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Sample records for inch absolute psig

  1. 88-Inch Site Visit - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88-Inch Site Visit For information regarding the 88-Inch Cyclotron Site Visit, please click here.

  2. 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    institutions use these beams to understand the effect of radiation on microelectronics, optics, materials, and cells. Click here to see the 88-Inch Cyclotron's...

  3. Webmaster - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webmaster To inquire about the 88-Inch Cyclotron website, please contact: Mike Johnson Phone: (510) 486-4389 Email: MBJohnson@lbl.gov

  4. 88-Inch Cyclotron Contributions to Space Exploration - 88-Inch...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88-Inch Cyclotron Contributions to Space Exploration Space missions and vehicles with electronic parts, materials, or recovered samples tested at the 88-Inch Cyclotron: Apollo 17 ...

  5. Neutrons - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons Neutron beams are available at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Available energies range of from 8 to 30 MeV, with fluxes of up to 1E8 neutrons/cm^2/sec. For more information, please contact Mike Johnson via e-mail at MBJohnson@lbl.gov, or by phone at at (510) 486-4389.

  6. Directions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions The Laboratory is on the hillside directly above the campus of the University of California at Berkeley. Our address is 1 Cyclotron Rd. Bldg. 88, Berkeley, CA 94720. To make the Lab easily accessible, the Lab has its own shuttle service that takes people around the site, to downtown Berkeley, and to the BART station. Parking spaces can sometimes be difficult to find at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, so make sure to prearrange for a parking permit with our Administrative Office. Further

  7. ECR - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECR ECR Ion Source The ECR ion source was the first source built at the 88-Inch Cyclotron, and replaced the Penning Ion Gauge. It was designed and built by Claude Lyneis and Yves Jongen, delivering the first beam through the Cyclotron in January 1984. The original ECR chamber, constructed of copper, was replaced in 2001 by an aluminum oxide chamber for greater secondary electron production properties, and to reduce the copper contamination of beams. The chamber is approximately 2 liters in

  8. History - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Lawrence's original Cyclotron, for which he received a patent and the Nobel Prize. Lawrence's original cyclotron design was limited to energies where relativistic effects were not important. The third generation cyclotron included "sector-focusing" to allow higher energies to be obtained. The 88-Inch Cyclotron was based on Lawrence's design of a sector-focused cyclotron for the MTA project at Livermore. 1500 man-hours of work were necessary to assemble the trim coils which help

  9. Training - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training *If you are coming from outside of Berkeley Lab, make sure you let the Admin Office know (88Admin@lbl.gov). There is additional paperwork that needs to be completed. Requirements: 1.) General Employee Radiation Training (GERT): All personnel at the 88-Inch Cyclotron are required to take GERT, which only takes a few minutes and can be found here. 2.) Building 88 On-The-Job Training (OJT): All personnel are required to take Building 88's access training (NSD 439) before card-key access

  10. VENUS - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VENUS VENUS Ion Source VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R&D injector is the production of high current medium charge state uranium beams

  11. New Users - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Users Welcome! Congratulations on getting your experiment approved and scheduled at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. This section details how to register with LBNL, acquire gate access and parking, and take the required safety courses to run an experiment at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. 6 Weeks Ahead Set up a user agreement between your organization and LBNL, if there is not already one in place. Recharge customers (those who pay for beam time) must have a user agreement, purchase order, and an advance

  12. Ion Sources - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources The 88-Inch Cyclotron is fed by three Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) high-charge-state ion sources, the ECR, the AECR, and VENUS, currently the most powerful ECR ion source in the world. Built to answer the demand for intense heavy ion beams, these high performance ion sources enable the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate beams of ions from hydrogen to uranium. The ECR ion sources allow the efficient use of rare isotopes of stable elements, either from natural or enriched sources. A

  13. Gasoline prices inch down (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices inch down (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.96 a gallon, down 4.2 cents from a week ago and marking the first dip below the 4 dollar mark since mid-February. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, remaining unchanged

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Noise and spurious pulses for Cherenkov light detection with 10-inch and 3-inch photomultipliers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, V.; Aiello, S.; Leonora, E. E-mail: Valentina.Giordano@ct.infn.it; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    A large number of large photocathode area photomultipliers are widely used in astroparticle physics detectors to measure Cherenkov light in media like water or ice. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module, which consists of one or more photodetectors inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere. The glass sphere serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. The performance of the telescope is largely dependent on the presence of noise pulses present on the anode of the photomultipliers. A study was conducted of noise pulses of Hamamatsu 10-inch and 3-inch diameter photomultipliers measuring time and charge distributions of dark pulses, pre-pulses, delayed pulses, and after-pulses. In particular, an analysis on multiple after-pulses was performed on both photomultiplier models. A digital oscilloscope was used to acquire all the pulses after the main pulse during a time window of 16?s for an off-line analysis to determine the charge and time spectra and a correlation between the arrival times and the charge of each after-pulse.

  17. The absolute path command

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  18. Inspection considerations for holes 0. 040 inch and smaller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The accurate inspection of hole size and location for holes smaller than 0.040 inch necessitates several considerations beyond those normally encountered for larger holes. The technical aspects are described herein.

  19. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  20. PET computer programs for use with the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.; Chlosta, L.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes in detail several offline programs written for the PET computer which provide an efficient data management system to assist with the operation of the 88-Inch Cyclotron. This function includes the capability to predict settings for all cyclotron and beam line parameters for all beams within the present operating domain of the facility. The establishment of a data base for operational records is also described from which various aspects of the operating history can be projected.

  1. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  2. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  3. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  4. Absolut Energy Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Absolut Energy Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Absolut Energy Capital Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1H - 6HN Sector: Renewable Energy Product: London-based...

  5. Absolute Energy USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Absolute Energy (USA) Place: St. Ansgar, Iowa Zip: 50472 Product: Absolute Energy has built a 100 million gallon per year ethanol plant on the...

  6. Photo of the Week: Inside the 60-Inch Cyclotron | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    60-Inch Cyclotron Photo of the Week: Inside the 60-Inch Cyclotron January 25, 2013 - 11:45am Addthis In this 1939 photo, Eric and Margaret Lawrence are sitting inside the tank of something called the 60-inch cyclotron -- a machine invented by their father, Ernest Lawrence. The cyclotron is a unique circular particle accelerator, which Lawrence himself referred to as a "proton merry-go-round." In reality, the cyclotron specialized in smashing atoms. Fun facts: this cyclotron contains a

  7. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-02-22

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320.

  8. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent randomness

  9. Absolute Energy Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Absolute Energy Capital Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1Y 5NQ Product: London-based private equity firm. Coordinates: 51.506325,...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAbsolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at ...

  11. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  12. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  13. First operation of the LBL ERC ion source with the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.

    1985-05-01

    The LBL ECR ion source and new injection system are now in regular operation with the 88-Inch Cyclotron supplying stable, reliable heavy ion beams for both nuclear physics and applied research. The ions accelerated to date cover the mass range from nitrogen to xenon, and the energy range of 3 to 27 MeV/nucleon. Overall transmission of up to 14% from source to external cyclotron beam has been obtained. A beam from solid material, magnesium, has been used successfully for an experimental run. The emittance has been measured, at 10 kV accelerating voltage, for a variety of ions and has been found to vary from 100..pi.. mm mrad for the low charge states to 20..pi.. mm mrad for high charge states, for about 50% of the beam. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  15. Production of high intensity {sup 48}Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Lyneis, C. M. Strohmeier, M.; Thullier, T.; Todd, D.; Xie, D.; Franzen, K. Y.

    2014-02-15

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 e?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam current was impressive. The consumption of {sup 48}Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 p?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+}, with a VENUS output beam current of 219 e?A. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  16. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Two-Sensor System for Absolute Age and Temperature History -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (718 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Numerous commercial and military applications require knowing the absolute age andor temperature ...

  19. A targeted proteomics toolkit for high-throughput absolute quantificat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    targeted proteomics toolkit for high-throughput absolute quantification of Escherichia coli proteins Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A targeted proteomics toolkit for ...

  20. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross ...

  1. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor ...

  2. Radiation characterization summary : ACRR 44-inch lead-boron bucket located in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-cl).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Quirk, Thomas J.; Lippert, Lance L.; Griffin, Patrick Joseph; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer Michael

    2013-04-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the 44-inch-long lead-boron bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-LB44-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray flux profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse and steady-state operations are presented with conversion examples.

  3. TRUPACT-I Unit 0 test data analysis. [Puncture bar impacts; free fall of package 12 inches onto unyielding surface; 30-foot free fall drop onto unyielding target; 40-inch drops onto 6-inch diagmeter puncture bar; engulfment in jet fuel fire for 35 minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesberg, L.E.; Hudson, M.L.; Osborne, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    TRUPACT-I was tested to evaluate the response of the design to the normal and hypothetical accident conditions specified in applicable regulations. The governing regulations are contained in DOE Order No. 5480.1, Chapter 3 and 10 CFR, Part 71, Refs. 1 and 2. Tests were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Normal condition tests included three 13-pound (1.25 in. diameter) puncture bar impacts onto the exterior surface and free fall of the package 12 inches onto an essentially unyielding surface. Hypothetical accident conditions included in the test sequence were two 30-foot free fall drops of the package onto an essentially unyielding target, four 40-inch drops onto a 6-inch-diameter puncture bar, and engulfment in a JP-4 jet fuel fire for 35 minutes. Instrumentation data traces will be published in Ref. 3 and are not reproduced herein. This report presents an analysis of the available data and an interpretation of the results. The results of the tests are compared to results from numerical analyses and scale model tests which are incorporated in the TRUPACT-I SARP, Ref. 4. 9 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 This front cover represents the morphology and resulting device dynamics in organic solar cell blend films of PTB7 and PC71BM, as

  5. Application of Derrick Corporation's stack sizer technology for slimes reduction in 6 inch clean coal hydrocyclone circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2009-04-15

    The article discusses the successful introduction of Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer technology for removing minus 200 mesh slimes from 6-inch coal hydrocyclone underflow prior to froth flotation or dewatering by screen bowl centrifuges. In 2006, the James River Coal Company selected the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 150 micron and 100 micron urethane screen panels for removal of the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits. After this application proved successful, Derrick Corporation introduced new 75 micron urethane screen panels for use on the Stack Sizer. Evaluation of feed slurry to flotation cells and screen bowl centrifuges showed significant amounts of minus 75 micron that could potentially be removed by efficient screening technology. Removal of the minus 75 micron fraction was sought to reduce ash and moisture content of the final clean coal product. Full-scale lab tests confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 75 micron urethane screen panels consistently reduced the minus 75 micron percentage in coal slurry from 6-inch clean coal hydrocyclone underflow that is approximately 15 to 20% solid by-weight and 30 to 60% minus 75 micron to a clean coal fraction that is approximately 13 to 16% minus 75 micron. As a result total ash is reduced from approximately 36 to 38% in the hydrocyclone underflow to 14 to 16% in the oversize product fraction form the Stack Sizers. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 5 photos.

  6. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  7. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials, flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, were analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  8. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, A.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F.; Zeil, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Pawelke, J.

    2010-03-15

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm{sup 2}. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm{sup 2} was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  9. Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Monard, H.; Larbre, J. P.; De Waele, V.; Marignier, J. L.; Mostafavi, M.

    2006-10-15

    This article gives a detailed description of a single shot electron spectrometer which was used to characterize electron beams produced by laser-plasma interaction. Contrary to conventional electron sources, electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators can produce a broad range of energies. Therefore, diagnosing these electron spectra requires specific attention and experimental development. Here, we provide an absolute calibration of the Lanex Kodak Fine screen on a laser-triggered radio frequency picosecond electron accelerator. The efficiency of scintillating screens irradiated by electron beams has never been investigated so far. This absolute calibration is then compared to charge measurements from an integrating current transformer for quasimonoenergetic electron spectra from laser-plasma interaction.

  10. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Housholder, W.R.

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  11. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties.

  12. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.310{sup ?3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  13. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  14. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  17. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  18. AECR - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on axis are 1.7 and 1.1 Tesla at the injection and extraction regions, respectively. The maximum radial field at the inner surface of the aluminum plasma chamber is 0.85 Tesla. ...

  19. Procedures - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procedures You must be logged in with your Berkeley Lab LDAP to view these documents PUB-3000 Cyclotron Procedures Mechanical Procedures Electrical Procedures Ion Source Procedures Accelerator Safety (SAD & ASE) Radiological Work Authorizations Memorandums Forms Abbreviations & Acronyms

  20. Protons - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protons The BASE Facility is capable of providing fluxes of up to 1E9 protons/cm2-sec (the limit of our standard, continuously reading ion chamber dosimetry), but works best in the 1E7 to 1E8 protons/cm2-sec range. Higher levels of flux are monitored using intermittent faraday cup readings. Standard proton energies include 13.5, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 55 MeV, and are performed in air in Cave 4A. Energies below 10 MeV are run in vacuum in Cave 4B. Shielding materials, laser alignment tools, and

  1. Safety - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety The Nuclear Sciences Division (NSD) is committed to providing a safe workplace for its employees, contractors, and guests and conducting its research and operations in a manner that protects the environment. In conducting its operations and research, NSD meets or exceeds Berkeley Lab, University of California, and U.S. Department of Energy policies and requirements. To report a life-threatening accident, call x7911 For all other accidents or near-hits, call x6999 For Emergency Status

  2. Schedule - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Schedule Cyclotron Schedule

  3. Shipping - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To ship equipment to the BASE Facility, send it to the following address: To: Mike Johnson (3rd Party No PO) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Rd, Bldg 88...

  4. Directory - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directory Control Room On-shift Operator 510-486-5088 Admin Office Kymba A'Hearn 510-495-8888 88Admin@lbl.gov Dorothy Kenlow 510-486-7535 88Admin@lbl.gov ************************************************************************************************************* Program Head Larry Phair 510-486-7958 LWPhair@lbl.gov Research Coordinator / Building Manager Mike Johnson 510-486-4389 MBJohnson@lbl.gov Operations Group Leader / Asst. Building Manager Brien Ninemire 510-486-7995 BFNinemire@lbl.gov

  5. Links - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Links Berkeley Lab Links: Nuclear Science Division Berkeley Lab Berkeley Lab Guest House Berkeley Lab Cafeteria Jobs at Berkeley Lab Today at Berkeley Lab Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) Science Links: Web Elements (Periodic Table) Science Daily News Sci Tech Daily News Space Weather Astronomy Picture of the Day The Cyclotron Kids Lawrence's Cyclotron Patent Science Fair Cyclotron Bay Area Links: Bay Area Traffic Bay Area Weather Bay Area Weather RADAR Bay Area Earthquakes

  6. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  7. Biochip Image Grid Normalization Absolute Signal Fluorescence Measurement Using

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-04-17

    This software was developed to measure absolute fluorescent intensities of gel pads on a microchip in units defined by a standard fluorescent slide. It can accomodate varying measurement conditions (e.g. exposure time, sensitivity of detector, resolution of detector, etc.) as well as fluorescent microscopes with non-uniform sensitivity across their field of view allowing the user to compare measurements done on different detectors with varying exposure times, sensitivities, and resolutions. The software is designed both tomore » operate Roper Scientific, Inc. cameras and to use image files produced by the program supplied with that equipment for its calculations. the intensity of the gel pad signal is computed so as to reduce background influence.« less

  8. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Earl, Dennis D.; Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Sanders, Alvin J.

    2002-09-24

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

  9. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  10. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that

  11. Results of tests to demonstrate a six-inch diameter coater for production of TRISO-coated particles for advanced gas reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Charles M; Marshall, Douglas W; Keeley, Joseph T; Hunn, John D

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISO-coated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a two-inch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2.

  12. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH-DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a two inch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  13. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  14. INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.

  15. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Key, William S. (Knoxville, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  16. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  17. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  18. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, William E.; Rondeau, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  19. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a twoinch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  20. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  1. Project W420 Air Sampler Probe Placement Qualification Tests for Four 6-Inch Diameter Stacks: 296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maughan, A.D.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1998-09-30

    The W420 project covers the upgrading of effluent monitoring systems at six ventilation exhaust stacks in tank-farm facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The discharge stacks of five of the six systems will be completely replaced. Four of these (296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18) will be of the same size, 6-inches in diameter and about 12-ft high. This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that these four stacks meet the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe such that the extracted sample represents the whole. There are also criteria addressing the transport of the sample to the collection device. These are not covered in this report, but will need to be addressed later. These tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on a full-scale model of the 6-inch stick. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe and the uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met.

  2. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Central Cavity Free-Field Environment with the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-FF-CC-32-cl).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Lippert, Lance L.; Vehar, David W.; Griffin, Patrick J.

    2015-08-01

    This document presents the facilit y - recommended characteri zation o f the neutron, prompt gamma - ray, and delayed gamma - ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor ( ACRR ) for the cen tral cavity free - field environment with the 32 - inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environmen t is ACRR - FF - CC - 32 - cl. The neutron, prompt gamma - ray , and delayed gamma - ray energy spectra , uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma - ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the cavity . Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples . Acknowledgements The authors wish to th ank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work . Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  3. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  4. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  5. How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For that, we need a better method for steam cost accounting. How To Calculate The T1 rue ... if the consumption of low-pressure steam, at 12 pounds per square inch gauge (psig), in ...

  6. Shop Request - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Request One account. All of Google. Sign in to continue to Forms Email Password Sign in Stay signed in For your convenience, keep this checked. On shared devices, additional...

  7. Bragg Curves - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bragg Curves

  8. Beam Request - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    identify a suitable location on the schedule for your experiment. Determining priority: Radiation effects testing covered under the NSS Interagency Agreement and DOE nuclear...

  9. Heavy Ions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including

  10. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J. Chapman, S.

    2014-08-14

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  11. Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone

    2012-09-15

    We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

  12. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, Wania Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Tavares, Andre C.

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  13. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotze, Stephan Versluis, Jan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K.; Bakker, Huib J.

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  14. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  15. Absolute calibration of a charge-coupled device camera with twin beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meda, A.; Ruo-Berchera, I. Degiovanni, I. P.; Brida, G.; Rastello, M. L.; Genovese, M.

    2014-09-08

    We report on the absolute calibration of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera by exploiting quantum correlation. This method exploits a certain number of spatial pairwise quantum correlated modes produced by spontaneous parametric-down-conversion. We develop a measurement model accounting for all the uncertainty contributions, and we reach the relative uncertainty of 0.3% in low photon flux regime. This represents a significant step forward for the characterization of (scientific) CCDs used in mesoscopic light regime.

  16. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  17. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  18. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  19. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  20. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry- Perot optical system M. M. Baltzer, D. Craig, D. J. Den Hartog, T. Nishizawa, and M. D. Nornberg Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments 87, 11E509 (2016); doi: 10.1063/1.4955491 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4955491 View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/87/11?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing Articles you may be interested in Development of a tunable

  1. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-15

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (130 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  2. The concepts of leak before break and absolute reliability of NPP equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getman, A.F.; Komarov, O.V.; Sokov, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes the absolute reliability (AR) concept for ensuring safe operation of nuclear plant equipment and piping. The AR of a pipeline or component is defined as the level of reliability when the probability of an instantaneous double-ended break is near zero. AR analysis has been applied to Russian RBMK and VVER type reactors. It is proposed that analyses required for application of the leak before break concept should be included in AR implementation. The basic principles, methods, and approaches that provide the basis for implementing the AR concept are described.

  3. Absolute timing measurements of the Ni-like Pd and Sn soft-x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.

    2005-10-15

    The absolute time of emission of the x-ray laser output with respect to the arrival of a 100-ps pump pulse has been measured with the aid of a calibrated timing fiducial. The results show the x-ray laser to appear up to 60 ps (80 ps) before the peak of the pump pulse in the case of the Sn (Pd) x-ray laser, which is in good agreement with simulations obtained from the LASNEX and CRETIN codes. The pulse duration was found to be {approx}45 ps for both the Sn and the Pd x-ray lasers.

  4. Using star tracks to determine the absolute pointing of the Fluorescence Detector telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Donato, Cinzia; Sanchez, Federico; Santander, Marcos; Natl.Tech.U., San Rafael; Camin, Daniel; Garcia, Beatriz; Grassi, Valerio; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2005-05-01

    To accurately reconstruct a shower axis from the Fluorescence Detector data it is essential to establish with high precision the absolute pointing of the telescopes. To d that they calculate the absolute pointing of a telescope using sky background data acquired during regular data taking periods. The method is based on the knowledge of bright star's coordinates that provide a reliable and stable coordinate system. it can be used to check the absolute telescope's pointing and its long-term stability during the whole life of the project, estimated in 20 years. They have analyzed background data taken from January to October 2004 to determine the absolute pointing of the 12 telescopes installed both in Los Leones and Coihueco. The method is based on the determination of the mean-time of the variance signal left by a star traversing a PMT's photocathode which is compared with the mean-time obtained by simulating the track of that star on the same pixel.

  5. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈ 6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n,γ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the crossmore » section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at the En,R = 2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4% of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30% lower than the evaluated data at En ≈ 1 keV and are approximately 2σ away from the previous measurement at En ≈ 20 keV.« less

  6. Constraining absolute neutrino masses via detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at JUNO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jia-Shu; Cao, Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Shun

    2015-05-26

    A high-statistics measurement of the neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova is extremely important for understanding the explosion mechanism, and studying the intrinsic properties of neutrinos themselves. In this paper, we explore the possibility to constrain the absolute scale of neutrino masses m{sub ν} via the detection of galactic supernova neutrinos at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with a 20 kiloton liquid-scintillator detector. In assumption of a nearly-degenerate neutrino mass spectrum and a normal mass ordering, the upper bound on the absolute neutrino mass is found to be m{sub ν}<(0.83±0.24) eV at the 95% confidence level for a typical galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc, where the mean value and standard deviation are shown to account for statistical fluctuations. For comparison, we find that the bound in the Super-Kamiokande experiment is m{sub ν}<(0.94±0.28) eV at the same confidence level. However, the upper bound will be relaxed when the model parameters characterizing the time structure of supernova neutrino fluxes are not exactly known, and when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted.

  7. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D0 to K- pi+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Maryland U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-04-25

    The authors measure the absolute branching fraction for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} using partial reconstruction of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}X{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} are used. Based on a data sample of 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, they obtain {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.007 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.070)%, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  8. Absolute differential cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons from pyrimidine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maljkovic, J. B.; Milosavljevic, A. R.; Sevic, D.; Marinkovic, B. P.; Blanco, F.

    2009-05-15

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for elastic scattering of electrons from pyrimidine (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}) are presented for incident energies from 50 to 300 eV. The measurements were performed using a cross beam technique, for scattering angles from 20 deg. to 110 deg. The relative DCSs were measured as a function of both the angle and incident energy and the absolute DCSs were determined using the relative flow method. The calculations of electron interaction cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screen corrected additivity rule procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. Calculated results agree very well with the experiment.

  9. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; et al

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describesmore » ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.« less

  11. Analog morphocorrelation: new technique with implications for high-resolution absolute age dating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Berggren, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    The conventional approach to increased biostratigraphic resolution involves identifying additional datum planes defined by discrete events. Multivariate techniques used to refine a conventional taxonomic zonal scheme offer no improvement in precision; however, since the characters on which the zonal boundaries are based often show continuous stratigraphic variation, they offer an opportunity for continuous stratigraphic correlation based on the stage of evolution. Morphometric analysis was conducted on two lineages: (1) the Globorotalia cibaoensis-G. crassaformis linage, using a reference section from the early Pliocene of the Rio Grande rise, spanning approximately 2.6 m.y.; and (2) the G. conoidea-G.inflata lineage, using a reference section from the late Miocene to the Holocene from the southwest Pacific, spanning approximately 8 m.y. Stepwise multiple regression of morphologic variates generated an equation with an age-prediction precision (95% confidence) of +/- 122 k.y. in the G. crassaformis lineage and +/- 463 k.y. in the G conoidea lineage (accuracy depends on calibration of absolute dates in the reference section and our knowledge of sedimentation rates over the measured interval). Using single-equation analog morphocorrelation, any sample overlapped by the reference lineage can be correlated, which reduce the need for repeated sampling in a search for discrete events. The authors demonstrate that analysis of continuous morphologic variation can increase stratigraphic precision with a few carefully chosen variables, and that analog morpho-correlation can yield absolute dates, rather than relative dates with quantified error. Any disadvantages inherent in analog morphocorrelation are also found in conventional biostratigraphic techniques, but are usually unquantified and unrecognized.

  12. Femtosecond frequency comb measurement of absolute frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants in cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalnaker, Jason E.; Mbele, Vela; Gerginov, Vladislav; Fortier, Tara M.; Diddams, Scott A.; Hollberg, Leo; Tanner, Carol E.

    2010-04-15

    We report measurements of absolute transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants for the 8S{sub 1/2}, 9S{sub 1/2}, 7D{sub 3/2}, and 7D{sub 5/2} states in {sup 133}Cs vapor. The stepwise excitation through either the 6P{sub 1/2} or 6P{sub 3/2} intermediate state is performed directly with broadband laser light from a stabilized femtosecond laser optical-frequency comb. The laser beam is split, counterpropagated, and focused into a room-temperature Cs vapor cell. The repetition rate of the frequency comb is scanned and we detect the fluorescence on the 7P{sub 1/2,3/2{yields}}6S{sub 1/2} branches of the decay of the excited states. The excitations to the different states are isolated by the introduction of narrow-bandwidth interference filters in the laser beam paths. Using a nonlinear least-squares method we find measurements of transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants that are in agreement with other recent measurements for the 8S state and provide improvement by 2 orders of magnitude over previously published results for the 9S and 7D states.

  13. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  14. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landoas, Olivier; Rosse, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim; Disdier, Laurent

    2011-07-15

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

  15. ARCADE 2 MEASUREMENT OF THE ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS AT 3-90 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    The ARCADE 2 instrument has measured the absolute temperature of the sky at frequencies 3, 8, 10, 30, and 90 GHz, using an open-aperture cryogenic instrument observing at balloon altitudes with no emissive windows between the beam-forming optics and the sky. An external blackbody calibrator provides an in situ reference. Systematic errors were greatly reduced by using differential radiometers and cooling all critical components to physical temperatures approximating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. A linear model is used to compare the output of each radiometer to a set of thermometers on the instrument. Small corrections are made for the residual emission from the flight train, balloon, atmosphere, and foreground Galactic emission. The ARCADE 2 data alone show an excess radio rise of 54 {+-} 6 mK at 3.3 GHz in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.731 {+-} 0.004 K. Combining the ARCADE 2 data with data from the literature shows an excess power-law spectrum of T = 24.1 {+-} 2.1 (K) ({nu}/{nu}{sub 0}){sup -2.599{+-}0.036} from 22 MHz to 10 GHz ({nu}{sub 0} = 310 MHz) in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 {+-} 0.001 K.

  16. Comparison of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity measurement techniques using wavelength-tunable lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahtee, Ville; Brown, Steven W.; Larason, Thomas C.; Lykke, Keith R.; Ikonen, Erkki; Noorma, Mart

    2007-07-10

    Independent methods for measuring the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of detectors have been compared between the calibration facilities at two national metrology institutes, the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Finland, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The emphasis is on the comparison of two different techniques for generating a uniform irradiance at a reference plane using wavelength-tunable lasers. At TKK's Laser Scanning Facility (LSF) the irradiance is generated by raster scanning a single collimated laser beam, while at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS), lasers are introduced into integrating spheres to generate a uniform irradiance at a reference plane. The laser-based irradiance responsivity results are compared to a traditional lamp-monochromator-based irradiance responsivity calibration obtained at the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF). A narrowband filter radiometer with a24 nm bandwidth and an effective band-center wavelength of 801 nm was used as the artifact. The results of the comparison between the different facilities, reported for the first time in the near-infrared wavelength range, demonstrate agreement at the uncertainty level of less than 0.1%. This result has significant implications in radiation thermometry and in photometry as well as in radiometry.

  17. Setting Whole-Building Absolute Energy Use Targets for the K-12 School, Retail, and Healthcare Sectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-08-01

    This paper helps owners' efficiency representatives to inform executive management, contract development, and project management staff as to how specifying and applying whole-building absolute energy use targets for new construction or renovation projects can improve the operational energy performance of commercial buildings.

  18. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massari, D.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-12-10

    We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = (1.58 0.18, 4.57 0.16) mas yr{sup 1}. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = 2.54 0.18, 1.19 0.16) mas yr{sup 1}, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = ( 1.21 0.27, 4.39 0.26) mas yr{sup 1}. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v {sub rot} = 0.82 1.02 km s{sup 1} at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.

  19. AN ACCURATE NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES AND K-CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO THE SLOAN FILTER SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beare, Richard; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin

    2014-12-20

    We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, that is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template spectral energy distributions from Brown et al. A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog, we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute griz magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag and those in the u band by ∼0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

  20. ELLIPSOIDAL VARIABLE V1197 ORIONIS: ABSOLUTE LIGHT-VELOCITY ANALYSIS FOR KNOWN DISTANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R. E.; Chochol, D.; KomzIk, R.; Van Hamme, W.; Pribulla, T.; Volkov, I.

    2009-09-01

    V1197 Orionis light curves from a long-term observing program for red giant binaries show ellipsoidal variation of small amplitude in the V and R{sub C} bands, although not clearly in U and B. Eclipses are not detected. All four bands show large irregular intrinsic variations, including fleeting quasi-periodicities identified by power spectra, that degrade analysis and may be caused by dynamical tides generated by orbital eccentricity. To deal with the absence of eclipses and consequent lack of astrophysical and geometrical information, direct use is made of the Hipparcos parallax distance while the V and R{sub C} light curves and (older) radial velocity curves are analyzed simultaneously in terms of absolute flux. The red giant's temperature is estimated from new spectra. This type of analysis, called Inverse Distance Estimation for brevity, is new and can also be applied to other ellipsoidal variables. Advantages gained by utilization of definite distance and temperature are discussed in regard to how radius, fractional lobe filling, and mass ratio information are expressed in the observations. The advantages were tested in solutions of noisy synthetic data. Also discussed and tested by simulations are ideas on the optimal number of light curves to be solved simultaneously under various conditions. The dim companion has not been observed or discussed in the literature but most solutions find its mass to be well below that of the red giant. Solutions show red giant masses that are too low for evolution to the red giant stage within the age of the Galaxy, although that result is probably an artifact of the intrinsic brightness fluctuations.

  1. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  2. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-PLG-CC-32-cl).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Vehar, David W.; Lippert, Lance L.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2015-06-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the polyethylene-lead-graphite (PLG) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-PLG-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  3. Detector #2 Data Sheet - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Spec Lab‎ > ‎ Detector #2 Data Sheet

  4. 4A Drawings - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protons‎ > ‎ 4A Drawings 4A Translator Table Setup 4A Translator Horizontal 4A Translator Vertical

  5. 4B Drawings - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4B Drawings 4B Chamber 4B Mounting Bracket 4B Feedthrough Hole 4B Cooling Plate (-30 C)

  6. Gasoline prices inch down (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up nine tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  7. Gasoline prices inch down (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  8. Gasoline prices inch down slightly (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.84 a gallon, down 5.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.32 a gallon, down 3.9 cents.

  9. Gasoline prices inch down slightly (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. Gasoline prices inch up (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up nine tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.88 a gallon, down 1.1 cents from a week ago. Followed by prices in the Midwest at 3.87 a gallon, up 3 cents. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down a tenth of a penny

  11. Cocktails and Ions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cocktails and Ions BASE Ion List Download as a .pdf

  12. BASE Operator's Manual - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) B61-12 Life Extension Program Undergoes First Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Test April 14, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) announced today that its Sandia National Laboratories successfully completed the first full-scale wind tunnel test of the B61-12 as part of the NNSA's ongoing effort to refurbish the B61 nuclear bomb. The purpose of this test was to characterize counter torque, the interaction between

  13. BASE - Rad Effects - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide beams of protons and heavy ions for radiation effects testing. When running, the facility is manned 24-hours a day with...

  14. LBNL Affiliate Forms - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Users‎ > ‎ LBNL Affiliate Forms Affiliate Forms (click here to open pdf)

  15. Gamma Spec Lab - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Game On: DOE Initiative Supports Leadership in Sports Venues Game On: DOE Initiative Supports Leadership in Sports Venues August 29, 2016 - 5:13pm Addthis Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz takes a slap shot at Boston College's Conte Forum to promote green sports arenas. | Photo by Simon Edelman, Energy Department. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz takes a slap shot at Boston College's Conte Forum to promote green sports arenas. | Photo by Simon Edelman, Energy Department. Jason Hartke

  16. Determination of the absolute configuration of (-)-(2R)-succinic-2-d acid by neutron diffraction study: Unambiguous proof of the absolute stereochemistry of the NAD/sup +//NADH interconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.S.H.; Stevens, R.C.; Fujita, S.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.; Bau, R.

    1988-05-01

    The absolute configuration of the CHD group (D = deuterium) in (-)-(2R)-succinic-2-d acid, as prepared from (-)-(2S,3R)-malic-3-d acid, has been shown unambiguously to be R by the technique of single-crystal neutron diffraction. The optically active cation (+)-phenylethylammonium was used as the chiral reference. The structure of (C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 3/CHNH/sub 3/)/sup +/(HOOCCH/sub 2/CHDCOOO)/sup -/ has been studied with x-ray diffraction at room temperature and neutron diffraction at room temperature and neutron diffraction at 100 K. Crystal data from the neutron diffraction analysis of the phenylethylammonium slat of the title compound at 100 K: space group P2/sub 1/; a = 8.407 /angstrom/, b = 8.300 /angstrom/, c = 8.614 /angstrom/, ..beta.. = 91.20/degrees/; unit cell volume = 600.9 /angstrom//sup 3/, Z = 2. The result confirms the stereochemistry of the malate/succinate transformation, as well as the NAD/sup +//NADH interconversion, and demonstrates the usefulness of the single-crystal neutron diffraction method for determining the absolute configuration of molecules having a chiral monodeuteriomethylene group.

  17. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  18. A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, E. V.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pavlovski, K.; Hensberge, H.; Chew, Y. Gmez Maqueo; Claret, A.

    2014-09-01

    We determine the absolute dimensions of the eclipsing binary V578 Mon, a detached system of two early B-type stars (B0V + B1V, P = 2.40848 days) in the star-forming region NGC 2244 of the Rosette Nebula. From the light curve analysis of 40 yr of photometry and the analysis of HERMES spectra, we find radii of 5.41 0.04 R{sub ?} and 4.29 0.05 R{sub ?}, and temperatures of 30,000 500 K and 25,750 435 K, respectively. We find that our disentangled component spectra for V578 Mon agree well with previous spectral disentangling from the literature. We also reconfirm the previous spectroscopic orbit of V578 Mon finding that masses of 14.54 0.08 M{sub ?} and 10.29 0.06 M{sub ?} are fully compatible with the new analysis. We compare the absolute dimensions to the rotating models of the Geneva and Utrecht groups and the models of the Granada group. We find that all three sets of models marginally reproduce the absolute dimensions of both stars with a common age within the uncertainty for gravity-effective temperature isochrones. However, there are some apparent age discrepancies for the corresponding mass-radius isochrones. Models with larger convective overshoot, >0.35, worked best. Combined with our previously determined apsidal motion of 0.07089{sub ?0.00013}{sup +0.00021} deg cycle{sup 1}, we compute the internal structure constants (tidal Love number) for the Newtonian and general relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion as log k {sub 2} = 1.975 0.017 and log k {sub 2} = 3.412 0.018, respectively. We find the relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion to be small, <4%. We find that the prediction of log k {sub 2,theo} = 2.005 0.025 of the Granada models fully agrees with our observed log k {sub 2}.

  19. Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gold, Raymond; Roberts, James H.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

  20. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  1. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  2. Damping test results for straight sections of 3-inch and 8-inch unpressurized pipes. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, A.G.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on unpressurized 3-in. and 8-in. Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 33-ft straight sections of piping were supported at the ends. Additionally, intermediate supports comprising spring, rod, and constant-force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers, were used. Excitation was provided by low-force-level hammer impacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 50-ton overhead crane for snapback testing. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This report presents test results showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping.

  3. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  4. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION OF THE IRAC INSTRUMENT ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FLUX STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Deustua, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ardila, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2011-05-15

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.

  5. Absolute Time-Resolved Emission of Non-LTE L-Shell Spectra from Ti-Doped Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back,C.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J.; Seely, J.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R.; Chung, H.; Scott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2 mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3 keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, {gamma}/{delta}{gamma} of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.

  6. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  7. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

  8. Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; McWatters, B. R.; Smelser, R. M.; Snow, C. S.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J. [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The 350-keV Cockroft-Walton accelerator at Sandia National laboratory's Ion Beam facility is being used to calibrate absolutely a total DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the {sup 63}Cu(n,2n){sup 62}Cu({beta}+) reaction. These investigations have led to first-order uncertainties approaching 5% or better. The experiments employ the associated-particle technique. Deuterons at 175 keV impinge a 2.6 {mu}m thick erbium tritide target producing 14.1 MeV neutrons from the T(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The alpha particles emitted are measured at two angles relative to the beam direction and used to infer the neutron flux on a copper sample. The induced {sup 62}Cu activity is then measured and related to the neutron flux. This method is known as the F-factor technique. Description of the associated-particle method, copper sample geometries employed, and the present estimates of the uncertainties to the F-factor obtained are given.

  9. Absolute Calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS Film Response to X Rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F.J.; Knauer, J.P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.L.

    2006-09-28

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory e-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations.

  10. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L

    2006-10-15

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  11. Structure and absolute configuration of 9-desoxy-9-chloroquinine, C/sub 20/H/sub 23/N/sub 2/OCl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazhar-Ul-Haque; Ahmed, J.; Horne, W.; Miana, G.A.; Al-Hazimi, H.M.G.; Amin, H.B.

    1986-04-01

    The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group p2/sub 1/2/sub 1/2/sub 1/: a = 8.674(1), b = 8.944(1), c = 23.255(4) A, Z = 4. The structure was solved by direct methods, and refined by full-matrix least squares to R = 0.047 for 1472 observed reflections. Determination of the absolute configuration (S at C(9))enabled a discrepancy in the literature concerning the stereochemical outcome of the reaction between SOCl/sub 2/ and quinine to be resolved.

  12. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  13. Sci—Fri PM: Dosimetry — 03: Delta4 diode absolute dose response for large and small target volume IMRT QA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simard, D; Thakur, V

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this project was to quantify the over-response/under-response of the Delta4 diodes for Helical Tomotherapy plans on extreme target volume sizes. A custom Delta4 phantom quarter with a hole to insert an ionisation chamber (IC) close to the center of the phantom have been used to acquire simultaneous IC and diodes absolute dose measurements. Eight plans for different target volumes were created from 20cm to 1cm diameter. Diodes dose measurements in the target were compared with IC measurement, to quantify absolute dose accuracy. IC measurements show a good agreement with planned dose (±2%). Diode measurements demonstrate a good agreement with IC for regular target size of 5 and 10cm (0 to 1%). For larger targets, an over-response is observed for FW 25mm and 10mm (2 to 3%). for small target of 1cm diameter, a major under-response is observed for FW 25mm and 10mm (−8 and −36%). The over-response could to be due to the extra amount of scattered radiation and the opposite for under-response. Although this scatter hypothesis still has to be proven, early testing demonstrates an over-response of 40%/20% of the central diodes compare to IC when an open helical rotational beam is delivered 75mm/25mm away from the center of the phantom. These results are in agreement with the real patient Delta4 DQA results at our center.

  14. Conception and realization of a parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber for the absolute dosimetry of an ultrasoft X-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groetz, J.-E. Mavon, C.; Fromm, M.; Ounoughi, N.; Belafrites, A.

    2014-08-15

    We report the design of a millimeter-sized parallel plate free-air ionization chamber (IC) aimed at determining the absolute air kerma rate of an ultra-soft X-ray beam (E = 1.5 keV). The size of the IC was determined so that the measurement volume satisfies the condition of charged-particle equilibrium. The correction factors necessary to properly measure the absolute kerma using the IC have been established. Particular attention was given to the determination of the effective mean energy for the 1.5 keV photons using the PENELOPE code. Other correction factors were determined by means of computer simulation (COMSOL™and FLUKA). Measurements of air kerma rates under specific operating parameters of the lab-bench X-ray source have been performed at various distances from that source and compared to Monte Carlo calculations. We show that the developed ionization chamber makes it possible to determine accurate photon fluence rates in routine work and will constitute substantial time-savings for future radiobiological experiments based on the use of ultra-soft X-rays.

  15. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,morecomparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.less

  16. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  17. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, March...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Project Management Center PMP - project management plan PNNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Psia - pounds per square inch absolute R&D - research and development RD&D - ...

  18. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  19. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-15

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  20. Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Steel, A. B., E-mail: steel1@llnl.gov ; Dunn, J. ; Emig, J. ; Beiersdorfer, P. ; Brown, G. V. ; Shepherd, R. ; Marley, E. V. 1 ; Hoarty, D. J. 2 + Show Author ...

  1. Axis-1 diode simulations I: standard 2-inch cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    The standard configuration of the DARHT Axis-I diode features a 5.08-cm diameter velvet emitter mounted in the flat surface of the cathode shroud. The surface of the velvet is slightly recessed {approx}2.5 mm. This configuration produces a 1.75 kA beam when a 3.8-MV pulse is applied to the anode-cathode (AK) gap. This note addresses some of the physics of this diode through the use of finite-element simulations.

  2. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of 48 inch cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, D.G.; Hayes, T.J.; Livesey, E.; Lomas, J.; Price, M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the current state of the analytical models being developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to improve the understanding of the response of Uranium Hexafluoride containers engulfed in a fire. Details are given of the modeling methods used and physical processes simulated, together with some predictions from the models. Explanations for the differences between the predictions are presented as well as an outline for future development of the models.

  3. Test Cryostat Nozzle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-05-22

    This report contains the results of calculations for a resized nozzle on the D-Zero test cryostat. The nozzle neck in the inner vessel with be 6-inch schedule 10S pipe and 8-inch 10S will be used for the outer vessel. On top of the nozzle will be placed the D-Zero Endcap Calorimeter signal board feedthru dewar box. This box weighs approximately 250 lbs but the weight was conservatively taken to be 500 lbs. The allowable pressure from above does not exceed 15 psig per ASME, but it does exceed 7.5 psig required by CGA-341 therefore reinforcement is not required. Note that the reinforcement provided by the nozzle neck in combination with the excess shell thickness is probably sufficient to satisfy the ASME requirements.

  4. Determination of Delta m(d) and absolute calibration of flavor taggers for the Delta m(s) analysis, in fully reconstructed decays at the CDF experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Jonatan Piedra

    2005-07-01

    The new trigger processor, the Silicon Vertex Tracking (SVT), has dramatically improved the B physics capabilities of the upgraded CDF II Detector; for the first time in a hadron collider, the SVT has enabled the access to non-lepton-triggered B meson decays. Within the new available range of decay modes, the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} signature is of paramount importance in the measurement of the {Delta}m{sub s} mixing frequency. The analysis reported here is a step towards the measurement of this frequency; two where our goals: carrying out the absolute calibration of the opposite side flavor taggers, used in the {Delta}m{sub s} measurement; and measuring the B{sub d}{sup 0} mixing frequency in a B {yields} D{pi} sample, establishing the feasibility of the mixing measurement in this sample whose decay-length is strongly biased by the selective SVT trigger. We analyze a total integrated luminosity of 355 pb{sup -1} collected with the CDF II Detector. By triggering on muons, using the conventional di-muon trigger; or displaced tracks, using the SVT trigger, we gather a sample rich in bottom and charm mesons.

  5. Absolute and relative emission spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu Leys, Christophe; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe

    2015-08-03

    The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With absolute calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved emission spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states emission is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) emission is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.

  6. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  7. UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

    2005-05-04

    What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response

  8. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  9. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  10. Economic advantages of Division 2 design for vessels per ASME Code Section VIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lengsfeld, M.; Holman, R.; Lengsfeld, P.F.

    1995-12-01

    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 8, Division 2 has been available since 1968 for the design of pressure equipment. Industry has generally accepted this code for the design of high pressure vessels, high pressure being relative. Some consider high pressure above 3,000 PSIG, others look at high pressure above 1,000 or 1,500 PSIG. There are organizations who tie the use of Division 2 to thickness, meaning vessels in a thickness range above 3 to 4 inches as worthwhile to design to Division 2. In this paper the authors discuss the use of Division 2 strictly as an economic issue. Independent of thickness, if say a 3/4 in. thick vessel is lower in cost designed to Division 2 vs Division 1 why would one not build this vessel using Division 2 as the design basis?

  11. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. Task I. Silicon material. Investigation of the hydrochlorination of SiCl/sub 4/. Second quarterly report, October 1, 1981-January 8, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mui, J.Y.P.

    1982-01-09

    A new two inch-diameter stainless steel reactor was designed and built to operate at pressures up to 500 psig for the experimental studies on the hydrochlorination of SiCl/sub 4/ and metallurgical grade (m.g.) silicon metal to SiHCl/sub 3/, 3 SiCl/sub 4/ + 2 H/sub 2/ + Si = 4 SiHCl/sub 3/. After a thorough safety review, the hydrochlorination reactor system was successfully started-up. Preliminary experiments on the hydrochlorination of SiCl/sub 4/ and m.g. silicon metal were carried out. One experiment was conducted under the same reaction conditions as that carried out previously with the one inch-diameter laboratory reactor. Results of the reaction kinetic measurements with the 2'' reactor show good agreement with the previously obtained results. The effect of pressure on the hydrochlorination reaction was studied. The experiments were carried out at low reactor pressures of 73 psig and 150 psig, respectively. A large pressure effect on the hydrochlorination reaction was observed. In general, higher pressure produces a higher conversion of SiHCl/sub 3/ but at a slower reaction rate. The effect of temperature on the hydrochlorination reaction was studied at 73 psig. As previously observed, higher reaction temperature gives both a higher conversion of SiHCl/sub 3/ and a higher reaction rate. Samples of the material of construction for the hydrochlorination reactor were prepared for the corrosion study. Materials include Type 304 stainless steel, carbon steel, Incoloy 800H, Alloy 400 (Monel), Hastelloy B-2 (a Ni/Mo alloy), nickel and copper. These test samples were mounted in a stainless steel rack which was fitted inside the 2'' reactor tube. The corrosion tests are in progress.

  12. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B.; Casey, D. T.; Landen, O. L.; Moran, M. J.; Zacharias, R. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF

  13. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Zylstra, A. B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rinderknecht, H. G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Waugh, C. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sinenian, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Hohenberger, M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mackinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Talison, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zacharias, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (?R) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are <10% in yield and 120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF

  14. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Cahill, John F.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  15. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... foot at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds standard per square inch absolute and a temperature base of 60 degrees Fahrenheit; Cubic meter is a unit of measure which equals 35.314 ...

  16. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  18. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  19. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  20. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in themore » filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF« less

  1. Absolute Frequency Measurement of the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} 4s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} Clock Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chwalla, M.; Kim, K.; Monz, T.; Riebe, M.; Schindler, P.; Villar, A. S.; Haensel, W.; Benhelm, J.; Kirchmair, G.; Roos, C. F.; Blatt, R.; Abgrall, M.; Santarelli, G.; Rovera, G. D.; Laurent, Ph.

    2009-01-16

    We report on the first absolute transition frequency measurement at the 10{sup -15} level with a single, laser-cooled {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion in a linear Paul trap. For this measurement, a frequency comb is referenced to the transportable Cs atomic fountain clock of LNE-SYRTE and is used to measure the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} 4s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} electric-quadrupole transition frequency. After the correction of systematic shifts, the clock transition frequency {nu}{sub Ca{sup +}}=411 042 129 776 393.2(1.0) Hz is obtained, which corresponds to a fractional uncertainty within a factor of 3 of the Cs standard. In addition, we determine the Landeg factor of the 3d{sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level to be g{sub 5/2}=1.200 334 0(3)

  2. N Reactor core heatup sensitivity study for the 32-inch unit cell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, F.; Zimmerman, B.; Heard, F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of N Reactor core heatup studies have been performed using the TRUMP-BD computer code. These studies were performed to address questions concerning the dependency of results on potential variations in the material properties and/or modeling assumptions. This report described and documents a series of 31 TRUMP-BD runs that were performed to determine the sensitivity of calculated inner-fuel temperatures to a variety of TRUMP input parameters and also to a change in the node density in a high-temperature-gradient region. The results of this study are based on the 32-in. model. 18 refs., 17 figs., 2 tab.

  3. Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steel, A. B. Dunn, J.; Emig, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Shepherd, R.; Marley, E. V.; Hoarty, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed and implemented a broadband X-ray spectrometer with a variable energy range for use at the Atomic Weapons Establishment's Orion Laser. The spectrometer covers an energy bandwidth of ∼1–2 keV using two independently mounted, movable Bragg diffraction crystals. Using combinations of cesium hydrogen pthlate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and pentaerythritol crystals, spectra covering the 1.4–2.5, 1.85–3.15, or 3.55–5.1 keV energy bands have been measured. Image plate is used for detection owing to its high dynamic range. Background signals caused by high energy X-rays and particles commonly produced in high energy laser experiments are reduced by a series of tantalum baffles and filters installed between the source and crystal and also between the crystals and detector.

  4. Handbook for electron beam welding of 8-inch thick 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Charles M.

    1980-08-01

    Purpose of this handbook is to provide a detailed procedure for electron beam welding 8 in. thick SA387 Grade 22 Class 2. Adherence to the procedure will allow others to produce electron beam welds in 8 in. thick 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo. A justification or description of the effects of alterations of the welding procedure is not included in this report. These effects, along with a metallographic characterization and the mechanical properties produced by the welding procedure, etc., are described in report DOE/10244-10, Electron Beam Welding of 8-in. thick 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo, Final Report under Contract DE-AC05-77OR10244.

  5. Hydropyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

  6. EA-0962: Construction and Routine Operation of a 12-kilovolt Overhead Powerline and Formal Authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch Fresh Water Pipeline Right-of-Way at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to install an overhead powerline extension from the U.S. Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the...

  7. Heavy crude upgrading using remote natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosboll, M.P.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a method of forming an upgraded crude. It comprises: forming hydrogen from methane gas for hydroconverting heavy crude to form a better crude and reduce its viscosity; hydrogenating under hydroconverting conditions of 650 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F)-1000{degrees}F; and 500-3000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) only a first portion of a crude oil stream less than the total crude oil stream to produce a light oil that has a lowered viscosity; admixing the light oil with the remainder of the crude oil stream not hydrogenated to produce a flowable crude; and transporting the flowable crude to a refinery including a substep of flowing the crude through a pipeline.

  8. Improvement of the mechanical reliability of monolithic refractory linings for coal gasification process vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen heat-up tests were run on nine standard and experimental dual component monolithic refractory concrete linings. These tests were run with a five foot diameter by 14-ft high Pressure Vessel/Test Furnace designed to accommodate a 12-inch thick by 5-ft high refractory lining, heat the hot face to 2000/sup 0/F and expose the lining to air or steam pressures up to 150 psig. Results obtained from standard type linings in the test facility indicated that lining degradation duplicated that observed in field installations. The lining performance was significantly improved due to information gained from a systematic study of the cracking that occurred in the linings; the analysis of the lining strains, shell stresses and acoustic emission results; and the stress analyses performed on the standard and experimental lining designs with the finite element analysis computer programs, REFSAM and RESGAP.

  9. Absolute Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Gain Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Faivre, G.; Hallou, A.; Rousseau, J.P.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Fajardo, M.; Kazamias, S.; Dubau, J.; Aubert, D.; Lacheze-Murel, G. de

    2005-10-21

    We present the first direct measurement of the time evolution of the gain of a soft x-ray laser amplifier. The measurement is based on the injection of a seed pulse, obtained by high-order harmonic generation, into an x-ray laser medium. Strong amplification occurs when the seed pulse is synchronized with the gain period. By precisely varying the delay between the x-ray laser plasma creation and the seed pulse injection, the actual temporal evolution of the soft x-ray amplifier gain is obtained with a subpicosecond resolution.

  10. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). ... Research Org: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. Sponsoring Org: ...

  11. Photoinduced absolute negative current in a symmetric molecular electronic bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prociuk, Alexander; Dunietz, Barry D

    2010-09-28

    The study of current induced by photoradiating a molecular-based device under bias is of fundamental importance to the improvement of photoconductors and photovoltaics. In this technology, electron pumps generate an uphill current that opposes a potential drop and thereby recharges a fuel cell. While the modeled molecular electron pump is completely symmetric, the sign of the photocurrent is solely determined by the existing bias and the nature of photoinduced electronic excitations. The photoradiation induces nonequilibrium population of the electrode-coupled system. The dependence of the photocurrent on electrode coupling, photoradiation field strength, and applied bias are studied at a basic model level.

  12. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minty, M.; Connolly, R; Liu, C.; Summers, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  13. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star V501 Herculis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C. E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

    2014-10-01

    V501 Her is a well detached G3 eclipsing binary star with a period of 8.597687 days for which we have determined very accurate light and radial-velocity curves using robotic telescopes. Results of these data indicate that the component stars have masses of 1.269 ± 0.004 and 1.211 ± 0.003 solar masses, radii of 2.001 ± 0.003 and 1.511 ± 0.003 solar radii, and temperatures of 5683 ± 100 K and 5720 ± 100 K, respectively. Comparison with the Yonsei-Yale series of evolutionary models results in good agreement at an age of about 5.1 Gyr for a somewhat metal-rich composition. Those models indicate that the more massive, larger, slightly cooler star is just beyond core hydrogen exhaustion while the less massive, smaller, slightly hotter star has not quite reached core hydrogen exhaustion. The orbit is not yet circularized, and the components are rotating at or near their pseudosynchronous velocities. The distance to the system is 420 ± 30 pc.

  14. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Brown, Peter J. ; Roming, Peter W. A. ; Ciardullo, Robin ; Gronwall, Caryl ; Hoversten, Erik A. ; Pritchard, Tyler 1 ; Milne, Peter 2 ; Bufano, Filomena ; Mazzali, ...

  15. Savannah River reactor process water heat exchanger tube structural integrity margin Task Number 92-005-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.E.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    Twelve process water heat exchangers are designed to remove heat generated in the reactor tank. Each heat exchanger has approximately 9000, 1/2 inch diameter {times} 0.049 inches thick tubes. Minimum structural tubing requirements and the leak rate through postulated tubing defects are developed in this report A comparison of the structural requirements and the defect size calculated to produce leak rates of 0.5 lbs./day demonstrate adequate structural margins against gross tube rupture. Commercial nuclear experience with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator plugging criteria are used for guidance in performing this analysis. It is important to note that the SRS reactors are low energy systems with normal operating pressures of 203 psig at 130{degree}F while the PWR is a high energy system with operating pressures near 2200 psig at 600{degree}F. Clearly the PVM steam generator has loadings which are more severe than the SRS heat exchangers. Consistent with the Regulatory Guide 1.121 criteria both wastage (wall thinning) and cracking are addressed. Structural limits on wall thinning and crack size are developed to preclude gross rupture. ASME Section XI criteria, with the factors of safety recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.121 are used to develop the allowable crack size criteria. Normal operating conditions (pressure, dead weight, and hydraulic drag) are considered with seismic and water hammer accident conditions. Both the wall thinning and crack size criteria are developed for the end-of-evaluation period. Allowances for corrosion, wear, or crack growth have not been included in this analysis Structurally, the tubing is over designed and can tolerate large defects with adequate margins against gross rupture. The structural margins of heat exchanger tubing are evident by contrasting the tubing`s structural capacity, per the ASME Code, with its operating conditions/configuration.

  16. Savannah River reactor process water heat exchanger tube structural integrity margin Task Number 92-005-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.E.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    Twelve process water heat exchangers are designed to remove heat generated in the reactor tank. Each heat exchanger has approximately 9000, 1/2 inch diameter {times} 0.049 inches thick tubes. Minimum structural tubing requirements and the leak rate through postulated tubing defects are developed in this report A comparison of the structural requirements and the defect size calculated to produce leak rates of 0.5 lbs./day demonstrate adequate structural margins against gross tube rupture. Commercial nuclear experience with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator plugging criteria are used for guidance in performing this analysis. It is important to note that the SRS reactors are low energy systems with normal operating pressures of 203 psig at 130{degree}F while the PWR is a high energy system with operating pressures near 2200 psig at 600{degree}F. Clearly the PVM steam generator has loadings which are more severe than the SRS heat exchangers. Consistent with the Regulatory Guide 1.121 criteria both wastage (wall thinning) and cracking are addressed. Structural limits on wall thinning and crack size are developed to preclude gross rupture. ASME Section XI criteria, with the factors of safety recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.121 are used to develop the allowable crack size criteria. Normal operating conditions (pressure, dead weight, and hydraulic drag) are considered with seismic and water hammer accident conditions. Both the wall thinning and crack size criteria are developed for the end-of-evaluation period. Allowances for corrosion, wear, or crack growth have not been included in this analysis Structurally, the tubing is over designed and can tolerate large defects with adequate margins against gross rupture. The structural margins of heat exchanger tubing are evident by contrasting the tubing's structural capacity, per the ASME Code, with its operating conditions/configuration.

  17. Method for releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Arvind; Diwan, Moiz; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Hwang, Hyun-Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2013-02-19

    A method of releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane is disclosed. The method comprises heating an aqueous ammonia borane solution to between about 80-135.degree. C. at between about 14.7 and 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) to release hydrogen by hydrothermolysis.

  18. Multi-canister overpack design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1999-05-12

    Revision 2 incorporates changes to reflect a 150 psig pressure rating for the mechanically closed MCO and 450 psig pressure rating with the cover cap welded in place, per the MCO Performance Specification, HNF-S-0426, Rev. 5 .

  19. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time delay before ignition of NPN in air a t 1,000 psig in the temperature range from 150" to 210" C - A . Logarithm of time delay before ignition of NPN in air at 1,000 psig ...

  20. Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey,R.; Haas, E.; Hseuh, H-C.; Kane, S.; Lessard, E.; Sharma, S.; Collins, J.; Toter, W. F.; Olis, D. R.; Pushka, D. R.; Ladd, P.; Jobe, R. K.

    2008-09-09

    Vacuum vessels, including evacuated chambers and insulated jacketed dewars, can pose a potential hazard to equipment and personnel from collapse, rupture due to back-fill pressurization, or implosion due to vacuum window failure. It is therefore important to design and operate vacuum systems in accordance with applicable and sound engineering principles. 10 CFR 851 defines requirements for pressure systems that also apply to vacuum vessels subject to back-fill pressurization. Such vacuum vessels are potentially subject to the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII (hereafter referred to as the 'Code'). However, the scope of the Code excludes vessels with internal or external operating pressure that do not exceed 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Therefore, the requirements of the Code do not apply to vacuum systems provided that adequate pressure relief assures that the maximum internal pressure within the vacuum vessel is limited to less than 15 psig from all credible pressure sources, including failure scenarios. Vacuum vessels that cannot be protected from pressurization exceeding 15 psig are subject to the requirements of the Code. 10 CFR 851, Appendix A, Part 4, Pressure Safety, Section C addresses vacuum system requirements for such cases as follows: (c) When national consensus codes are not applicable (because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc.), contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local code. Measures must include the following: (1) Design drawings, sketches, and calculations must be reviewed and approved by a qualified independent design professional (i.e., professional engineer). Documented organizational peer review is acceptable. (2) Qualified personnel must be used to perform examinations and

  1. Environmental assessment for the recycling of slightly activated copper coil windings from the 184-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    The proposed action is to recycle slightly activated copper that is currently stored in a warehouse leased by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to a scrap metal dealer. Subsequent reutilization of the copper would be unrestricted. This document addresses the potential environmental effects of recycling and reutilizing the activated copper. In addition, the potential environmental effects of possible future uses by the dealer are addressed. Direct environmental effects from the proposed action are assessed, such as air emissions from reprocessing the activated copper, as well as indirect beneficial effects, such as averting air emissions that would result from mining and smelting an equivalent quantity of copper ore. Evaluation of the human health impacts of the proposed action focuses on the pertinent issues of radiological doses and protection of workers and the public. Five alternatives to the proposed action are considered, and their associated potential impacts are addressed. The no-action alternative is the continued storage of the activated copper at the LBL warehouse. Two recycling alternatives are considered: recycling the activated copper at the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) facility for re-use at a DOE facility and selling or giving the activated copper to a foreign government. In addition, two disposal alternatives evaluate the impacts attributable to disposing of the activated copper either at a local sanitary landfill or at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Site. The proposed project and alternatives include no new construction or development of new industry.

  2. SPES-2, AP600 intergral system test S01007 2 inch CL to core make-up tank pressure balance line break

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacchiani, M.; Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M.

    1995-09-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica), ENEA (Enter per le numove Technlogie, l` Energia e l` Ambient), Siet (Societa Informazioni Esperienze Termoidraulich) and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behaviour of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with passive and active safety systems and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the boration capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behaviour. Cold and hot shakedown tests have been performed on the facility to check the characteristics of the plant before starting the experimental campaign. The paper first presents a description of the SPES-2 test facility then the main results of S01007 test {open_quotes}2{close_quotes} Cold Leg (CL) to Core Make-up Tank (CMT) pressure balance line break{close_quotes} are reported and compared with predictions performed using RELAP5/mod3/80 obtained by ANSALDO through agreement with U.S.N.R.C. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The SPES-2 nodalization and all the calculations here presented were performed by ANSALDO and sponsored by ENEL as a part of pre-test predictions for SPES-2.

  3. Prediction of residual stress field in mechanically expanded 0.750 inch diameter steam generator tube plugs. Part 1: 2-D solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.K.

    1996-12-01

    One of the most formidable classes of problems that arises in the commercial nuclear power industry is the determination of the residual stress field in steam generator tubes. As early as 1983, it was reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes had occurred at a low frequency. The degradation of steam generator tubing by PWSCC has resulted in unplanned nuclear plant outages and costly repair operations such as tube plugging and eventually steam generator replacement. Although the previous discussion centered around the PWSCC of the Inconel 600 tubes, the repair plugs which are intended to isolate the damaged tubes from the primary system, have also begun to show similar types of cracking in the rolled transitions. Plug severance is highly undesirable in the nuclear plant because the primary-to-secondary barrier would then be voided and radioactive fluid would escape to the non-radioactive feedwater system. At the present time, although the tube problems have been discussed extensively in the literature roll plugs and their associated SCC have yet to be fully addressed. In addition, roll plus present a different set of loads, expansion regions, discontinuities, and displacement boundary conditions to be analyzed. The method of solution to the subject roll expansion problem employs the use of a general purpose finite element program to mathematically simulate the expansion process. The hydraulic expansion simulation is accomplished by matching the final displacements of an installed plug for which field measurements are available. Because of the symmetry which exists in the geometry and loading, this problem is modeled and analyzed as an axisymmetric problem. The resulting stress field throughout the plug, and in particular, in the rolled transition region, is calculated.

  4. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  5. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  6. Phased-array ultrasonic surface contour mapping system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasching, G.E.; Loudin, W.J.; Paton, D.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The development of reliable mechanistic models for prediction of conventional and fluidized-bed combustor and gasifier operation and solids flow behavior in silos or other solids handling and storage components requires knowledge of the contained solids flow characteristics. This knowledge is gained from dynamic experimental measurements of bed top surface contours in addition to measurements of bulk bed properties. The surface contour mapping system (SCMS) provides a means of generating surface contour maps in real time with a unique, automatically focused, density-compensated, digital phased-array scanning, ultrasonic-range measurement system. The system is designed to operate in environments having gas temperatures up to 1,600 {degree}F and pressures to 1,000 psig. Computer simulation of several SCMS candidates and acoustic carrier modulation techniques indicates that a surface measurement resolution of {plus_minus}2 inches over a range of 5 to 20 feet distance between the transmit/receive (T/R) transducers and the bed surface can be expected. The simulation of a particular design, a 9-T/R, 25-pixel bed surface, in which the level of each pixel was randomly set between 5 and 7 feet below the plane of the T/R transducers, then measured using two different modulation techniques, produced excellent results. The simulation of this surface contour mapping system determined the value of the level of each of the 25 pixels to within {plus_minus}1 inch for over 95 percent of more than 100 test cases for one of the modulation techniques, and for over 99 percent of about 100 test cases for a second modulation technique. A hardware implementation of the design simulated but using only a two-T/R, three-pixel SCMS produced results very closely approximating those obtained during the simulation.

  7. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  8. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton–proton elastic scattering at small angles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; et al

    2016-02-03

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°-16° to 25°-30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis.more » Furthermore, after extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.« less

  9. ABSOLUTE TIMING OF THE CRAB PULSAR WITH THE INTEGRAL/SPI TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molkov, S.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the pulse shape evolution of the Crab pulsar emission in the hard X-ray domain of the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, we have studied the alignment of the Crab pulsar phase profiles measured in the hard X-rays and in other wavebands. To obtain the hard X-ray pulse profiles, we have used six years (2003-2009, with a total exposure of about 4 Ms) of publicly available data of the SPI telescope on-board the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observatory, folded with the pulsar time solution derived from the Jodrell Bank Crab Pulsar Monthly Ephemeris. We found that the main pulse in the hard X-ray 20-100 keV energy band leads the radio one by 8.18 +- 0.46 milliperiods in phase, or 275 +- 15 mus in time. Quoted errors represent only statistical uncertainties. Our systematic error is estimated to be approx40 mus and is mainly caused by the radio measurement uncertainties. In hard X-rays, the average distance between the main pulse and interpulse on the phase plane is 0.3989 +- 0.0009. To compare our findings in hard X-rays with the soft 2-20 keV X-ray band, we have used data of quasi-simultaneous Crab observations with the proportional counter array monitor on-board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer mission. The time lag and the pulses separation values measured in the 3-20 keV band are 0.00933 +- 0.00016 (corresponding to 310 +- 6 mus) and 0.40016 +- 0.00028 parts of the cycle, respectively. While the pulse separation values measured in soft X-rays and hard X-rays agree, the time lags are statistically different. Additional analysis show that the delay between the radio and X-ray signals varies with energy in the 2-300 keV energy range. We explain such a behavior as due to the superposition of two independent components responsible for the Crab pulsed emission in this energy band.

  10. Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Satcher, J. H.; May, M. J.; Poco, J. F.; Sorce, C. M.; Colvin, J. D.; Hansen, S. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Moon, S. J.; Davis, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Direction des Application Militaires (CEA/DAM), Ile-de-France, F91297 Arpajon (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Beutler, D. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas have been measured in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx_equal}15 keV at the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The targets' x-ray yields have been studied for variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length, and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx_equal}10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of x rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the x-ray spectral yields, the x-ray temporal waveforms have been measured and it is observed that the emitted x rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted x-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Further, the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities is found to be 2%-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx_equal}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The propagation of the laser heating in the target volume has been characterized with two-dimensional imaging. Source-region heating is seen to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted x-ray power.

  11. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Germany) Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany) Publication Date: 2014-01-15 OSTI Identifier: 22251206 Resource Type: Journal...

  12. Absolutely and uniformly convergent iterative approach to inverse scattering with an infinite radius of convergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kouri, Donald J.; Vijay, Amrendra; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jingfeng; Hoffman, David K.

    2007-05-01

    A method and system for solving the inverse acoustic scattering problem using an iterative approach with consideration of half-off-shell transition matrix elements (near-field) information, where the Volterra inverse series correctly predicts the first two moments of the interaction, while the Fredholm inverse series is correct only for the first moment and that the Volterra approach provides a method for exactly obtaining interactions which can be written as a sum of delta functions.

  13. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    may be too labor intensive for practical use.All of the large diameter bubbler tubes tested could be readily cleaned in place by either blowing them down with justhigh pressure air or water (approx. 90 psig). While the use of both air and water produced the cleanest bubbler, using justair removed most of the slurry build-up, and the use of water resulted in basically a slurry free surface. For the smalldiameter bubbler tubes it was necessary to use high pressure air and water (approx. 90 psig) to effectively clean them. The water was only sent through the porous jacket and not introduced down the air line. However, even under these conditions there was one case where a plug was not removed when both air and water were used.Primary recommendation: The large diameter probe is the best choice since none of the three tested plugged during the2-mouth test period to the point which compromised liquid-level measure. However, after a week`s operation at boilingtemperatures several inches of a soft sludge builds up within the tubes. This sludge can be easily removed in place witheither high pressure air or water (approx. 90 psig). A full-scale verifi-cation test should be carried out in S-area to confirm the conclusion.Secondary recommendation: The small-diameter porous tube bubbler is recommended when an access port cannot accommodate thelarger diameter probe. Bubbler {number_sign}1 operated accurately during most of the test period. This probe had the highest water flowrate (approx. 1.6 gallons/day) and had the least distance from the slurry upper surface (37 inches). This probe can be made to accurately operate at lower depths if the 8-inch-long porous tube is made longer and the water flow rate made higher.Substituting the current level and density probes (Holledge) with bubbler probes will result in a significant cost savings (inexpensive materials, less labor to manufacture, less labor to maintain, less down time due to less frequent instrument replacement).

  14. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  15. 2013 TFG emission reduction.ppt

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    61508 Relief valves for water and non corrosive liquids up to 250 psig; 120-508120-OI-029 Design for Earthquakes, and Seismic analysis Electrical Code, Fire Code ...

  16. Natural Gas Compressor for Residential Use ---- Inventor Robert...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas compression to ultra-high pressures, which is required in many industrial and automotive processes. Gas compression, to pressures above about 100 psig, generally requires...

  17. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There are four basic ways to test steam traps: temperature, sound, visual, and electronic. Recommended Steam Trap Testing Intervals * High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to ...

  18. Improved energy efficiency in a specialty paper mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.D. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    Energy costs at the James River KVP mill have increased sixfold since the 1973 oil embargo. The cost of energy now surpasses the cost of labor and is second only to that of pulp. Economic pressures thus provide a powerful incentive for efficient use of energy. The KVP mill is a nonintegrated mill that is capable of producing up to 450 tons/day of specialty papers. The mill is equipped with six paper machines, six parchment machines, three off-machine coaters, and related converting equipment. Energy is supplied by a central powerhouse that is equipped with: Two gas/oil-fired Combustion Engineering VU50 power boilers, each capable of producing 210,000 lb/h of 850-psig steam at 825/sup 0/F; One gas/oil-fired Riley water tube boiler capable of producing 150,000 lb/h of 220-psig steam at 525/sup 0/F; Two General Electric turbine generators. No. 5 condensing machine: throttle steam, 850 psig; high-pressure extraction, 220 psig; low-pressure extraction, 220 psig; low-pressure extraction, 38 psig; maximum generation, 9500 kW. No. 6 condensing machine: throttle steam, 850 psig; low-pressure extraction, 38 psig; maximum generation, 9500 kW.

  19. Note: A large open ratio, time, and position sensitive detector for time of flight measurements in UHV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupone, S.; Damoy, S.; Husseen, A.; Briand, N.; Debiossac, M.; Tall, S.; Roncin, P.

    2015-12-15

    We report on the construction of an UHV compatible 40 mm active diameter detector based on micro channel plates and assembled directly on the feed-throughs of a DN63CF flange. It is based on the charge division technique and uses a standard 2 inch Si wafer as a collector. The front end electronic is placed directly on the air side of the flange allowing excellent immunity to noise and a very good timing signal with reduced ringing. The important aberrations are corrected empirically providing an absolute positioning accuracy of 500 μm while a 150 μm resolution is measured in the center.

  20. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D'Zurko

    2004-10-31

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  2. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrouf, Roger D.

    2003-06-01

    A Restrictive Flow Orifice (RFO) can be used to enhance the safe design of a pressure system in several ways. Pressure systems frequently incorporate a regulator and relief valve to protect the downstream equipment from accidental overpressure caused by regulator failure. Analysis frequently shows that in cases of high-flow regulator failure, the downstream pressure may rise significantly above the set pressure of the relief valve. This is due to limited flow capacity of the relief valve. A different regulator or relief valve may need to be selected. A more economical solution to this problem is to use an RFO to limit the maximum system flow to acceptable limits within the flow capacity of the relief valve, thereby enhancing the overpressure protection of laboratory equipment. An RFO can also be used to limit the uncontrolled release of system fluid (gas or liquid) upon component or line failure. As an example, potential asphyxiation hazards resultant from the release of large volumes of inert gas from a 'house' nitrogen system can be controlled by the use of an RFO. This report describes a versatile new Sandia-designed RFO available from the Swagelok Company and specifies the gas flow characteristics of this device. Two sizes, 0.010 and 0.020 inch diameter RFOs are available. These sizes will allow enhanced safety for many common applications. This new RFO design are now commercially available and provide advantages over existing RFOs: a high pressure rating (6600 psig); flow through the RFO is equal for either forward or reverse directions; they minimize the potential for leakage by incorporating the highest quality threaded connections; and can enhance the safety of pressure systems.

  3. Role of Modeling When Designing for Absolute Energy Use Intensity Requirements in a Design-Build Framework: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Guglielmetti, R.; Torcellini, P. A.; Okada, D.; Antia, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Research Support Facility was designed to use half the energy of an equivalent minimally code-compliant building, and to produce as much renewable energy as it consumes on an annual basis. These energy goals and their substantiation through simulation were explicitly included in the project's fixed firm price design-build contract. The energy model had to be continuously updated during the design process and to match the final building as-built to the greatest degree possible. Computer modeling played a key role throughout the design process and in verifying that the contractual energy goals would be met within the specified budget. The main tool was a whole building energy simulation program. Other models were used to provide more detail or to complement the whole building simulation tool. Results from these specialized models were fed back into the main whole building simulation tool to provide the most accurate possible inputs for annual simulations. This paper will detail the models used in the design process and how they informed important program and design decisions on the path from preliminary design to the completed building.

  4. New approach for absolute fluence distribution calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in turbid media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Böcklin, Christoph Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2014-02-14

    A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithm works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers.

  5. Instrument uncertainty effect on calculation of absolute humidity using dewpoint, wet-bulb, and relative humidity sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s Advanced Desiccant Technology Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and help researchers assess the energy savings potential of the technology. Accurate determination of humidity ratio is critical to this work and an understanding of the capabilities of the available instrumentation is central to its proper application. This paper compares the minimum theoretical random error in humidity ratio calculation for three common measurement methods to give a sense of the relative maximum accuracy possible for each method assuming systematic errors can be made negligible. A series of experiments conducted also illustrate the capabilities of relative humidity sensors as compared to dewpoint sensors in measuring the grain depression of desiccant dehumidifiers. These tests support the results of the uncertainty analysis. At generally available instrument accuracies, uncertainty in calculated humidity ratio for dewpoint sensors is determined to be constant at approximately 2%. Wet-bulb sensors range between 2% and 6% above 10 g/kg (4%--15% below), and relative humidity sensors vary between 4% above 90% rh and 15% at 20% rh. Below 20% rh, uncertainty for rh sensors increases dramatically. Highest currently attainable accuracies bring dewpoint instruments down to 1% uncertainty, wet bulb to a range of 1%--3% above 10 g/kg (1.5%--8% below), and rh sensors between 1% and 5%.

  6. SU-E-T-33: An EPID-Based Method for Testing Absolute Leaf Position for MLC Without Backup Jaws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, S; Whitaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Methods in common use for MLC leaf position QA are limited to measurements relative to an arbitrary reference position. The authors previously presented an EPID-based method for efficiently testing accuracy of leaf position relative to the mechanical isocenter for MLC with backup jaws. The purpose of this work is to extend that method to the general case of MLC without backup jaws. Methods: A pair of collimator walkout images is used to determine the location of the mechanical isocenter relative to the center of one field using a parameter called X-offset. The method allows for shift of the imager panel to cover subsets of MLC leaves within the limited field of view of the imager. For a shifted panel position, an image of three beam strips defined by a subset of MLC leaves allows determination of the position of each leaf relative to the isocenter. The location of the isocenter is determined by applying X-offset to an image of a single rectangular field obtained at that panel position. The method can also be used to test backup jaws instead of MLC leaves. A software tool was developed to efficiently analyze the images. Results: The software tool reports leaf position and deviation from nominal position, and provides visual displays to facilitate rapid qualitative interpretation. Test results using this method agree well with results using the previous method requiring backup jaws. Test results have been successfully used to recalibrate one model MLC (Elekta MLCi2™). Work in progress includes extension of the software tool to other MLC models, and quantification of reproducibility of the measurements. Conclusion: This work successfully demonstrates a method to efficiently and accurately measure MLC leaf position, or backup jaw position, relative to the mechanical isocenter of the collimator.

  7. Fluorescence of excited charge-transfer complexes and absolute dynamics of radical-ion pairs in acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, I.R.; Farid, S.

    1992-09-17

    An analysis of the dynamics of the radical-ion pairs of a series of 2,6,9,10-tetracyanoanthracene acceptor/alkylbenzene donor systems in acetonitrile is described in this paper. This analysis is carried out by using a combination of time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopies and measurements of {Phi} {sub ions} from the contact radical-ion pair (CRIP) and the solvent-separated radical-ion pair (SSRIP).

  8. Absolute frequency measurement of the 674-nm {sup 88}Sr{sup +} clock transition using a femtosecond optical frequency comb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, H.S.; Huang, G.; Barwood, G.P.; Lea, S.N.; Klein, H.A.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Gill, P.; Windeler, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The frequency of the 5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-4d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} electric quadrupole transition at 674 nm in a single, trapped, laser-cooled {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion has been measured with respect to the Systeme International (SI) second using a femtosecond laser optical frequency comb. The measured frequency of 444 779 044 095.52 kHz, with an estimated standard uncertainty of 0.10 kHz, is more accurate than, and in agreement with, the value previously measured using a conventional frequency chain.

  9. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  10. Subkilohertz absolute-frequency measurement of the 467-nm electric octupole transition in {sup 171}Yb{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, P.J.; Gill, P.; Webster, S.A.; Margolis, H.S.; Lea, S.N.; Huang, G.; Choi, S.-K.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Windeler, R.S.

    2003-02-01

    The {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}(F=0){yields}{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}(F=3,m{sub F}=0) transition at 467 nm in a single trapped, laser-cooled ion of {sup 171}Yb{sup +} has been measured to be f{sub Yb{sup +}}=642 121 496 771.26(23) kHz using a femtosecond laser frequency comb generator. The measurement is limited by measurement statistics and by the ac Stark shift, both related to the 4.5 kHz linewidth of the probe laser at the time. The systematic shifts of the transition, including ac Stark, second-order Zeeman, quadrupole, and blackbody shifts, have been evaluated.

  11. WAPD-SC-545 HYDROGEN FLAMMABILITY DATA AND APPLICATION TO PWR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... are 77 and 5 vo Hp respectively, whereas at 100 psig and 300F the upper and lower ... mixture at one atm is composed of steam, the limits coincide at about 10 hydrogen. ...

  12. Determination of the relative resistance to ignition of selected turbopump materials in high-pressure, high-temperature, oxygen environments, volume 4. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltzfus, J.M.; Benz, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    Results from frictional heating tests to determine the effects of oxygen pressure on the Pv production required for igntion are presented. Materials tested include: Monel K-500 and 1015 carbon steels at pressures varied from 100 to 3000 PSIG).

  13. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Example An industrial facility vents 10,000 lbhr of steam at near atmospheric pressure 0.3 psig, 212.9F, 1,150.7 Btu per pound (Btulb). Wasted steam can be converted into ...

  14. Potential Flammable Gas Explosion in the TRU Vent and Purge Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A

    2006-04-05

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the failure of the Vent and Purge (V&P) Machine due to potential explosion in the Transuranic (TRU) drum during its venting and/or subsequent explosion in the V&P machine from the flammable gases (e.g., hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds [VOCs]) vented into the V&P machine from the TRU drum. The analysis considers: (a) increase in the pressure in the V&P cabinet from the original deflagration in the TRU drum including lid ejection, (b) pressure wave impact from TRU drum failure, and (c) secondary burns or deflagrations resulting from excess, unburned gases in the cabinet area. A variety of cases were considered that maximized the pressure produced in the V&P cabinet. Also, cases were analyzed that maximized the shock wave pressure in the cabinet from TRU drum failure. The calculations were performed for various initial drum pressures (e.g., 1.5 and 6 psig) for 55 gallon TRU drum. The calculated peak cabinet pressures ranged from 16 psig to 50 psig for various flammable gas compositions. The blast on top of cabinet and in outlet duct ranged from 50 psig to 63 psig and 12 psig to 16 psig, respectively, for various flammable gas compositions. The failure pressures of the cabinet and the ducts calculated by structural analysis were higher than the pressure calculated from potential flammable gas deflagrations, thus, assuring that V&P cabinet would not fail during this event. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68 calculations showed that for a failure pressure of 20 psig, the available vent area in the V&P cabinet is 1.7 to 2.6 times the required vent area depending on whether hydrogen or VOCs burn in the V&P cabinet. This analysis methodology could be used to design the process equipment needed for venting TRU waste containers at other sites across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex.

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    home has advanced framed walls with 2 inches closed-cell spray foam, a liquid-applied membrane over the sheathing, 3.5 inches of rigid foam above the roof deck and 1 inch of ...

  16. Templates-Resources-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    templates 36 inch high by 48 inch wide, landscape poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements (PPT file download) 36 inch high by 48 inch wide, landscape poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements, 12-panel layout (typical pattern used by UMass PSE) (PPT file download) 42 inch high by 48 inch wide, landscape poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements (PPT file download) 36 inch high by 48 inch wide, portrait poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements (PPT file download) 16:9 Slide Templates

  17. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  18. Measurement of the Absolute Branching FractionsB to D\\pi, D^*\\pi, D^{**}\\pi with aMissing Mass Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2006-11-30

    We present branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to D{pi}{sup -}, D*{pi}{sup -} and D**{pi}{sup -} with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. One of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the other one decays to a reconstructed charged {pi} and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. Here D** refers to the sum of all the non-strange charm meson states with masses in the range 2.2-2.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  20. Observation and Absolute Frequency Measurements of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} Optical Clock Transition in Neutral Ytterbium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyt, C.W.; Barber, Z.W.; Oates, C.W.; Fortier, T.M.; Diddams, S.A.; Hollberg, L.

    2005-08-19

    We report the direct excitation of the highly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} optical transition in two odd isotopes of neutral ytterbium. As the excitation laser frequency is scanned, absorption is detected by monitoring the depletion from an atomic cloud at {approx}70 {mu}K in a magneto-optical trap. The measured frequency in {sup 171}Yb (F=1/2) is 518 295 836 591.6{+-}4.4 kHz. The measured frequency in {sup 173}Yb (F=5/2) is 518 294 576 847.6{+-}4.4 kHz. Measurements are made with a femtosecond-laser frequency comb calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology cesium fountain clock and represent nearly a 10{sup 6}-fold reduction in uncertainty. The natural linewidth of these J=0 to J=0 transitions is calculated to be {approx}10 mHz, making them well suited to support a new generation of optical atomic clocks based on confinement in an optical lattice.

  1. Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    home walls often have only 2-inch by 2-inch studs (5.08 cm 5.08 cm) (new manufactured houses are required to have at least 2-inch by 4-inch 5.08 cm 10.16 cm studs),...

  2. National Radon Database. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: CA, HI, ID, LA, NE, NV, NC, OK, SC, the Navajo Nation, and the Billings, MT IHS Area 1989-1990 (5 1/4 inch, 1. 2mb) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

  3. National Radon Database. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon survey: CA, HI, ID, LA, NE, NV, NC, OK, SC, the Navajo Nation, and the Billings, MT IHS Area 1989-1990 (3 1/2 inch, 1. 44mb) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

  4. BX in situ oil shale project. Annual technical progress report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980 and quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougan, P.M.

    1980-03-20

    During the year, design, construction and installation of all project equipment was completed, and continuous steam injection began on September 18, 1979 and continued until February 29, 1980. In the five-month period of steam injection, 235,060 barrels of water as steam at an average wellhead pressure of 1199 psig and an average wellhead temperature of 456/sup 0/F were injected into the eight project injection wells. Operation of the project at design temperature and pressure (1000/sup 0/F and 1500 psig) was not possible due to continuing problems with surface equipment. Environmental monitoring at the project site continued during startup and operation.

  5. Analysis of Cost-Effective Off-Board Hydrogen Storage and Refueling Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Barnes; William Liss

    2008-11-14

    This report highlights design and component selection considerations for compressed gas hydrogen fueling stations operating at 5000 psig or 350 bar. The primary focus is on options for compression and storage – in terms of practical equipment options as well as various system configurations and how they influence delivery performance and station economics.

  6. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CALCINING SALT SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Taecker, R.G.

    1961-10-31

    A method is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution into solid UO/ sub 3/, The solution is sprayed horizontally into a fluidized bed of UO/sub 3/ particles at 310 to 350 deg C by a nozzle of the coaxial air jet type at about 26 psig, Under these conditions the desired conversion takes place, and caking in the bed is avoided.

  7. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  8. Method for etherifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-03-12

    A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

  9. Method for etherifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

  10. EA-0962: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Routine Operation of a 12-kilovolt Overhead Powerline and Formal Authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch Fresh Water Pipeline Right-of-Way at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California