under the parameters of NIMS as defined in the NRP. FRMAC and its operations have been modified to reflect NIMS/ICS concepts and principles and to facilitate working in a Unified Command structure. FRMAC is established at or near the scene of the incident to coordinate radiological monitoring and assessment and is established in coordination with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS); the coordinating agency; other federal agencies; and state, local, and tribal authorities. However, regardless of the coordinating agency designation, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) coordinates radiological monitoring and assessment activities for the initial phases of the offsite federal incident response through the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) and FRMAC assets. Monitoring and assessment data are managed by FRMAC in an accountable, secure, and retrievable format. Monitoring data interpretations, including exposure rate contours, dose projections, and any requested radiological assessments are to be provided to the DHS; to the coordinating agency; and to state, local, and tribal government agencies.

  12. X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    program (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001

  13. Investigation of Incident at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant by Technical Assessment Team

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Incident at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant by Technical Assessment Team March 2015 Overall Findings On February 14, 2014, an incident in Panel 7 Room 7 (P7R7) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) underground repository resulted in the release of radioactive material into the environment and contaminated 21 people with low-level radioactivity. The Technical Assessment Team (TAT) concluded that one drum, Drum 68660, was the source of radioactive contamination released during the February 14,

  14. Follow-up Audit of the Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program, IG-0878

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program DOE/IG-0878 December 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits & Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 11, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Follow-up Audit of the Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program" INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy operates

  15. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  16. Section 33

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in ' c n I o n exp (&T in / µ i ) T i,n ' µ i log (I o n / I i,n ) % µ i log (c n ) Session Papers 145 (1) (2) Multi-Spectral Atmospheric Column Extinction Analysis of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements A.A. Lacis and B.E. Carlson National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York B. Cairns Columbia University National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Abstract

  17. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  18. ARM - Datastreams - mfr10m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmfr10m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025224 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Example mfr10m Archive Data Plot Example mfr10m Archive Data Plot Datastream : MFR10M Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 10-meter height Active Dates 1994.03.26 - 2016.03.11 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument

  19. ARM - Datastreams - mfr25m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmfr25m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025225 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Example mfr25m Archive Data Plot Example mfr25m Archive Data Plot Datastream : MFR25M Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 25-meter height Active Dates 1994.04.17 - 2016.03.10 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument

  20. ARM - PI Product - Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM

  1. EP&R Standards Project Report: Technical Review of National Incident Management Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2007-04-24

    The importance and necessity for a fully developed and implemented National Incident Management System (NIMS) has been demonstrated in recent years by the impact of national events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Throughout the history of emergency response to major disasters, especially when multiple response organizations are involved, there have been systemic problems in the consistency and uniformity of response operations. Identifying national standards that support the development and implementation of NIMS is key to helping solve these systemic problems. The NIMS seeks to provide uniformity and consistency for incident management by using common terminology and protocols that will enable responders to coordinate their efforts to ensure an efficient response.

  2. The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice (Conference) | SciTech Connect The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice The effects of rotating-drum treadmill exercise and diet on 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

  3. Biomedical nuclear and X-ray imager using high-energy grazing incidence mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Craig, William W.; Hasegawa, Bruce; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2005-09-27

    Imaging of radiation sources located in a subject is explored for medical applications. The approach involves using grazing-incidence optics to form images of the location of radiopharmaceuticals administered to a subject. The optics are "true focusing" optics, meaning that they project a real and inverted image of the radiation source onto a detector possessing spatial and energy resolution.

  4. Solid state laser disk amplifer architecture: the normal-incidence stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Albrecht, Georg F.; Rotter, Mark D.

    2005-01-25

    Normal incidence stack architecture coupled with the development of diode array pumping enables the power/energy per disk to be increased, a reduction in beam distortions by orders of magnitude, a beam propagation no longer restricted to only one direction of polarization, and the laser becomes so much more amendable to robust packaging.

  5. SU-E-T-524: Web-Based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System (ROIRLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M; Grover, S; Malik, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Describe a Web-based Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: The VA National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and near miss data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. Software used for this program is deployed on the VAs intranet as a Website. All data entry forms (adverse event or near miss reports, work product reports) utilize standard causal, RT process step taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM and ASTRO reports on error reporting (AAPM Work Group Report on Prevention of Errors and ASTROs safety is no accident report). All reported incidents are investigated by the radiation oncology domain experts. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The operational workflow is similar to that of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. This system is also synergistic with ROSIS and SAFRON. Results: The ROIRLS facilitates the collection of data that help in tracking adverse events and near misses and develop new interventions to prevent such incidents. The ROIRLS electronic infrastructure is fully integrated with each registered facility profile data thus minimizing key strokes and multiple entries by the event reporters. Conclusions: OIRLS is expected to improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in the VA and fulfills our goal of Effecting Quality While Treating Safely The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations Inc. and is deployed on the VA intranet as a Website. The Radiation Oncology Incident Reporting and Learning System software used for this program has been developed, conceptualized and maintained by TSG Innovations Inc. and is deployed on the VA intranet as a Website.

  6. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  7. Handling Cyber Security Alerts and Advisories and Reporting Cyber Security Incidents

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-03-18

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and responsibilities for reporting cyber security incidents involving classified and unclassified systems and responding to cyber security alerts and advisories; and to implement requirements of DOE N 205.1, Unclassified Cyber Security Program, and DOE M 471.2-2, Classified Information Systems Security Manual. DOE N 205.13, dated 7-6-04, extends this notice until 7-6-05. Cancels DOE M 471.2-2, Chapter III, section 8.

  8. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boe, Timothy; Lemieux, Paul; Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom; Hayes, Colin

    2013-07-01

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  9. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd Metorima, Kouhei Ohsawa, Takaaki Hashimoto, Kengo

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (?{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ?{sub d}=?Y{sub i} P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ?{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  10. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in themore » soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.« less

  11. Nucleation of diindenoperylene and pentacene at thermal and hyperthermal incident kinetic energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kish, Edward R.; Desai, Tushar V.; Greer, Douglas R.; Engstrom, James R.; Woll, Arthur R.

    2015-05-15

    The authors have examined the nucleation of diindenoperylene (DIP) on SiO{sub 2} employing primarily atomic force microscopy and focusing on the effect of incident kinetic energy employing both thermal and supersonic sources. For all incident kinetic energies examined (E{sub i}?=?0.0911.3?eV), the nucleation of DIP is homogeneous and the dependence of the maximum island density on the growth rate is described by a power law. A critical nucleus of approximately two molecules is implicated by our data. A re-examination of the nucleation of pentacene on SiO{sub 2} gives the same major result that the maximum island density is determined by the growth rate, and it is independent of the incident kinetic energy. These observations are readily understood by factoring in the size of the critical nucleus in each case, and the island density, which indicates that diffusive transport of molecules to the growing islands dominate the dynamics of growth in the submonolayer regime.

  12. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Mller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  13. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.

    2008-07-01

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical monitoring strategies. The importance of being able to link population estimates to geographic areas during the course of an RDD incident can be understood intuitively: - The spatial distribution of actual total dose equivalents of ionizing radiation is likely to vary due to changes in meteorological parameters as an event evolves over time; - The size of the geographical area affected also is likely to vary as a function of the actual release scenario; - The ability to identify the location and size of the populations that may be exposed to doses of ionizing radiation is critical to carrying out appropriate treatment and post-event medical monitoring; - Once a spatial interaction model has been validated for a city or a region, it can then be used for simulation and prediction purposes to assess the possible human health consequences of different release scenarios. (authors)

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor, and low-resolution cloud liquid water. It was deployed at the Blackwell-Tonkawa airport, northeast of the ARM SGP central facility, from 25 February through 22 March 2000,...

  15. Incidence, Risks, and Sequelae of Posterior Fossa Syndrome in Pediatric Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korah, Mariam P.; Esiashvili, Natia; Mazewski, Claire M.; Hudgins, Roger J.; Tighiouart, Mourad; Janss, Anna J.; Schwaibold, Frederick P.; Crocker, Ian R.; Curran, Walter J.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risks, severity, and sequelae of posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in children with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 2007, 63 children with medulloblastoma at Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta were treated with craniectomy followed by radiation. Fifty-one patients were assigned to a standard-risk group, and 12 patients were assigned to a high-risk group. Five patients had <1.5-cm{sup 2} residual tumor, 4 had >=1.5-cm{sup 2} residual tumor, and the remainder had no residual tumor. Eleven patients had disseminated disease. Patients received craniospinal irradiation at a typical dose of 23.4 Gy or 36 Gy for standard- or high-risk disease, respectively. The posterior fossa was given a total dose of 54 or 55.8 Gy. Nearly all patients received chemotherapy following cooperative group protocols. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. PFS developed in 18 patients (29%). On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion, midline tumor location, younger age, and the absence of radiographic residual tumor were found to be predictors of PFS; the last two variables remained significant on multivariate analysis. From 1990 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2007, the proportions of patients with no radiographic residual tumor were 77% and 94%, respectively. During the same eras, the proportions of patients with PFS were 17% and 39%. Only 4 patients had complete recovery at last follow-up. Conclusions: The incidence of PFS increased in the latter study period and is proportional to more aggressive surgery. Children with midline tumors exhibiting brainstem invasion are at increased risk. With the increased incidence of PFS and the permanent morbidity in many patients, the risks and benefits of complete tumor removal in all patients need to be reexamined.

  16. Incidence of Leukoencephalopathy After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebi, Junko; Sato, Hisashi; Nakajima, Masaru; Shishido, Fumio

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of leukoencephalopathy after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who underwent WBRT for brain metastases from April 2001 through March 2008 and had evaluable computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at least 1 month after completion of WBRT. We evaluated the leukoencephalopathy according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. The patients who had brain tumor recurrence after WBRT were censored at the last follow-up CT or MRI without recurrence. To evaluate the risk factors for leukoencephalopathy, bivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for follow-up time. Factors included in the analysis were age, gender, dose fractionation, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents. Results: The median age of the 111 patients was 60.0 years (range, 23-89 years). The median follow-up was 3.8 months (range, 1.0-38.1 months). Leukoencephalopathy developed in 23 of the 111 patients. Grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 8, 7, and 8 patients, respectively. The incidence was 34.4% (11 of 32), 42.9% (6 of 14), 66.7% (2 of 3), and 100% (2 of 2) of the patients who were followed up for ≥6, ≥12, ≥24, and ≥36 months, respectively. In the bivariate analysis, older age (≥65 years) was significantly correlated with higher risk of leukoencephalopathy (odds ratio 3.31; 95% confidence interval 1.15-9.50; P=.03). Conclusions: The incidence of leukoencephalopathy after WBRT was 34.4% with ≥6 months follow-up, and increased with longer follow-up. Older age was a significant risk factor. The schedule of WBRT for patients with brain metastases should be carefully determined, especially for favorable patients.

  17. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent ion-surface interaction at grazing incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J. ); Ponce, V.H. ); Echenique, P.M. )

    1992-10-19

    A new spectroscopy based on the resonant coherently induced electron loss to the continuum in ion-surface scattering under grazing incidence is proposed. A series of peaks, corresponding to the energy differences determined by the resonant interaction with the rows of atoms in the surface, is predicted to appear in the energy distribution of electrons emitted from electronic states bound to the probe. Calculations for MeV He{sup +} ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the {l angle}100{r angle} direction with a glancing angle of 0--2 mrad show a total yield close to 1.

  18. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent interaction in ion-surface scattering at grazing incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J. ); Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M. )

    1994-01-15

    The resonant coherent interaction of an ion with an oriented crystal surface, under grazing-incidence conditions with respect to a special direction of the crystal, gives rise to electron loss to the continuum from electronic bound states of the ion. The calculations presented below predict large probabilities for electron emission due to this mechanism. The electrons are emitted with well defined energies, expressed in terms of the condition of resonance. Furthermore, the emission takes place around certain preferential directions, which are determined by both the latter condition and the symmetry of the surface lattice. Our calculations for MeV He[sup +] ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the [l angle]100[r angle] direction with glancing angle of 0--2 mrad indicate a yield of emission close to 1. Using heavier projectiles, one obtains smaller yields, but still large enough to be measurable in some cases (e.g., [approx]0.9 for 53 MeV B[sup 4+] and an angle of incidence of 1 mrad). Besides, the initial bound state is energy shifted due to the interaction with both the crystal potential and the velocity-dependent image potential. This results in a slight shift of the peaks of emission, which suggests a possible spectroscopy for analyzing the dynamical interaction of electronic bound states with solid surfaces.

  19. Electron-impact excitation of xenon at incident energies between 15 and 80 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filipovic-acute-accent, D.; Marinkovic-acute-accent, B.; Pejcev, V.; Vuskovic-acute-accent, a.L.

    1988-01-15

    Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) have been measured for the 20 lowest electronic states of xenon. Incident electron energies were 15, 20, 30, and 80 eV and the scattering angles ranged from 5/sup 0/ to 150/sup 0/. The energy resolution was 40 meV. Absolute elastic DCS's have been obtained by normalizing the relative values to the recently published absolute elastic DCS's by Register et al. (J. Phys. B 19, 1685 (1986)). Elastic-to-inelastic intensity ratios, at different incident energies for the 6s((3/2)/sub 1/ state were determined. These ratios were utilized as secondary standards to establish the absolute scale for the other inelastic processes in accordance with intensity ratios of lines in energy-loss spectra. The absolute inelastic DCS's were extrapolated to 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ and integrated to yield the integral cross sections (ICS's). A comparison of the present DCS's with the only available measurements at 20 eV impact energy shows satisfactory agreement in shape but considerable difference in absolute value.

  20. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a governing entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term Peace Officer is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law enforcement standards and guides identified the following four guides as having content that supports incident management: TE-02-02 Guide to Radio Communications Interoperability Strategies and Products OSHA 335-10N Preparing and Protecting Security Personnel in Emergencies NIJ 181584 Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Guide for Public Safety Personnel NIJ 181869 A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation In conversations with various state and local law enforcement officials, it was determined that the following National Fire Protection Association (NPFA) standards are generally recognized and tend to be universally used by law enforcement organizations across the country: NFPA 1600 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs NFPA 1561 Standard on Fire Department Incident Management Systems NFPA 472 Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition) NFPA 473 Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents (2008 Edition)

  1. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Poenisch, Falk [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pinnix, Chelsea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sheu, Tommy [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Memon, Nada [Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rozner, Marc A. [Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dougherty, Anne H. [Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving thoracic PBT be followed closely.

  2. Tensions in collaborative cyber security and how they affect incident detection and response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Glenn A.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2009-12-01

    Security often requires collaboration, but when multiple stakeholders are involved, it is typical for their priorities to differ or even conflict with one another. In todays increasingly networked world, cyber security collaborations may span organizations and countries. In this chapter, we address collaboration tensions, their effects on incident detection and response, and how these tensions may potentially be resolved. We present three case studies of collaborative cyber security within the U.S. government and discuss technical, social, and regulatory challenges to collaborative cyber security. We suggest possible solutions, and present lessons learned from conflicts. Finally, we compare collaborative solutions from other domains and apply them to cyber security collaboration. Although we concentrate our analysis on collaborations whose purpose is to achieve cyber security, we believe that this work applies readily to security tensions found in collaborations of a general nature as well.

  3. Light trapping for emission from a photovoltaic cell under normally incident monochromatic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko Iizuka, Hideo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kajino, Tsutomu; Ichiki, Akihisa; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2014-09-28

    We have theoretically demonstrated a new light-trapping mechanism to reduce emission from a photovoltaic (PV) cell used for a monochromatic light source, which improves limiting conversion efficiency determined by the detailed balance. A multilayered bandpass filter formed on the surface of a PV cell has been found to prevent the light generated inside by radiative recombination from escaping the cell, resulting in a remarkable decrease of the effective solid angle for the emission. We have clarified a guide to design a suitable configuration of the bandpass filter and achieved significant reduction of the emission. The resultant gain in monochromatic conversion efficiency in the radiative limit due to the optimally designed 18-layerd bandpass filters is as high as 6% under normally incident 1064 nm illumination of 10 mW/cm~ 1 kW/cm, compared with the efficiency for the perfect anti-reflection treatment to the surface of a conventional solar cell.

  4. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Christine S., E-mail: chungc1@sutterhealth.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, California (United States); Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nelson, Kerrie [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Xu, Yang [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Keating, Nancy L. [Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Office of the Executive Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study, these results should be viewed as hypothesis generating.

  5. Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Han Jo; Boland, Patrick J.; Meredith, Dennis S.; Lis, Eric; Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji; Yamada, Yoshiya J.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years), female sex, and history of osteoporosis were significantly associated with shorter time to sacral fracture (P=.01, P=.004, P=.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the time to sacral fracture for patients based on stage, radiotherapy dose, or chemotherapy regimen. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

  6. MO-G-BRE-09: Validating FMEA Against Incident Learning Data: A Study in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F; Cao, N; Young, L; Howard, J; Sponseller, P; Logan, W; Arbuckle, T; Korssjoen, T; Meyer, J; Ford, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Though FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is becoming more widely adopted for risk assessment in radiation therapy, to our knowledge it has never been validated against actual incident learning data. The objective of this study was to perform an FMEA analysis of an SBRT (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy) treatment planning process and validate this against data recorded within an incident learning system. Methods: FMEA on the SBRT treatment planning process was carried out by a multidisciplinary group including radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and dosimetrists. Potential failure modes were identified through a systematic review of the workflow process. Failure modes were rated for severity, occurrence, and detectability on a scale of 1 to 10 and RPN (Risk Priority Number) was computed. Failure modes were then compared with historical reports identified as relevant to SBRT planning within a departmental incident learning system that had been active for two years. Differences were identified. Results: FMEA identified 63 failure modes. RPN values for the top 25% of failure modes ranged from 60 to 336. Analysis of the incident learning database identified 33 reported near-miss events related to SBRT planning. FMEA failed to anticipate 13 of these events, among which 3 were registered with severity ratings of severe or critical in the incident learning system. Combining both methods yielded a total of 76 failure modes, and when scored for RPN the 13 events missed by FMEA ranked within the middle half of all failure modes. Conclusion: FMEA, though valuable, is subject to certain limitations, among them the limited ability to anticipate all potential errors for a given process. This FMEA exercise failed to identify a significant number of possible errors (17%). Integration of FMEA with retrospective incident data may be able to render an improved overview of risks within a process.

  7. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: The collision of evidence and assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wing, S.; Richardson, D.; Armstrong, D.; Crawford-Brown, D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation readings and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit {plus_minus} standard error was 0.020 {plus_minus} 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 {plus_minus} 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 {plus_minus} 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 {plus_minus} 0.013, 0.103 {plus_minus} 0.035, and 0.139 {plus_minus} 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber without vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250 {Omega}/sq.). A thin electromagnetic absorber for incidence angles greater than 30deg. but less than 60deg. and both polarizations is computationally demonstrated. This absorber utilizes high-permittivity, low-loss microwave substrate in conjunction with an engineered lossy sheet impedance. The lossy sheet impedance is easily engineered with simple analytical approximations and can be manufactured from commercially available laminate materials on microwave substrate.

  9. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.C.; Hertel, Nolan; Ansari, A.; Manger, Ryan P; Freibert, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritizing individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  10. SU-E-T-208: Incidence Cancer Risk From the Radiation Treatment for Acoustic Neuroma Patient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D; Chung, W; Shin, D; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the incidence risk of a secondary cancer from therapeutic doses in patients receiving intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their incidnece excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) were estimated using the corresponding therapeutic doses measured at various organs by radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. Results: When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, normal liver, colon, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were measured. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A LAR were estimated that more than 0.03% of AN patients would get radiation-induced cancer. Conclusion: The tyroid was highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN. We found that LAR can be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.

  11. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON VAPOR INCIDENTS IN THE 200 EAST & 200 WEST TANK FARMS FROM CY2001 THRU CY2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAUROTE, J.M.

    2004-09-30

    Investigation into the meteorological influences on vapor incidents in the tank farms to determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases. Weather phenomena, specifically barometric pressure, and wind velocity and direction can potentially cause or exacerbate a vapor release within the farm systems.

  12. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Youk, Ada O.; Sasser, Howell; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2011-11-15

    Background: The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Methods: Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 m Sv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Results: Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 {mu}R/h compared to 5.2-7.2 {mu}R/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Conclusion: Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional follow-up on this population is warranted, especially to explore the increased risk of leukemia found in men.

  13. Oblique-incidence sputtering of Ru intermediate layer for decoupling of intergranular exchange in perpendicular recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Shin; Inoue, Ken; Takahashi, Migaku

    2011-04-01

    During the Ru deposition process for granular type perpendicular magnetic recording media, both a reduction in the Ru intermediate layer thickness and lowering of sputtering gas pressure were successfully achieved by focusing on a self-shadowing effect. Oblique-incidence sputtering with a 60 deg. incident angle under an Ar gas pressure of 0.6 Pa yielded (1) columnar Ru grains with a growth direction of 30 deg. from the film normal, (2) c-plane sheet texture by epitaxial growth on the Pt underlayer, and (3) a flat envelope of the surface and a deep gap at grain boundaries. This change in the Ru structure significantly contributes to reducing exchange coupling among magnetic grains, especially in the initial growth region in an overlying granular medium.

  14. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering: application to the study of quantum dot lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, Maja Radi?, Nikola; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Drai?, Goran; Bogdanovi?-Radovi?, Iva; Hol, Vclav

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) from three-dimensional quantum dot lattices is described. The ordering of quantum dots in three-dimensional quantum dot lattices is investigated by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Theoretical models describing GISAXS intensity distributions for three general classes of lattices of quantum dots are proposed. The classes differ in the type of disorder of the positions of the quantum dots. The models enable full structure determination, including lattice type, lattice parameters, the type and degree of disorder in the quantum dot positions and the distributions of the quantum dot sizes. Applications of the developed models are demonstrated using experimentally measured data from several types of quantum dot lattices formed by a self-assembly process.

  15. Leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality (19501999) and incidence (19691999) in the Eldorado uranium workers cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Lane, Rachel S.D.; Frost, Stanley E.; Thompson, Patsy A.

    2014-04-01

    Uranium workers are chronically exposed to low levels of radon decay products (RDP) and gamma (?) radiation. Risks of leukemia from acute and high doses of ?-radiation are well-characterized, but risks from lower doses and dose-rates and from RDP exposures are controversial. Few studies have evaluated risks of other hematologic cancers in uranium workers. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiation-related risks of hematologic cancers in the cohort of Eldorado uranium miners and processors first employed in 19321980 in relation to cumulative RDP exposures and ?-ray doses. The average cumulative RDP exposure was 100.2 working level months and the average cumulative whole-body ?-radiation dose was 52.2 millisievert. We identified 101 deaths and 160 cases of hematologic cancers in the cohort. Overall, male workers had lower mortality and cancer incidence rates for all outcomes compared with the general Canadian male population, a likely healthy worker effect. No statistically significant association between RDP exposure or ?-ray doses, or a combination of both, and mortality or incidence of any hematologic cancer was found. We observed consistent but non-statistically significant increases in risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) mortality with increasing ?-ray doses. These findings are consistent with recent studies of increased risks of CLL and NHL incidence after ?-radiation exposure. Further research is necessary to understand risks of other hematologic cancers from low-dose exposures to ?-radiation. - Highlights: We analyzed long-term follow-up for hematologic cancers of the Eldorado uranium workers. Workers were exposed to a unique combination of radon decay products (RDP) and gamma (?) ray doses. Exposures to RDP and ?-ray doses were not associated with significantly increased risks of cancers. Radiation risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Hodgkin lymphoma were increased. Study findings provide additional support for radiation-related risks of CLL.

  16. Calculation of nuclear data for incident energies to 200 MeV with the FKK-GNASH code system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1993-02-01

    We describe how the FKK-GNASH code system has been extended to calculate nucleon-induced reactions up to 200 MeV, and used to predict (p,xn) and (p,xp) cross sections on {sup 208}Pb at incident energies of 25, 45, 80 and 160 MeV, for an intermediate energy code intercomparison. Details of the reaction mechanisms calculated by FKK-GNASH are given, and the calculational procedure is described.

  17. Upgrading RESRAD-RDD and Planning for Improvised Nuclear Device Incidents--The RESRAD-RDD&IND

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Upgrading RESRAD-RDD and Planning for Improvised Nuclear Device Incidents--The RESRAD-RDD&IND Abstract: The RESRAD-RDD code was developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT) to assist decision makers, emergency responders, and emergency preparedness planners for response to radiological dispersal device incidents (RDD). The RESRAD-RDD code was released as a companion software tool in 2009 to support the OGT Manual—Preliminary Report on Operational Guidelines Developed for Use in Emergency Preparedness and Response to a Radiological Dispersal Device Incident (DOE/HS-0001). The original RESRAD-RDD code was Microsoft Excel based software with the user interface written in Visual Basic. This version of RESRAD-RDD is being converted to a database driven software that runs on Windows 7 operating system in the .NET environment. The new RESRAD-RDD code is being tested to make sure it reproduces old code results. The new code runs faster than the old spreadsheets code by a factor of 10 or so, fewer clicks are required for the same calculations, operational guidelines can be easily located, and the reports can be written to PDFs instead of HTML. Additional radionuclides are also being added to the new RESRAD-RDD code. An Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) scenario is also being added to the code and about 44 - 60 radionuclides will be added to handle IND incident. A new OGT Task Group is in the process of updating the OGT Manual and providing guidance on the development of the IND scenario and methodology. The new code, RESRAD-RDD&IND is expected to be released in early 2015. Charley Yu*, Argonne National Laboratory ; Carlos Corredor, U.S. Department of Energy; Jing-Jy Cheng, Argonne National Laboratory; Sunita Kamboj, Argonne National Laboratory; David LePoire, Argonne National Laboratory; Paul Flood, Argonne National Laboratory

  18. AVTA: Battery Testing- Best Practices for Responding to Emergency Incidents in Plug-in Electric Vehicles (EV)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes best practices for responding to emergency incidents involving plug-in electric vehicle batteries, based on the AVTA's testing of PEV batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez and U.S Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz Announce Settlement on Nuclear Waste Incidents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. —Today, New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez and Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz released the terms of a $73 million settlement of the State’s claims against the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors related to the February 2014 incidents at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico, including the associated activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. This National Response Framework (NRF) is a guide to how the Nation conducts all-hazards incident responseresponse

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    January 2008 National Response Fram ework Page i This National Response Framework (NRF) is a guide to how the Nation conducts all-hazards response. It is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation, linking all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. It is intended to capture specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely

  1. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  2. Wide-angle point-to-point x-ray imaging with almost arbitrarily large angles of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Feder, R.; Ko, Jinseok; Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.

    2008-10-15

    The paper describes a new scheme for wide-angle point-to-point x-ray imaging with almost arbitrarily large angles of incidence by a matched pair of spherically bent crystals to eliminate the astigmatism, which is a well-known imaging error of spherical mirrors. In addition to x rays, the scheme should be applicable to a very broad spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation, including microwaves, infrared and visible light, as well as UV and extreme UV radiation, if the crystals are replaced with appropriate spherical reflectors. The scheme may also be applicable to the imaging with ultrasound.

  3. Best Practices for Emergency Response to Incidents Involving Electric Vehicles Battery Hazards: A Report on Full-Scale Testing Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Best Practices for Emergency Response to Incidents Involving Electric Vehicles Battery Hazards: A Report on Full-Scale Testing Results Final Report Prepared by: R. Thomas Long Jr., P.E., CFEI Andrew F. Blum, P.E., CFEI Thomas J. Bress, Ph.D., P.E., CRE Benjamin R.T. Cotts, Ph.D. Exponent, Inc. 17000 Science Drive, Suite 200 Bowie, MD 20715 © June 2013 Fire Protection Research Foundation THE FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION ONE BATTERYMARCH PARK QUINCY, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A. 02169-7471

  4. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Spectral Surface Albedo Value-Added Product (VAP) Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, S; Gaustad, K; Long, C; Mlawer, E

    2011-07-15

    This document describes the input requirements, output data products, and methodology for the Spectral Surface Albedo (SURFSPECALB) value-added product (VAP). The SURFSPECALB VAP produces a best-estimate near-continuous high spectral resolution albedo data product using measurements from multifilter radiometers (MFRs). The VAP first identifies best estimates for the MFR downwelling and upwelling shortwave irradiance values, and then calculates narrowband spectral albedo from these best-estimate irradiance values. The methodology for finding the best-estimate values is based on a simple process of screening suspect data and backfilling screened and missing data with estimated values when possible. The resulting best-estimate MFR narrowband spectral albedos are used to determine a daily surface type (snow, 100% vegetation, partial vegetation, or 0% vegetation). For non-snow surfaces, a piecewise continuous function is used to estimate a high spectral resolution albedo at 1 min temporal and 10 cm-1 spectral resolution.

  6. Realizing in-plane surface diffraction by x-ray multiple-beam diffraction with large incidence angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xian-Rong Gog, Thomas; Assoufid, Lahsen; Peng, Ru-Wen; Siddons, D. P.

    2014-11-03

    Based on rigorous dynamical-theory calculations, we demonstrate the principle of an x-ray multiple-beam diffraction (MBD) scheme that overcomes the long-lasting difficulties of high-resolution in-plane diffraction from crystal surfaces. This scheme only utilizes symmetric reflection geometry with large incident angles but activates the out-of-plane and in-plane diffraction processes simultaneously and separately in the continuous MBD planes. The in-plane diffraction is realized by detoured MBD, where the intermediate diffracted waves propagate parallel to the surface, which corresponds to an absolute Bragg surface diffraction configuration that is extremely sensitive to surface structures. A series of MBD diffraction and imaging techniques may be developed from this principle to study surface/interface (misfit) strains, lateral nanostructures, and phase transitions of a wide range of (pseudo)cubic crystal structures, including ultrathin epitaxial films and multilayers, quantum dots, strain-engineered semiconductor or (multi)ferroic materials, etc.

  7. Adapting the U.S. Domestic Radiological Emergency Response Process to an Overseas Incident: FRMAC Without the F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Bowman, David R.; Remick, Alan

    2012-05-01

    The earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan led to a radiological release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plan, which in turn resulted in the rapid activation and deployment by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) emergency response teams. These teams and those from other federal agencies are typically coordinated through the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) when responding to radiological incidents in the U.S. FRMAC is the body through which the collection, analysis, and assessment of environmental radiological data are coordinated and products released to decision makers. This article discusses DOE/NNSAs role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident as it implemented its components of FRMAC in a foreign country, coordinated its assets, integrated with its federal partners, and collaborated with the Government of Japan. The technical details of the various data collections and analyses are covered in other articles of this issue.

  8. Geophysical variables and behavior: LIII. Epidemiological considerations for incidence of cancer and depression in areas of frequent UFO reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persinger, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Luminous phenomena and anomalous physical forces have been hypothesized to be generated by focal tectonic strain fields that precede earthquakes. If these geophysical processes exist, then their spatial and temporal density should be greatest during periods of protracted, localized UFO reports; they might be used as dosimetric indicators. Contemporary epidemiological data concerning the health risks of power frequency electromagnetic fields and radon gas levels (expected correlates of certain tectonic strain fields), suggest that increased incidence (odds ratios greater 1:3) of brain tumors and leukemia should be evident within flap areas. In addition the frequency of variants of temporal lobe lability, psychological depression and posttraumatic stress should be significantly elevated. UFO field investigators, because they have repeated, intermittent close proximity to these fields, are considered to be a particularly high risk population for these disorders. 22 references.

  9. Energetic deposition of metal ions: Observation of self-sputtering and limited sticking for off-normal angles of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2009-09-15

    The deposition of films under normal and off-normal angle of incidence has been investigated to show the relevance of non-sticking of and self-sputtering by energetic ions, leading to the formation of neutral atoms. The flow of energetic ions was obtained using a filtered cathodic arc system in high vacuum and therefore the ion flux had a broad energy distribution of typically 50-100 eV per ion. The range of materials included Cu, Ag, Au, Ti, and Ni. Consistent with molecular dynamics simulations published in the literature, the experiments show, for all materials, that the combined effects of non-sticking and self-sputtering are very significant, especially for large off-normal angles. Modest heating and intentional introduction of oxygen background affect the results.

  10. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models' uncertainties.

  11. Oblique incidence effects in direct x-ray detectors: A first-order approximation using a physics-based analytical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badano, Aldo; Freed, Melanie; Fang Yuan

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modifications to a previously developed analytical model of indirect CsI:Tl-based detector response required for studying oblique x-ray incidence effects in direct semiconductor-based detectors. This first-order approximation analysis allows the authors to describe the associated degradation in resolution in direct detectors and compare the predictions to the published data for indirect detectors. Methods: The proposed model is based on a physics-based analytical description developed by Freed et al. [''A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems,'' Med. Phys. 37(6), 2593-2605 (2010)] that describes detector response functions for indirect detectors and oblique incident x rays. The model, modified in this work to address direct detector response, describes the dependence of the response with x-ray energy, thickness of the transducer layer, and the depth-dependent blur and collection efficiency. Results: The authors report the detector response functions for indirect and direct detector models for typical thicknesses utilized in clinical systems for full-field digital mammography (150 {mu}m for indirect CsI:Tl and 200 {mu}m for a-Se direct detectors). The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in a semiconductor detector differs from that in indirect detectors in two ways: The direct detector model produces a sharper overall PRF compared to the response corresponding to the indirect detector model for normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction compared to that found in indirect detectors with respect to the response at normal incidence angles. Conclusions: Compared to the effect seen in indirect detectors, the direct detector model exhibits a sharper response at normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction with respect to the blur in the orthogonal direction. The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in direct detectors can be considered to be caused mostly by the geometry of the path where the x-ray beam and its secondary particles deposit energy in the semiconductor layer.

  12. A Local Incident Flux Response Expansion Transport Method for Coupling to the Diffusion Method in Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingkang Zhang; Farzad Rahnema; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2013-09-01

    A local incident flux response expansion transport method is developed to generate transport solutions for coupling to diffusion theory codes regardless of their solution method (e.g., fine mesh, nodal, response based, finite element, etc.) for reactor core calculations in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cylindrical geometries. In this approach, a Monte Carlo method is first used to precompute the local transport solution (i.e., response function library) for each unique transport coarse node, in which diffusion theory is not valid due to strong transport effects. The response function library is then used to iteratively determine the albedo coefficients on the diffusion-transport interfaces, which are then used as the coupling parameters within the diffusion code. This interface coupling technique allows a seamless integration of the transport and diffusion methods. The new method retains the detailed heterogeneity of the transport nodes and naturally constructs any local solution within them by a simple superposition of local responses to all incoming fluxes from the contiguous coarse nodes. A new technique is also developed for coupling to fine-mesh diffusion methods/codes. The local transport method/module is tested in 2-D and 3-D pebble-bed reactor benchmark problems consisting of an inner reflector, an annular fuel region, and a controlled outer reflector. It is found that the results predicted by the transport module agree very well with the reference fluxes calculated directly by MCNP in both benchmark problems.

  13. Preliminary report on operational guidelines developed for use in emergency preparedness and response to a radiological dispersal device incident.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J.; Kamboj, S.; Domotor, S.; Wallo, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents preliminary operational guidelines and supporting work products developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT). The report consolidates preliminary operational guidelines, all ancillary work products, and a companion software tool that facilitates their implementation into one reference source document. The report is intended for interim use and comment and provides the foundation for fostering future reviews of the operational guidelines and their implementation within emergency preparedness and response initiatives in the event of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident. The report principally focuses on the technical derivation and presentation of the operational guidelines. End-user guidance providing more details on how to apply these operational guidelines within planning and response settings is being considered and developed elsewhere. The preliminary operational guidelines are categorized into seven groups on the basis of their intended application within early, intermediate, and long-term recovery phases of emergency response. We anticipate that these operational guidelines will be updated and refined by interested government agencies in response to comments and lessons learned from their review, consideration, and trial application. This review, comment, and trial application process will facilitate the selection of a final set of operational guidelines that may be more or less inclusive of the preliminary operational guidelines presented in this report. These and updated versions of the operational guidelines will be made available through the OGT public Web site (http://ogcms.energy.gov) as they become finalized for public distribution and comment.

  14. Decision Support Tool for the Management of Debris from Radiological Dispersal Devices and Other Incidents of National Significance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.; Thorneloe, S.; Hayes, C.; Rodgers, M.; Christman, R.

    2008-07-01

    Unique challenges exist for the handling, transport, and disposal of debris resulting from homeland security incidents, disasters or other national emergencies. Access to guidance to facilitate decision making to ensure the safe and timely disposal of debris is critical to helping restore a community or region and prevent further contamination or spread of disease. For a radiological dispersal device (RDD), proper characterization of the quantity, properties, and level of contamination of debris can have a significant impact on cleanup costs and timelines. A suite of decision support tools (DSTs) is being developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist individuals responsible for making decisions associated with handling, transport, and disposal of such debris. The DSTs are location-specific to help identify specific facilities and contacts for making final disposal decisions. The DSTs provide quick reference to technical information, regulations, and other information to provide decision makers with assistance in guiding disposal decisions that are important for the protection of public health, first responders, and the environment. These tools are being developed in partnership with other U.S. government agencies, EPA program offices, industry, and state and local emergency response programs. (authors)

  15. Accurate, practical simulation of satellite infrared radiometer spectral data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study's purpose is to determine whether a relatively simple random band model formulation of atmospheric radiation transfer in the infrared region can provide valid simulations of narrow interval satellite-borne infrared sounder system data. Detailed ozonesondes provide the pertinent atmospheric information and sets of calibrated satellite measurements provide the validation. High resolution line-by-line model calculations are included to complete the evaluation.

  16. Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Some of the buoys will be in the mean currents of large magnitude. Some errors will be ... Gilhousen, D. B. 1987. A Field Evaluation of NDBC Moored Buoy Winds. J. Atmos. Ocean. ...

  17. NREL: MIDC/Oak Ridge National Laboratory Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (35.93 N, 84.31 W, 245 m, GMT-5) Oak Ridge National Laboratory Irradiance Inc. Rotating Shadowband

  18. Status Update on the NCRP Scientific Committee SC 5-1 Report: Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents - 13450

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.Y.

    2013-07-01

    In August 2008, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued its final Protective Action Guide (PAG) for radiological dispersal device (RDD) and improvised nuclear device (IND) incidents. This document specifies protective actions for public health during the early and intermediate phases and cleanup guidance for the late phase of RDD or IND incidents, and it discusses approaches to implementing the necessary actions. However, while the PAG provides specific guidance for the early and intermediate phases, it prescribes no equivalent guidance for the late-phase cleanup actions. Instead, the PAG offers a general description of a complex process using a site-specific optimization approach. This approach does not predetermine cleanup levels but approaches the problem from the factors that would bear on the final agreed-on cleanup levels. Based on this approach, the decision-making process involves multifaceted considerations including public health, the environment, and the economy, as well as socio-political factors. In an effort to fully define the process and approach to be used in optimizing late-phase recovery and site restoration following an RDD or IND incident, DHS has tasked the NCRP with preparing a comprehensive report addressing all aspects of the optimization process. Preparation of the NCRP report is a three-year (2010-2013) project assigned to a scientific committee, the Scientific Committee (SC) 5-1; the report was initially titled, Approach to Optimizing Decision Making for Late- Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Terrorism Incidents. Members of SC 5-1 represent a broad range of expertise, including homeland security, health physics, risk and decision analysis, economics, environmental remediation and radioactive waste management, and communication. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, and guided by a recent process led by the White House through a Principal Level Exercise (PLE), the optimization approach has since been expanded to include off-site contamination from major nuclear power plant accidents as well as other nuclear or radiological incidents. The expanded application under the current guidance has thus led to a broadened scope of the report, which is reflected in its new title, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. The NCRP report, which is due for publication in 2013, will substantiate the current DHS guidance by clarifying and elaborating on the processes required for the development and implementation of procedures for optimizing decision making for late-phase recovery, enabling the establishment of cleanup goals on a site-specific basis. The report will contain a series of topics addressing important issues related to the long-term recovery from nuclear or radiological incidents. Special topics relevant to supporting the optimization of the decision-making process will include cost-benefit analysis, radioactive waste management, risk communication, stakeholder interaction, risk assessment, and decontamination approaches and techniques. The committee also evaluated past nuclear and radiological incidents for their relevance to the report, including the emerging issues associated with the Fukushima nuclear accident. Thus, due to the commonality of the late-phase issues (such as the potential widespread contamination following an event), the majority of the information pertaining to the response in the late-phase decision-making period, including site-specific optimization framework and approach, could be used or adapted for use in case of similar situations that are not due to terrorism, such as those that would be caused by major nuclear facility accidents or radiological incidents. To ensure that the report and the NCRP recommendations are current and relevant to the effective implementation of federal guidance, SC 5-1 has actively coordinated with the agencies of interest and other relevant stakeholders throughout the duration of the project. The resulting report will be an important resource to guide those involved in late-phase recovery efforts following a nuclear or radiological incident. (authors)

  19. New opportunities for quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering at steady-state sources using mechanical selection of the incident and final neutron energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamantov, Eugene

    2015-06-12

    We propose a modification of the neutron wide-angle velocity selector (WAVES) device that enables inelastic (in particular, quasielastic) scattering measurements not relying on the neutron time-of-flight. The proposed device is highly suitable for a steady-state neutron source, somewhat similar to a triple-axis spectrometer, but with simultaneous selection of the incident and final neutron energy over a broad range of scattering momentum transfer. Both the incident and final neutron velocities are defined by the WAVES geometry and rotation frequency. The variable energy transfer is achieved through the natural variation of the velocity of the transmitted neutrons as a function of themore » scattering angle component out of the equatorial plane.« less

  20. eFRMAC Overview: Data Management and Enabling Technologies for Characterization of a Radiological Release A Case Study: The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Incident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Clark, Harvey W.; Essex, James J.; Wagner, Eric C.

    2013-07-01

    The eFRMAC enterprise is a suite of technologies and software developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Emergency Response to coordinate the rapid data collection, management, and analysis required during a radiological emergency. This enables the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center assets to evaluate a radiological or nuclear incident efficiently to facilitate protective actions to protect public health and the environment. This document identifies and describes eFRMAC methods including (1) data acquisition, (2) data management, (3) data analysis, (4) product creation, (5) quality control, and (6) dissemination.

  1. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniqies: Initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-12-13

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  2. LANL responds to radiological incident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center(LANSCE). Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The contamination poses no danger to the public. The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent...

  3. Hazardous Materials Incident Response Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for developing an emergency response plan, as outlined in OSHA’s 29 CFR 1910.120(q), for facility response.  This model has been adopted and...

  4. ARM - Evaluation Product - Barrow Radiation Data (2009 metric)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsBarrow Radiation Data (2009 metric) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Barrow Radiation Data (2009 metric) Observations from a suite of radiometers including Precision Spectral Pyranometers (PSPs), Precision Infrared Radiometers (PIRs), and a Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) are

  5. Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debayle, A.; ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 ; Sanz, J.; Gremillet, L.; Mima, K.

    2013-05-15

    Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ω{sup −4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

  6. Can we treat CO₂ well blowouts like routine plumbing problems? A study of the incidence, impact, and perception of loss of well control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porse, Sean L.; Wade, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2014-12-31

    Risk communication literature suggests that for a number of reasons, the public may perceive a risk to be greater than indicated by its statistical probability. Public concern over risk can lead to significant and costly delays in project permitting and operations. Considering these theories, media coverage of CO₂-related well blowouts in 2013 gave rise to the questions: What is the risk of CO₂ well blowouts associated with CCUS through CO₂ EOR? What is the potential public perception of those risks? What information could be used to respond to public concern? To address these questions, this study aims to: 1) provide a framework for understanding the nature of onshore well blowouts, 2) quantify the incidence of such events for three specific geographic regions of Texas, 3) relate this data to CCUS and findings from other studies, and 4) explore the potential implications for public perception of this risk associated with CCUS projects. While quantifying answers to these questions proved to be challenging, the results from this study suggest that (1) the perceived risk of CO₂ well blowouts may exceed the statistical risk and (2) information that could be used to address this gap could be made more readily available to the greater benefit of industry and stakeholders who support the development of CCUS as an option for addressing anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. The study also suggests approaches to best conduct such data inquiries.

  7. Can we treat CO₂ well blowouts like routine plumbing problems? A study of the incidence, impact, and perception of loss of well control

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Porse, Sean L.; Wade, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2014-12-31

    Risk communication literature suggests that for a number of reasons, the public may perceive a risk to be greater than indicated by its statistical probability. Public concern over risk can lead to significant and costly delays in project permitting and operations. Considering these theories, media coverage of CO₂-related well blowouts in 2013 gave rise to the questions: What is the risk of CO₂ well blowouts associated with CCUS through CO₂ EOR? What is the potential public perception of those risks? What information could be used to respond to public concern? To address these questions, this study aims to: 1) providemore » a framework for understanding the nature of onshore well blowouts, 2) quantify the incidence of such events for three specific geographic regions of Texas, 3) relate this data to CCUS and findings from other studies, and 4) explore the potential implications for public perception of this risk associated with CCUS projects. While quantifying answers to these questions proved to be challenging, the results from this study suggest that (1) the perceived risk of CO₂ well blowouts may exceed the statistical risk and (2) information that could be used to address this gap could be made more readily available to the greater benefit of industry and stakeholders who support the development of CCUS as an option for addressing anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. The study also suggests approaches to best conduct such data inquiries.« less

  8. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100300 spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 and 135 , respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 m at the 200 setting and better than 40 m for the 135- range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  9. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys. The effects of electricity on fish have been widely studied and include injury or death (e.g., Sharber and Carothers 1988; Dwyer et al. 2001; Snyder 2003), physiological dysfunction (e.g., Schreck et al. 1976; Mesa and Schreck 1989), and altered behavior (Mesa and Schreck 1989). Much of this work was done to investigate the effects of electrofishing on fish in the wild. Because electrofishing operations would always use more severe electrical settings than those proposed for the pinniped barrier, results from these studies are probably not relevant to the work proposed by SRI. Field electrofishing operations typically use high voltage and amperage settings and a variety of waveforms, pulse widths (PW), and pulse frequencies (PF), depending on conditions and target species. For example, when backpack electrofishing for trout in a small stream, one might use settings such as 500 V pulsed DC, a PW of 1 ms, and a PF of 60 Hz. In contrast, the electrical barrier proposed by SRI will produce electrical conditions significantly lower than those used in electrofishing, particularly for PW and PF (e.g., PW ranging from 300-1,000 {micro}s and PF from 2-3 Hz). Further, voltage gradients (in V/cm) are predicted to be lower in the electric barrier than those produced during typical electrofishing. Although the relatively weak, pulsed DC electric fields to be produced by the barrier may be effective at deterring pinnipeds, little, if anything, is known about the effects of such low intensity electrical fields on fish behavior. For this research, we evaluated the effects of weak, pulsed DC electric currents on the behavior of adult steelhead and Pacific lamprey and the incidence of injury in steelhead only. In a series of laboratory experiments, we: (1) documented the rate of passage of fish over miniature, prototype electric barriers when they were on and off; (2) determined some electric thresholds beyond which fish would not pass over the barrier; and (3) assessed the incidence and severity of injury in steelhead exposed to relatively severe electrical conditions. The results of this study should be useful for making decisions about whether to install electrical barriers in the lower Columbia River, or elsewhere, to reduce predation on upstream migrating salmonids and other fishes by marine pinnipeds.

  10. No Slide Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ogren 10242008 Miniature Multi-filter Continuous Light Absorption Photometer John A. Ogren and Jim Wendell Earth System Research Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  11. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  12. Adequacy of Power-to-Mass Scaling in Simulating PWR Incident Transient for Reduced-Height, Reduced-Pressure and Full-Height, Full-Pressure Integral System Test Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, T.-J.; Lee, C.-H

    2004-03-15

    A complete scheme of scaling methods to design the reduced-height, reduced-pressure (RHRP) Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Integral System Test (IIST) facility and to specify test conditions for incident simulation was developed. In order to preserve core decay power history and coolant mass inventory during a transient, a unique power-to-mass scaling method is proposed and utilized for RHRP and full-height, full-pressure (FHFP) systems. To validate the current scaling method, three counterpart tests done at the IIST facility are compared with the FHFP tests in small-break loss-of-coolant, station blackout, and loss-of-feedwater accidents performed at the Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the BETHSY test facility. Although differences appeared in design, scaling, and operation conditions among the IIST, LSTF, and BETHSY test facilities, the important physical phenomena shown in the facilities are almost the same. The physics involved in incident transient phenomena are well measured and modeled by showing the common thermal-hydraulic behavior of key parameters and the general consistency of chronological events. The results also confirm the adequacy of power-to-mass scaling methodology.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  14. NREL Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lustbader, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment.

  15. Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Anatolia - Rancho Cordova, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  16. NREL: MIDC/SMUD Anatolia Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (38.55 N, 121.24 W,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    51 m, GMT-8) SMUD Anatolia Irradiance Inc. Rotating Shadowband

  17. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); La Ola Lanai, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2009-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  18. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Kalaeloa Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  19. NREL Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lustbader, J.; Andreas, A.

    2012-04-01

    This measurement station at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment.

  20. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Los Angeles, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    2010-04-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  1. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Cedar City, Utah (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2010-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  2. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Milford, Utah (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2010-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  3. Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Anatolia - Rancho Cordova, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    2009-02-03

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    2007-09-12

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  5. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Milford, Utah (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  6. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); La Ola Lanai, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  7. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Los Angeles, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  8. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Cedar City, Utah (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  9. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Kalaeloa Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  10. JC3 Incident Reporting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    history, and information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual's identity, such as hisher name, Social Security number, date and place of birth, mother's ...

  11. Incidents of chemical reactions in cell equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, N.M.; Barlow, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    Strongly exothermic reactions can occur between equipment structural components and process gases under certain accident conditions in the diffusion enrichment cascades. This paper describes the conditions required for initiation of these reactions, and describes the range of such reactions experienced over nearly 50 years of equipment operation in the US uranium enrichment program. Factors are cited which can promote or limit the destructive extent of these reactions, and process operations are described which are designed to control the reactions to minimize equipment damage, downtime, and the possibility of material releases.

  12. ORISE: The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    estimation (US and SI units) treatment of whole body and acute local irradiation issues assessment and treatment of internal contamination with radioactive materials patient...

  13. NUCLEAR INCIDENT CAPABILITIES, KNOWLEDGE & ENABLER LEVERAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinney, J.; Newman, J.; Goodwyn, A.; Dewes, J.

    2011-04-18

    The detonation of a 10 Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) is a serious scenario that the United States must be prepared to address. The likelihood of a single nuclear bomb exploding in a single city is greater today than at the height of the Cold War. Layered defenses against domestic nuclear terrorism indicate that our government continues to view the threat as credible. The risk of such an event is further evidenced by terrorists desire to acquire nuclear weapons. The act of nuclear terrorism, particularly an act directed against a large population center in the United States, will overwhelm the capabilities of many local and state governments to respond, and will seriously challenge existing federal response capabilities. A 10 Kiloton IND detonation would cause total infrastructure damage in a 3-mile radius and levels of radiation spanning out 3,000 square miles. In a densely populated urban area, the anticipated casualties would be in excess of several hundred thousand. Although there would be enormous loss of life, housing and infrastructure, an IND detonation is a recoverable event. We can reduce the risk of these high-consequence, nontraditional threats by enhancing our nuclear detection architecture and establishing well planned and rehearsed plans for coordinated response. It is also important for us to identify new and improved ways to foster collaboration regarding the response to the IND threat to ensure the demand and density of expertise required for such an event is postured and prepared to mobilize, integrate, and support a myriad of anticipated challenges. We must be prepared to manage the consequences of such an event in a deliberate manner and get beyond notions of total devastation by adopting planning assumptions around survivability and resiliency. Planning for such a scenario needs to be decisive in determining a response based on competencies and desired outcomes. It is time to synthesize known threats and plausible consequences into action. Much work needs to be accomplished to enhance nuclear preparedness and to substantially bolster and clarify the capacity to deploy competent resources. Until detailed plans are scripted, and personnel and other resources are postured, and exercised, IND specific planning remains an urgent need requiring attention and action. Although strategic guidance, policies, concepts of operations, roles, responsibilities, and plans governing the response and consequence management for the IND scenario exist, an ongoing integration challenge prevails regarding how best to get capable and competent surge capacity personnel (disaster reservists) and other resources engaged and readied in an up-front manner with pre-scripted assignments to augment the magnitude of anticipated demands of expertise. With the above in mind, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) puts science to work to create and deploy practical, high-value, cost-effective nuclear solutions. As the Department of Energy's (DOE) applied research and development laboratory, SRNL supports Savannah River Site (SRS) operations, DOE, national initiatives, and other federal agencies, across the country and around the world. SRNL's parent at SRS also employs more than 8,000 personnel. The team is a great asset that seeks to continue their service in the interest of national security and stands ready to accomplish new missions. Overall, an integral part of the vision for SRNL's National and Homeland Security Directorate is the establishment of a National Security Center at SRNL, and development of state of the science capabilities (technologies and trained technical personnel) for responding to emergency events on local, regional, or national scales. This entails leveraging and posturing the skills, knowledge and experience base of SRS personnel to deliver an integrated capability to support local, state, and federal authorities through the development of pre-scripted requests for assistance, agreements, and plans. It also includes developing plans, training, exercises, recruitment strategies, and processes to e

  14. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  15. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janerich, D.T.; Burnett, W.S.; Feck, G.; Hoff, M.; Nasca, P.; Polednak, A.P.; Greenwald, P.; Vianna, N.

    1981-06-01

    Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

  16. Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through the Office of Analysis, within AU, the Office provides customer-oriented assistance to help maintain consistent and accurate data recording and reporting throughout the ...

  17. Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My ...

  18. Radioactive Materials Transportation and Incident Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This booklet was written to answer questions most frequently asked by fire fighters, law enforcement officers, and emergency medical services personnel. The booklet is not intended as a substitute...

  19. Nuclear Incident Team | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home / About

  20. Nuclear Incident Team | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home /

  1. VAST Challenge 2014: The Kronos Incident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cook, Kristin A.; Grinstein, Georges; Liggett, Kristen; Cooper, Michael J.; Fallon, John; Morin, Marc P.

    2014-10-31

    The 2014 IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) Challenge presented researchers with a single fictitious scenario: the disappearance of staff members of the GASTech oil and gas company on location on the island of Kronos. A group named the Protectors of Kronos (POK) was the prime suspect in the disappearance. Three mini-challenges and a grand challenge were offered. Mini-challenge 1 included multiple types of text data for participants to provide a timeline of key events and characterize the POK, mini-challenge 2 focused on individuals’ movement and financial data for participants to provide patterns of daily life, and mini-challenge 3 featured real-time streaming social media and emergency service data for participants to provide hostage and kidnapper information. The grand challenge asked the participants to integrate results and generate a synopsis of events. The VAST Challenge received 73 submissions from 13 countries

  2. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Moinuddin Ilev, Ilko

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 ?g/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  3. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  4. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for nearby overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  5. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for incident neutron energies between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; et al

    2016-01-06

    In this study, Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varyingmore » degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma-ray counted using shielded HPGe detectors for a period of 1-2 months to determine the yield of various fission products. To the extent possible all irradiation and counting procedures were kept the same to minimize sources of systematic errors. FPY have been determined at incident neutron energies of 0.6, 1.4, 2.4, 3.5, 4.6, 5.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV.« less

  6. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15, 2007 Facility News Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany Bookmark and Share A 2-channel microwave radiometer (left) and a 12-channel microwave radiometer profiler...

  7. Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Escalante Tri-State - Prewitt, New Mexico (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  8. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM 90/150 GHz data at COPS M.P. Cadeddu, A. Vogelmann, D.D. Turner, S. Crewell, U. Lönhert MWRHF (90/150) data Data available at archives from 06/22 to 12/31 Challenges associated with instrument: New instrument - new technology We still need to learn about calibration Spectral region (WV continuum) still uncertain in models Data available at archives from 06/22 to 12/31 Challenges associated with instrument: New instrument - new technology We still need to learn about calibration Spectral

  9. Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Escalante Tri-State - Prewitt, New Mexico (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2012-11-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  10. Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Report an Accident or Incident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or 9-911 immediately or the emergency number on your desk phone if off site. Please stay on the line until it is answered. If calling from a cellular phone, call 911 and be...

  11. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  12. Integrated Approach to Documenting Readiness for a Potential Criticality Incident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, Bruce S.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Jones, Robert A.

    2013-11-11

    There have been 60 highly publicized criticality accidents1 over the last 60 years and the nature of the hazard is unique. Recent studies2 discuss the benefits of knowing what to expect during and immediately following these events. Emergency planning and response standards2 provide an effective tool for establishing an adequate level of readiness to a criticality accident. While these planning requirements cover a broad spectrum of activities to establish readiness, a concise and routinely reviewed criticality accident scenario may be the most valuable tool in developing a cohesive understanding and response to these challenging events. Using a guideline3 for criticality safety evaluations the analytical work and emergency planning to mitigate a criticality accident at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was developed. Using a single document the analysis that established the accident characteristics, response scenario based on emergency staffing and planning, and anticipated dose consequences were integrated. This single document approach provides a useful platform to integrate the initial planning and guide the review of proposed changes to emergency response plans.

  13. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelens, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  14. NNSA Nuclear/Radiological Incident Response | National Nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jan 1, 2009 The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has more than 60 years of nuclear weapons experience in responding to nuclear and radiological accidents and...

  15. Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell

    2000-09-19

    For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel. Large increases in Reynolds stress occur due to onset of the small-scale concentrations of vorticity immediately downstream of separation; substantial increases at locations further downstream arise from development of the large-scale vorticity concentrations.

  16. Command and Control during Security Incidents/Emergencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knipper, W.

    2013-10-16

    This presentation builds on our response to events that pose, or have the potential to pose, a serious security or law enforcement risk and must be responded to and controlled in a clear a decisive fashion. We will examine some common concepts in the command and control of security-centric events.

  17. Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conventional Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.rff.orgRFFDocumen Country Costa Rica...

  18. Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. ...

  19. ORISE: Incident Management Training Put to Test in Gulf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response, was critical to a productive effort. Adhering to a common framework for command and control minimized confusion and allowed multiple agencies to work together. At...

  20. Fact Sheet Investigation of Incident at Waste Isolation Pilot...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Team (TAT) concluded that one drum, Drum 68660, was the source of radioactive contamination released during the February 14, 2014, radiological event at WIPP. The contents of...

  1. The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents, 3rd Edition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Depending on the dosedose rate and volume of lung irradiated, acute radiation pneumonitis may develop, characterized by dry cough and dyspnea. Fibrosis of the lung, which causes ...

  2. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiological Incident Medical Consultation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE provides advice and consultation to emergency personnel responsible for the medical management of radiation accidents. REACTS strengthens hospital preparedness for radiation...

  3. Model Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportation Incidents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This part should contain a general statement of the intent of this Annex. To provide for the planning, preparedness and coordination of emergency service efforts to respond to a transportation...

  4. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Martin J. (Tijeras, NM); Romig, Jr., Alton D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  5. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Southwest Solar Research Park (Formerly SolarCAT) Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Phoenix, Arizona (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  6. Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP): Southwest Solar Research Park (Formerly SolarCAT) Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Phoenix, Arizona (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2010-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaborates with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  7. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1, 2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Coram, NY); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1994-01-01

    Cyclo agents useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2-diamino cyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid.

  8. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1, 2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1994-03-08

    Cyclo agents are described which are useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2diamino cyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid. No Drawings

  9. S. Crewell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extinction lidar-Ratio Temperature Humditiy profiling Apparatus (BERTHA) " WiLi (2.2 m Doppler Wind Lidar) Microwave Radiometer " MWRLOS (standard ARM 2-ch radiometer) " MWRP...

  10. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the flight series all broadband radiometers were brought to the Blackwell-Tonkawa airport and pointed to the zenith for measurements against a standard broadband radiometer...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Millimeter-wave Radiometric Arctic Winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Westwater Scanning-O2 Radiometer Order Data Racette Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) Order Data Han Corrected ARM MWR data Order Data Michalsky Rotating Shadowband...

  12. wilcox-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Radiometer Calibrations at the ARM Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility S. M. Wilcox and T. L. Stoffel National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program needs the most accurate broadband shortwave solar irradiance measurements possible. Precise radiometer calibrations are critical for producing accurate and comparable measurements. The Radiometer Calibration Facility (RCF) at the ARM Southern Great Plains

  13. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair; Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  14. Incidence of High Nitrogen in Sintered Uranium Dioxide: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Anuradha, M.; Yadav, R.B.; Jayaraj, R.N

    2005-05-15

    Nitrogen content, above the specified limit of 75 {mu}g(gU){sup -1}, was encountered in sintered uranium dioxide in the course of its manufacture. The cause was traced to the sintering process, wherein carbon, a degradation product of the die wall or admixed lubricant, was retained in the compact as a result of inadvertent reversal of gas flow in the sintering furnace. In the presence of carbon, the uranium dioxide reacted with nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere to form nitride. The compacts with high nitrogen were also those with low sintered density, arising from low green density. The low green density was due to filling problems of an inhomogeneous powder. The experiments carried out establish the causes of high nitrogen to be the carbon residue from lubricant when the UO{sub 2} is sintered in a cracked ammonia atmosphere.

  15. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  16. THE INCIDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN PURE DISK GALAXIES: THE SPITZER VIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyapal, S.; Mcalpine, W.; Gliozzi, M. [George Mason University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Boeker, T. [ESA/ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Abel, N. P. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Heckman, T., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.ed [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2009-10-10

    Using the Spitzer telescope, we have conducted a high-resolution spectroscopic study of 18 bulgeless (Hubble type of Sd or Sdm) galaxies that show no definitive signatures of nuclear activity in their optical spectra. This is the first systematic mid-infrared (MIR) search for weak or hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a statistically significant sample of bulgeless (Sd/Sdm) disk galaxies. Based on the detection of the high-ionization [Ne V] 14.3 mum line, we report the discovery of an AGN in 1 out of the 18 galaxies in the sample. This galaxy, NGC 4178, is a nearby edge-on Sd galaxy, which likely hosts a prominent nuclear star cluster (NSC). The bolometric luminosity of the AGN inferred from the [Ne V] line luminosity is approx8 x 10{sup 41} ergs s{sup -1}. This is almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the luminosity of the AGN in NGC 4395, the best studied AGN in a bulgeless disk galaxy. Assuming that the AGN in NGC 4178 is radiating below the Eddington limit, the lower mass limit for the black hole is approx6 x 10{sup 3} M {sub sun}. The fact that none of the other galaxies in the sample shows any evidence for an AGN demonstrates that while the AGN detection rate based on MIR diagnostics is high (30%-40%) in optically quiescent galaxies with pseudobulges or weak classical bulges (Hubble type Sbc and Sc), it drops drastically in Sd/Sdm galaxies. Our observations, therefore, confirm that AGNs in completely bulgeless disk galaxies are not hidden in the optical but truly are rare. Of the three Sd galaxies with AGNs known so far, all have prominent NSCs, suggesting that in the absence of a well-defined bulge, the galaxy must possess an NSC in order to host an AGN. On the other hand, while the presence of an NSC appears to be a requirement for hosting an AGN in bulgeless galaxies, neither the properties of the NSC nor those of the host galaxy appear exceptional in late-type AGN host galaxies. The recipe for forming and growing a central black hole in a bulgeless galaxy therefore remains unknown.

  17. Metrology for Industry for use in the Manufacture of Grazing Incidence Beam Line Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, James P.; Parks, Robert E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this SBIR was to determine the slope sensitivity of Specular Reflection Deflectometry (SRD) and whether shearing methods had the sensitivity to be able to separate errors in the test equipment from slope error in the unit under test (UUT), or mirror. After many variations of test parameters it does not appear that SRD yields results much better than 1 μ radian RMS independent of how much averaging is done. Of course, a single number slope sensitivity over the full range of spatial scales is not a very insightful number in the same sense as a single number phase or height RMS value in interferometry does not tell the full story. However, the 1 μ radian RMS number is meaningful when contrasted with a sensitivity goal of better than 0.1 μ radian RMS. Shearing is a time proven method of separating the errors in a measurement from the actual shape of a UUT. It is accomplished by taking multiple measurements while moving the UUT relative to the test instrument. This process makes it possible to separate the two errors sources but only to a sensitivity of about 1 μ radian RMS. Another aspect of our conclusions is that this limit probably holds largely independent of the spatial scale of the test equipment. In the proposal for this work it was suggested that a test screen the full size of the UUT could be used to determine the slopes on scales of maybe 0.01 to full scale of the UUT while smaller screens and shorter focal length lenses could be used to measure shorter, or smaller, patches of slope. What we failed to take into consideration was that as the scale of the test equipment got smaller so too did the optical lever arm on which the slope was calculated. Although we did not do a test with a shorter focal length lens over a smaller sample area it is hard to argue with the logic that the slope sensitivity will be about the same independent of the spatial scale of the measurement assuming the test equipment is similarly scaled. On a more positive note, SRD does appear to be a highly flexible, easy to implement, rather inexpensive test for free form optics that require a dynamic range that exceeds that of interferometry. These optics are quite often specified to have more relaxed slope errors, on the order of 1 μ radian RMS or greater. It would be shortsighted to not recognize the value of this test method in the bigger picture.

  18. Environmental Remediation Activities in Japan Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Incident - 12603

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lively, J.W.; Kelley, J.L.; Marcial, M.R.; Yashio, Shoko; Kuriu, Nobou; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Jotatsu, Kato

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor power plant was crippled by the Great Pacific earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Much of the focus in the news was on the reactor site itself as the utility company (TEPCO), the Japanese government, and experts from around the world worked to bring the damaged plants into a safe shutdown condition and stem the release of radioactivity to the environment. Most of the radioactivity released was carried out to sea with the prevailing winds. Still, as weather patterns changed and winds shifted, a significant plume of radioactive materials released from the plant deposited in the environment surrounding the plant, contaminating large land areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. The magnitude of the radiological impact to the surrounding environmental is so large that the Japanese government has had to reevaluate the meaning of 'acceptably clean'. In many respects, 'acceptably clean' cannot be a one-size-fits-all standard. The economics costs of such an approach would make impossible what is already an enormous and costly environmental response and remediation task. Thus, the Japanese government has embarked upon an approach that is both situation-specific and reasonably achievable. For example, the determination of acceptably clean for a nursery school or kindergarten play yard may be different from that for a parking lot. The acceptably clean level of residual radioactivity in the surface soil of a rice paddy is different from that in a forested area. The recognized exposure situation (scenario) thus plays a large role in the decision process. While sometimes complicated to grasp or implement, such an approach does prioritize national resources to address environment remediation based upon immediate and significant risks. In addition, the Japanese government is testing means and methods, including advanced or promising technologies, that could be proven to be effective in reducing the amount of radioactivity in the environment beyond a fixed, concentration based limit. Essentially, the definition of acceptably clean includes the concept of reasonably achievable, given the available technology, means and methods, and the cost to implement such. The Japanese government recently issued three technology demonstration contracts expressly designed to test and evaluate the available technologies, means, and methods, which, if implemented, might produce the greatest risk reduction from environmental contamination for the best value. One of the Japanese contract holders, Obayashi JV, has teamed with AMEC to demonstrate the applicability and capabilities of the Orion ScanPlot{sup SM} and ScanSort{sup SM} technologies in radiologically impacted towns both inside and immediately outside the 20 km restricted zone. This presentation provides some unique images and informative insight into the environmental radioactive impacts in and around the exclusion zone. It will provide a look at one element of the Japanese government?s efforts to achieve the greatest risk reduction that is reasonably achievable. The Orion ScanPlot{sup SM} and ScanSort{sup SM} are being used with success on the Japan Town Demonstration Project to assess pre-remedial action contamination levels, document the post-remedial action contamination levels and to precisely measure and segregate excavated soils based on their radioactive content and the prescribed segregation limits (DCS). Initial results suggest that these technologies could provide capabilities to the remedial action efforts that would result in considerable improvements in field data certainty and compliance with remedial objectives while reducing overall costs. (authors)

  19. In Situ Grazing-Incidence Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oxides. Authors: Bargar, John ; Trainor, T P. ; Fitts, J P. ; Chambers, Scott A. ; Brown, Gordon E. Publication Date: 2004-03-02 OSTI Identifier: 15007114 Report Number(s):...

  20. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  1. X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001 (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), pp. 856-862 (24 kJ, UV--0.35 nm). ...

  2. The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12dimethylbenz...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 1991-03-15 OSTI Identifier: 5174614 Report Number(s): CONF-9104107-- ... Atlanta, GA (United States), 21-25 Apr 1991 Country of Publication: United States ...

  3. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Techniques (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) Meeting held on October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C.

  4. A high incidence of BRCA1 mutations in 20 breast-ovarian cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serova, O.; Montagna, M.; Sylla, B.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed 20 breast-ovarian cancer families, the majority of which show positive evidence of linkage to chromosome 17q12, for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene. BRCA1 mutations cosegregating with breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility were identified in 16 families, including 1 family with a case of male breast cancer. Nine of these mutations have not been reported previously. The majority of mutations were found to generate a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a truncated BRCA1 protein of 2%-88% of the expected normal length. Two mutations altered the RING finger domain. Sequencing of genomic DNA led to the identification of a mutation in the coding region of BRCA1 in 12 families, and cDNA analysis revealed an abnormal or missing BRCA1 transcript in 4 of the 8 remaining families. A total of eight mutations were associated with a reduced quantity of BRCA1 transcript. We were unable to detect BRCA1 mutations in 4 of the 20 families, but only 1 of these was clearly linked to BRCA1. It is expected that the majority of clear examples of the breast-ovarian cancer syndrome will be associated with germ-line mutations in the coding region of BRCA1. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Darwin Site-InactiveInstruments TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Instruments : Central Facility, Darwin, Australia Active Retired Active instruments are currently deployed at fixed or mobile facilities or are available through the ARM Aerial Facility. MFRSR Multifilter

  6. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Kolsky, Kathryn L.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1997-06-03

    Cyclohexyl chelating agents useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2-diamino cyclohexane-N, N, N', N'-tetra acetic acid.

  7. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Kolsky, K.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-03

    Cyclohexyl chelating agents useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes are synthesized. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2-diamino cyclohexane-N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetra acetic acid.

  8. Sep08.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements, three scanning, compact microwave radiometers were deployed, each 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) apart, to form a triangle. One of the radiometers was based at the SGP...

  9. Section 47

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Laboratory (ETL) operated two Doppler radars (K - and X-band), a narrow-band IR a radiometer (10-11.4m), and a three-channel microwave radiometer. These instruments...

  10. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Microwave Radiometer Makes Water Vapor Measurements in the Arid Cold a Snap Bookmark and Share The 183 GHz radiometer, protected inside an insulated enclosure (inset), is installed on the roof of the primary instrument shelter at Barrow. To prevent snow from accumulating on the mylar window, a blower mounted beneath the radiometer directs air through a duct to a standard Y-shaped fitting mounted on top of the radiometer. Scientific research increasingly shows evidence of climate change first

  11. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 28, 2009 [Facility News] Climate Models Need Closure Too Bookmark and Share These radiometers at the Southern Great Plains site match those on the aircraft for the RACORO field campaign. The radiometers will take measurements continuously throughout the campaign, allowing scientists to compare measurements from the aircraft against those collected routinely by radiometers at the site. These radiometers at the Southern Great Plains site match those on the aircraft for the RACORO field

  12. wilcox-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Traceability and Verification of Radiometer Calibrations at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility S. M. Wilcox and I. Reda National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado D. A. Nelson and C. Webb Southern Great Plains Central Facility Introduction The Radiometer Calibration Facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility annually calibrates more than 100 radiometers deployed for routine operations at the 22 SGP measurement sites. Among the factors that

  13. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optical Properties from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two- Channel ... NFOV radiometer of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program reveals that ...

  14. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt , B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  15. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qiguang; Williams, Frances; Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles E.; Krishnan, Mahadevan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials? microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials? crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface?s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  16. Role of curative radiotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer. [Clinical factors effecting efficacy and incidence of complications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coy, P.; Kennelly, G.M.

    1980-02-15

    From 1963 to 1974, 141 patients with lung cancer were treated with curative intent in the A. Maxwell Evans Clinic in Vancouver. The clinical presentation, age and sex distribution, histology, and reasons for surgery not being carried out are examined. The results of this treatment are presented. An attempt has been made to isolate a group of patients who have a better prognosis so that treatment selection can be improved. Hemoptysis, cough, dyspnea, and incidental finding on routine chest x-ray were the most common manner of presentation. Thirty-four percent of the patients were over 70 years of age and 13% were women. The crude overall three- and five-year survival rates were 18 and 10% (19 and 9% in the men, 17 and 14% in the women). Patients presenting with dyspnea had a better survival than those presenting with cough and hemoptysis. Patients with lesions less than 3 cm in diameter had a 28% three-year survival, compared with 14% for lesions greater than 5 cm in diameter. The three- and five-year survival rates in patients over 70 years of age were 23 and 17% respectively. The response to treatment and the survival were better in the patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-two percent were alive at three years and 12% at five years as compared with 9 and 5% for other histologies. Fifty-four percent of the 35 patients with a complete response and with squamous cell carcinoma were alive at three years, compared with only 8% of the 12 patients with other histologies who showed a complete response.

  17. Estimates of the gene frequency of BRCA1 and its contribution to breast and ovarian cancer incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.; Easton, D.F.; Peto, J.

    1995-12-01

    The majority of multiple-case families that segregate both breast and ovarian cancer in a dominant fashion are due to mutations in the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q. In this paper, we have combined penetrance estimates for BRCA1 with the results of two population-based genetic epidemiological studies to estimate the gene frequency of BRCA1. On the assumption that the excess risk of ovarian cancer in first degree relatives of breast cancer patients and the breast cancer excess in relatives of ovarian cancer patients are both entirely accounted for by BRCA1, we estimate that the BRCA1 gene frequency is 0.0006 (95% confidence interval [0.0002-0.001]) and that the proportion of breast cancer cases in the general population due to BRCA1 is 5.3% below age 40 years, 2.2% between ages 40 and 49 years, and 1.1% between ages 50 and 70 years. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 5.7%, 4.6%, and 2.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of breast cancer families with less than four cases and no ovarian cancer are not due to rare highly penetrant genes such as BRCA1 but are more likely to be due either to chance or to more common genes of lower penetrance. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez and U.S Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz Announce Settlement on Nuclear Waste Incidents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Press Release on the Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico's agreement to projects for safer roads, improved water infrastructure and enhanced emergency response.

  19. Long range heliostat target using array of normal incidence pyranometers to evaluate a beam of solar radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghanbari, Cheryl M; Ho, Clifford K; Kolb, Gregory J

    2014-03-04

    Various technologies described herein pertain to evaluating a beam reflected by a heliostat. A portable target that has an array of sensors mounted thereupon is configured to capture the beam reflected by the heliostat. The sensors in the array output measured values indicative of a characteristic of the beam reflected by the heliostat. Moreover, a computing device can generate and output data corresponding to the beam reflected by the heliostat based on the measured values indicative of the characteristic of the beam received from the sensors in the array.

  20. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2015 [Blog, Field Notes, SGP] Calibration Season Begins Bookmark and Share Editor's Note: Craig Webb, calibration technician at the Southern Great Plains site, sent this update. A view of a collection of radiometers taken from the now closed Tropical Western Pacific facility. A view of a collection of radiometers taken from the now closed Tropical Western Pacific facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility requires accurate measurements of solar radiation from radiometers used in ground-based

  1. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    31, 2009 [Facility News] Scanning Radiometers Probe Inside of Clouds Bookmark and Share For one month, three of these microwave radiometers at the SGP site, along with two more from the University of Colorado, will be arranged in series to continuously scan clouds passing overhead. For one month, three of these microwave radiometers at the SGP site, along with two more from the University of Colorado, will be arranged in series to continuously scan clouds passing overhead. A key contributor

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preliminary Results of the Radiometer Cleaning Study IOP Stoffel, T.L. and Gotseff, P.A., National Renewable Energy Laboratory Our goal for this study was to determine any measurable effects of the present maintenance schedule for broadband shortwave and longwave radiometers on the quality of irradiance data. Results of our prelimnary analyses are based on data collected since April 7, 2003 to February 1, 2004 by the Radiometer Characterization System at the SGP/Guest Instrument Facility. During

  3. ARM XDC Datastreams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    StreamsAdvanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Documentation AVHRR Instrument External Datastream Descriptions ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Information updated on December 4, 2012, 3:32 pm GMT General Data Description Measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA polar orbiting satellites taken over the NSA,

  4. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combination of Temperature and Humidity Profiles from a Scanning 5-mm Radiometer and MWR-Scaled Radiosondes During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Experiment Westwater, E.R.(a), Leuski, V.(a), and Racette, P.(b), CIRES, University of Colorado/NOAA-ETL (a), NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center (b) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer was deployed during an Intensive Operating Periods (IOP) at the Atmospheric Radiation

  5. liljegren(1)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automatic Self-Calibration of ARM Microwave Radiometers J. C. Liljegren Ames Laboratory Ames, Iowa Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has deployed continuously operating Microwave Radiometers in remote locations including rural Oklahoma, islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean, and in northern Alaska. In order to assure that their calibrations are properly maintained, algorithms that permit the radiometer calibrations to be automatically and continuously updated have

  6. Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period The Diffuse Shortwave IOP ran from September 23 to October 12, 2001. During this IOP, Joe Michalsky (The State University of New York-Albany) and Tom Stoffel (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) deployed approximately 15 radiometers of various designs and manufacturers on the SGP Radiometer Calibration Facility. The purpose was to compare the accuracy of the radiometers for diffuse shortwave measurements. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography

  7. ARM - Instrument - mwrp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmwrp Documentation MWRP : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MWRP) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Radiometric Picture of the microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) General Overview The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) provides vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content as

  8. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mwrp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmwrp Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MWRP) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Radiometric Campaigns ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2000.11.01 - 2000.12.31 Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2001.04.01 - 2001.09.30 Microwave Radiometer Profiler

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Boulder, Colorado D. Cimini University of L'Aquila Coppito L'Aquila, Italy Introduction Previously we described the deployment of two scanning radiometers on the ...

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiometer time-height cross sections. The statistical comparison is made using angular radiance power spectra computed with a sophisticated spherical harmonics technique

  11. X:\\ARM_19~1\\P283-315.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the irradiance observations. Here, net radiation observed with the net radiometer in the energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) station at the central facility is compared with the net...

  12. alberta-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modifies the Core soundings below 2 km with temperature and humidity retrievals from a Fourier Transform Spectrometer; 4) a fourth sounding "microwave radiometer (MWR)" uses...

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forcing at the surface and the TOA. Comparisons to surface radiometer (SurfRad and ISIS) and satellite broadband measurements (CERES) demonstrate that the optical model formed ...

  14. Section 45

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiometers are typically two- or three-channel, independent receivers coupled into a common antenna system. The antennas are designed so that each frequency employs an equal...

  15. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the relationship among cloud turbulence, droplet formation and drizzle as viewed by Doppler radar, microwave radiometer and lidar. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 22195-22203 Golaz,...

  16. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facility is the centerpiece of the team's involvement within PECAN and will carry a Doppler wind lidar, atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and microwave radiometer....

  17. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    regressions (EMP), radar reflectivity - IR radiometer (ZIR), lidarradiometer (LIRAD), lidar - radar (LR), and radar Doppler moments (ZV) techniques. Table 1 lists each...

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    King Air A part of NSF low atmospheric facility * Remote sensors - Cloud radar - Cloud lidar - Microwave radiometer * In situ sensors - Aerosol - Cloud Provide extended cloud...

  19. Raciometry W. J:. Shaw and C. D. Whiteman Pacific Northwest Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compare satisfactorily with model integrations. Using the parameterized radiances and Gaussian tipping in one dimension, we have shown tnat the balloon-borne radiometer platform...

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    variations in albedo between locations. Analysis of biweekly composites of maximum NDVI derived from the NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) show modest...

  1. Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to map shallow thermal anomalies. Kinetic temperature images derived from ASTER TIR data can be used to detect potential anomalies,...

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    input of ground-based measurements, and cloud liquid water path (LWP) is retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometer measured brightness temperature. All surface data are...

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: A Climatology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and lidar pair, and rawinsonde sounding; cloud liquid water path (LWP) is retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometer measured brightness temperature; and cloud-droplet...

  4. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2006 * Passive microwave remote sensing * Long experience with airborne, ship-borne, ground based microwave radiometers University of Illinois, Champaign, IL October 14-16,...

  5. Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LWP more completely, this paper compares it with LWP retrievals based on ARM's ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) at the SGP central and boundary facilities. The...

  6. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    input of ground-based measurements, and cloud liquid water path (LWP) is retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometer measured brightness temperature. The satellite results,...

  7. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Shipboard Fast-Rotating Shadowband Spectral Radiometer Reynolds, R.M., Miller, M.A., and Bartholemew, M.J., Brookhaven National Laboratory Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement...

  8. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CSR did not have the advantage of such testing. Both of the radiometers performed continuous elevation scans, but due to instrument differences, the scan patterns were...

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    utilizes the infrared radiometer measurements of the cloud optical depth to constrain power-law relations between radar reflectivity and IWC. The Doppler velocity technique...

  10. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2008 Facility News Talk About Climate Change: Radiometer Moves from Arctic to South America Bookmark and Share Dockside in Charleston, South Carolina, the newly installed GVRP...

  11. ASTER | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASTER Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Spectral Imaging Sensor: Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Details Areas (0...

  12. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the CMBE-CLDRAD datastream has the most recent release of integrated liquid water and water vapor data from the microwave radiometer (MWRRET) data set, which was reprocessed...

  13. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Starts; Microwave Radiometer Profiler Deployed Bookmark and Share Some of the instruments collecting data during the Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP...

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the main housing. Located inside the housing are the boxes for power and radiometer control (bottom) and two external targets for calibration purposes (top). The scanhead...

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Team Meeting The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has deployed dual-frequency microwave water radiometers (MWRs) at its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART)...

  16. Diffuse Irradiance Study Planned for October

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and radiometers installed at the SGP CART site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The instruments measuring diffuse solar radiation have black sphere-shaped shades to keep direct sunlight from...

  17. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties using the ground- based measurements of cloud radar, laser ceilometer, and microwave and solar radiometers. A relationship between effective radius and radar...

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model in conjunction with ground-based measurements of cloud radar, laser ceilometer, microwave and solar radiometers. The satellite results are retrieved from GOES visible and...

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microwave radiometer on same grid - Classify targets, correct radar attenuation, add errors... Level 2a IWC (observational grid) - Ice water content reported with errors on...

  20. ARM - Instrumentation Workshop 2008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 1430: Spectral sun photometer and sky radiometer measurements from moving platforms, John Porter, University of Hawaii 1430 to 1445: The scanning high-resolution...

  1. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alaska site in Barrow, collocated sky radiometers are being evaluated to refine the methodology that accounts for infrared loss in polar conditions. In the far northern reaches of...

  2. Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Airborne VisibleIR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to characterize hot spring deposits in the...

  3. Posters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shape of the curve of integrated backscatter versus emittance. Acknowledgments Stephen Marsden analyzed the lidar and radiometer data. John Bennett oversaw the design and...

  4. Microsoft Word - nfov_handbook_DOE-SC-ARM-TR-060.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This section is under development. 7.2 Theory of Operation The NFOV radiometers point straight up. The collimating tube restricts the FOV of the instruments. The detector...

  5. ARM - Black Forest News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Campaign Images Black Forest News ARM Mobile Facility Completes Field Campaign in Germany January 15, 2008 Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany September 15, 2007...

  6. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bookmark and Share An example plot from the MWRRET VAP for 1192007 at Black Forest, Germany: (top) Brightness temperatures measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR). Orange and...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - 2001 Phoenix Sunrise Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe Order Data Hubbe Gas Monitors Order Data Hubbe Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe Order Data Hubbe Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Order Data Hubbe PSP Radiometer...

  8. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Use of Atmospheric Radiation Measurements for the Validation of National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite SystemVisibleInfrared ImagerRadiometer Suite ...

  9. X:\\ARM_19~1\\P193-223.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometers and Analysis of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Spectral Shortwave Data J. ... Abstract Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the ...

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceedings of the Third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting ...Radiometer Method in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Bergstrom, R. Are ...

  11. International agreement report: Assessment study of RELAP-5 MOD-2 Cycle 36. 01 based on the DOEL-2 Steam Generator Tube Rupture incident of June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbe, E J

    1986-10-01

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred at the DOEL 2 power plant in Belgium on June 25th 1979. DOEL 2 is a two-loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant of 392 MWe. A steam generator tube rupture occurred at the end of a heat-up phase which initiated a plant transient which required substantial operator involvement and presented many plant phenomena which are of interest for code assessment. While real plant transients are of special importance for code validation because of the elimination of code scaling uncertainties, they introduce however some uncertainties related to the specifications of the exact initial and boundary conditions which must be reconstructed from available on-line plant recordings and on-line computer diagnostics. Best estimate data have been reconstructed for an assessment study by means of the code RELAP5/MOD2/CYCLE 36.01. Because of inherent uncertainties in the plant data, the assessment work is focussed on phenomena whereby the comparison between plant data and computer data is based more on trends than on absolute values. Such approach is able to uncover basic code weaknesses and strengths which can contribute to a better understanding of the code potential.

  12. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Groth, Katrina M.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  13. Simulations of Microchannel Plate Sensitivity to <20 keV X-rays as a Function of Energy and Incident Angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Wu, M.; Rochau, G. A.

    2013-06-13

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP) response to x-rays in the 250 eV to 20 keV energy range as a function of both x-ray energy and impact angle. The model is based on the model presented in Rochau et al. (2006). However, while the Rochau et al. (2006) model was two-dimensional, and their results only went to 5 keV, our results have been expanded to 20 keV, and our model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional Monte Carlo MCP model that we have developed over the past several years (Kruschwitz et al. 2011). X-ray penetration through multiple MCP pore walls is increasingly important above 5 keV. The effect of x-ray penetration through multiple pores on MCP performance was studied and is presented.

  14. Comparative studies of optical and elastic properties of ZrO{sub 2} thin films prepared under normal and oblique incidence deposition geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, P. Tokas, R. B. Jena, S. Thakur, S. Sahoo, N. K.

    2014-04-24

    Oblique angle deposited optical thin films have attracted recent researchers interest because of their attractive optical, micro-structural, mechanical properties and more importantly because of their great potential in achieving tunability in refractive index. These properties in turn make it important in case of designing different optical devices. In the present work, ZrO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporation technique in normal as well as oblique angle deposition configurations. Optical properties, especially refractive index of the films have been estimated by fitting the measured transmission spectra with suitable theoretical dispersion models. Atomic force microscopy has been employed to characterize morphological properties of samples. The elastic properties of both the films are estimated by Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy, a new and highly sensitive technique for thin films.

  15. Type B Accident Investigation, Subcontractor Employee Personal Protective Equipment Ignition Incident on February 18, 2003, at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 2003, a general laborer employed at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) by MACTEC Constructors, Inc. (MACTEC) was performing rebar removal with a gas-powered cut-off machine. MACTEC is a subcontractor to Bechtel Jacobs Company LL (BJC). The sparks from the cut-off machine ignited the right leg of his 100% cotton anticontamination (anti-c) coveralls and the plastic bootie.

  16. Accident Investigation of the August 21, 2012, Contamination Incident at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On August 25, 2012, radioactive contamination was identified on Flight Path 04 of the Lujan Center, an experimental area that is part of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC. The Operating Contractor quickly determined that the contamination had spread offsite, and response teams were immediately brought in.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy and New Mexico Finalize $74M in Settlement Agreements for Nuclear Waste Incidents of 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agreements Include Schedules and Funding Parameters for Corrective Actions and Improvement Projects for New Mexico’s Roads, Water Infrastructure, and Emergency Response

  18. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  19. Final Report for Grant DE-FG02-90ER61072

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Harrison

    2006-02-20

    This is the final report for the work done by our research group at the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center for the US DOE Atmopheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. We were involved from the beginning of the ARM effort; we designed the Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (MFRSR) which was widely deployed (and still operational in ARM) and through the years did a wide variety of data analysis on the returned data from these instruments. We also developed the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer, which ARM deployed and also still deploys. Many scientific papers have been written using the data from these instruments, and the ongoing data streams remain part of the current ARM effort. Earlier reports contain our progress from previous grant periods, this report covers the last period and provides references to published work.

  20. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New 3-Channel Microwave Radiometer Deployed at Southern Great Plains Site Bookmark and Share Newly installed at the SGP site, the scanning 3-channel microwave radiometers have different sized lenses to accommodate both the K-band and W-band frequency. The difference in lens size is necessary to achieve similar field of views. Newly installed at the SGP site, the scanning 3-channel microwave radiometers have different sized lenses to accommodate both the K-band and W-band frequency. The

  1. ARM - Instrument - gvr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgvr Documentation GVR : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) General Overview The G-Band Vapor Radiometer (GVR) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at ±1, ±3, ±7, and ±14

  2. ARM - Instrument - gvrp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgvrp Documentation GVRP : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the G-band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) General Overview The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.31 GHz.

  3. Shaw-JA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Colorado D. Cimini Department of Physics University of L'Aquila Coppito L'Aquila, Italy Introduction During June and July of 1999 we deployed a pair of scanning radiometers on ...

  4. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 31, 2007 Facility News Radiometers Operate in Low Water Vapor Conditions in Barrow, Alaska Bookmark and Share A researcher checks the GVR antennae on a cold, crisp day at...

  5. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal emission spectra made at Trent University were collected using a Bomem DA8 Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer (FTIR) spectrometer at a resolution of 0.25 cm -1 . The...

  6. ARM TR-008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Radiometer Calibration Facility (RCF) Handbook November 2004 T. Stoffel Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research November 2004, ARM TR-028 Contents 1. General Overview ............................................................................................................................... 1 2.

  7. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stations (3) * MF soil moisture (1-3) * MF UHF prof., sodar * UNIBAS Raman lidar * UK Doppler lidar * UK radiometer * UHH cloud radar * TARA * UK Radiosondes * UK sodar R 5...

  8. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new NFOV radiometer collects data using a CR10X measurement and control system (from Campbell Scientific). Instrument output consists of a time series of 1-second observations of...

  9. Section 113

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TAO) buoys on the 165E line. The radiometers will be installed on the buoys at 8S, 5S, 2S, 0, 2N, 5N, and 8N during 1997. The data will provide incoming solar radiation data...

  10. Raaometry C. D. Whiteman, J. M. Alzheimer, G. A. Anderson, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    leveling is encountered during clear daytime conditions. In these conditions, the mean tilt of the radiometer must be less than 1 0 with oscillations less than about 20 in...

  11. ARM - Datastreams - mwrp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MWRP Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals Active Dates 2004.02.19 -...

  12. P-3 Program goals for CLASIC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including the NASA P-3. The University of Colorado's Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSRCXI) will operate aboard the NASA WFF P-3 at 25,000 feet altitude to provide soil...

  13. ARM - VAP Product - mwrret1liljclou

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : MWRRET1LILJCLOU Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud...

  14. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Radiometers During Aerosols99, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), and Nauru99* Miller, M.A. A Survey of the Current State of the DOE ARM Millimeter Cloud Radars, the ...

  15. ARMIUnmanned Air Vehic/elSarenites J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a nadir-looking spectral radiometer for measuring daytime cloud, aerosol and surface properties. It covers the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.4 microns in about ARM Sdenc Meeting ...

  16. ARM - Campaign Instrument - rad-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Airborne Radiometers (RAD-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne...

  17. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mwr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling,...

  18. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ssfr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : NASA Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) Instrument Categories...

  19. ARM - Campaign Instrument - solarirrads

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentssolarirrads Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Solar and Infrared Radiometers...

  20. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mmwr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmmwr Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Millimeter Wave Radiometer (MMWR)...

  1. ARM - Campaign Instrument - csr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentscsr Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Circular Scanning Radiometer (CSR)...

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - cavity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentscavity Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Absolute Cavity Radiometer (CAVITY)...

  3. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mwr-jpl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    jpl Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : JPL Microwave Radiometer (MWR-JPL) Instrument Categories...

  4. ARM - Campaign Instrument - msr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmsr Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Multi-wavelength Scanning Radiometer (MSR)...

  5. ARM - Campaign Instrument - rsr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsrsr Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Rotating Shading-arm Radiometer (RSR)...

  6. Microsoft Word - wang_z.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... JC, EE Clothiaux, GG Mace, S Kato, and X Dong. 2001. "A new retrieval for cloud liquid water path using a ground-based microwave radiometer and measurements of cloud temperature." ...

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ground-based microwave radiometer calibration techniques at 530 Hpa." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 6, doi:10.5194amt-6-2641-2013. This figure shows the time-series...

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.2 MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets Revision 2 KL Gaustad DD Turner SA...

  9. matrosov-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) K a -band radar and a Barnes-type PRT-5 IR radiometer were deployed at the CART site for this IOP. The University of North Dakota...

  10. ARM - Instrument - grams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Ground Radiometer Autonomous Measurement System (GRAMS) Note: grams is currently inactive andor retired. Active Dates...

  11. Section 62

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flux measurements during clear sky on October 17, 1995. Preliminary ARESE Results from the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment: Radiative Fluxes Measured in Clear and Cloudy Skies S.K. Pope, F.P.J. Valero, and P. Flatau Scripps Institute of Oceanography La Jolla, California Sets of broadband radiometers and narrowband radiometers onboard two aircraft flying in a stacked formation measured the radiative fluxes in clear and cloudy skies in Oklahoma as part of the 1995 Atmospheric Radiation

  12. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Review of Measured/Modeled Solar Resource Uncertainty Presented at the 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA May 1-2, 2013 Tom Stoffel 2 Getting to PV Performance Model Input Uncertainty Total Solar Irradiance 1,366 ± 7 W/m 2 Measurements Models Meteorological Satellite Station Operations & Maintenance Calibration Reference Radiometer Design Performance Radiometer Installation Atmospheric State: Clouds Aerosols Water Vapor Etc. Model Validation Solar Resource Data

  13. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SGP] All About the Pyrheliometers: 12th Annual IPC Conference Bookmark and Share Editor's Note: Craig Webb, calibration technician at the Southern Great Plains site, sent this update. Data quality of the measurements from radiometers requires accurate and regular recalibration traceable to the World Radiometric Reference, the international standard of solar radiation measurement. Data quality of the measurements from radiometers requires accurate and regular recalibration traceable to the World

  14. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: An Assessment of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Stereo-derived Cloud Top Heights Using Cloud Optical Depths Derived from ARM Data An Assessment of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Stereo-derived Cloud Top Heights Using Cloud Optical Depths Derived from ARM Data Marchand, Roger Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ackerman, Thomas DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Clouds are of tremendous importance to climate because of their direct radiative effects and because of their

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterizing the Quality of Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Retrievals Using Time Series Analyses Ivanova, K. (a), Clothiaux, E.E. (a), Shirer, H.N. (a), Ackerman, T.P. (b), Liljegren, J.C. (c), and Ausloos, M. (d), The Pennsylvania State University (a), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (b), Argonne National Laboratiry (c), University of Liege, Liege, Belgium (d) Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Time series of microwave radiometer brightness

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maintaining Radiometer Calibration Traceability to the World Radiometric Reference: Results of the NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons in 2001 Stoffel, T.L. and Reda, I., National Renewable Energy Laboratory Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Accurate measurements of solar irradiance place many demands on the operators of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining careful instrument calibrations traceable to an international standard is the first step in

  17. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Integrated Algorithm for Retrieving Low-Level Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Using Millimeter Radar and Microwave Radiometer Data Dong, X. and Mace, G.G., University of Utah Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Two methods have been developed for inferring the vertical profiles of cloud microphysics in liquid phase stratocumulus clouds. The first method uses cloud liquid water path derived from microwave radiometer observations and a profile of radar

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Methods for Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) Wilcox, S.M., Andreas, A.M., Reda, I., and Myers, D.R., National Renewable Energy Laboratory Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The ARM Program deploys approximately 100 radiometers to measure broadband solar radiation at stations in the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Southern Great Plains (SGP), and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites. Two calibration events

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Continued Evaluation of the Microwave Radiometer Profiler Liljegren, J.C., Argonne National Laboratory Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Final results are presented for the two-year evaluation of the microwave radiometer profiler at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. Three aspects of the instrument system are examined: (1) reliability, (2) measurement accuracy, and (3) retrieval accuracy. Reliability of the instrument is

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer Liljegren, J.C., Argonne National Laboratory Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Improvements in the accuracy and vertical resolution of the temperature and water vapor profiles currently available from the twelve-channel microwave radiometer can be achieved through improved spectroscopy and improved retrievals. We demonstrate how a 5% reduction in the width

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons - 2002 Reda, I. and Stoffel, T.L., National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting All broadband shortwave radiometers used by the ARM Program are calibrated with absolute cavity radiometers traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). The WRR was developed and is maintained by the World Radiation Center under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization. Each fall, the National Renewable

  2. hagan-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compact Spectral Radiometer for In Situ Solar Flux Measurements D. E. Hagan, M. Foote, J.-F. Blavier, L. Wild, and E. Jones Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Introduction We describe here the breadboard version of a lightweight, compact radiometer, which uses microthermopile detectors for hemispheric measurements of broadband and spectral downwelling solar irradiance. The instrument has undergone initial operability tests, and some limited field

  3. liljegren(3)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer, Balloon-Borne Sounding System, and Global Positioning System J. C. Liljegren Ames Laboratory Ames, Iowa B. M. Lesht Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois T. VanHove and C Rocken University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Global Positioning System Science and Technology Boulder, Colorado Introduction Comparisons of integrated water vapor (IWV) derived from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Microwave Radiometer (MWR), ARM

  4. pavloski-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Speed Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from a Narrow Field of View, Narrowband, Shortwave, Zenith Pointing Radiometer C. F. Pavloski The Pennsylvania State University Department of Meteorology University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has recently deployed a new, shortwave, Narrow Field of View (NFOV) Zenith radiometer at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility. The

  5. stoffel-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Broadband and Spectral Irradiance Measurements at the Radiometer Calibration Facility During the 1997 Integrated Intensive Observation Period T. L. Stoffel National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado G. Hodges Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences Boulder, Colorado J. J. Michalsky State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Summary A unique collection of broadband and spectral solar irradiance measurements was made at the Radiometer Calibration

  6. westwater-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer for Temperature Profiling E. R. Westwater and Y. Han CIRES University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado F. Solheim Radiometrics Corporation Boulder, Colorado Introduction In surface-based experiments in central Oklahoma and at a 300-m meteorological tower near Erie, Colorado (Westwater et al. 1999), angular-scanning single-frequency radiometer have shown potential for

  7. ARM - VAP Process - gvrpwv

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsgvrpwv Documentation & Plots Technical Report Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Instrument Categories Radiometric The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data

  8. ARM - Datastreams - gvr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsgvr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1095594 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GVR G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer Active Dates 2006.09.28 - 2016.03.10 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Originating Instrument G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Measurements Only measurements considered

  9. ARM - Datastreams - mwrhf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmwrhf Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025250 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MWRHF Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency (MWRHF) Active Dates 2006.11.03 - 2015.03.15 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Originating Instrument Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency (MWRHF) Measurements Only measurements

  10. ARM - Instrument - avhrr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsavhrr Documentation AVHRR : XDC documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Instrument Categories Satellite Observations General Overview Measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA polar orbiting satellites taken over the NSA, SHB, SGP, and TWP sites are available for distribution to

  11. ARM - Instrument - sebs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentssebs Documentation SEBS : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Instrument Categories Surface/Subsurface Properties Picture of the Surface Energy Balance System General Overview The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and

  12. ARM - Instrument - skyrad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsskyrad Documentation SKYRAD : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the SKYRAD General Overview The Sky Radiation (SKYRAD) collection of radiometers provides each Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) with continuous measurements of broadband shortwave

  13. ARM - Datastreams - brs60s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsbrs60s Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025162 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : BRS60S Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS): 60-second broadband shortwave and longwave radiation Active Dates 2001.03.05 - 2003.04.17 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) Measurements

  14. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM instruments on top of the ARIES Observatory in Nainital Doppler Lidar (DL) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Total Sky Imager (TSI) on the far left, Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT) center, and Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) to the right Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) Total Sky Imager (TSI) Doppler Lidar (DL)

  15. Microsoft Word - liljegren-jc.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preliminary Results with the Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer Profiler at the North Slope of Alaska Climate Research Facility J. C. Liljegren and B. M. Lesht Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Coincident with the Arctic winter water vapor intensive operational period (IOP), the 12-channel microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) was permanently deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) North

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - ARMSTM_2007_Westwater_et_al_02.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EXPERIMENTS 1. Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment 2004 Period: March 9-April 9 2004 Location: ARM NSA, Barrow, Alaska 2. RHUBC (http://science.arm.gov/rhubc/) Period: February 22, 2007 to present Location: ARM NSA, Barrow, Alaska GOALS * Provide real time retrievals of PWV and CLP * Compare observations with ARM and Radiometrics millimeter-wave radiometers * Forward model radiative transfer studies Results from the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer's Deployments at the NSA in 2004 and 2007

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - DongHuang_ARMposter2009.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water distribution from an air-borne scanning microwave radiometer: Wakasa Bay field experiment results Dong Huang, Albin Gasiewski, and Warren Wiscombe 1. A mobile cloud tomography setup has some advantages over a fixed one. The tomographic method involves scanning clouds from a multiplicity of directions and locations, and inverting the resulting radiometric measurements to obtain 2D/3D cloud water distributions. A fixed ground-based setup will needed more than four microwave radiometers

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - mather_twpice_data_status_ny.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Twin Otter TWP-ICE/ACTIVE Observation Network Egrett (UK) Proteus Dornier (UK) Dimona Tiwi Islands Darwin Mt Bundy Pt Stuart Cape Don Garden Point Southern Surveyor In situ microphysics Radar/Lidar Chemistry/Aerosol/Atm state Fluxes/Atmospheric state Darwin ARM Measurements *Cloud Profiles - mm radar and lidar *T/RH/Wind Profiles - radiosondes (BOM) *Column water - microwave radiometer *Column Aerosol - solar spectral radiometer *Surface radiation budget - solar and terrestrial *Surface

  19. Low Frequency Measurement of the Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smoot, G. F.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S. D.; Witebsky, C.; Mandolesi, N.; Partridge, R. B.; Sironi, G.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.

    1983-06-01

    We have made measurements of the cosmic background radiation spectrum at 5 wavelengths (0.33, 0.9, 3, 6.3, and 12 cm) using radiometers with wavelength-scaled corrugated horn antennas having very low sidelobes. A single large-mouth (0.7 m diameter) liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference load was used for all five radiometers. The results of the observations are consistent with previous measurements and represent a significant improvement in accuracy.

  20. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons: September 22-26, 2014 (NPC-2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.

    2014-10-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for developing and deploying solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations that are traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. As with all measurement systems, absolute cavity radiometers and other types of pyrheliometers are subject to performance changes over time. NREL has developed and maintained a select group of absolute cavity radiometers with direct calibration traceability to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR), and uses these reference instruments to calibrate pyrheliometers and pyranometers using the ISO 17025 accredited Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) process. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) pyrheliometer comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners and operators, each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the WRR. NPC-2014 was held September 22-26, 2014. Participants operated 36 absolute cavity radiometers and 22 conventional thermopile-based pyrheliometers to simultaneously measure clear-sky direct normal solar irradiance during this period, and this report documents the findings.

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Pyrheliometer Comparisons: 24 September - 5 October 2012 (NPC-2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.

    2013-05-01

    The NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons for 2012 (NPC-2012) were held at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from September 24 through October 5 for the purpose of transferring the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) to participating instrument. Twenty scientists and engineers operated 32 absolute cavity radiometers and 18 conventional thermopile-based pyrheliometers to simultaneously measure clear-sky direct normal irradiance during the comparisons. The transfer standard group of reference radiometers for NPC-2012 consisted of four NREL radiometers with direct traceability to the WRR, having participated in the Eleventh International Pyrheliometer Comparisons (IPC-XI) hosted by the World Radiation Center in the fall of 2010. As the result of NPC-2012, each participating absolute cavity radiometer was assigned a new WRR transfer factor, computed as the reference irradiance computed by the transfer standard group divided by the observed irradiance from the participating radiometer. The performance of the transfer standard group during NPC-2012 was consistent with previous comparisons, including IPC-XI. The measurement performance of the transfer standard group allowed the transfer of the WRR to each participating radiometer with an estimated uncertainty of +/- 0.33% with respect to the International System of Units.

  2. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison: September 16 to 27, 2013 (NPC-2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for the development and deployment of solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. As with all measurement systems, absolute cavity radiometers and other types of pyrheliometers are subject to performance changes over time. NREL has developed and maintained a group of absolute cavity radiometers with direct calibration traceability to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). These reference instruments are used by NREL to calibrate pyrheliometers and pyranometers using the ISO 17025 accredited Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) process (Reda et al. 2008). NPCs are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners/operators, e.g. NREL, NASA, NIST, NOAA, USA industry and academia, USA-DOE and other national laboratories, and national and international organizations. Each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique World Radiometric Reference (WRR) transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the International System of Units through WRR.

  3. Fully Polarimetric Differential Intensity W-band Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-05-31

    We present a novel architecture based upon a Dicke-switched heterodyne radiometer architecture employing two identical input sections consisting of horn and orthomode transducer to detect the difference between the H and V polarization states of two separate object patches imaged by the radiometer. We have constructed and described previously a fully polarimetric W-band passive millimeter wave imager constructed to study the phenomenology of anomaly detection using polarimetric image exploitation of the Stokes images. The heterodyne radiometer used a PIN diode switch between the input millimeter wave energy and that of a reference load in order to eliminate the effects of component drifts and reduce the effects of 1/f noise. The differential approach differs from our previous work by comparing H and V polarization states detected by each of the two input horns instead of a reference load to form signals delta H and delta V from closely adjacent paired object patches. This novel imaging approach reduces common mode noise and enhances detection of small changes between the H and V polarization states of two object patches, now given as difference terms of the fully polarimetric radiometer. We present the theory of operation, initial proof of concept experimental results, and extension of the differential radiometer to a system with a binocular fore optics that allow adjustment of the convergence or shear of the object patches viewed by the differential polarimetric imager.

  4. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident This Transportation Emergency...

  5. Method and apparatus for millimeter-wave detection of thermal waves for materials evaluation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating thermal waves in a sample and for measuring thermal inhomogeneities at subsurface levels using millimeter-wave radiometry. An intensity modulated heating source is oriented toward a narrow spot on the surface of a material sample and thermal radiation in a narrow volume of material around the spot is monitored using a millimeter-wave radiometer; the radiometer scans the sample point-by-point and a computer stores and displays in-phase and quadrature phase components of thermal radiations for each point on the scan. Alternatively, an intensity modulated heating source is oriented toward a relatively large surface area in a material sample and variations in thermal radiation within the full field of an antenna array are obtained using an aperture synthesis radiometer technique.

  6. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.310{sup ?3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  7. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  8. ARM - Datastreams - gvrp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsgvrp Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025199 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GVRP G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz Active Dates 2008.04.01 - 2015.05.10 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer

  9. ARM - Datastreams - mwr3c

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsmwr3c Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025248 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Active Dates 2011.01.11 - 2016.03.10 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel (MWR3C) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are

  10. ARM - Instrument - mwr3c

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmwr3c Documentation MWR3C : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel (MWR3C) Instrument Categories Cloud Properties, Radiometric General Overview The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - GVR2_Poster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G-Band (183 GHz) Water Vapor Radiometer Andrew L. Pazmany (1) and Mengistu Wolde (2) (1) ProSensing Inc., Amherst, MA 01002, www.prosensing.com T: (413) 549-4402, Email: pazmany@prosensing.com (2) Flight Research Laboratory, National Research Council (NRC), Ottawa, Canada Instrument: Funded by a Phase II DOE SBIR contract, ProSensing Inc. developed a turnkey G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for measuring low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Using

  12. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Sm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ?11MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (?100 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  13. Cyclohexyl EDTA monoanhydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-06-04

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the transforms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometers and Radiosondes During Nauru99 E. R. Westwater and Y. Han Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado B. B. Stankov National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington B. M. Lesht Argonne National Laboratory Argonne,

  15. Cloud and aerosol characterization for the ARM central facility: Multiple remote sensor techniques development. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, K.

    1992-04-30

    This research project designed to investigate how atmospheric remote sensing technology can best be applied to the characterization of the cloudy atmosphere. Our research program addresses basic atmospheric remote sensing questions, but at the same time is clearly directed toward providing information crucial to the ARM (Atmospheric Remote Sensing) program and for application to the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART). The instrumentation that is being brought into play includes a variety of art-of-the-art sensors. Available at NOAA WPL are polarization Doppler K{sub a}-band (0.86 mm) and X-band (3.2 cm) radars, a C0{sub 2}(10.6 {mu}m) Doppler lidar with sequential ` polarization measurement capabilities, a three-channel (20.6, 31.65 and 90 GHz) microwave radiometer, and variety of visible and infrared radiometers. Instrumentation at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) includes a polarization ruby (0.643 {mu}m) lidar, a narrow-beam (0.14{degree}) mid-infrared (9.5--11.5 {mu}m) radiometer coaligned with the lidar, several other radiometers in the visible and infrared spectral regions, and an advanced two-color (1.06 and 0.532 {mu}m), four-channel Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) and all-sky video imaging system that have only recently been developed under the ARM IDP.

  16. Cloud and aerosol characterization for the ARM central facility: Multiple remote sensor techniques development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, K.

    1992-04-30

    This research project designed to investigate how atmospheric remote sensing technology can best be applied to the characterization of the cloudy atmosphere. Our research program addresses basic atmospheric remote sensing questions, but at the same time is clearly directed toward providing information crucial to the ARM (Atmospheric Remote Sensing) program and for application to the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART). The instrumentation that is being brought into play includes a variety of art-of-the-art sensors. Available at NOAA WPL are polarization Doppler K{sub a}-band (0.86 mm) and X-band (3.2 cm) radars, a C0{sub 2}(10.6 {mu}m) Doppler lidar with sequential ' polarization measurement capabilities, a three-channel (20.6, 31.65 and 90 GHz) microwave radiometer, and variety of visible and infrared radiometers. Instrumentation at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) includes a polarization ruby (0.643 {mu}m) lidar, a narrow-beam (0.14{degree}) mid-infrared (9.5--11.5 {mu}m) radiometer coaligned with the lidar, several other radiometers in the visible and infrared spectral regions, and an advanced two-color (1.06 and 0.532 {mu}m), four-channel Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) and all-sky video imaging system that have only recently been developed under the ARM IDP.

  17. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    76 GVR Radiometer Handbook MP Cadeddu March 2011 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research MP Cadeddu, March 2011, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-076 iii Contents 1.0 General Overview ................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Contacts

  18. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    108 Microwave Radiometer - 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook MP Cadeddu May 2012 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research MP Cadeddu, May 2012, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-108 ii Contents 1.0 General Overview ................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Contacts

  19. ARM - SGP Radiometric Calibration Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometric Calibration Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts SGP Radiometric Calibration Facility The Radiometric Calibration Facility (RCF) provides shortwave radiometer calibrations traceable

  20. NREL: Resource Assessment and Forecasting - Metrology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrology Laboratory Photo of Solar Radiation Research Laboratory researchers inspecting radiometers mounted to calibration tables at the outside test site. Researchers at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory use pyranometers, pyrheliometers, pyrgeometers, photometers, and spectroradiometers to provide the solar resource information necessary for renewable energy research and development. Metrology, the science of measurement, is a critical part of providing accurate and repeatable data.

  1. Cyclohexyl EDTA monoanhydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Coram, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the transforms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  2. Cyclohexyl-triethylenetetraamine hexacetic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Coram, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Gestin, Jean-Francois (Oudon, FR)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  3. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or the extra space needed to accommodate alternative thermal transducers. A RF radiometer could be integrated in a MRI scanner to permit “self-monitoring” for assuring device safety and/or monitoring delivery of thermal therapy.

  4. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  5. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Konings, J.; Xie, Y.; Dooraghi, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 micrometers to 3 micrcometers, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 micrometers to 1 micrometers. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degres to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  6. BPA-2014-01197-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of the Chief Information Officer, Office of Cyber Security (JC3) Joint Cybersecurity Coordination Center Incident Report Incident type information: http:...

  7. Rich land Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMERGENCY DIRECTOR I1I Emergency response will be directed by the Building Emergency Director (BED) until the Incident 12 Commander (IC) arrives. The incident command system...

  8. Richland Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMERGENCY DIRECTOR 11 Emergency response will be directed by the Building Emergency Director (BED) until the Incident 12 Commander (IC) arrives. The incident command system...

  9. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the roughness correlation function. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction on Thin Films Grazing incidence X-ray scattering or diffraction (GIXS) refers to a...

  10. National Security & Safety Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IG-0787 The Department's Cyber Security Incident Management Program January 2, 2008 Inspection Report: IG-0785 Incident of Security Concern at the Y-12 National Security Complex...

  11. Electric Disturbance Events (OE-417) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Emergency Incident and Disturbance Report (Form OE-417) collects information on electric incidents and emergencies. The Department of Energy uses the information to...

  12. Model Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportation Incidents Model Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportation Incidents This part should...

  13. Account Policies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Computer User Agreement form. Security Incidents If you think there has been a computer security incident you should contact NERSC Security as soon as possible at...

  14. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  15. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  16. A Method to Estimate Uncertainty in Radiometric Measurement Using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric data with known and traceable uncertainty is essential for climate change studies to better understand cloud radiation interactions and the earth radiation budget. Further, adopting a known and traceable method of estimating uncertainty with respect to SI ensures that the uncertainty quoted for radiometric measurements can be compared based on documented methods of derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  17. Bifunctional chelating agent for the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals and biomolecule conjugation strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Prabhu, Kandikere R.; Gali, Hariprasad; Pillarsetty, Nagavara Kishore; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2003-10-21

    There is provided a method of labeling a biomolecule with a transition metal or radiometal in a site specific manner to produce a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical compound by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radio metal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. Also provided is a method of synthesizing the --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecules by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radiometal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting radio metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. There is provided a therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising a --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecule.

  18. Microreactor and method for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wheeler, Tobias D; Desai, Amit V; Zeng, Dexing; Onal, Birce C

    2015-03-17

    A microreactor for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate comprises a microchannel for fluid flow, where the microchannel comprises a mixing portion comprising one or more passive mixing elements, and a reservoir for incubating a mixed fluid. The reservoir is in fluid communication with the microchannel and is disposed downstream of the mixing portion. A method of preparing a radiolabeled complex includes flowing a radiometal solution comprising a metallic radionuclide through a downstream mixing portion of a microchannel, where the downstream mixing portion includes one or more passive mixing elements, and flowing a ligand solution comprising a bifunctional chelator through the downstream mixing portion. The ligand solution and the radiometal solution are passively mixed while in the downstream mixing portion to initiate a chelation reaction between the metallic radionuclide and the bifunctional chelator. The chelation reaction is completed to form a radiolabeled complex.

  19. Eddy-Covariance and auxiliary measurements, NGEE-Barrow, 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Torn, Margaret; Billesbach, Dave; Raz-Yaseef, Naama

    2014-03-24

    The EC tower is operated as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment-Arctic (NGEE) at Barrow, Alaska. The tower is collecting flux data from the beginning of the thaw season, early June, and until conditions are completely frozen, early November. The tower is equipped with a Gill R3-50 Sonic Anemometer, LI-7700 (CH4) sensor, a LI-7500A (CO2/H2O) sensor, and radiation sensors (Kipp and Zonen CNR-4 (four component radiometer), two LiCor LI-190 quantum sensors (PAR upwelling and downwelling), and a down-looking Apogee SI-111 infrared radiometer (surface temperature)). The sensors are remotely controlled, and communication with the tower allows us to retrieve information in real time.

  20. Radiometric characterization of a high temperature blackbody in the visible and near infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubert, R. D.; Hollandt, J.

    2013-09-11

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt the radiance temperature in the range from 962 C to 3000 C is disseminated by applying a high temperature blackbody (HTBB) with a directly heated pyrolytic graphite cavity. The thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB was measured in the temperature range from 1000 C to 3000 C by applying almost simultaneously absolutely calibrated silicon photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 476 nm, 676 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm and InGaAs photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 1300 nm, 1550 nm and 1595 nm. The results demonstrate that, expressed in terms of irradiance, within an uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) in a broad wavelength range the thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB is wavelength independent in the investigated temperature interval.