Sample records for incandescent led low-pressure

  1. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  2. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state in lighting products without compromising their performance and useful lifespan. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Energy to increase energy efficiency for general lighting. Therefore, consumers are replacing incandescent light

  3. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  4. LED Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Mark L.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article, which will appear in RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING MAGAZINE, interviews PNNL's Kelly Gordon and presents the interview in question and answer format. The topic is a light emitting diode (LED) lighting also known as solid state lighting. Solid state lighting will be a new category in an energy efficient lighting fixture design competition called Lighting for Tomorrow sponsored by the US Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Office, the American Institute for Lighting, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. LED technology has been around since the ’60s, but it has been used mostly for indicator lights on electronics equipment. The big breakthrough was the development in the 1990s of blue LEDs which can be combined with the red and green LEDs that already existed to make white light. LEDs produce 25 to 40 lumens of light per watt of energy used, almost as much as a CFL (50 lumens per watt) and much more efficient than incandescent sources, which are around 15 lumens per watt. They are much longer lived and practical in harsh environments unsuitable for incandescent lighting. They are ready for niche applications now, like under-counter lighting and may be practical for additional applications as technological challenges are worked out and the technology is advancing in leaps and bounds.

  5. Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonsight Inc.

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination was initially projected. The work performed provided answers to a number of important questions. The first is that, with the investigated approaches, the maximum sustained emitter efficiencies are about 1.5 times that of a standard incandescent bulb. This was seen to be the case for both thick and thin emitters, and for both mono-layer and bi-layer designs. While observed VIS/NIR ratios represent improvements over standard incandescent bulbs, it does not appear sufficient to overcome higher cost (i.e. up to five times that of the standard bulb) and ensure commercial success. Another result is that high temperatures (i.e. 2650 K) are routinely attainable without platinum electrodes. This is significant for reducing material costs. A novel dual heating arrangement and insulated electrodes were used to attain these temperatures. Another observed characteristic of the emitter was significant grain growth soon after attaining operating temperatures. This is an undesirable characteristic that results in substantially less optical scattering and spectral selectivity, and which significantly limits emitter efficiencies to the values reported. Further work is required to address this problem.

  6. Today LED Holiday Lights, Tomorrow the World?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This article for The APEM Advantage, the quarterly newsletter of the Association of Professional Energy Managers (APEM) describes the recent increase in the popularity of light emitting diode (LED) lighting and compares LED light output with that of incandescent and compact fluorescent lighting.

  7. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save 75 each year. Compared to traditional incandescents, energy-efficient lightbulbs...

  8. Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important.

  9. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL...

  10. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral...

  11. DUAL USE OF LEDS: SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN ITS Grantham Pang, Chi-ho Chan, Hugh Liu, Thomas Kwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    of an incandescent lamp is 800 hours while the life expectancy of LED is 10-23 years. This result shows that LED has : · LED indicator lamps (as in some dashboard, traffic signals, card readers). · LED displays (1 DUAL USE OF LEDS: SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN ITS Grantham Pang, Chi-ho Chan, Hugh Liu

  12. Cost effectiveness of long life incandescent lamps and energy buttons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen hours are determined for each lamp system. It is found that the most important component lighting cost is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial unit cost of $20.00, is the most cost-effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined.

  13. Propagation of light in low pressure gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacques Moret-Bailly

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

  14. Optical Wireless based on High Brightness Visible LEDs Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu, Chi-Ho Chan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    and encoded with audio or data signal. Hence, an LED indicator lamp or traffic light can become an information for incandescent lamps [3,4]. This advancement has led to the production of large- area full-color LED displaysOptical Wireless based on High Brightness Visible LEDs Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu, Chi

  15. Metacapacitors for LED Lighting: Metacapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: The CUNY Energy Institute is developing less expensive, more efficient, smaller, and longer-lasting power converters for energy-efficient LED lights. LEDs produce light more efficiently than incandescent lights and last significantly longer than compact fluorescent bulbs, but they require more sophisticated power converter technology, which increases their cost. LEDs need more sophisticated converters because they require a different type of power (low voltage direct current, or DC) than what's generally supplied by power outlets. The CUNY Energy Institute is developing sophisticated power converters for LEDs that contain capacitors made from new, nanoscale materials. Capacitors are electrical components that are used to store energy. CUNY's unique capacitors are configured with advanced power circuits to more efficiently control and convert power to the LED lighting source. They also eliminate the need for large magnetic components, instead relying on networks of capacitors that can be easily printed on plastic substrate. CUNY's prototype LED power converter already meets DOE's 2020 projections for the energy efficiency of LED power converters.

  16. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  17. Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 ?s). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

  18. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  19. Apparatus to facilitate lengthening the life of incandescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spissinger, F.H.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An energizing circuit is described for an incandescent bulb comprising a transformer having a primary winding connectable to an AC mains source and first and second secondary windings for producing first and second voltages. The first secondary winding is connected to an input of a first full-wave rectifier means and the second secondary winding is connected to an input of a second full-wave rectifier means, the full-wave rectifier means having outputs connected in parallel across the bulb. The first voltage is sufficient to fully illuminate the bulb and the second voltage is sufficient to maintain the bulb warm but with little or no light output, a first switch being connected between the first secondary winding and the first rectifier means whereby, when the first switch is open, the bulb is energized solely by the second voltage.

  20. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  1. Ion optical effects in a low pressure rf plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechsner, Hans; Paulus, Hubert [Institute for Surface and Thin Film Analysis IFOS and Department of Physics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)] [Institute for Surface and Thin Film Analysis IFOS and Department of Physics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion optical effects in low pressure gas discharges are introduced as a novel input into low pressure plasma technology. They are based on appropriate geometrical plasma confinements which enable a control of the shape of internal density and potential distributions and, hence, the ion motion in the plasma bulk. Such effects are exemplified for an electron cyclotron wave resonance plasma in Ar at 1–5 × 10{sup ?3} millibars. The geometry of the plasma chamber is modified by a conical and a cylindrical insert. Computer simulations display spherical plasma density contours to be formed around the conical confinement. This effects an increase of the ratio of the ion currents into the conical and the cylindrical inserts which depends on the fourth power of the plasma electron temperature. A quantitative understanding of this behavior is presented. As another essential result, the shape of the internal plasma contours is found to be independent of the pressure controlled plasma parameters.

  2. Low Pressure Hugoniot for U-Nb (6 wt.%)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koller, D. D.; Rigg, P. A.; Gray, G. T. III; Jensen, B. J.; Hayes, D. B.; Maestas, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last several years, many experiments have been conducted to study the dynamic response of U-Nb (6 wt.%) alloy. An understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the behavior of this material is necessary to develop robust physical models for today's hydrocodes. Previous experiments indicate that the dynamic response of this alloy is strongly dependant on the initial microstructure of the material. Using a well characterized material, a series of low pressure shock experiments were conducted at the single stage light gas gun facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Time resolved particle velocity measurements were made using VISAR. Absolute VISAR system timing was measured and cross correlated to shock breakout time to allow hugoniot points to be calculated. These shots provide both low pressure Hugoniot points for U-Nb (6 wt.%) alloy and a better constraint on the dynamic material response.

  3. Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V.sub.1-x Cr.sub.x).sub.2 where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200.degree. C., at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  4. Low Pressure Negative Ion Drift Chamber for Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. P. Snowden-Ifft; C. J. Martoff; J. M. Burwell

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are an attractive candidate for the dark matter thought to make up the bulk of the mass of our universe. We explore here the possibility of using a low pressure negative ion drift chamber to search for WIMPs. The innovation of drifting ions, instead of electrons, allows the design of a detector with exceptional sensitivity to, background rejection from, and signature of WIMPs.

  5. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  6. SMC Lite -- An innovative new low pressure, low density SMC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, W. [Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two fundamental driving forces in the automotive composites industry are the need to reduce cost and reduce weight. Through a combination of resin chemistry, unique thickening technology and Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) formulation, a method has been developed which yields the reduced sheet viscosity required for low pressure molding (<3.5 MPa versus 9.5 MPa for standard SMC), yet yields a handleable, tack-free sheet. A variation of this new resin technology permits the molding of true Class A panels at 1.6 specific gravity versus 1.9 specific gravity panels molded with traditional SMC.

  7. LED exit signs: Improved technology leads the way to energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent innovations in light-emitting diode (LED) exit signs may make LED signs the best choice among the energy efficient options available. In the past, LED signs have offered low power consumption, projected long lamp life, and low maintenance requirements. Now, the best of the LED signs also offer improved optical designs that reduce their already low power consumption while improving visibility and appearance, and even reduce their cost. LED exit signs are gaining market share, and E Source expects this technology to eventually dominate over incandescent, compact fluorescent, and electroluminescent signs. More research is needed, however, to confirm manufacturers` claims of 20-year operating lives for LED signs. Conservative estimates place the number of exit signs in US buildings at about 40 million. Although each sign represents a very small part of a building`s load, exit signs are ready targets for energy efficiency upgrades -- they operate continuously and most use inefficient incandescent sources. With an LED sign, annual energy and maintenance costs can be reduced by more than 90 percent compared to a typical incandescent sign. Low annual costs help to offset the LED sign`s relatively high first cost. More than 25 utilities offer DSM incentives for energy efficient exit signs, and efficient alternatives are becoming more readily available. Recent improvements in optical designs enable many LED signs to visually out perform other sources. In addition to these benefits, LED exit signs have lower life cycle cost than most other options. The biggest barrier to their success, however, is that their first cost has been considerably higher than competing technologies. LED sign prices are falling rapidly, though, because manufacturers are continually improving optical designs of the fixtures to use fewer LEDs and thus even less energy while providing better performance.

  8. The light-emitting diode (LED) is an fairly new kind of light source found currently in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The light-emitting diode (LED) is an fairly new kind of light source found currently in only a few applications, such as traffic lights and exit signs. As a relatively untested technology, luminaire this technology an ideal replacement for less efficient incandescent light sources, particularly in applications

  9. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure dosing system treats wastewater and then pumps it into the soil several times daily. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of low-pressure dosing systems as well as estimated costs and maintenance requirements....

  10. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  11. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  12. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  13. ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1 , A. Mills1 , D. Youchison2/s. Based on these impressive performance results, a unique and scalable heat exchanger channel with ultra-low and ultra low-pressure drop short flow-path (SOFIT) concept was designed. Typical pressure drops through

  14. LED Market Intelligence Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    early adopters of LED technologies, particularly around dimming capabilities. 16 LED Market Intelligence Report Home Depot Walmart Cree Philips TCP GE LSG Osram Feit Costco...

  15. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  16. Experimental study of the effects of wakes on separation in low pressure turbine flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O?ztu?rk, Burak

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations dealing with specific issues of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing a detailed unsteady boundary flow information to understand...

  17. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  18. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: • Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life. • Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable across lifecycle phases, subsystems, and environmental impact category, and can be normalized to a userdefined functional unit. • Drill-down Review – These provide an indepth look at individual lamp designs with the ability to review across subsystem or lifecycle phase.

  20. 2110 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Low-Pressure Helicon-Plasma Discharge Initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    -temperature plasma research. Low- pressure (as low as 1 millitorr) inductively coupled plasmas are used for plasma

  1. Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, Kirby; Triana, Antonio; Johnson, John; Yang, Song; Premchand, Kiran

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project was to demonstrate that low pressure loop EGR incorporating a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) can be applied to an off-highway engine to meet Tier 3 (Task I) and Interim Tier 4 (Task II) off-road emissions standards. Task I data was collected using a John Deere 8.1 liter engine modified with a low pressure loop EGR system. The engine and EGR system was optimized and final data over the ISO 8178 eight mode test indicated the NOx emissions were less than 4 g/kWh and the PM was less than 0.02 g/kWh which means the engine met the Tier 3 off-road standard. Considerable experimental data was collected and used by Michigan Tech University to develop and calibrate the MTU-Filter 1D DPF model. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO{sub 2} upstream of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to the experimental data at temperatures from 230 C to 550 C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m{sup 3}/min. Model predictions of the solid particulate mass deposited in the DPF after each loading and regeneration case were in agreement within +/-10g (or +/-10%) of experimental measurements at the majority of the engine operating conditions. The activation temperatures obtained from the model calibration are in good agreement with values reported in the literature and gave good results in the model calibration by using constant pre-exponential factors throughout the entire range of conditions evaluated. The average clean filter permeability was 2.372 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. Estimates of the solid particulate mass packing density inside the porous wall were 1 to 5 kg/m{sup 3}; and percolation factors were 0.81 to 0.97. Average particulate layer permeability was 1.95 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}. Solid particulate layer packing density values were between 11 and 128 kg/m{sup 3}. These values were in good agreement with the Peclet number correlation theory reported in the literature. NO{sub 2}-assisted oxidation of PM in the DPF showed experimentally that a significant reduction of the pressure drop can be achieved (<8 kPa) when sufficient NO{sub 2} (>120 ppm) is available and high exhaust gas temperatures ({approx}360-460 C) can be maintained, even at high PM loadings (low NO{sub 2}/solid PM ratios). The CRT{trademark} (DOC-DPF system) showed limited advantages when used with high PM rates (low NOx/PM ratios) in combination with a low pressure loop EGR strategy for a continuous operation of an engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. The 8.1-liter engine was not designed for low-pressure loop EGR and when the EGR was added the NOx emissions were reduced but the PM emissions increased. This corresponds to the well known NOx to PM relationship in which if the NOx is reduced the PM emissions increase. In order for this technology to be successful on this engine family, the engine out PM emissions must be reduced. These results led to Task II. Task II objective was to meet the interim Tier 4 standards using the CCRT{trademark} technology applied to an advanced 6.8 liter John Deere engine. The advanced engine incorporated a 4 valve head, required additional EGR, an advanced high pressure common rail fuel system and a better matched turbocharger. The EGR system was optimized and the goal of less than 2 g/kWh NOx and less than 0.02 g/kWh PM were achieved over the 8 mode test. Again, experimental data was provided to Michigan Tech to study the passive regeneration of the CCRT{trademark} technology. Two computer models, i.e., the MTU 1-D DOC model and the MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model were developed as part of this research and calibrated using the data obtained from experiments. The 1-D D

  2. LEDs_3LEDs_3 current efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    efficiencySec. 8.2 From our toolbox Current efficiency #12;4 Light extraction efficiencyLight extraction extraction efficiencyDesign to improve extraction efficiencySec. 8.4 What are the features of this LED from;6 Various efficienciesVarious efficienciesSecs. 8.4, 8.5 Present record is 56%Wall-plug efficiency Wall

  3. Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps that the dimmers were historically designed to control, and how these differences can lead to complications when trying to dim LEDs. Compatibility between a specific LED source and a specific phase-cut dimmer is often unknown and difficult to assess, and ensuring compatibility adds complexity to the design, specification, bidding, and construction observation phases for new buildings and major remodel projects. To maximize project success, this report provides both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects, as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures.

  4. LED Lighting Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw-Meadow, N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? Municipal Street Lighting Consortium ? American Public Power Association (APPA) ? Demonstration in Energy Efficiency Development (DEED) ? Source of funding and database of completed LED roadway projects 6 Rules of the Road ESL-KT-11-11-57 CATEE 2011..., 2011 ? 9 Solar-Assisted LED Case Study LaQuinta Hotel, Cedar Park, Texas ? Utilizes 18 - ActiveLED Solar-Assisted Parking Lot Lights ? Utilizes ?power management? to extend battery life while handling light output ? Reduces load which reduces PV...

  5. LED Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Light-Emitting diodes (LEDs) efficiently produce light in a fundamentally different way than any legacy or traditional source of light.

  6. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOE’s Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics’ eW® Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical illuminance measurements taken on the walls, indicating better lateral dispersion of the light. The undercabinet fixture’s light output was midway between the low and high power halogen undercabinet fixture light outputs (35.8 foot candle versus 13.4 fc and 53.4 fc) but it produced a more uniform light (max/min ratio of 7.0 versus 10.8). The color correlated temperature (CCT, the blue or yellowness) of the LED light correlated well with the halogen and incandescent lights (2675 K vs 2700 K). The color rendering of the LED downlight also correlated well at 92 CRI compared to 100 CRI for the halogen and incandescent lamps. The LED undercabinet fixture had measures of 2880 K CCT and 71 CRI compared to the 2700 K and 100 CRI scores for the halogen undercabinet fixture. Builders who toured the homes were surveyed; they gave the LED downlight high marks for brightness, said the undercabinet improved shadows and glare and said both products improved overall visibility, home appearance, and home value. Paybacks on the LED downlight ranged from 7.6 years (assuming electricity cost of 11 c/kWh) to 13.5 years (at 5C/kWh). Paybacks on the LED undercabinet fixture in a new home ranged from 4.4 years (11c/kWh electricity) to 7.6 years (5c/kWh) based on product costs of $95 per LED downlight and $140 per LED undercabinet fixture at 3 hrs per day of usage for the downlight and 2 hrs per day for the undercabinet lighting.

  7. DGA proves out as a low pressure gas sweetener in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huval, M.; van de Venne, H.

    1981-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aramco is successfully using diglycolamine (DGA) to treat low-pressure associated sour gases to 1/4 gr H/sub 2/S/100 SCF specifications. The DGA process meets the design criteria of (1) handling high acid-gas-content (up to 15%) feed gases, (2) sweetening at high temperatures (120/sup 0/-140/sup 0/F) and low pressures (120-180 psig), (3) removing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ in a single step and (4) providing a Claus-plant feed suitable for the production of bright-yellow (rather than black) sulfur.

  8. How to upgrade your incandescent light bulbs Many people are choosing replacements for their standard incandescent light bulbs to save money or energy, because they've heard of new LED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bystroff, Chris

    or building a new home, work wi efficient light fixture, · use occupancy or vacancy sensors, or · if you are renovating your home

  9. Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    comparing the low pressure system with the high- pressure system equipped with a high-speed compressor pressure of the FC that is defined as the pressure at which the reactant hydrogen and oxygen (air) are delivered to the FC stack flow fields. In the case of stored compressed hydrogen the pressure of the cathode

  10. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney Engine Low Pressure Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Turbine Vane Cluster Analysis Overview The goal was to provide Pratt & Whitney with a detailed finitePENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Pratt & Whitney ­ Engine Low Pressure 3D cloud data to useable CAD model Use finite element analysis to determine the areas of highest

  11. Nanoparticles designed from low pressure plasmas as identification tool for astrophysical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    interstellar media. The particles were polymerised in a low pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency molecule production and reprocesses UV and optical radiation. The C-H stretch vibration of aliphatic coupled the radiofrequency discharge in argon/acetylene mixtures [Kovacevic submitted]. The particles

  12. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  13. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first or plasma nitriding of metal parts, in par- ticular those made of steel and cast iron, is extensively ap

  14. Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Porta, Arthur

    Using cavitation to measure statistics of low-pressure events in large-Reynolds-number turbulence A is studied using cavitation. The flow is seeded with microscopic gas bubbles and the hydrostatic pressure is reduced until large negative pressure fluctuations trigger cavitation. Cavitation is detected via light

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electroluminescence was first reported by H.J. Round in 1907, and the first light-emitting diode (LED) was reported by O.V. Losev in 1927. Not until the birth of semiconductor...

  16. Effect of shockwave-induced density jump on laser plasma interactions in low-pressure ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    1 Effect of shockwave-induced density jump on laser plasma interactions in low-pressure ambient air jump were investigated in low- pressure ambient air during the laser pulse using an optical interferometer. A tiny shockwave-induced density jump could be observed clearly in ambient air with pressure

  17. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  18. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  19. LED MR16 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following CALiPER report provides detailed analysis of LED MR16 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Pending reports will offer analysis on performance attributes that are not captured by LM-79 testing. These reports are intended to educate the industry on market trends, potential issues, and important areas for improvement.

  20. Global LED Manufacturing

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    0.20.5W 5630 PPA 0.51.0W 7030 PCT XVGA HDMI UHD 4K2K UHD 8K4K 0.81.2W 3030 EMC 1.22.0W 3535 EMC w Flip-Chip 0.50.8W 2835 PCT ? 1.01.5 W ???? Revolution of LED...

  1. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  2. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  3. LED Price Tracking Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE intends to update the SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility Program Planning report on an annual basis, but doing so requires that we have sufficient product and purchase data including acquisition date, purchase price, product category, and rated initial lumens. Those interested in helping collect this data are asked to use the LED Price Tracking FormMicrosoft Excel and follow the instructions for submitting data.

  4. LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following CALiPER reports provide detailed analysis of LED PAR38 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Pending reports will offer analysis on flicker, dimming and power quality characteristics; stress testing; and lumen and chromaticity maintenance. These reports are intended to educate the industry on market trends, potential issues, and important areas for improvement.

  5. Determination of the Electron Temperature in a Low Pressure Dusty Radiofrequency Methane Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre [GREMI, UMR6606, Universite d'Orleans/CNRS (France) and GREMI, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue G.Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES cedex (France); Mikikian, Maxime [GREMI, Polytech'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The particles are obtained by PECVD in radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) low pressure plasmas (90%CH4-10%Ar). During the particle growth, the particles trap electrons and modify the EEDF, and the electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma. The plasma is analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The excitation temperature and the electron temperature are calculated from the H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, H{sub {gamma}} Balmer hydrogen line intensities and from Ar ones. The temporal evolutions of the temperatures during the particle formation are compared and discussed.

  6. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department of Energy $18UnrevisedCool Roof InfrastructureLow-Pressure

  7. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  8. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  9. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jenny; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Flashlights that use LED technology have quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya. While flashlights do not normally provide a substitute for kerosene and other highly inefficient fuels, they are an important early manifestation of LED lighting in the developing world that can serve as a platform - or deterrent - to the diffusion of the technology into the broader off-grid lighting market. The lead acid batteries embedded in flashlights also represent an important source of hazardous waste, and flashlight durability is thus an important determinant of the rate of waste disposal. Low-cost LED flashlights with prices from $1 to $4 are now widely available in shops and markets throughout Kenya. The increased penetration of LED technology in the flashlight market is significant, as over half of all Kenyan households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). While this shift from conventional incandescent technology to modern LEDs may appear to be a promising development, end users that our research team interviewed expressed a number of complaints about the quality and performance of these new flashlights. This raises concerns about the interests of low-income flashlight users, and it may also indicate the onset of a broader market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007). The quality of low-cost LED flashlights can contribute to market spoiling because these products appear to represent the first contact that most Kenyans have with LED technology. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their experiences, perceptions, and preferences. We focus especially on highlighting common complaints from respondents about the flashlights that they have used, as well as on noting the features that they indicated were important when evaluating the quality of a flashlight. In previous laboratory tests, researchers from our team found a wide range of quality and performance among battery powered LED lights (Granderson, et al. 2008).

  10. LED Record Efficacy and Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Designed for general lighting applications such as street, industrial, and parking garage lighting, the Cree XLamp® power LED sets new records for LED brightness and efficacy, up to 85 lm/W at 350 mA. The XLamp utilizes Cree's performance breakthrough EZBright™ LED chip; both products include technology that was developed in part with R&D funding support from DOE.

  11. Transient evolution of solitary electron holes in low pressure laboratory plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, Subroto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solitary electrons holes (SEHs) are localized electrostatic positive potential structures in collisionless plasmas. These are vortex-like structures in the electron phase space. Its existence is cause of distortion of the electron distribution in the resonant region. These are explained theoretically first time by Schamel et.al [Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979) and Phys. Plasmas 19, 020501 (2012)]. Propagating solitary electron holes can also be formed in a laboratory plasma when a fast rising high positive voltage pulse is applied to a metallic electrode [Kar et. al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102113 (2010)] immersed in a low pressure plasma. The temporal evolution of these structures can be studied by measuring the transient electron distribution function (EDF). In the present work, transient EDF is measured after formation of a solitary electron hole in nearly uniform, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma for applied pulse width and, where and are applied pulse width and inverse of ion plasma frequency respectively. Fo...

  12. Experimental testing of cooling by low pressure adsorption in a zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, C.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small scale facility was designed, constructed, and utilized to test the use of zeolite adsorption of water vapor to augment chill storage in ice for conventional space cooling. The facility uses solar-derived energy, for the heat source and evaporatively chilled water for the heat sump. The product cooling uses sublimation of ice instead of melting. The ZCAT facility utilizes a heat pumping technique in which a water vapor adsorbent functions as the compressor and condenser. The design was based on use of 13X zeolite as the adsorber because of its high adsorbence at low pressures. However, it has been determined that other materials such as silica gel should give superior performance. While zeolite 13X holds more water in the pressure and temperature ranges of interest, silica gel cycles more water and has less residue water. Both points are very important in the design of an efficient and cost effective system.

  13. Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fran De Aquino

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and telecommunications.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  15. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China)] [Equipment Academy, Beijing 101416 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: chedk@163.com, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  16. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  17. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  18. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  19. Spectroscopic study of unique line broadening and inversion in low-pressure microwave generated water plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, R L; Mayo, R M; Nansteel, M; Dhandapani, B; Phillips, J; Phillips, Jonathan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was demonstrated that low pressure (~0.2 Torr) water vapor plasmas generated in a 10 mm inner diameter quartz tube with an Evenson microwave cavity show at least two features which are not explained by conventional plasma models. First, significant (> 0.25 nm) hydrogen Balmer_ line broadening, of constant width, up to 5 cm from the microwave coupler was recorded. Only hydrogen, and not oxygen, showed significant line broadening. This feature, observed previously in hydrogen-containing mixed gas plasmas generated with high voltage dc and rf discharges was explained by some researchers to result from acceleration of hydrogen ions near the cathode. This explanation cannot apply to the line broadening observed in the (electrodeless) microwave plasmas generated in this work, particularly at distances as great as 5 cm from the microwave coupler. Second, inversion of the line intensities of both the Lyman and Balmer series, again, at distances up to 5 cm from the coupler, were observed. The line inversion suggest...

  20. Transport of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma through a localized magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of an ion-ion plasma where only few electrons are present in the discharge could be appropriated in the context of ion plasma source applications. We present in this paper results obtained with a one-dimensional fluid model in the context of low pressure electronegative SF{sub 6} plasma. Without magnetic field, results show that the electron density is still large in the discharge. With a localized magnetic filter, where the magnetic field strength is such that the transport of the electrons is affected while the transport of ion species remains unmagnetized, we show that a region with a negative–positive ion plasma is found downstream the magnetic filter. The negative ions are produced in the filter due to the decrease of electron temperature. We also find conditions when the plasma sheath near the biased electrode collapses and the negative ion extraction from the plasma becomes possible. In addition, the influence of E?×?B electron transport on the one-dimensional model results is discussed.

  1. Operation of a THGEM-based detector in low-pressure Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cortesi; John Yurkon; Andreas Stolz

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operating properties of THick Gaseous Electron Multipliers (THGEM) in pure low-pressure Helium were investigated. This paper includes the effective gain dependence on pressure for different detector configurations (single-, double-, triple-cascade setup), long-term gain stability and energy resolution from tracks of 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Stable operational conditions and maximum detector gains of 10^4-10^7 have been achieved in pure Helium at pressure ranging from 100 torr up to 760 torr. Energy resolution of 6.65% (FWHM) for 690 keV of energy deposited by 5.5 MeV alpha particles at 350 torr was measured. The expected energy resolution for the full track is around 2.4% (FWHM). These results, together with the robustness of THGEM electrodes against spark damage, make THGEM structures highly competitive compared to other technologies considered for TPC applications in an active target operating with pure noble gases, requiring a high dynamic range and a wide operating pressure range down to few hundred torr.

  2. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group (SP3), Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B{sub z}) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is {approx}2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed.

  3. Transient growth mechanisms of low Reynolds number flow over a low-pressure turbine blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, AS; Sherwin, SJ; Theofilis, V; 10.1007/s00162-010-0183-9

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct transient growth analysis for three-dimensional perturbations to flow past a periodic array of T-106/300 low-pressure turbine fan blades is presented. The methodology is based on a singular value decomposition of the flow evolution operator, linearised about a steady or periodic base flow. This analysis yields the optimal growth modes. Previous work on global mode stability analysis of this flow geometry showed the flow is asymptotically stable, indicating a non-modal explanation of transition may be more appropriate. The present work extends previous investigations into the transient growth around a steady base flow, to higher Reynolds numbers and periodic base flows. It is found that the notable transient growth of the optimal modes suggests a plausible route to transition in comparison to modal growth for this configuration. The spatial extent and localisation of the optimal modes is examined and possible physical triggering mechanisms are discussed. It is found that for longer times and longer sp...

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    incandescent bulbs. High-performance incandescent, compact fluorescent, and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps continue to replace low-efficacy incandescent lamps. In 2035,...

  5. Ongoing LED RD Challenges (LED droop still challenge)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Nonpolar GaN Semi polar GaN SOLUTION New GaN Crystal Planes * Semipolar planes for blue, green and yellow LEDs A. Romanov et al. : J. Appl. Phys. 100 (2006) 023533. (1122)...

  6. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Aurelien

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basis of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of 200A.cm-2). All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low droop values are in line with the program’s milestones. They demonstrate that bulk non-polar GaN substrates represent a disruptive technology for LED performance. Application of this technology to real-world products is feasible, provided that the cost of GaN substrates is compatible with the market’s requirement.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: white LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electroluminescence was first reported by H.J. Round in 1907, and the first light-emitting diode (LED) was reported by O.V. Losev in 1927. Not until the birth of semiconductor...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Red LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electroluminescence was first reported by H.J. Round in 1907, and the first light-emitting diode (LED) was reported by O.V. Losev in 1927. Not until the birth of semiconductor...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Blue LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electroluminescence was first reported by H.J. Round in 1907, and the first light-emitting diode (LED) was reported by O.V. Losev in 1927. Not until the birth of semiconductor...

  10. Maintenance Practices for LED Streetlights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 14, 2014 webinar answered important questions about the maintenance and reliability of LED streetlights, and how to take these issues into account when planning and preparing for a...

  11. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  12. LED Lighting Facts®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED Lighting Facts LEDLED

  13. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  14. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  15. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  16. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay Parry, Nicholas, E-mail: n.mckayparry@uq.net.au; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia); Baker, Mark [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072 (Australia)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 ?m Kapton backing and 127 ?m thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ?5 mm{sup ?1} and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW.

  17. Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical,...

  18. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  19. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  20. Kinetics and radiative processes in Xe/I{sub 2} inductively coupled rf discharges at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.N.; Verdeyen, J.T.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental concern over the presence of mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps has motivated research into alternative electrically efficient near UV plasma lighting sources. One such candidate is multi-wavelength UV emission from Xe/I{sub 2} mixtures, including excimer radiation from XeI at 253 nm. Previous studies of the XeI system were performed at high pressures and were intended for laser applications. Practical Xe/I{sub 2} lamps will likely operate in the 0.5--10 torr regime and use electrodeless excitation to avoid issues related to electrode erosion by the halogen. In this paper, the authors report on an experimental investigation of low pressure, inductively coupled plasmas sustained in Xe/I{sub 2} mixtures. The goals of this work are to characterize the UV emission and determine excitation mechanisms in a parameter space of interest to lighting applications.

  1. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Gentile, W.R. Blanchard, T.A. Kozub, M. Aristova, C. McGahan, S. Natta, K. Pagdon, J. Zelenty

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

  2. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  3. A Practical Primer to LED Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    heatsink is what allows the high flux LED to generate much more light An LED (Light Emitting Diode) consists of a chip of semiconducting material treated to create a structure...

  4. LED Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    December 2014 LED Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs James Brodrick, U.S. Department of Energy LD+A Magazine

  5. Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

  6. Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incorporates low-density hollow glass spheres (HGS) to allow near-balanced drilling in low pressure and depleted reservoirs. The LDDIF uses potassium chloride (KCI) brine as the base fluid because of its low density and inhibition of clay hydration and employs...

  7. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  8. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).

  9. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  10. LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: high-brightness LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Solid state lighting (SSL), which uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), has the potential to be 10 times more energy...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: efficient LED lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Solid state lighting (SSL), which uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), has the potential to be 10 times more energy...

  13. Challenges in LED Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about LED lighting technology, where it is headed, and the DOE’s role in its continued R&D.

  14. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Norma Isahakian, City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting San Jose's "Smart" LED Streetlights: Controlled Amy Olay, City of San Jose Adaptive Lighting Controls...

  15. Investigation of effect of excitation frequency on electron energy distribution functions in low pressure radio frequency bounded plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space plasma, Power and Propulsion, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle in cell (PIC) simulations are employed to investigate the effect of excitation frequency {omega} on electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) discharge. The discharge is maintained over a length of 0.10 m, bounded by two infinite parallel plates, with the coherent heating field localized at the center of the discharge over a distance of 0.05 m and applied perpendicularly along the y and z directions. On varying the excitation frequency f (={omega}/2{pi}) in the range 0.01-50 MHz, it is observed that for f {<=} 5 MHz the EEDF shows a trend toward a convex (Druyvesteyn-like) distribution. For f > 5 MHz, the distribution resembles more like a Maxwellian with the familiar break energy visible in most of the distributions. A prominent ''hot tail'' is observed at f{>=} 20 MHz and the temperature of the tail is seen to decrease with further increase in frequency (e.g., at 30 MHz and 50 MHz). The mechanism for the generation of the ''hot tail'' is considered to be due to preferential transit time heating of energetic electrons as a function of {omega}, in the antenna heating field. There exists an optimum frequency for which high energy electrons are maximally heated. The occurrence of the Druyvesteyn-like distributions at lower {omega} may be explained by a balance between the heating of the electrons in the effective electric field and elastic cooling due to electron neutral collision frequency {nu}{sub en}; the transition being dictated by {omega} {approx} 2{pi}{nu}{sub en}.

  16. Solving the 'Green Gap' in LED Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One long-standing high-priority research area for DOE is to increase the efficiency of deep green LEDs. Although most products today use phosphor conversion (PC) to produce white light from a blue LED, having a good green source could lead to color-mixed white sources that would avoid the losses associated with the PC approach.

  17. Locally Led Conservation The Local Work Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grants ­ Conservation Stewardship Program ­ Environmental Quality Incentive Program ­ Farm & Ranch Lands1 Locally Led Conservation & The Local Work Group Mark Habiger NRCS #12;2 What Is "Locally Led Conservation"? · Community Stakeholders ­ 1. Assessing their natural resource conservation needs ­ 2. Setting

  18. LED Light Sources for Projection Display Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    LED Light Sources for Projection Display Applications By Chenhui Peng 04-13-2012 #12;Outline · 1. · The first practical LED is in red color and it is made with gallium arsenide (GaAs). 4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light with holes and release energy in the form of photons. 5http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode #12

  19. Financing Guidance for LED Street Lighting Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Financing an LED street lighting replacement program can present a hurdle for many system owners, even if the planned transition offers very favorable economics. Replacing the existing system requires a significant budget, particularly as the scope of the program increases. Cities such as Los Angeles and Seattle have invested many millions of dollars into their (very successful) LED street lighting replacement programs.

  20. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  1. An LED pulser for measuring photomultiplier linearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friend, M; Quinn, B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light-emitting diode (LED) pulser for testing the low-rate response of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to scintillator-like pulses has been designed, developed, and implemented. This pulser is intended to simulate 80 ns full width at half maximum photon pulses over the dynamic range of the PMT, in order to precisely determine PMT linearity. This particular design has the advantage that, unlike many LED test rigs, it does not require the use of multiple calibrated LEDs, making it insensitive to LED gain drifts. Instead, a finite-difference measurement is made using two LEDs which need not be calibrated with respect to one another. These measurements give a better than 1% mapping of the response function, allowing for the testing and development of particularly linear PMT bases.

  2. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007) a better understanding of flashlight use-patterns is crucial (Tracy et al., 2009). In addition, the economic implications faced by rural flashlight end-users provide further incentive for a move toward higher quality low-cost flashlights. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their use patterns and costs associated with owning and operating flashlight products. While flashlights used in their portable mode typically do not represent a substitute for kerosene or other forms of fuel-based lighting, at times they are used in stationary applications in place of a fuel-based lamp. In either case, these products often represent end users first exposure to LED technology and rechargeable dry cell batteries, and thus stand to either provide a positive or negative impression of these technologies for a diversity of lighting applications.

  3. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  4. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  5. LED Lighting Facts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED Lighting Facts LED

  6. Decisions that led to Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    German physicists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strass- mann's claim that they had achieved nuclear fission. He led a team that included Alfred O. C. Nier who was an expert on mass...

  7. LED Essentials- Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 11, 2007, Kevin Dowling, VP of Innovation for Philips Solid-State Lighting Solutions, presented a broad introduction to LED technology, and discussed the technology status, advantages...

  8. LED Color Stability: 10 Important Questions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 15, 2014 webinar examined the causes of color shift, and took a look at existing metrics used to describe color shift/color stability in LED lighting. The lumen maintenance lifetime of...

  9. Text-Alternative Version LED Lighting Forecast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE report Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications estimates the energy savings of LED white-light sources over the analysis period of 2013 to 2030....

  10. LEDS GP Success Story: Fostering Coordinated LEDS Support in Kenya (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) strives to advance climate-resilient, low-emission development through catalyzing collaboration, information exchange, and action on the ground. The Government of Kenya is a key LEDS GP member and offers an inspiring example of how LEDS GP is having an impact globally. The 2012 LEDS Collaboration in Action workshop in London provided an interactive space for members to share experiences on cross-ministerial LEDS leadership and to learn about concrete development impacts of LEDS around the world. Inspired by these stories, the Kenya's Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) began to collaborate closely with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to create strong links between climate change action and development in the country, culminating in the integration of Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan and the country's Medium Term Development Plan.

  11. Pittsburgh LED Street Lighting Research Project Performance Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Pittsburgh LED Street Lighting Research Project document on Technical and Aesthetic Performance for Business District LED Lighting.

  12. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  13. LED Lighting Forecast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED Lighting Facts

  14. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED LightingOutdoor Area

  15. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  16. LEDs for Energy Efficient Greenhouse Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Devesh; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light energy is an important factor for plant growth. In regions where the natural light source, i.e. solar radiation, is not sufficient for growth optimization, additional light sources are being used. Traditional light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and other metal halide lamps are not very efficient and generate high radiant heat. Therefore, new sustainable solutions should be developed for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Recent developments in the field of light source technologies have opened up new perspectives for sustainable and highly efficient light sources in the form of light-emitting diodes, i.e. LEDs, for greenhouse lighting. This review focuses on the potential of LEDs to replace traditional light sources in the greenhouse. In a comparative economic analysis of traditional vs. LED lighting, we show that the introduction of LEDs allows reduction of the production cost of vegetables in the long-run of several years, due to the high energy efficiency, low maintenance cost and lon...

  17. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  18. Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program executive summary of Phase II demonstrations: The low-pressure rocket motor burns in X-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. W. Bellow; A. E. Moeller; D. Steele; S. M. Williams; R. L. Heinle; C. O. Pruneda; C. A. Velsko; B. E. Watkins; C. J. Hewitt; H. Fry; J. A. Sanchez; J. R. Stephens; J. R. Carson; W. C. Gray; W. C. Thomas; T. J. Tope; S. W. Allendorf; L. R. Carrillo; H. H. Hirano; H. A. Johnsen; J. Lipkin; D. K. Ottesen; R. L. Peabody; C. R. Shaddix; J. C. Swearengen; R. F. Boehm; A. Smiecinski; K. J. Stetzenback

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three low-pressure rocket motor burn tests were executed in May--June 1997 time frame at the X-tunnel complex located on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site.

  19. Series Input Modular Architecture for Driving Multiple LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , where each cell drives four 700 mA LEDs. Keywords ­ solid-state lighting, light emitting diodes, LED have been achieved over the past decade in solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs), leading to high

  20. Numerical Modelling of Light Emission and Propagation in (Organic) LEDs with the Green's Tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    light emitting diodes, light emission, light extraction, dipole radiation, stratified media, layered surpasses incandescent sources by a factor of 2 and with further improvements light emitting diodes could on light extraction techniques from inorganic light emitting diodes we recommend chapter 5 in 1 . Organic

  1. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report This...

  2. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting This document is a report...

  3. (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC Units: February 11, 2010 (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC...

  4. Energy Department Announces New University-Led Projects to Create...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    University-Led Projects to Create More Efficient, Lower Cost Concentrating Solar Power Systems Energy Department Announces New University-Led Projects to Create More Efficient,...

  5. Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly Reduces Wind Turbine Performance Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly Reduces Wind...

  6. LED North America - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9LDRD, What doesLED

  7. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The item youTheWSRC-TR-97-0100WHITE LED WITH HIGH PACKAGE

  8. SemiLEDs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAir JumpCalifornia | OpenSelawik|SemiLEDs Jump

  9. SunLed Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to: navigation,SunElectra Jump to: navigation,SunLed

  10. Recessed LED Downlights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified11Department ofMeetingSynthetic DieselRecessed LED

  11. New and Underutilized Technology: High Bay LED Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following information outlines key deployment considerations for high bay LED lighting within the Federal sector.

  12. Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials- Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages webcast.

  13. Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media. [CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse smoother

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLellan, E.J.

    1980-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode and cathode to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source. An array of resistors or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

  14. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P.Department ofMaking | Department ofGive Drivers

  15. Regenerative braking on bicycles to power LED safety flashers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Ian M

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work develops a method for capturing some of the kinetic energy ordinarily lost during braking on bicycles to power LED safety flashers. The system is designed to eliminate: (a) battery changing in popular LED flashers, ...

  16. Building highly efficient LEDs in the yellow-green spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne and Purdue researchers are peering deep into the atomic structure and composition of LED lights in order to build highly efficient LEDs in the yellow-green spectrum.

  17. EECBG Success Story: Small Nebraska Town Welcomes LEDs and Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    historic square, built in the 1850's, is about to become home to something new: LED lights. Learn more. Addthis Related Articles Tecumseh is installing 95 new LED light fixtures...

  18. LED Manufacturing Process Modifications Will Boost Quality and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 The Issue Highly energyefficient LightEmitting Diode (LED) lighting products have made great process that will enable LED manufacturers to produce higher quality, energyefficient products at lower

  19. LEDs Go Ivy League: Princeton’s Dillon Gymnasium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about LED lighting in Dillon Gymnasium, a focal point of sports and recreation at Princeton since 1947. William Evans discusses measurable benefits of LED lighting in the gym and...

  20. Text-Alternative Version: Challenges in LED Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Narrator: LEDs have made remarkable progress in the past decade and gained a strong foothold in the US marketplace. In 2012, LED lighting saved an estimated 71 trillion BTUs, equivalent to annual...

  1. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

  2. Text-Alternative Version: LEDs for Interior Office Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LEDs for Interior Office Applications webcast, held March 18, 2010.

  3. Text-Alternative Version: Evaluating LED Street Lighting Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the Evaluating LED Street Lighting Solutions webcast, held July 20, 2010.

  4. Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Cost (billed)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipson, Michal

    the elevators, deter mined an LED replace ment lamp for the ex is ng halogen lamps, cal culated a cost benefitMann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Utility Historical Energy Use (MMBtu) Est. FY 2012,000 2 Energy Conservation Initiative (ECI) Project Summary Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng, Facility 1027 Mann

  5. Creep-rupture behavior of seven iron-base alloys after long term aging at 760/sup 0/C in low pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witzke, W.R.; Stephens, J.R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Candidate iron-base alloys for heater tube application in the Stirling automotive engine were aged at 760/sup 0/C for 3500 h in a low pressure argon or hydrogen atmosphere to determine the effect on mechanical behavior. The seven alloys evaluated were N-155, 19-9DL, 316SS, Nitronic 40, A286, Incoloy 800H, and RA330. Aging produced no appreciable changes in alloy grain size but did promote increased density and growth of precipitate particles in the grains and grain boundaries. Tensile properties were generally degraded by aging, with ductility and strength changes being influenced by grain structure. Aging also decreased creep-rupture strength, with coarse grain materials being more susceptible to strength loss. The presence of hydrogen during aging did not contribute significantly to creep strength degradation in the coarse grain alloys but did result in extensive strength losses in fine grain alloys. Based on current criteria for the Mod I Stirling engine, the N-155 and 19-9DL alloys were the only alloys in this study with strengths adequate for heater tube service at 760/sup 0/C.

  6. Cree Sets New Benchmarks for LED Efficacy and Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cree has successfully created a cool white LED prototype that delivers 107 lm/W at 350mA. This achievement builds on the Cree EZBright® LED chip platform, developed in part with prior funding support from DOE. Cree made the prototype LED under their DOE project focused on developing LED chips incorporating photonic crystal elements for improved light extraction and novel package technology for higher down-conversion efficiency compared to conventional LEDs. Based on a 1 millimeter-square chip, the new prototype LED produces white light with a CCT of 5500K and a CRI of 73. Integration of four of these prototype LEDs can produce luminous flux of more than 450 lumens.

  7. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  8. New GATEWAY Report Monitors LED System Performance in a High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the light. The Yuma site is an extreme environment: high ambient temperatures and direct solar radiation heat up the luminaires throughout the day, and at sunset the LED...

  9. To Bridge LEDs' Green Gap, Scientists Think Small

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    where LED efficiency plunges, simulations at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) have shown. Using NERSC's Cray XC30...

  10. LED Luminaire Lifetime: Recommendations for Testing and Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    product life, and many relied on the gradual lumen depreciation of the LED (light-emitting diode) source as the best indicator- resulting, on occasion, in unrealistic claims...

  11. LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report Guide to FEMP-Designated Parking Lot...

  12. The City of Los Angeles LED Streetlight Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about the Los Angeles LED streetlight program, featuring an interview with City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting Director, Ed Ebrahimian.

  13. ORNL-led team demonstrates desalination with nanoporous graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Communications 865.576.6448 ORNL-led team demonstrates desalination with nanoporous graphene membrane Researchers created nanopores in graphene (red, and enlarged in the circle...

  14. Article Published on LED Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of a comprehensive lifetime rating - as well as the problematic relationship between SSL lifetime and lumen maintenance - determining an appropriate LLD factor for LED products...

  15. CBEA LED Site Lighting Specification - Version 1.3, Released...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Applications Outdoor Area Lighting Home About the Solid-State Lighting Program R&D Program Market-Based Programs SSL Basics Using LEDs Information Resources Financial Opportunities...

  16. Lighting the Great Outdoors: LEDs in Exterior Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Tyson D. S.; Bryan, Mary M.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in the development of white light LEDs promises great impact by opening up the huge potential for LED illumination in new areas. One such area is general illumination for exterior applications. For example, there are an estimated combined 60.5 million roadway and parking installations in the U.S. These lights account for an estimated 53.3 TWh of electricity usage annually -- nearly 7% of all lighting. If LEDs could provide the same light performance with just 25% greater efficiency, savings of over 13 TWh could be achieved. In 2007, the authors assessed emerging LED lighting technologies in a parking garage and on a city street. The purpose of these tests was to enable a utility to determine whether energy efficiency programs promoting white light LED products might be justified. The results have supported the great promise of LEDs in exterior applications, while also highlighting the barriers that continue to hinder their widespread adoption. Such barriers include 1) inconsistent product quality across manufacturers; 2) lack of key metrics for comparing LEDs to conventional sources; and 3) high upfront cost of LED luminaires compared to conventional luminaires. This paper examines these barriers, ways in which energy-efficiency programs could help to overcome them, and the potential for energy and financial savings from LED lighting in these two exterior applications.

  17. LEDs Go Ivy League: Princeton University and DOE GATEWAY Demonstrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about LED lighting at Princeton University, which has dramatically reduced energy costs in a number of installations around campus. William Evans, electrical engineer, describes the...

  18. Adopting LED Technology: What Federal Facility Managers Need to Know

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document describes the presentation slides for the "Adopting LED Technology: What Federal Facility Managers Need to Know" webinar that took place on September 11, 2014.

  19. Cooking Up New Nanoribbons to Make Better White LEDs | Advanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    appealing white phosphors based on LEDs. The materials combine the rare-earth element europium with aluminum oxide to form europium aluminate nanoribbons. Powders of europium oxide...

  20. LED Chips and Packaging for 120 LPW SSL Component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Cree has developed a new, high-efficiency, low-cost, light emitting diode (LED) lamp module that should be capable of replacing standard, halogen, fluorescent and metal halide lamps based on the total cost of ownership. White LEDs are produced by combining one or more saturated color LEDs with a phosphor or other light down-converting media to achieve white broad-band illumination. This two year project addressed LED chip and package efficiency improvements to establish a technology platform suitable for low-cost, high-efficiency commercial luminaires. Novel photonic-crystal LEDs were developed to improve the light extraction efficiency of blue GaN-based LEDs compared to the baseline technology. Improved packaging designs that reduced down-conversion and absorption related light losses, led to a higher overall LED efficiency. Specifically, blue LEDs were demonstrated with light output nearing 600 mW and an external quantum efficiency greater than 60 percent (using 1 mm2 chips at an operating current of 350 mA). The results were achieved using a novel, production capable photonic-crystal LED fabrication process. These LEDs formed the basis for a multi-chip white lamp module prototype, which provided 510 lumens light output at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3875 K and an operating current of 350 mA per 1mm2 chip. The overall conversion efficiency at 4100 K improved to ~ 65%. The resulting efficacy is 112 lumens per watt (LPW) â?? a 33% improvement over the start of the project. In addition, a proof-of-concept luminaire was demonstrated that provided a flux of 1700 lumens at a 3842 K CCT.

  1. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  2. Semiconductors 4-bit I2C LED dimmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    with SMBus · Internal power-on reset · Noise filter on SCL/SDA inputs · 4 open drain outputs directly drive for dimming LEDs in 256 discrete steps for Red/Green/Blue (RGB) color mixing and back light applications to 1.69 second. The open drain outputs directly drive the LEDs with maximum output sink current of 25 m

  3. A NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyowon

    to oxygen scavenging [5]. High CO2 levels (10- 80 %) are desirable for foods such as meat and poultryA NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Abstract A new system for CO2 measurement (0-100%) by based on a paired emitter-detector diode

  4. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  5. Optimized Phosphors for Warm White LED Light Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, Anant; Brewster, Megan; Garcia, Florencio; Hill, M. Christine; Lyons, Robert; Murphy, James; Stecher, Tom; Stoklosa, Stan; Weaver, Stan; Happek, Uwe; Aesram, Danny; Deshpande, Anirudha

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to develop phosphor systems and LED light engines that have steady-state LED efficacies (using LEDs with a 60% wall-plug efficiency) of 105–120 lm/W with correlated color temperatures (CCT) ~3000 K, color rendering indices (CRI) >85, <0.003 distance from the blackbody curve (dbb), and <2% loss in phosphor efficiency under high temperature, high humidity conditions. In order to reach these goals, this involves the composition and processing optimization of phosphors previously developed by GE in combination with light engine package modification.

  6. LED Lights for All Occasions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED Lighting FactsLED

  7. Power Capture (PowCap) Board for Non Intrusive Load Monitoring and Power Line Communication Exploration and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Vikram

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the LED Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.13 Predictionfor the LED Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction tableappliances, including a) LED lamp, b) incandescent lamp, c)

  8. Team Led by Argonne National Lab Selected as DOE's Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team Led by Argonne National Lab Selected as DOE's Batteries and Energy Storage Hub On November 30, 2012 In features Energy Department Announces Team to Receive up to 120...

  9. WEBINAR: CAN LEDS PERFORM IN A PERFORMING ARTS BUILDING? | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Nadine McGuire Theatre + Dance Pavilion at the University of Florida. Can LEDs render skin tones and makeup accurately in a dressing room? Can they provide the vertical...

  10. EECBG Success Story: Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    courtesy of Lionel Green, Sand Mountain Reporter. A strip of new solar-powered light emitting-diode (LED) streetlights in Boaz, Alabama were installed with grant funds from the...

  11. MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MOF); the structure was determined at Beamline 11.3.1. Coating a blue light-emitting diode (LED) with this compound readily generates white light with high luminous...

  12. Text-Alternative Version: LED Color Stability Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer: All right, welcome ladies and gentleman. I'm Michael Royer of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and I'd like to welcome you to today's webinar on LED Color Stability, Ten...

  13. Measured Off-Grid LED Lighting System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for SmallA. Jacobson. 2007. "The Off-Grid Lighting Market in WesternTesting for Emerging Off-grid White-LED Illumination Systems

  14. Implementing and Sustaining Operator Led Energy Efficiency Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.; Knight, N.; Rutkowski, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , to significantly reduce energy consumption, the site must focus on a strategic approach which involves developing, implementing and sustaining a client specific program of energy optimization. We discuss ways of sustaining energy performance through operator led...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: AlGaAs LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electroluminescence was first reported by H.J. Round in 1907, and the first light-emitting diode (LED) was reported by O.V. Losev in 1927. Not until the birth of semiconductor...

  16. Advances in Chip Technology, Packaging Enable White LED Breakthroughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Significant advances in chip technology have enabled Cree, Inc.'s Santa Barbara Technology Center to demonstrate white LEDs with record efficacies as high as 74 lumens per watt - on par with...

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  18. WEBINAR: LED LIGHTING IN A PERFORMING ARTS BUILDING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Can LEDs render skin tones and makeup accurately in a dressing room? Can they provide the vertical footcandles in a studio to make dancers' bodies visible, or deliver acting studio lighting to...

  19. Demonstrating LED and Fiber Optic Lighting in Commissary Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—covers goals of the project and applications for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and fiber optic lighting.

  20. af led lyskilder: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effective Fabrication of a Solar PV Panel for LED Lighting CiteSeer Summary: Abstract Solar cells are very fragile so they need a encapsulant and encasing for protection and...

  1. White LED Benchmark of 65 Lumens Per Watt Achieved

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel chip design and the balance of multiple interrelated design parameters have enabled Cree, Inc.'s Santa Barbara Technology Center to demonstrate white LEDs with efficacies greater than 65 lumens per watt at 350 mA. The results are particularly significant because they were achieved with a pre-production prototype chip using the same package used in Cree's commercially available XLamp® 7090 high power LED, rather than a laboratory device.

  2. Integrated LED-based luminare for general lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowling, Kevin J.; Lys, Ihor A.; Roberge, Brian; Williamson, Ryan C.; Roberts, Ron; Datta, Michael; Mollnow, Tomas; Morgan, Frederick M.

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting apparatus and methods employing LED light sources are described. The LED light sources are integrated with other components in the form of a luminaire or other general purpose lighting structure. Some of the lighting structures are formed as Parabolic Aluminum Reflector (PAR) luminaires, allowing them to be inserted into conventional sockets. The lighting structures display beneficial operating characteristics, such as efficient operation, high thermal dissipation, high output, and good color mixing.

  3. An Integrated Solid-State LED Luminaire for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Dowling; Fritz Morgan Ihor Lys; Mike Datta; Bernd Keller; Thomas Yuan

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A strong systems approach to designing and building practical LED-based replacement lamps is lacking. The general method of taking high-performance LEDs and marrying them to standard printed circuit boards, drivers and a heat sink has fallen short of the promise of LED lighting. In this program, a top-down assessment of requirements and a bottom-up reinvention of LED sources, electronics, optics and mechanics have resulted in the highest performance lamp possible. The team, comprised of Color Kinetics, the leaders in LED lighting and Cree, the leaders in LED devices took an approach to reinvent the package, the driver and the overall form and aesthetic of a replacement source. The challenge was to create a new benchmark in LED lighting - the resultant lamp, a PAR38 equivalent, met the light output, color, color quality and efficacy marks set out in the program as well as being dimmable, which is important for market acceptance. The approach combined the use of multiple source die, a chip-on-board approach, a very efficient driver topology, the use of both direct emission and phosphor conversion, and a unique faceted optic to avoid the losses, artifacts and hotspots of lensed approaches. The integral heat sink provided a mechanical base and airflow using a chimney-effect for use in a wide variety of locations and orientations. These research results led to a much better understanding of the system effects of component level technologies. It was clear that best-of-breed sub-system results do not necessarily result in the best end result for the complete system. In doing this work, we did not neglect the practical aspects of these systems. These were not rarified results and commercially impractical but lent themselves to eventual commercial products in the marketplace. The end result - a high performance replacement lamp - will save significant energy while providing a high-quality light source.

  4. Numerical analysis of the effect of acetylene and benzene addition to low-pressure benzene-rich flat flames on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunioshi, Nilson [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Komori, Seisaku [6th Group, Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. 500 Hirakuchi, Hamakita City, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Fukutani, Seishiro [Department of System Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A modification of the CHEMKIN II package has been proposed for modeling addition of an arbitrary species at an arbitrary temperature to an arbitrary distance from the burner along a flat flame. The modified program was applied to the problem of addition of acetylene or benzene to different positions of a 40-Torr, {phi}=2.4 benzene/O{sub 2}/40%-N{sub 2} premixed flame to reach final equivalence ratios of {phi}=2.5 and 2.681. The results obtained showed that acetylene addition to early positions of the flame led to significant increase in pyrene production rates, but pyrene concentrations were lower in the flames with acetylene addition in both the {phi}=2.5 and 2.681 cases. Addition of benzene to the flame did not alter pyrene production rates in either the {phi}=2.5 or 2.681 cases; however, for {phi}=2.5, pyrene concentrations increased with benzene addition, while for {phi}=2.681, pyrene contents decreased in comparison to the correspondent flames with no addition. Acetylene addition led to a significant increase in pyrene production rates, but the pyrene levels dropped due to increase in the flow velocity. Pyrene production rates were not sensitive to benzene addition, but pyrene contents increased with benzene addition when the flow velocity decreased. These results show that PAH concentration changes accompanying species addition to flames should be interpreted carefully, because an increase or decrease in the content of a PAH species does not necessarily reflect an effect on its formation rate or mechanism. (author)

  5. A novel target-type low pressure drop bidirectional optoelectronic air flow sensor for infant artificial ventilation: Measurement principle and static calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Silvestri, Sergio [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic target-type volumetric air flow-rate transducer for bidirectional measurements is presented. The sensor is composed of a T-shaped target and two nominally identical LED-photodiode couples which are operated in differential mode. The sensitive surfaces of the photodiodes are differentially shadowed by the deflection of the target, which in turn depends on the gas flow-rate. The principle of operation is described in mathematical terms and the design parameters have been optimized in order to obtain the highest sensitivity along with minimal pressure drop and reduced dimensions. The sensor is placed in a 20 mm diameter hose and was tested with air flow-rate in the typical temperature range of mechanical ventilation between 20 and 40 deg. C. The theoretical model was validated through experiments carried out in the volumetric flow range from -7.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The nonlinear behavior allows sensitivities equal to 0.6 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -2.0 to +2.0 l min{sup -1}, equal to 2.0 V l{sup -1} min for flow rates ranging from -3.0 to -2.0 l min{sup -1} and from +2.0 to +3.0 l min{sup -1}, up to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min at higher flow rates ranging from -7.0 to -3.0 l min{sup -1} and from +3.0 to +7.0 l min{sup -1}. The linear range extends from 3.0 to 7.0 l min{sup -1} with constant sensitivity equal to 5.7 V l{sup -1} min. The sensor is able to detect a flow-rate equal to 1.0 l min{sup -1} with a sensitivity of about 400 mV l{sup -1} min. The differential nature of the output minimizes the influence of the LEDs' power supply variations and allows to obtain a repeatability in the order of 3% of full scale output. The small pressure drop produced by the sensor placed in-line the fluid stream, of about 2.4 Pa at 7 l min{sup -1}, corresponds to a negligible fluid dynamic resistance lower than 0.34 Pa l{sup -1} min.

  6. An LED-based Flasher System for VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanna, D; McCutcheon, M; Nikkinen, L; 10.1016/j.nima.2009.10.107

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a flasher system designed for use in monitoring the gains of the photomultiplier tubes used in the VERITAS gamma-ray telescopes. This system uses blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) so it can be operated at much higher rates than a traditional laser-based system. Calibration information can be obtained with better statistical precision with reduced loss of observing time. The LEDs are also much less expensive than a laser. The design features of the new system are presented, along with measurements made with a prototype mounted on one of the VERITAS telescopes.

  7. Global Rebalancing: US Protection versus Europe-led reflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irvin, George; Izurieta, Alex

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of a Europe-led reflation is re-enforced by the strong income and trade linkages with middle- income and poor regions of the world (eg, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Africa)18. An EU-led reflation supposes a set of demand... switching on the required scale within an acceptable time frame. The central point is that the extra growth cannot come entirely or even chiefly from Asia (where resources are already stretched to the limit), but must come from a combination of renewed EU...

  8. LED Luminaire Lifetime: Recommendations For Testing and Reporting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED Lighting

  9. LED Performance Specification Series: T8 Replacement Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED LightingOutdoor

  10. LED T8 Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED LightingOutdoorLEDT8

  11. LEDs Ready for Takeoff at Louisiana Airport | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED

  12. An Brief Overview Of Using LEDs In Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baas, Bevan

    Diodes · A Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a special type of diode that emits photons (light) when current ­ Forward biased Diode Operation 0 V 5 V Current ~0 high (too high)5 V 0 V I anode cathode #12;3 Light-Emitting

  13. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Yuan

    2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  14. Ultratech Develops an Improved Lithography Tool for LED Wafer Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ultratech modified an existing lithography tool used for semiconductor manufacturing to better meet the cost and performance targets of the high-brightness LED manufacturing industry. The goal was to make the equipment compatible with the wide range of substrate diameters and thicknesses prevalent in the industry while reducing the capital cost and the overall cost of ownership (COO).

  15. Development and Evaluation of an Advanced LED Warning System for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    .dot.state.mn.us/stateaid/sa_traffic_safety.html #12;Project Need · ITS Safety Plan: ITS Critical Strategy 5: Use Intersection Collision Warning.g. radar) · Utilize alternative energy source (solar and/or wind) · Utilize LED blinker signs #12;Before;Stop Case 2: #12;Roll-through Case: #12;Acknowledgments and Special Thanks · Local Road Research Board

  16. Biofuels in the ASEAN Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9/20/2012 1 Biofuels in the ASEAN Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) Forum Bangkok, Thailand 19-21 September 2012 Biofuel Policy Group Asian Institute of Technology Outline of the Presentation 1. Objectives of this Presentation 2. Background 3. Status of Biofuel Development in ASEAN 4

  17. Heterostructures for Increased Quantum Efficiency in Nitride LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Robert

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Task 1. Development of an advanced LED simulator useful for the design of efficient nitride-based devices. Simulator will contain graphical interface software that can be used to specify the device structure, the material parameters, the operating conditions and the desired output results. I-4 Task 2. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the microstructure, defect concentration, mechanical stress and strain and IQE of controlled changes in the chemistry and process route of deposition of the buffer layer underlying the active region of nitride-based blue- and greenemitting LEDs. I-9 Task 3. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the physical properties including polarization and IQE of controlled changes in the geometry, chemistry, defect density, and microstructure of components in the active region of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. II-37 Task 4. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on IQE of novel heterostructure designs to funnel carriers into the active region for enhanced recombination efficiency and elimination of diffusion beyond this region. II-52 Task 5. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence of enhanced p-type doping on the chemical, electrical, and microstructural characteristics of the acceptor-doped layers, the hole injection levels at Ohmic contacts, the specific contact resistivity and the IQE of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Development and optical and electrical characterization of reflective Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type GaN films. I

  18. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

  19. A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    LED LED FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR LED LED A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded Shizuki and Jiro Tanaka In this paper, we present a novel touch panel using silicone rubber with embedded are difficult to detect for one made of acryl panel Moreover, it integrates IR-LEDs silicone rubber for multi

  20. LED Retrofit Project in TSH Basement On July 14 2014, McMaster Facilities Services completed an energy conservation lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haykin, Simon

    replaced with the new LED (light emitting diode) tubes. LEDs have better lighting quality, lower energy

  1. OSRAM SYLVANIA Develops High-Efficiency LED Troffer Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, OSRAM SYLVANIA is developing a high-efficiency LED 2'x2' troffer replacement that is expected to be commercially available in the spring of 2012 and to be cost-competitive with existing troffers of that size. It is projected to have a light output of up to 4,000 lumens, an efficacy of more than 100 lm/W, and a CCT of 3500K.

  2. KLA-Tencor's Inspection Tool Reduces LED Manufacturing Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, KLA-Tencor is developing an improved inspection tool for LED manufacturing that promises to significantly increase overall process yields and minimize expensive waste. The power of the inspection tool lies in optical detection techniques coupled with defect source analysis software to statistically correlate front-end geometric anomalies in the substrate to killer defects on the back end of the manufacturing line, which give rise to an undesirable or unusable end product.

  3. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring theadoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.s kiosk illuminated by an LED lamp Radecsky, K. , P.

  4. Assessing the Performance of 5mm White LED Light Sources for Developing-Country Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lamp calibrated by Labsphere Spectral measurements - LEDs inLEDs we tested is exceptionally good (as good or better than many compact fluorescent lamps),lamp. Off-grid lighting products using the poorer LEDs would

  5. Cost Effective Measurement and Verification at Fairchild AFB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culp, C.; Hart, Q.; Turner, B.; Berry-Lewis, S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ballasts. Incandescent lighting will be replaced with compact florescent. Incandescent exit signs will be upgraded to Light Emitting Diode (LED) exit signs. The Central Heating Plant (CHP) supplies steam for 79 buildings. This steam plant facility...

  6. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens, or the approximate equivalent of a 50 W halogen MR16 lamp. Many factors beyond photometric performance should be considered during specification. For example, performance over time, transformer and dimmer compatibility, and total system performance are all critical to a successful installation. Subsequent CALiPER reports will investigate more complex issues.

  7. LED Site Lighting in the Commercial Building Sector: Opportunities, Challenges, and the CBEA Performance Specification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This March 26, 2009 webcast presented information about the Commercial Building Energy Alliances' (CBEA) efforts to explore the viability of LED site lighting in commercial parking lots. LED...

  8. Understanding Drooping Light Emitting Diodes CEEM | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Impact Understanding "droop" may result in cheaper, more efficient LEDs; LEDs are more energy efficient, smaller, and longer-lived than incandescent lamps or fluorescent...

  9. U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    replacements); 3) replacement of incandescent pedestrian signal heads with light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian signals and traffic signal retrofits to LED; and 4) connection...

  10. CX-008898: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    replacements); 3) replacement of incandescent pedestrian signal heads with light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian signals and traffic signal retrofits to LED; and 4) connection...

  11. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand. The project therefore made use of recently developed non-polar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates that were made available at Kyma Technologies by crystallographic cuts from thick polar growth of GaN. This approach naturally leads to rather small pieces of substrates, cm along the long side while mm along the short one. Small size and limited volume of sample material therefore set the limits of the ensuing development work. During the course of the project we achieved green and deep green LEDs in all those crystal growth orientations: polar c-plane, non- polar a-plane, non-polar m-plane, and semipolar planes. The active region in those structures shows dramatically reduced densities of threading dislocations unless the wavelength was extended as far as 510 nm and beyond. With the appearance of such defects, the light output power dropped precipitously supporting the necessity to avoid any and all of such defects to reach the active region. Further aspects of the non-polar growth orientation proved extremely promising for the development of such structures. Chief among them is our success to achieve extremely uniform quantum wells in these various crystal orientations that prove devoid of any alloy fluctuation beyond the theoretical limit of a binominal distribution. This became very Rensselaer Wetzel DE?EE0000627 3 directly apparent in highly advanced atom probe tomography performed in collaboration at Northwestern University. Furthermore, under reduced or absence of piezoelectric polarization, green emitters in those growth geometries exhibit an unsurpassed wavelength stability over very wide excitation and drive current ranges. Such a performance had not been possible in any polar c-plane growth and now places green LEDs in terms of wavelength stability up par with typical 450 nm blue emitters. The project also incorporated enabling opportunities in the development of micro and nano- patterned substrate technologies. Originally developped as a means to enhance generated light extraction we have demonstrated that the method of nano-patterning, in contrast to micro- patterning also results in a substantial reduction of threading dislocation generation. In green LEDs, we thereby see equal contributions of enhanced light extraction and reduced defect generation to a threefold enhancement of the green light output power. These results have opened entirely new approaches for future rapid and low cost epitaxial material development by avoidance of thick defect accommodation layers. All methods developed within this project have meanwhile widely been publicized by the members o

  12. Feedback-Controlled LED Photobioreactor for Photophysiological Studies of Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Stolyar, Sergey; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A custom photobioreactor (PBR) was designed to enable automatic light adjustments using computerized feedback control. A black anodized aluminum enclosure, constructed to surround the borosilicate reactor vessel, prevents the transmission of ambient light and serves as a mount for arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The high-output LEDs provide narrow-band light of either 630 or 680 nm for preferential excitation of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting pigments, phycobilin or chlorophyll a, respectively. Custom developed software BioLume provides automatic control of optical properties and a computer feedback loop can automatically adjust the incident irradiance as necessary to maintain a fixed transmitted light through the culture, based on user-determined set points. This feedback control serves to compensate for culture dynamics which have optical effects, (e.g., changing cell density, pigment adaptations) and thus can determine the appropriate light conditions for physiological comparisons or to cultivate light-sensitive strains, without prior analyses. The LED PBR may also be controlled as a turbidostat, using a feedback loop to continuously adjust the rate of media-dilution based on the transmitted light measurements, with a fast and precise response. This cultivation system gains further merit as a high-performance analytical device, using non-invasive tools (e.g., dissolved gas sensors, online mass spectrometry) to automate real-time measurements, thus permitting unsupervised experiments to search for optimal growth conditions, to monitor physiological responses to perturbations, as well as to quantitate photophysiological parameters using an in situ light-saturation response routine.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence properties of rare earth activated phosphors for near UV-emitting LEDs for efficacious generation of white light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jinkyu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high-color-rendering LED lamps using oxyfluoride andin white LED. (a) Typical LED lamp package. (b) Uniformin white LED. (a) Typical LED lamp package. (b) Uniform

  14. Considerations When Comparing LED and Conventional Lighting | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.SpaceFluor Federal Services -Energy Using LEDs »

  15. LED Holiday Lights: Festive, Safe, and Efficient! | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PMDOE-STD-1107-97LSEED:LDVFrequentlyLED

  16. LEDs: The Future of Lighting is Here | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LEDLEDs on Semipolar

  17. LED Lighting on the National Mall | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas » MethaneJohnsonKristina Pflanz About Us KristinaLED

  18. #AskEnergySaver: LED Lights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of Bad CholesteroliManage#AskEnergySaver: LED Lights #AskEnergySaver:

  19. Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuick Guide:U.N.June 8,PastRadiationReducing LED Costs

  20. LED Traffic Lights Get Buy American Stamp | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1, 1999 InspectionVolunteersKarenThisDepartment ofLED traffic lights

  1. Slutrapport for PSO 337-068 Udvikling af LED lyskilder og lamper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bulb. - two LED pendants/lamps, a LED table lamp and a chair with LED lighting developed by designers Cluster lampe 13 Teknisk design af Cluster 15 Konklusion 16 Lysflyder 17 Hvordan opstod ideen om en LEDSlutrapport for PSO 337-068 Udvikling af LED lyskilder og lamper Carsten Dam-Hansen, Paul Michael

  2. Ceramic Mugs & Dishes Incandescent Light Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    , MU East Rock Hall/19-B CELL PHONES - EYEGLASSES 654 Minnesota Street Room 208, copy room CVRI Helen. Zion Cancer Research Building N423 Parnassus Campus: eyeglasses "I" level, Optometry Store, MU West

  3. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,United States NuclearSessionEnergy Efficiency and

  4. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,United States NuclearSessionEnergy Efficiency andlightbulbs -

  5. Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37EnergySubmitRoad |WaterEdition |

  6. Vehicle Traffic Control Signal Heads— Light Emitting Diode Circular Signal Supplement (VTCSH-LED). This replaced the so-called Interim LED Purchase Specifications,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Behura

    Engineers ’ (ITE) specification for light-emitting diode (LED) circular traffic signals recently was updated (June 27, 2005) and published under the name

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of NCN in low-pressure CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames and its role in prompt NO formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Bradley A.; Fleming, James W. [Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability, Chemistry Division, Combustion Dynamics Section, Code 6185, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    NCN profiles were measured for five rich and lean premixed, low-pressure methane flames using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). A semiquantitative determination of the NCN mole fractions as a function of spatial height above the burner is made by calibrating the NCN LIF signals using highly accurate OH LIF measurements in an adjacent spectral region. The resulting calibration yields an uncertainty estimate of a factor of 3 for the absolute values, but only {+-}25% for the relative NCN profiles. For all flame conditions, the NCN profiles occur immediately downstream of previously measured CH profiles. In addition, high correlations are found between the peak CH and peak NCN concentrations and the peak NCN and postflame NO concentrations over all equivalence ratios. These observations are consistent with NCN being the primary product channel from the CH + N{sub 2} reaction and the initial intermediate in the prompt NO formation. This is the first mechanistic study in hydrocarbon flames that provides such experimental evidence. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical calculations using modified versions of two well-established hydrocarbon kinetic mechanisms. Reasonable agreement between the calculations and experiment is found for NCN profile shape, location of peak NCN concentrations, and absolute mole fractions. However, the dependence on stoichiometry of the peak NCN concentration is overestimated. Further work is required on NCN kinetics for modeling prompt NO in laminar premixed flames. (author)

  8. Effect of NH{sub 3} on the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiO{sub 2} film at low temperature using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Xuemei; Takoudis, Christos G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of NH{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} film deposition using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) and O{sub 2} as source gases in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor was studied at low temperatures ranging from 100 to 250 deg. C. TiO{sub 2} film is traditionally deposited at temperature above 300 deg. C using oxygen-based Ti precursors, such as titanium tetraisopropoxide. In this study, the authors demonstrate that a combination of both reactive precursors, i.e., TDEAT and NH{sub 3}, is an effective technique for TiO{sub 2} film deposition at lower temperatures, albeit with some nitrogen incorporation. It was found that films can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C when NH{sub 3} is used. At higher temperatures, the growth rate of TiO{sub 2} films deposited using NH{sub 3} is higher than that of films deposited without NH{sub 3} by up to one order of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that NH{sub 3} enhances the formation of TiNO and TiN, and x-ray diffraction analysis shows that all as-deposited films have amorphous structure. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiles show that nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen are uniformly distributed throughout the film. The mechanism of enhancement of growth rate using NH{sub 3} is also discussed.

  9. Intel Led OpenMP Training Session at NERSC This Wednesday March...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Led OpenMP Training Session at NERSC This Wednesday March 25 Intel Led OpenMP Training Session at NERSC This Wednesday March 25 March 24, 2015 by Katie Antypas (0 Comments) This...

  10. Fabrication of InGaP LEDs on a graded buffer substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martínez, Josué F

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Computer display panels create a vast color palette by combining color from three light emitting diodes (LEDs), each producing red, green, or blue light. The light from these three LEDs is chosen so that the ...

  11. Have You Used LED Lighting? Tell Us About It. | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    It. May 7, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis This week, John shared his experiences with light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. In a future blog, he'll share more about LED lighting. Have you...

  12. An Investigation into the Perception of Color under LED White Composite Spectra with Modulated Color Rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Reilly, Una-May

    emitting diodes, LEDs. We examined seven LED white composite spectra with different color rendering of a pilot study that evaluates the perceptual impact of modulation of color rendering using multi-chip light

  13. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of InGaNGaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture Development and Industrialization of InGaNGaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire...

  14. Text-Alternative Version: Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires" webcast, held November 15, 2011.

  15. Text-Alternative Version: Successful Selection of LED Streetlight Luminaires Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Successful Selection of LED Streetlight Luminaires" webcast, held March 6, 2013.

  16. TESLA-FEL 2007-03 Application of low cost GaAs LED as neutron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    neutrons in unbiased Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Light Emitting Diodes (LED) resulted in a reduction Keywords: COTS components, Displacement damage, Electron Linear Accelerator, GaAs Light emitting diode (LED) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) light emitting diode (LED) for the assessment of integrated neutron fluence

  17. UV-LED LITHOGRAPHY FOR 3-D HIGH ASPECT RATIO MICROSTRUCTURE PATTERNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in microfabrication. Table 1 compares the performance of UV-LEDs with a mercury lamp for several key parametersUV-LED LITHOGRAPHY FOR 3-D HIGH ASPECT RATIO MICROSTRUCTURE PATTERNING Jungkwun `JK' Kim*, Seung of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents a UV lithography method that utilizes a UV-LED

  18. Color shift reduction of a multi-domain IPS-LCD using RGB-LED backlight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    -emitting diodes (LEDs) and cold-cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlights. Simulation results indicateColor shift reduction of a multi-domain IPS- LCD using RGB-LED backlight Ruibo Lu, Qi Hong, Zhibing that the LED backlight exhibits a wider color gamut, better angular color uniformity, and 2-4X smaller static

  19. Issues, Models and Solutions for Triac Modulated Phase Dimming of LED Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    Issues, Models and Solutions for Triac Modulated Phase Dimming of LED Lamps Dustin Rand (Raytheon Edison socket LED lamps directly from residential phase modulated dimmer switches. In order to explain brightness "White Light" LEDs have experts predicting that the "bright white replacement lamp" could trigger

  20. WhiteOptics' Low-Cost Reflector Composite Boosts LED Fixture Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, WhiteOptics has developed a composite coating that can be used to improve efficiency in backlit, indirect, and cavity-mixing LED luminaire designs by maximizing light reflection and output. The highly diffuse coating, which is based on a novel high-reflectance particle technology, allows for uniform distribution of light without exaggerating the point-source nature of the LEDs, and is intended to offer an overall system cost-improving solution for LED optics.

  1. Philips Lumileds Achieves 139 lm/W in a Neutral White LED

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Philips Lumileds' LUXEON Rebel LED can now deliver 139 lm/W in a neutral white LED. The top bin LED, developed with a single InGaN die and phosphor conversion, shows high-performance characteristics up to 139 lm/W and 138 lumens at 350 mA, with a forward voltage of 2.83 V. The CCT of the device is 5385K and the CRI is 70.

  2. Text-Alternative Version: MSSLC Member Case Studies- LED Street Lighting Programs Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "MSSLC Member Case Studies - LED Street Lighting Programs" webcast, held May 8, 2013.

  3. Text Alternative Version: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products" webcast, held March 28, 2013.

  4. New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights | Advanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystals that glow different colors may be the missing ingredient for white light-emitting diode (LED) lighting that illuminates homes and offices as effectively as natural...

  5. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination 2015 Project Portfolio 2014 Solid-State...

  6. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following is a text version of a video about CALiPER Application Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting.

  7. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  8. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. Researchers Say They've Solved the Mystery of LED Lighting "Droop...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sciences Team. Despite being cool, ultra-efficient and long lasting, the light-emitting diode (LED) faces a problem called "efficiency droop." New findings from simulations...

  10. LEDS Tool: Step-By-Step Guidance to a Long-Term Framework for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Keyword(s): LEDS Guidance Developing Implementing Process Language: "English, Spanish; Castilian" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli,...

  11. 2015 DOE SSL R&D Workshop LED Topic Table Questions to Consider

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document was distributed during the LED Topic Table portion of the DOE SSL R&D Workshop and aimed to prompt discussion on the following topics:

  12. Obama Administration Delivers More than $36 Million to Pennsylvania...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of incandescent and mercury vapor street light fixtures with energy-efficient light emitting diode (LED) equipment. The retrofitted fixtures will be specially tagged as energy...

  13. CX-000135: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    involve changing the Tribe's street lights from incandescent bulbs to LED (light-emitting diode) lighting fixtures. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000135.pdf More...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of incandescent bulbs with more efficient compact fluorescent lighting and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Among electric end-use services in the residential sector,...

  15. CX-004962: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    halide light fixtures in the City Hall and Community Center parking lots with light-emitting diode (LED) light fixtures; and 3) replace incandescent light bulbs on traffic...

  16. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance heating and incandescent lighting, the technologyresistance heating or by DC-favoring heat pump technology (technology (electronic fluorescent and LED). Similarly, heating

  17. TRUE COLORS: LEDS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CCT, CRI, OPTICAL SAFETY, MATERIAL DEGRADATION, AND PHOTOBIOLOGICAL STIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document analyzes the optical, material, and photobiological hazards of LED light sources compared to conventional light sources. It documents that LEDs generally produce the same amount of blue light, which is the primary contributor to the risks, as other sources at the same CCT. Duv may have some effect on the amount of blue light, but CRI does not.

  18. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  19. CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER Yuichiro Sakamoto a technique for the construction of an elastic touch panel using silicone rubber. The technique is similar is made of transparent silicone rubber rather than acrylic. Moreover, we embedded infrared LEDs within

  20. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Lumax Lighting 2: LED Industrial High Bay Light Fixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Lumax Lighting 2: LED Industrial High Bay Light Fixture Overview The problem that our sponsor, Rich Taylor, presented to the team was to design a light fixture for an industrial setting using high power LED lights. The challenge

  1. Cree's High-Power White LED Delivers 121 lm/W

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cree's commercial high-power white LEDs can now deliver 121 lm/W at 35A/cm2 current density. These particular Cree XLamp® XP-G LEDs deliver 267 lumens at a drive current of 700 mA and an operating...

  2. LED Lighting Flicker and Potential Health Concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    LED Lighting Flicker and Potential Health Concerns: IEEE Standard PAR1789 Update Arnold Wilkins for mitigating health risks to viewers" has been formed to advise the lighting industry, ANSI/NEMA, IEC, EnergyStar and other standards groups about the emerging concern of flicker in LED lighting. This paper introduces

  3. Proposal -Interactive City Lighting LED based lighting systems have enabled radically new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proposal - Interactive City Lighting Abstract LED based lighting systems have also be integrated with sensors and smart environments. This has opened up a new world. The use of the LED as a potential means for providing interactive city lighting for social

  4. Largest-area Photonic Crystal LED Fabricated Demonstrates Uniform Light Emission

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumileds Lighting, the University of New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to demonstrate uniform light emission from the largest-area III-Nitride photonic crystal LED (1 x 1 mm2) ever fabricated. Most previous photonic crystal LED research has relied on small-area patterns written by slow, serial-writing electron-beam lithography.

  5. An Efficient LED System-in-Module for General Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to realize an LED-based lighting technology platform for general illumination, starting with LED chips, and integrating the necessary technologies to make compact, user-friendly, high-efficiency, energy-saving sources of controlled white (or variable-colored) light. The project is to build the system around the LEDs, and not to work on the LEDs themselves, in order that working products can be introduced soon after the LEDs reach suitable efficiency for mass-production of high-power light sources for general illumination. Because the light sources are intended for general illumination, color must be accurately maintained, requiring feedback control in the electronics. The project objective has been realized and screw base demonstrators, based on the technology developed in the project, have been built.

  6. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  7. 78.1: Ultra Compact Polarization Recycling System for White Light LED based Pico-Projection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    78.1: Ultra Compact Polarization Recycling System for White Light LED based Pico-Projection System polarization recycling system, for white light LED based projectors, is proposed. White light LED is applied. In this paper, we propose an ultra compact polarization recycling system for white light LED based projection

  8. Vapochromic LED

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunugi, Yoshihito (Hiroshima, JP); Mann, Kent R. (North Oaks, MN); Miller, Larry L. (Minnetonka, MN); Exstrom, Christopher L. (Kearney, NE)

    2003-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A sandwich device was prepared by electrodeposition of an insoluble layer of oligomerized tris(4-(2-thienyl)phenyl)amine onto conducting indium-tin oxide coated glass, spin coating the stacked platinum compound, tetrakis(p-decylphenylisocyano)platinum tetranitroplatinate, from toluene onto the oligomer layer, and then coating the platinum complex with aluminum by vapor deposition. This device showed rectification of current and gave electroluminescence. The electroluminescence spectrum (.lambda..sub.max =545 nm) corresponded to the photoluminescence spectrum of the platinum complex. Exposure of the device to acetone vapor caused the electroemission to shift to 575 nm. Exposure to toluene vapor caused a return to the original spectrum. These results demonstrate a new type of sensor that reports the arrival of organic vapors with an electroluminescent signal. The sensor comprises (a) a first electrode; (b) a hole transport layer formed on the first electrode; (c) a sensing/emitting layer formed on the hole transport layer, the sensing/emitting layer comprising a material that changes color upon exposure to the analyte vapors; (d) an electron conductor layer formed on the sensing layer; and (e) a second electrode formed on the electron conductor layer. The hole transport layer emits light at a shorter wavelength than the sensing/emitting layer and at least the first electrode comprises an optically transparent material.

  9. Vapochromic LED

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunugi, Yoshihito (Hiroshima, JP); Mann, Kent R. (North Oaks, MN); Miller, Larry L. (Minnetonka, MN); Exstrom, Christopher L. (Kearney, NE)

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A sandwich device was prepared by electrodeposition of an insoluble layer of oligomerized tris(4-(2-thienyl)phenyl)amine onto conducting indium-tin oxide coated glass, spin coating the stacked platinum compound, tetrakis(p-decylphenylisocyano)platinum tetranitroplatinate, from toluene onto the oligomer layer, and then coating the platinum complex with aluminum by vapor deposition. This device showed rectification of current and gave electroluminescence. The electroluminescence spectrum (.mu..sub.max =545 nm) corresponded to the photoluminescence spectrum of the platinum complex. Exposure of the device to acetone vapor caused the electroemission to shift to 575 nm. Exposure to toluene vapor caused a return to the original spectrum. These results demonstrate a new type of sensor that reports the arrival of organic vapors with an electroluminescent signal. The sensor comprises (a) a first electrode; (b) a hole transport layer formed on the first electrode; (c) a sensing/emitting layer formed on the hole transport layer, the sensing/emitting layer comprising a material that changes color upon exposure to the analyte vapors; (d) an electron conductor layer formed on the sensing layer; and (e) a second electrode formed on the electron conductor layer. The hole transport layer emits light at a shorter wavelength than the sensing/emitting layer and at least the first electrode comprises an optically transparent material.

  10. Philips Lumileds Is Exploring the Use of Silicon Substrates to Lower the Cost of LEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds is exploring the use of nitride epitaxy on 150mm silicon substrates to produce low-cost, warm-white, high-performance general-illumination LEDs. Most LEDs are made with C-plane sapphire substrates, but silicon—at roughly half a penny per square millimeter—is much cheaper, and it's also easier to obtain. Philips Lumileds is attempting to adapt the use of silicon to the manufacture of LEDs, drawing upon the knowledge base and depreciated equipment of the computer industry, which has been using silicon substrates for decades.

  11. LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at the NAVFAC Engineering Service Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LED LightingOutdoorLED

  12. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as do HID lamps, and an LED lamp includes electronic driverT8, and CFL lamps CFL lamps LED lamp CFL floodlight LightingIncandescent, fluorescent, and LED lamps Electric resistance

  13. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of the (Al,In,Ga)NP/GaP material system and Its applications to light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odnoblyudov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for indicator lamp application, but the LED structure can befor indicator lamp application, but the LED structure can beLEDs are the ultimate goal to replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps

  14. Design and Predictive Control of a Net Zero Energy Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.; Abbarno, N.; Boese, E.; Bullock, J.; Carter, B.; Edwards, R.; Lapite, O.; Mann, D.; Mulvihill, C.; Purcell, E.; Stein, M. IV; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the same amount of light as traditional incandescent bulbs with less energy. Incandescent bulbs are inherently inefficient as most of the energy they consume goes towards heat generation. Compact fluorescent (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED) bulbs... as heat [1]. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) were analyzed in comparison with incandescent lamps. To determine the most energy efficient bulb, energy consumption for each type of bulb is needed. To do this, the amount...

  15. Member Case Studies: LED Street Lighting Programs in Algona (IA), Asheville (NC), and Boston (MA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 8, 2013 webcast featured presentations from DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium member cities about their experiences with LED street lighting. Presenters John Bilsten of...

  16. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  17. Transcranial LED therapy for cognitive dysfunction in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: Two case reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases are presented, where cognitive function improved following treatment with transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs). At age 59, P1 had closed-head injury from a motor vehicle ...

  18. Deposition of colloidal quantum dots by microcontact printing for LED display technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, LeeAnn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis demonstrates a new deposition method of colloidal quantum dots within a quantum dot organic light-emitting diode (QD-LED). A monolayer of quantum dots is microcontact printed as small as 20 ,Lm lines as well ...

  19. Psychophysical evaluations of modulated color rendering for energy performance of LED-based architectural lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Maria do Rosário

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is focused on the visual perception evaluation of colors within an environment of a highly automated lighting control strategy. Digitally controlled lighting systems equipped with light emitting diodes, LEDs, ...

  20. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jenny

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at ensure the success of the off-grid lighting market. Theand E. Mills. 2008. "Measured Off? Grid LED Lighting Systemtechnology into the broader off-grid lighting market. The

  1. adjustable red-green-blue led: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or by combining green and red phosphors on a background consisting of a blue-light emitting diode (LED) or by employing nanocrystals (NCs) of the three primary colors (red,...

  2. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Report Series 20 on LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer, Lighting Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: The CALiPER program looks at typical LED lamp performance attributes. As we've gone through the progression of reports, we...

  3. DOE Publishes CALiPER Snapshot Report on LED MR16 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a Snapshot Report on MR16 lamps, which utilizes the LED Lighting Facts® program's extensive product database to help industry...

  4. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on LED T8 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released an Application Summary Report that focuses on the bare-lamp performance of 31 linear LED lamps intended as an alternative to T8...

  5. Collective Experience: A Database-Fuelled, Inter-Disciplinary Team-Led Learning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celi, Leo Anthony G.

    We describe the framework of a data-fuelled, interdisciplinary team-led learning system. The idea is to build models using patients from one's own institution whose features are similar to an index patient as regards an ...

  6. Applied Materials Develops an Advanced Epitaxial Growth System to Bring Down LED Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Applied Materials has developed an advanced epitaxial growth system for gallium nitride (GaN) LED devices that decreases operating costs, increases internal quantum efficiency, and improves binning yields.

  7. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jenny

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grid lighting market. The lead acid batteries embedded inrechargeable sealed lead-acid batteries are the most popularlead-acid (SLA) battery, LED flashlights powered by dry cell batteries,

  8. Text-Alternative Version: LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     Welcome ladies and gentlemen. I'm Bob Davis with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and I'd like to welcome you to today's webcast titled, LEDs, Can They Perform in a Performing Arts...

  9. EECBG Success Story: Shining Energy-Saving LEDs on Utah Starry...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LEDs across 14 rural communities. About 2,500 streetlights will be replaced and could save the town 20% to 50% on electricity bills. Learn more. Addthis Related Articles A...

  10. Digital Architecture for Driving Large LED Arrays with Dynamic Bus Voltage Regulation and Phase Shifted PWM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emitting Diodes (HB-LEDs) with improved system efficiency and reduced EMI. Key advantages are achieved - This paper introduces a digital architecture suitable for driving a large number of High Brightness Light

  11. Successful Selection of LED Streetlight Luminaires: Optimizing Illumination and Economic Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This March 6, 2013 webcast reviewed the factors involved in successful selection of LED streetlight luminaires. Presenters Eric Haugaard of Cree Lighting and Chad Stalker of Philips Lumileds guided...

  12. Two PPPL-led teams win increased supercomputing time to study...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two PPPL-led teams win increased supercomputing time to study conditions inside fusion plasmas By John Greenwald January 9, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook...

  13. Veeco Develops a Tool to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Veeco is working on reducing epitaxy costs and increasing LED efficiency by developing a physical vapor deposition (PVD) tool for depositing aluminum nitride buffer layers on LED substrates. PVD, also known as "sputtering," is an alternative to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PVD is a purely physical process that involves plasma sputter bombardment rather than a chemical reaction at the surface to be coated, as in MOCVD.

  14. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  15. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.

  16. Research on optimization of cooling structure of LED element (The 2nd report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, T.; Sakate, Y. [Department of Electronics and Control Engineering, Tsuyama National College of Technology, Okayama (Japan); Hashimoto, R. [Collaborative Research Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takashina, T. [International Industry Academia Collaboration Division, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Kanematsu, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Suzuka National College of Technology, Mie (Japan); Utsumi, Y. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Hyogo (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report shows a design guideline on the parts dimension of LED light bulb for heat transfer. LED light bulb is popular owing to the high efficiency and long life. However, LED element is a point heat source. Therefore, LED light bulb has some problems about heat transfer when it is used for lighting. It sometimes causes deterioration by the raise of local temperature, resulting in lowering of efficiency and shorter life. Thus the thermal analysis focused on the number of element, all parts thickness, length, and radiant heat was studied, as systematic report on the points has not been found. In this report, heat radiation was taken into account in the thermal analysis in addition to natural heat convection. Furthermore the temperature of a heat sink model for LED light bulb was measured with thermocouples and thermo-viewer to verify the calculation. The emissivity of aluminum used for the calculation was 0.4. As the result of analysis, it was found that the maximum temperature was mainly influenced by ring length, ring diameter and disk thickness as a design guideline. Concretely, longer length, larger diameter and thicker disk gave lower temperature of LED element. The temperatures of the best and worst model were around 70 °C and 120 °C respectively in the above condition. The temperatures calculated were consistent with those in experiment.

  17. Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhancement of the extraction efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs) through the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) requires a structure design that optimizes the interaction of the guided modes with the PhCs. The main optimization parameters are related to the vertical structure of the LED, such as the thickness of layers, depth of the PhCs, position of the quantum wells as well as the PhC period and fill factor. We review the impact of the vertical design of different approaches of PhC LEDs through a theoretical and experimental standpoint, assessing quantitatively the competing mechanisms that act over each guided mode. Three approaches are described to overcome the main limitation of LEDs with surface PhCs, i.e. the insufficient interaction of low order guided modes with the PhCs. The introduction of an AlGaN confining layer in such structure is shown to be effective in extracting a fraction of the optical energy of low order modes; however, this approach is limited by the growth of the lattice mismatched AlGaN layer on GaN. The second approach, based on thin-film LEDs with PhCs, is limited by the presence of an absorbing reflective metal layer close to the guided modes that plays a major role in the competition between PhC extraction and metal dissipation. Finally, we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically the superior extraction of the guided light in embedded PhC LEDs due to the higher interaction between all optical modes and the PhCs, which resulted in a close to unity extraction efficiency for this device. The use of high-resolution angle-resolved measurements to experimentally determine the PhC extraction parameters was an essential tool for corroborating the theoretical models and quantifying the competing absorption and extraction mechanisms in LEDs.

  18. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting in Leavenworth, KS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Curry, Ku'uipo

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a commercial parking lot lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Technology GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The parking lot is for customers and employees of a Walmart Supercenter in Leavenworth, Kansas and this installation represents the first use of the LED Parking Lot Performance Specification developed by the DOE’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance. The application is a parking lot covering more than a half million square feet, lighted primarily by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Metal halide wall packs were installed along the building facade. This site is new construction, so the installed baseline(s) were hypothetical designs. It was acknowledged early on that deviating from Walmart’s typical design would reduce the illuminance on the site. Walmart primarily uses 1000W pulse-start metal halide (PMH) lamps. In order to provide a comparison between both typical design and a design using conventional luminaires providing a lower illuminance, a 400W PMH design was also considered. As mentioned already, the illuminance would be reduced by shifting from the PMH system to the LED system. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) provides recommended minimum illuminance values for parking lots. All designs exceeded the recommended illuminance values in IES RP-20, some by a wider margin than others. Energy savings from installing the LED system compared to the different PMH systems varied. Compared to the 1000W PMH system, the LED system would save 63 percent of the energy. However, this corresponds to a 68 percent reduction in illuminance as well. In comparison to the 400W PMH system, the LED system would save 44 percent of the energy and provide similar minimum illuminance values at the time of relamping. The LED system cost more than either of the PMH systems when comparing initial costs. However, when the life-cycle costs from energy and maintenance were factored into the scenario, the LED system had lower costs at the end of a 10-year analysis period. The LED system had a 6.1 year payback compared to the 1000W PMH system and a 7.5 year payback versus the 400W PMH system. The costs reflect high initial cost for the LED luminaire, plus more luminaires and (subsequently) more poles for the LED system. The other major issue affecting cost effectiveness was that Leavenworth, Kansas has very low electricity costs. The melded rate for this site was $0.056 per kWh for electricity. However, if the national electricity rate of $0.1022/kWh was used the payback would change to between four and five years for the LED system. This demonstration met the GATEWAY requirements of saving energy, matching or improving illumination, and being cost effective. The project also demonstrated that the Commercial Building Energy Alliance (CBEA) specification works in practice. Walmart appreciated having an entire site lighted by LEDs to gain more experience with the technology. Walmart is reviewing the results of the demonstration as they consider their entire real estate portfolio.

  19. Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LED's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Synopsis: Light loss factors are used to help lighting systems meet quantitative design criteria throughout the life of the installation, but they also influence energy use. As the light sources currently being specified continue to evolve, it is necessary to reevaluate the methods used in calculating light loss factors, as well as carefully consider the consequences of different product performance attributes. Because of the unique operating characteristics of LEDs and lack of a comprehensive lifetime rating—as well as the problematic relationship between lifetime and lumen maintenance—determining an appropriate lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) factor for LED products is difficult. As a result, a unique solution has been advocated: when quantity of light is an important design consideration, the IES recommends using an LLD of not greater than 0.70. This method deviates from the typical practice for conventional sources of using the ratio of mean to initial lumen output, and can misrepresent actual performance, increase energy use, and inhibit comparisons between products. This paper discusses the complications related to LLD and LEDs, compares the performance of conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to a maximum LLD of 0.70 for LEDs.

  20. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  1. LED Light Fixture Project FC1 Director's Conference Room: Life Cycle Cost and Break-even Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    . A light-emitting diode (LED) is a solid-state lighting source that switches on instantly, is readily

  2. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are alsolead-acid (SLA) battery, LED flashlights powered by dry cell batteries,

  3. Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod Array LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, Timothy; Stach, Eric; Garcia, Edwin

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The completed project, entitled â??Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod LEDs,â?ť targeted the goal of a phosphor-free nanorod-based white LED with IQE > 50% across the spectrum from 450 nm to 600 nm on metallized silicon substrates. The principal achievements of this project included: â?˘ Demonstration of (In,Ga)N nanopyramid heterostructures by a conventional OMVPE process. â?˘ Verification of complete filtering of threading dislocations to yield dislocation-free pyramidal heterostructures. â?˘ Demonstration of electroluminescence with a peak wavelength of ~600 nm from an (In,Ga)N nanopyramid array LED. â?˘ Development of a reflective ZrN/AlN buffer layer for epitaxial growth of GaN films and GaN nanopyramid arrays on (111)Si.

  4. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  5. Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the “remote phosphor” platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

  6. Epitaxial Growth of GaN-based LEDs on Simple Sacrificial Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Ferguson; Chris Summers

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to produce alternative substrate technologies for GaN-based LEDs by developing an ALD interlayer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on sacrificial substrates such as ZnO and Si. A sacrificial substrate is used for device growth that can easily be removed using a wet chemical etchant leaving only the thin GaN epi-layer. After substrate removal, the GaN LED chip can then be mounted in several different ways to a metal heat sink/reflector and light extraction techniques can then be applied to the chip and compared for performance. Success in this work will lead to high efficiency LED devices with a simple low cost fabrication method and high product yield as stated by DOE goals for its solid state lighting portfolio.

  7. LED-Induced Fluorescence System for Tea Classification and Quality Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Yongjiang; Mei, Liang; Feng, Chao; Yan, Chunsheng; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluorescence system is developed by using several light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different wavelengths as excitation light sources. The fluorescence detection head consists of multi LED light sources and a multimode fiber for fluorescence collection, where the LEDs and the corresponding filters can be easily chosen to get appropriate excitation wavelengths for different applications. By analyzing fluorescence spectra with the principal component analysis method, the system is utilized in the classification of four types of green tea beverages and two types of black tea beverages. Qualities of the Xihu Longjing tea leaves of different grades, as well as the corresponding liquid tea samples, are studied to further investigate the ability and application of the system in the evaluation of classification/quality of tea and other foods.

  8. Lattice-mismatched GaInP LED devices and methods of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Steiner, Myles A; Bhusal, Lekhnath; Zhang, Yong

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (100) of fabricating an LED or the active regions of an LED and an LED (200). The method includes growing, depositing or otherwise providing a bottom cladding layer (208) of a selected semiconductor alloy with an adjusted bandgap provided by intentionally disordering the structure of the cladding layer (208). A first active layer (202) may be grown above the bottom cladding layer (208) wherein the first active layer (202) is fabricated of the same semiconductor alloy, with however, a partially ordered structure. The first active layer (202) will also be fabricated to include a selected n or p type doping. The method further includes growing a second active layer (204) above the first active layer (202) where the second active layer (204) Is fabricated from the same semiconductor alloy.

  9. High-Efficiency Non-Polar GaN-Based LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fini

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Inlustra Technologies with subcontractor U.C. Santa Barbara conducted a project with the principle goal of demonstrating high internal quantum efficiency blue (430 nm) and green (540nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect density non-polar GaN wafers. Inlustra pursued the fabrication of smooth thick a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as defect reduction techniques such as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) to uniformly lower dislocation density in these films. Limited free-standing wafers were produced as well. By the end of the reporting period, Inlustra had met its milestone of dislocation reduction to < 5 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}. Stacking faults were still present in appreciable density ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -1}), but were not the primary focus of defect reduction since there have been no published studies establishing their detrimental effects on LED performance. Inlustra's LEO progress built a solid foundation upon which further commercial development of GaN substrates will occur. UCSB encountered multiple delays in its LED growth and fabrication efforts due to unavoidable facilities outages imposed by ongoing construction in an area adjacent to the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) laboratory. This, combined with the large amount of ab initio optimization required for the MOCVD system used during the project, resulted in unsatisfactory LED progress. Although numerous blue-green photoluminescence results were obtained, only a few LED structures exhibited electroluminescence at appreciable levels. UCSB also conducting extensive modeling (led by Prof. Van de Walle) on the problem of non-radiative Auger recombination in GaN-based LED structures, which has been posited to contribute to LED efficiency 'droop' at elevated current density. Unlike previous modeling efforts, UCSB's approach was truly a first-principles ab initio methodology. Building on solid numerical foundations, the Auger recombination rates of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys were calculated from first-principles density-functional and many-body-perturbation theory. The differing mechanisms of inter- and intra-band recombination were found to affect different parts of the emission spectrum. In the blue to green spectral region and at room temperature the Auger coefficient was calculated to be as large as 2 x 10{sup -30} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}; in the infrared it is even larger. These results indicated that Auger recombination may be responsible for the loss of quantum efficiency that affects InGaN-based light emitters, whether on non-polar or polar crystal planes.

  10. LEDS-An overview of the state of the art in technology and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Stephen

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state lighting in the form of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is bringing new sources with different operating characteristics to the market. With the control in dimension, optics, intensity and color, these sources have the potential to transform the way we use light. This paper will review the recent improvements in performance that have been achieved by these devices, focusing on those product attributes identified as being critical to end users. The paper will conclude with a consideration of applications capitalizing on the LEDs' unique operating and physical properties.

  11. Chip-Scale Power Conversion for LED Lighting: Integrated Power Chip Converter for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: Teledyne is developing cost-effective power drivers for energy-efficient LED lights that fit on a compact chip. These power drivers are important because they transmit power throughout the LED device. Traditional LED driver components waste energy and don't last as long as the LED itself. They are also large and bulky, so they must be assembled onto a circuit board separately which increases the overall manufacturing cost of the LED light. Teledyne is shrinking the size and improving the efficiency of its LED driver components by using thin layers of an iron magnetic alloy and new gallium nitride on silicon devices. Smaller, more efficient components will enable the drivers to be integrated on a single chip, reducing costs. The new semiconductors in Teledyne's drivers can also handle higher levels of power and last longer without sacrificing efficiency. Initial applications for Teledyne's LED power drivers include refrigerated grocery display cases and retail lighting.

  12. Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Asia-Pacific Trade Economists' Conference Trade-Led Growth in Times of Crisis The World Trade session 2: The Crisis: A Catalyst for More Coherent Trade Policies and Inclusive Growth? Author: Patrick A or carrying the endorsement of the United Nations. #12;1 Policy Brief October 26, 2009 The World Trade Regime

  13. 1 Introduction The development of wind energy use has led to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    1 Introduction The development of wind energy use has led to a noticeable contribution in of electricity by wind energy acts as a negative load leading to an increase in fluctuations of net load patterns conventional reserves have to be kept ready to replace the wind energy share in case of decreasing wind speeds

  14. Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen H.

    Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes with either a light emitting diode (LED) based light curing unit (LCU) or a conventional halogen LCU do reserved. Keywords: Blue light emitting diodes; Light curing unit; Composites; Irradiance; Spectrum; Depth

  15. Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    to investigate design tradeoffs in electrically pumped photonic crystal light emitting diodes. A finite. Keywords: Photonic crystal light emitting diode, electrically pumped device 1. INTRODUCTION Recently optoelectronic devices, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. It has been suggested that a thin slab

  16. Ruofan Wu, Hieu Pham Trung Nguyen and Zetian Mi INTRODUCTION TO LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    -in-a-Wire Light Emitting Diodes and Prevention Method Nano-electronic Devices and Materials, Electrical Computer., Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes. Physica Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials history. Nature Photonics 2007, 1 (4), 189-192. [4] Holonyak, N., Is the light emitting diode (LED

  17. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in Recessed Troffers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.2, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.2 focuses on the performance of three linear (T8...

  18. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.3, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.3 details a set of life-cycle cost simulations...

  19. What led to the pervasiveness of hybrids between Cx. pipiens and Cx. molestus in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What led to the pervasiveness of hybrids between Cx. pipiens and Cx. molestus in North America populations with a few hybrid individuals, as well as populations with pure Cx. pipiens signatures and populations with a mix of pure Cx. pipiens and pure Cx. molestus signatures (Fig. 2). Indeed, previous

  20. forestry.gov.uk/carboncode The Woodland Carbon Code is an initiative led by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon from these projects brings many benefits in addition to carbon sequestration. is effectivelyforestry.gov.uk/carboncode ® The Woodland Carbon Code is an initiative led by the Forestry Commission and supported by a Carbon Advisory Group of UK forest industry and carbon market experts. A buyers

  1. Office of International Programs Education Abroad CSU Faculty-Led Programs Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Office of International Programs ­ Education Abroad 12/2012 CSU Faculty-Led Programs Support Below describes the levels of support and ways that the Office of International Programs ­ Education Abroad unit in the field of international education Application and Maintain website and online application system

  2. High-power LEDs based on InGaAsP/InP heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakovics, V. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (Hungary); Imenkov, A. N.; Sherstnev, V. V.; Serebrennikova, O. Yu.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Yakovlev, Yu. P., E-mail: Yak@iropt1.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with mesa diameters of 100, 200, and 300 ?m are developed on the basis of InGaAsP/InP heterostructures. The mesas are close in shape to a truncated cone with a generatrix inclination angle of ?45° in the vicinity of the active region of the LED, with a ring etched around the mesa serving as a reflector. The emission spectra and directivity patterns of these LEDs are studied in a wide range of current densities and it is shown that radiative recombination is dominant to a current density of ?5000 A/cm{sup 2}, which makes these structures promising for the development of high-power LEDs. An emission power of ?14 mW is obtained in the continuous-wave mode (I = 0.2 A, ? = 1.1 ?m), and that of 77 mW, in the pulsed mode (I = 2 A, ? = 1.1 ?m), which corresponds to external quantum efficiencies of 6.2 and 3.4%, respectively.

  3. General practitioner-led commissioning in the NHS: progress, prospects and pitfalls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    General practitioner-led commissioning in the NHS: progress, prospects and pitfalls Russell Mannion of general practitioner (GP) consortia. These organisations will have responsibility for commissioning on impact of the previous models of GP commissioning that have been introduced in the NHS with the aim

  4. Calibration of Cangaroo II Telescope Using a Fast Blue LED Light Flasher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    , as well as test the data acquisition electronics. Our technique is an independent variation of the laser , and a risetime of #24; 1 ns. The LED has a double emitter giving a non-uniform light pool. By drilling a small

  5. Philips' LED Luminaires Brighten the Rensselaer Engineering Fabrication & Prototyping Facility (also known as the Machine Shop)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    . #12;To help bridge its research efforts with currently available solid state lighting technology outreach to increase campus and community awareness as to the benefits of solid state lighting. About Royal a donation of LED fixtures from Philips Lighting. The Smart Lighting Sustainability Club, comprised

  6. December 2014 CCE-Led One-Time Service Projects Transportation Provided

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    December 2014 CCE-Led One-Time Service Projects Transportation Provided Check In Times Listed Place Senior Center Manicures 6 PM ­ 8 PM 4 Colton Pen Friends 8:15 AM ­ 11:30 AM Recycling Outreach Friends 8:15 AM ­ 11:30 AM Recycling Outreach Campus to Community 10 AM ­ 1 PM Whitman Senior Living

  7. Mercury Releases to Air and Rivers Contaminate Ocean Fish: Dartmouth-Led Effort Publishes Major Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Mercury Releases to Air and Rivers Contaminate Ocean Fish: Dartmouth-Led Effort Publishes Major and in Sources to Seafood: Mercury Pollution in the Marine Environment-- a companion report by the Dartmouth released into the air and then deposited into oceans, contaminates seafood commonly eaten by people

  8. Crystal coat warms up LED light 16:46 01 February 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    in the commercial market. Illuminating buildings accounts for about a quarter of the electricity used in the US in the home. Now researchers have used nanocrystals to create LEDs that give off a warm white light. Fine Articles 'Smart' lamp offers true mood lighting http://technology.newscientist.com/article/mg19626276

  9. Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LED's for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    1) We studied phosphors for near-UV (nUV) LED application as an alternative to blue LEDs currently being used in SSL systems. We have shown that nUV light sources could be very efficient at high current and will have significantly less binning at both the chip and phosphor levels. We identified phosphor blends that could yield 4100K lamps with a CRI of approximately 80 and LPWnUV,opt equal to 179 for the best performing phosphor blend. Considering the fact that the lamps were not optimized for light coupling, the results are quite impressive. The main bottleneck is an optimum blue phosphor with a peak near 440 nm with a full width half maximum of about 25 nm and a quantum efficiency of >95%. Unfortunately, that may be a very difficult task when we want to excite a phosphor at ~400 nm with a very small margin for Stokes shift. Another way is to have all the phosphors in the blend having the excitation peak at 400 nm or slightly shorter wavelength. This could lead to a white light source with no body color and optimum efficacy due to no self-absorption effects by phosphors in the blend. This is even harder than finding an ideal blue phosphor, but not necessarily impossible. 2) With the phosphor blends identified, light sources using nUV LEDs at high current could be designed with comparable efficacy to those using blue LEDs. It will allow us to design light sources with multiple wattages using the same chips and phosphor blends simply by varying the input current. In the case of blue LEDs, this is not currently possible because varying the current will lower the efficacy at high current and alter the color point. With improvement of phosphor blends, control over CRI could improve. Less binning at the chip level and also at the phosphor blend level could reduce the cost of SSL light sources. 3) This study provided a deeper understanding of phosphor characteristics needed for LEDs in general and nUV LEDs in particular. Two students received Ph.D. degrees and three undergraduates participated in this work. Two of the undergraduate students are now in graduate school. The results were widely disseminated – 20 archival journal publications (published, accepted or in preparation) and three conference proceedings resulted. The students presented their work at 11 different national/international conferences (32 oral or poster presentations) and the PI’s delivered 12 invited, keynote or plenary lectures.

  10. The Elusive “Life” of LEDs: How TM-21 Contributes to the Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This magazine article discusses the issue of LED 'lifetime' and explains where TM-21 plays as part of the solution to this issue. In August 2011, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) published the TM-21 document entitled 'Lumen degradation lifetime estimation method for LED light sources.' TM-21 is the IES-recommended method for projecting lumen degradation of an LED package, array or module based on data collected according to LM-80. The lighting community expects TM-21 to become the standard method for projecting useful LED lighting product life at realistic operating temperature. This article presents the development process behind TM-21, and clarifies how and when to apply the lifetime extrapolation method to arrive at reasonable and useful estimations. Why TM-21 and why now? We are all familiar with the very real but sometimes exaggerated long-life attributes of LED technology. Not the least of these is the potential for very long life that helps make it an attractive design choice. The trick has been and continues to be how to measure or estimate this longevity to provide assurance to users of this technology's reliability (life) compared to other options. We also understand that the overall reliability of a complete LED lighting fixture can be affected by the reliability of individual product components (driver, lens, etc.) and should be accounted for in lifetime estimations. The useful life of standard lighting technologies is defined as the time to filament or cathode failure. For most of these lamps, the time period prior to failure exhibits acceptable levels of light output, as shown with the solid lines in Fig. 1. This makes it easy to determine when to replace the lamp. However, LEDs do not have filament burn-out that conveniently announces the end of life (dashed line in Fig. 1). Further, the rapid development of the technology and the desire to bring products to market in a timely manner does not allow for actual testing verification of the long lives claimed (100,000 or even 35,000 hours). As a result, the industry has come to accept a definition of the end of the useful life of an LED as the point when it no longer provides a specified level of light output. And finally, the life and performance of LED lighting products depends greatly on excess heat retained at the diode. This is why LEDs require testing at multiple temperatures such that when a source is installed in a luminaire, its actual operating temperature can be measured and lumen depreciation of the product can be derived. Therefore, to serve the solid-state lighting industry, the Technical Procedures Committee (TPC) of the IES proceeded to develop appropriate tests for use in rating LED product longevity. The initial need was a measure of the basic lumen degradation of LED source components identified by a module, package, or array of diodes and this came in the form of LM-80. Importantly, LM-80 only specifies how to measure lumen depreciation to a minimum of 6000 hours (but recommends testing to 10,000 hours or longer). LM-80 stops short of using that data to estimate any depreciation after that, which is where TM-21 comes in. The TM-21 working group (WG) as part of the IES TPC was formed to develop the lumen depreciation projection method and spent over three years exploring many options. The WG evaluated various projection options starting with an analysis of various mathematical, engineering-based models to provide effective depreciation fit and a useful projection method. Next, the WG analyzed LED lumen maintenance behavior using over 40 sets of LM-80-08 test data (20 sets with 10,000 hours or more) collected from four major LED manufacturers. The working group also examined the accuracy of proposed projections using various proposed models and LM-80 data that extended up to 15,000 hours.

  11. High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case evaluation is ongoing as of the end of the project.

  12. Advanced method for increasing the efficiency of white light quantum dot LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Bennett, Charlee J C [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Walker, Steven C [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covering a light-emitting diode (LED) with quantum dots (QDs) can produce a broad spectrum of white light. However, current techniques for applying QDs to LEDs suffer from a high density of defects and a non-uniform distribution of QDs, which, respectively, diminish the efficiency and quality of emitted light. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has the unique capability to thermally anneal QD structures at extremely high power densities for very short durations. This process, called pulse thermal processing (PTP), reduces the number of point defects while maintaining the size and shape of the original QD nanostructure. Therefore, the efficiency of the QD wavelength conversion layer is improved without altering the emission spectrum defined by the size distribution of theQD nanoparticles. The current research uses a thermal model to predict annealing temperatures during PTP and demonstrates up to a 300% increase in photoluminescence for QDs on passive substrates.

  13. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped phosphor particles are used. This spherical morphology will result in better light extraction and so an improvement of efficiency in the overall device. Cabot is a 2.5 billion dollar company that makes specialized materials using propriety spray based technologies. It is a core competency of Cabot's to exploit the spray based technology and resulting material/morphology advantages. Once a business opportunity is clearly identified, Cabot is positioned to increase the scale of the production to meet opportunity's need. Cabot has demonstrated the capability to make spherical morphology micron-sized phosphor powders by spray based routes for PDP and CRT applications, but the value proposition is still unproven for LED applications. Cabot believes that the improvements in phosphor powders yielded by their process will result in a commercial advantage over existing technologies. Through the SSL project, Cabot has produced a number of different compositions in a spherical morphology that may be useful for solid state lights, as well as demonstrated processes that are able to produce particles from 10 nanometers to 3 micrometers. Towards the end of the project we demonstrated that our process produces YAG:Ce powder that has both higher internal quantum efficiency (0.6 compared to 0.45) and external quantum efficiency (0.85 compared to 0.6) than the commercial standard (see section 3.4.4.3). We, however, only produced these highly bright materials in research and development quantities, and were never able to produce high quantum efficiency materials in a reproducible manner at a commercial scale.

  14. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  15. Energy Blog | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the country. December 1, 2009 Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings LED (or light emitting diode) light strings can use 90% less energy than regular incandescent light strings....

  16. Physics 240 Box Contents 11 May 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    ea. LED, ultra bright yellow 2 ea. LED, ultra bright orange 1 ea. 2N3904, npn small-signal transistor. 7414, inverter 1 ea. 7432, OR gates 2 ea. 7490, decade counter 1 ea. #47 incandescent lamp #12;

  17. Physics 240 Box Contents 11 December 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    . 1N4734, Zener diode, 5.6 V 2 ea. LED, ultra bright yellow 2 ea. LED, ultra bright orange 1 ea. 2N. #47 incandescent lamp #12;

  18. A portable time-domain LED fluorimeter for nanosecond fluorescence lifetime measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongtao; Salthouse, Christopher D., E-mail: salthouse@ecs.umass.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Qi, Ying; Mountziaris, T. J. [Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States) [Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescence lifetime measurements are becoming increasingly important in chemical and biological research. Time-domain lifetime measurements offer fluorescence multiplexing and improved handling of interferers compared with the frequency-domain technique. In this paper, an all solid-state, filterless, and highly portable light-emitting-diode based time-domain fluorimeter (LED TDF) is reported for the measurement of nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes. LED based excitation provides more wavelengths options compared to laser diode based excitation, but the excitation is less effective due to the uncollimated beam, less optical power, and longer latency in state transition. Pulse triggering and pre-bias techniques were implemented in our LED TDF to improve the peak optical power to over 100 mW. The proposed pulsing circuit achieved an excitation light fall time of less than 2 ns. Electrical resetting technique realized a time-gated photo-detector to remove the interference of the excitation light with fluorescence. These techniques allow the LED fluorimeter to accurately measure the fluorescence lifetime of fluorescein down to concentration of 0.5 ?M. In addition, all filters required in traditional instruments are eliminated for the non-attenuated excitation/emission light power. These achievements make the reported device attractive to biochemical laboratories seeking for highly portable lifetime detection devices for developing sensors based on fluorescence lifetime changes. The device was initially validated by measuring the lifetimes of three commercial fluorophores and comparing them with reported lifetime data. It was subsequently used to characterize a ZnSe quantum dot based DNA sensor.

  19. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  20. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  1. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  2. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  3. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s kiosk illuminated by her LED lamp [1/2009] “A.N. ” Market:charge at a shop) “The [LED] lamp is very important and mylamp, hurricane lamp, and LED lamp illuminate night market

  4. LED Lamp Project Lights the Way to Flicker-Free Replacement Jade Sky Technologies and UC Davis's California Lighting Technology Center demonstrate the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    LED Lamp Project Lights the Way to Flicker-Free Replacement Jade Sky the flicker and dimming requirements set by the Voluntary California Quality LED Lamp for incentivized LED replacement lamps. These criteria go beyond energy efficiency

  5. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPED BY CREE LOWER THE COST OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LED TROFFERS ON THE MARKET

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cree used a comprehensive approach to reduce the costs of various optical, thermal, and electrical subsystems without impacting performance, resulting in an LED troffer luminaire platform emitting...

  6. Text-Alternative Version: LED Site Lighting in the Commercial Building Sector: Opportunities, Challenges, and the CBEA Performance Specification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Site Lighting in the Commercial Building Sector: Opportunities, Challenges, and the CBEA Performance Specification webcast.

  7. Electrophoretic Deposition of Highly Efficient Phosphors for White Solid State Lighting using near UV-Emitting LEDs /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jae Ik

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    application in white light emitting diode,” J. Mater. Res. ,phosphors for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)”, 220 thconverted white light emitting diodes by electrophoretic

  8. Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duntley, Seibert Q

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    books. For eX3.I11ple, equation (5.49.1) on page 107 of Glastone and Edlund's, "Elements of Nuclear Reactor

  9. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Addthis Related Articles DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models and Allows Sale of Another Westinghouse and Fuzhou Permitted to Restart...

  10. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearningDepartmentDistributed

  11. Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCODepartmentEnergyCouncilAffairs, toReno Roundtable

  12. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions and PolicyCybersecurity Threats

  13. LED Traffic Light as a Communications Device Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Chi-Ho Chan, Hugh Liu.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    :http://www.eee.hku.hk/~gpang Abstract The visible light from an LED (light emitting diode) traffic light can be modulated and encoded on the description of an audio information system made up of high brightness, visible light emitting diodes (LEDs messages 1. Introduction Recently, high intensity light emitting diodes for traffic signals are available

  14. Nice, Cte d'Azur, France, 27-29 September 2006 THERMAL MODELING OF HIGH POWER LED MODULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generation a part of the input electric power is converted into light, which is described by the wall plugNice, Côte d'Azur, France, 27-29 September 2006 THERMAL MODELING OF HIGH POWER LED MODULES D a study of accuracy issues in thermal modeling of high power LED modules on system level. Both physical

  15. Quantum efficiency enhancement in nanocrystals using nonradiative energy transfer with optimized donor-acceptor ratio for hybrid LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Quantum efficiency enhancement in nanocrystals using nonradiative energy transfer with optimized donor-acceptor ratio for hybrid LEDs Sedat Nizamoglu, Onur Akin, and Hilmi Volkan Demira Department emitting diodes LEDs . For this purpose, we investigate energy gradient mixture of nanocrystal solids

  16. Philips Light Sources & Electronics is Developing an Efficient, Smaller, Cost-Effective Family of LED Drivers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Light Sources & Electronics is developing a new family of LED drivers that are more efficient and cost-effective as well as smaller in size than currently available drivers. The new drivers are switch-mode power supplies that are similar to today's drivers, but with an improved design. In addition, they have a different topology—boost plus LLC—for wattages of 40W and above, but they retain the commonly used flyback topology at lower wattages.

  17. Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates the Way in Alabama | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmart Metersof Energy LED Light Pilot

  18. Zimbabwe-Terms of Reference for Future LEDS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Projectsource History ViewZAP JumpZenergyZeppiniLEDS

  19. Intel Led OpenMP Training Session at NERSC This Wednesday March 25

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | National Nuclear Security AdministrationIntegratingIntel IntelLed

  20. Unique PPPL-led workshop assesses research crucial to the success of ITER |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrinceton Plasma Physics Lab Unique PPPL-led workshop assesses

  1. Kenya-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island,Kas Farmssource HistoryKenworthLEDS in

  2. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest,EnergySerranopolis JumpESLEnergy Information LEDS)

  3. Revolutionary Method for Increasing the Efficiency of White Light Quantum Dot LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Bennett, Charlee J C [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Walker, Steven C [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covering a light-emitting diode (LED) with quantum dots (QDs) can produce a broad spectrum of white light. However, current techniques for applying QDs to LEDs suffer from a high density of defects and a non-uniform distribution of QDs, which respec-tively diminish the efficiency and quality of emitted light. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has the unique capability to thermally anneal QD structures at extremely high power densities for very short durations. This process, called pulse thermal proc-essing (PTP), reduces the number of point defects while main-taining the size and shape of the original QD nanostructure. Therefore, the efficiency of the QD wavelength conversion layer is improved without altering the emission spectrum defined by the size distribution of the quantum dot nanoparticles. The cur-rent research uses a thermal model to predict annealing tempera-tures during PTP and demonstrates up to a 300% increase in pho-toluminescence for QDs on passive substrates

  4. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  5. Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurose, N., E-mail: kurose@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Aoyagi, Y. [The Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [The Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Shibano, K.; Araki, T. [Department of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Department of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400?nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

  6. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  7. A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

  8. Stable levitation and dynamics of ice particles at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Kowalski; Bernard Xie; Colin V. Parker; Cheng Chin

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

  9. Electrical breakdown at low pressure for planar microelectromechanical systems with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    is a major drawback for the simulation of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However when the Navier

  10. Low-pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  11. Low pressure spark gap triggered by an ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark gap apparatus for use as an electric switch operating at high voltage, high current and high repetition rate. Mounted inside a housing are an anode, cathode and ion plate. An ionizable fluid is pumped through the chamber of the housing. A pulse of current to the ion plate causes ions to be emitted by the ion plate, which ions move into and ionize the fluid. Electric current supplied to the anode discharges through the ionized fluid and flows to the cathode. Current stops flowing when the current source has been drained. The ionized fluid recombines into its initial dielectric ionizable state. The switch is now open and ready for another cycle.

  12. Manifestation of constrained dynamics in a low pressure spark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auluck, S K H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some features of neutron emission from dense plasma focus suggest that the participating deuterons have energy in the range of 105 eV and have a directionality of toroidal motion. Theoretical models of these devices assume that the plasma evolves through a purely irrotational flow and thus fail to predict such solenoidal flow on the scale of the plasma dimensions. Predictions of a relaxation theory are consistent with experimental data [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas,18, 032508 (2011)], but the assumptions upon which it is based are not compatible with known features of these devices. There is thus no satisfactory theoretical construct which provides the necessity for solenoidal flow in these devices. This paper proposes such theoretical construct, namely, the principle of constrained dynamics, and describes an experiment which provides support for this idea. The experiment consisted of low inductance, self-breaking spark discharge in helium at a pressure ~100 hPa between two pointed electrodes separated by...

  13. Low-pressure debris dispersal from scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.T.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a severe nuclear reactor accident, degradation of the core may result in debris accumulating in the lower head. Upon failure of the head, the melt may be ejected under pressure through the cavity and into the containment building. Under low system pressure conditions, understanding the mechanisms of debris dispersal is instrumental in assessing the response of the containment to pressurized melt ejection. Current analytical approaches rely on empirical correlations for debris entrainment criteria and very simple gas flow patterns in the cavity. The work reported here is directed toward performing scaled experiments that will develop a data base for refined scaling analyses. Subsequently, extrapolations from the analyses to reactor scale may be performed to provide insight for accident predictions. Mechanistic models for gas flow through the cavity and entrainment of the debris are also being developed from the results presented here. The objective of the test matrix is to vary key parameters to assess the effect on the physical processes of dispersal of the melt from the reactor cavity at low system pressures.

  14. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  15. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor chamber, and (2

  16. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy the equations that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor

  17. Low pressure EGR system having full range capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Milam, David Michael; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Bond, Michael Steven; Kapic, Amir

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust treatment system for an engine is disclosed and may have an air induction circuit, an exhaust circuit, and an exhaust recirculation circuit. The air induction circuit may be configured to direct air into the engine. The exhaust circuit may be configured to direct exhaust from the engine and include a turbine driven by the exhaust, a particulate filter disposed in series with and downstream of the turbine, and a catalytic device disposed in series with and downstream of the particulate filter. The exhaust recirculation circuit may be configured to selectively redirect at least some of the exhaust from between the particulate filter and the catalytic device to the air induction circuit. The catalytic device is selected to create backpressure within the exhaust circuit sufficient to ensure that, under normal engine operating conditions above low idle, exhaust can flow into the air induction circuit without throttling of the air.

  18. Synthesis of YBCO Superconductors Using Low-Pressure Processing - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(Insert Directive Number andHydrogen

  19. Emergency Filter for Low Pressure EGR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department of EnergyMeckes Aboutof

  20. Alternative Strategies for Low Pressure End Uses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat PumpAllegations of

  1. Author's personal copy Radiative heat transfer in enhanced hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    the physical mechanisms responsible for experimental observations that led to the definition of ``photo tube and heated in a furnace or by an incandescent lamp. It was observed that hydrogen release from the glass sample was faster and stronger when heated by an incandescent lamp than within a furnace. Here

  2. Colin Fink was a pioneer in electrochemical processing of materials. Fink is best known for his ground-breaking developments in the electro-deposi:on of metals, and par:cularly for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    :le tungsten for incandescent lamp filaments, an insoluble anode used in the copper Engineering and his inven:on of the alkaline baJery led to the company now known! ! Invented process to produce ductile tungsten for incandescent lamp filaments! ! Taught S. Ruben, who

  3. Philips Lumileds Develops a Low-Cost, High-Power, Warm-White LED Package

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds has developed a low-cost, high-power, warm-white LED package for general illumination. During the course of the two-year project, this package was used to commercialize a series of products with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 2700 to 5700 K, under the product name LUXEON M. A record efficacy of nearly 125 lm/W was demonstrated at a flux of 1023 lumens, a CCT of 3435 K, and a color rendering index (CRI) of more than 80 at room temperature in the productized package. In an R&D package, a record efficacy of more than 133 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lumens, a CCT of 3475 K, and a CRI greater than 80 at room temperature were demonstrated.

  4. LED Surgical Task Lighting Scoping Study: A Hospital Energy Alliance Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten-halogen (halogen) lamps have traditionally been used to light surgical tasks in hospitals, even though they are in many respects ill-suited to the application due to the large percentage of radiant energy outside the visible spectrum and issues with color rendering/quality. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology offers potential for adjustable color and improved color rendition/quality, while simultaneously reducing side-effects from non-visible radiant energy. It also has the potential for significant energy savings, although this is a fairly narrow application in the larger commercial building energy use sector. Based on analysis of available products and Hospital Energy Alliance member interest, it is recommended that a product specification and field measurement procedure be developed for implementation in demonstration projects.

  5. LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building at the University of Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Kaye, Stan; Coleman, Patricia; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Perrin, Tess E.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with the in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. This report describes the process and results of the 2013 - 2014 GATEWAY demonstration of SSL technology in the Nadine McGuire Theatre and Dance Pavilion at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. The LED solutions combined with dimming controls utilized in four interior spaces - the Acting Studio, Dance Studio, Scene Shop, and Dressing Room - received high marks from instructors, students/performers, and reduced energy use in all cases. The report discusses in depth and detail of each project area including specifications, energy savings, and user observations. The report concludes with lessons learned during the demonstration.

  6. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting on Residential and Commercial Streets in Palo Alto, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Tam, Christine

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a GATEWAY demonstration that replaced existing HPS streetlights with two different types of LED products and one induction product. Energy savings ranged from 6% to 44%.

  7. Long-term Testing Results for the 2008 Installation of LED Luminaires at the I-35 West Bridge in Minneapolis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Davis, Robert G.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the long-term testing results from an extended GATEWAY project that was first reported in “Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting at the I-35W Bridge, in Minneapolis, MN,” August 2009. That original report presented the results of lighting the newly reconstructed I 35W Bridge using LEDs in place of conventional high-pressure sodium (HPS) roadway luminaires, comparing energy use and illuminance levels with a simulated baseline condition. That installation was an early stage implementation of LED lighting and remains one of the oldest installations in continued operation today. This document provides an update of the LED system’s performance since its installation in September 2008.

  8. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Accent Lighting at the Field Museum in Chicago, IL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews a demonstration of light-emitting diode (LED) accent lighting compared to halogen (typical) accent lighting in a gallery of the Field Museum in Chicago, IL.

  9. Design and fabrication of high-index-contrast self-assembled texture for light extraction enhancement in LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We developed a high-index-contrast photonic structure for improving the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a self-assembly approach. In this approach, a two-dimensional grating can be ...

  10. CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report 20.1 which focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality in LED PAR38 lamps.

  11. Assessing the Performance of LED-Based Flashlights Available in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing of emerging off-grid White-LED illumination systems,the economics behind off-grid lighting products for smallAvailable in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market Jennifer

  12. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than those with a wide distribution (i.e., with a diffuse optic), and all of the linear LED lamps resulted in a higher luminaire efficiency than the fluorescent benchmark. The...

  13. GaN-Ready Aluminum Nitride Substrates for Cost-Effective, Very Low Dislocation Density III-Nitride LED's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra Schujman; Leo Schowalter

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and then demonstrate the efficacy of a costeffective approach for a low defect density substrate on which AlInGaN LEDs can be fabricated. The efficacy of this “GaN-ready” substrate would then be tested by growing high efficiency, long lifetime InxGa1-xN blue LEDs. The approach used to meet the project objectives was to start with low dislocation density AlN single-crystal substrates and grow graded AlxGa1-xN layers on top. Pseudomorphic AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers grown on bulk AlN substrates were used to fabricate light emitting diodes and demonstrate better device performance as a result of the low defect density in these layers when benched marked against state-of-the-art LEDs fabricated on sapphire substrates. The pseudomorphic LEDs showed excellent output powers compared to similar wavelength devices grown on sapphire substrates, with lifetimes exceeding 10,000 hours (which was the longest time that could reliably be estimated). In addition, high internal quantum efficiencies were demonstrated at high driving current densities even though the external quantum efficiencies were low due to poor photon extraction. Unfortunately, these pseudomorphic LEDs require high Al content so they emit in the ultraviolet. Sapphire based LEDs typically have threading dislocation densities (TDD) > 108 cm-2 while the pseudomorphic LEDs have TDD ? 105 cm-2. The resulting TDD, when grading the AlxGa1-xN layer all the way to pure GaN to produce a “GaN-ready” substrate, has varied between the mid 108 down to the 106 cm-2. These inconsistencies are not well understood. Finally, an approach to improve the LED structures on AlN substrates for light extraction efficiency was developed by thinning and roughening the substrate.

  14. Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupuis, Russell

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

  15. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting at the I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, MN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology conducted in 2009 at the recently reconstructed I-35W bridge in Minneapolis, MN. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Technology Demonstration Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT), Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), and BetaLED™ (a division of Ruud Lighting). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. DOE has implemented a three-year evaluation of the LED luminaires in this installation in order to develop new longitudinal field data on LED performance in a challenging, real-world environment. This document provides information through the initial phase of the I-35W bridge project, up to and including the opening of the bridge to the public and the initial feedback received on the LED lighting installation from bridge users. Initial findings of the evaluation are favorable, with minimum energy savings level of 13% for the LED installation relative to the simulated base case using 250W high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures. The LEDs had an average illuminance level of 0.91 foot candles compared to 1.29 fc for the HPS lamps. The LED luminaires cost $38,000 more than HPS lamps, yielding a lengthy payback period, however the bridge contractor had offered to include the LED luminaires as part of the construction package at no additional cost. One potentially significant benefit of the LEDs in this installation is avoiding rolling lane closures on the heavily-traveled interstate bridge for the purpose of relamping the HPS fixtures. Rolling lane closures involve multiple crew members and various maintenance and safety vehicles, diversion of traffic, as well as related administrative tasks (e.g., approvals, scheduling, etc.). Mn/DOT records show an average cost of relamping fixtures along interstate roadways of between $130-150 per pole. The previous bridge saw a lamp mortality rate of approximately 50% every two years, though the new bridge was designed to minimize many of the vibration issues. A voluntary Web-based feedback survey of nearly 500 self-described bridge users showed strong preference for the LED lighting - positive comments outnumbered negative ones by about five-to-one.

  16. Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

  17. Replacement of Lighting Fixtures with LED Energy Efficient Lights at the Parking Facility, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Brien

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC or Tribe) owns a six-story parking facility adjacent to its Potawatomi Bingo Casino (the Casino) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as well as a valet parking facility under the Casino (collectively, the Parking Facility). The Parking Facility contained 205-watt metal halide-type lights that, for security reasons, operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Starting on August 30, 2010, the Tribe replaced these fixtures with 1,760 state-of-the-art, energy efficient 55-Watt LED lights. This project resulted in an immediate average reduction in monthly peak demand of 238 kW over the fourth quarter of 2010. The average reduction in monthly peak demand from October 1 through December 31, 2010 translates into a forecast annual electrical energy reduction of approximately 1,995,000 kWh or 47.3% of the pre-project demand. This project was technically effective, economically feasible, and beneficial to the public not only in terms of long term energy efficiency and associated emissions reductions, but also in the short-term jobs provided for the S.E. Wisconsin region. The project was implemented, from approval by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to completion, in less than 6 months. The project utilized off-the-shelf proven technologies that were fabricated locally and installed by local trade contractors.

  18. Jade Sky Technologies Partners with CLTC on LED Replacement Lamp Upgrade Project UC Davis' California Lighting Technology Center will utilize Jade Sky Technologies' driver ICs to help spur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Jade Sky Technologies Partners with CLTC on LED Replacement Lamp Upgrade Project UC Davis and power factor. "JST shares our goal of making the transition to LED lamps a satisfying experience of cost-effective, easy-to-use LED lighting solutions Milpitas, Calif. ­ October 15, 2013 ­ Jade Sky

  19. Current crowding in GaInN / GaN LEDs grown on insulating substrates X. Guo, E. F. Schubert and J. Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Current crowding in GaInN / GaN LEDs grown on insulating substrates X. Guo, E. F. Schubert and J spreading in a mesa-structure GaN-based LED grown on an insulating or semi-insulating substrate. (b. Jahns Current crowding in mesa-structure GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on insulating

  20. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  1. Microscopic, electrical and optical studies on InGaN/GaN quantum wells based LED devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutta, Geeta Rani; Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat 6/II, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio [University of Padova, Department of Information Engineering, via Gradenigo 6/B, Padova 35131 (Italy); Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here on the micro structural, electronic and optical properties of a GaN-based InGaN/GaN MQW LED grown by the MOVPE method. The present study shows that the threading dislocations present in these LED structures are terminated as V pits at the surface and have an impact on the electrical and optical activity of these devices. It has been pointed that these dislocations were of edge, screw and mixed types. EBIC maps suggest that the electrically active defects are screw and mixed dislocations and behave as nonradiative recombinant centres.

  2. Argonne is a partner in the Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center led by Northwestern University. Argonne is a partner in the Center for Emergent Superconductivity led by Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    Argonne is a partner in the Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center led by Northwestern Conductivity (CES) W. Kwok (MSD) Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) M. Pellin (MSD) #12; Administrative Support J. Hogan and G. Cutinello Chemical Sciences & Engineering (CSE) E.E. Bunel High Energy

  3. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: NE Cully Boulevard Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new roadway lighting demonstration project was initiated in late 2010, which was planned in conjunction with other upgrades to NE Cully Boulevard, a residential collector road in the northeast area of Portland, OR. With the NE Cully Boulevard project, the Portland Bureau of Transportation hoped to demonstrate different light source technologies and different luminaires side-by-side. This report documents the initial performance of six different newly installed luminaires, including three LED products, one induction product, one ceramic metal halide product, and one high-pressure sodium (HPS) product that represented the baseline solution. It includes reported, calculated, and measured performance; evaluates the economic feasibility of each of the alternative luminaires; and documents user feedback collected from a group of local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) members that toured the site. This report does not contain any long-term performance evaluations or laboratory measurements of luminaire performance. Although not all of the installed products performed equally, the alternative luminaires generally offered higher efficacy, more appropriate luminous intensity distributions, and favorable color quality when compared to the baseline HPS luminaire. However, some products did not provide sufficient illumination to all areas—vehicular drive lanes, bicycle lanes, and sidewalks—or would likely fail to meet design criteria over the life of the installation due to expected depreciation in lumen output. While the overall performance of the alternative luminaires was generally better than the baseline HPS luminaire, cost remains a significant barrier to widespread adoption. Based on the cost of the small quantity of luminaires purchased for this demonstration, the shortest calculated payback period for one of the alternative luminaire types was 17.3 years. The luminaire prices were notably higher than typical prices for currently available luminaires purchased in larger quantities. At prices that are more typical, the payback would be less than 10 years. In addition to the demonstration luminaires, a networked control system was installed for additional evaluation and demonstration purposes. The capability of control system to measure luminaire input power was explored in this study. A more exhaustive demonstration and evaluation of the control system will be the subject of future GATEWAY report(s).

  4. Energy 101: Lighting Choices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in your home to energy-saving incandescent, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), or light emitting diode (LED) bulbs could save you about 50 per year. For more information on lighting...

  5. 38 CHAPTER 1. ASSEMBLY MANUAL BiDirectional Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    38 CHAPTER 1. ASSEMBLY MANUAL Bi­Directional Motor and Infrared Beacon Uni­Directional Motor, LED, Incandescent Lamp Sensor, Polarized Sensor, Non­polarized Figure 1.26: Standard Connector Plug Configurations

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC On November 11, 2010, in Welcome History of Incandescence History of LEDs Grand Challenges Our EFRC SSLS-EFRC Contacts News Publications...

  7. Alan Turing's fundamental contributions to computing led to the development of modern computing technology, and his work conti-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teuscher, Christof

    Alan Turing's fundamental contributions to computing led to the development of modern computing phyllotaxis and connectionism. AlanTuring: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker Approx.584 p.,77 illus-mail:orders@springer.de · Internet:www.springer.de Available from ____copies: Teuscher,C.(Ed): Alan Turing: Life and Legacy

  8. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invent a deep green LED that can lead to higher-efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invent a deep green LED that can lead by the so-called "green gap:"the inability to develop light in the green spectrum that can be combined with red and blue to produce white light. NREL researchers conceptualized a green emission by taking

  9. Hydration reactions associated with eclogite-facies metamor-phism of granulites in the Norwegian Caledonides led to the formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    in the Norwegian Caledonides led to the formation of saline brines with exceptional compositions. Primary omphacite a plethora of solid phases.A total of 18 different minerals have been identified in multiphase brines, and 12 granulite by the increasingly saline brine during K-feldspar breakdown. INTRODUCTION Primary brine fluid

  10. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 20.2, which is part of a series of investigations on LED PAR38 lamps. Report 20.2 focuses on dimming, flicker, and power quality...

  11. Screening of antifeedant activity in brain extracts led to the identification of sulfakinin as a satiety promoter in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belles, Xavier

    , Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, Spain; 2 Department of Organic Chemistry, Facultat de Qui. The study of the mechanisms that regulate this cycle led us to look for food-intake inhibitors in brain) GHMRFamide (Pea-SK). A synthetic version of the peptide inhibited food intake when injected at doses of 1 mg

  12. Off-grid energy services for the poor: Introducing LED lighting in the Millennium Villages Project in Malawi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modi, Vijay

    ) powered by batteries, which are in turn charged by grid electricity or small solar panels, have emerged 2009 Keywords: Solar Lighting Development a b s t r a c t Lanterns that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs as a cost-competitive alternative to kerosene and other fuel-based lighting technologies, offering brighter

  13. Research Support in Hungary Machine scheduling LED public lighting Microsimulation in public transportation Finally Optimization and Operation Research methods for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balázs, Bánhelyi

    Euros per full time researcher year. The Hungarian research support scheme has several other smallerResearch Support in Hungary Machine scheduling LED public lighting Microsimulation in public transportation Finally Optimization and Operation Research methods for Real Life Industrial Problems Tibor

  14. GaN/ZnO and AlGaN/ZnO heterostructure LEDs: growth, fabrication, optical and electrical characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Christian M.

    GaN/ZnO and AlGaN/ZnO heterostructure LEDs: growth, fabrication, optical and electrical 12180-3590, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The wide bandgap polar semiconductors GaN and ZnO and their related alloys fields, and surface terminations. With a small lattice mismatch of ~1.8 % between GaN and Zn

  15. LED ProspectsLED Prospects photometric units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Illuminated by: (a) high-CRI source (b) low-CRI source EFS #12;6 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/ #12;7 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/ #12;8 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/ #12;9 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/ #12;10 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes

  16. LEDs_2LEDs_2 radiative recombination efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    (E) lead to a peak in the light intensity. E.F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, CUP, 2006 [EFS] #12

  17. Correlation of Beam Electron and LED Signal Losses under Irradiation and Long-term Recovery of Lead Tungstate Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Batarin; J. Butler; A. M. Davidenko; A. A. Derevschikov; Y. M. Goncharenko; V. N. Grishin; V. A. Kachanov; A. S. Konstantinov; V. I. Kravtsov; Y. Kubota; V. S. Lukanin; Y. A. Matulenko; Y. M. Melnick; A. P. Meschanin; N. E. Mikhalin; N. G. Minaev; V. V. Mochalov; D. A. Morozov; L. V. Nogach; A. V. Ryazantsev; P. A. Semenov; V. K. Semenov; K. E. Shestermanov; L. F. Soloviev; S. Stone; A. V. Uzunian; A. N. Vasiliev; A. E. Yakutin; J. Yarba

    2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage in lead tungstate crystals reduces their transparency. The calibration that relates the amount of light detected in such crystals to incident energy of photons or electrons is of paramount importance to maintaining the energy resolution the detection system. We report on tests of lead tungstate crystals, read out by photomultiplier tubes, exposed to irradiation by monoenergetic electron or pion beams. The beam electrons themselves were used to measure the scintillation light output, and a blue light emitting diode (LED) was used to track variations of crystals transparency. We report on the correlation of the LED measurement with radiation damage by the beams and also show that it can accurately monitor the crystals recovery from such damage.

  18. Assessing the Performance of LED-Based Flashlights Available in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Low cost rechargeable flashlights that use LED technology are increasingly available in African markets. While LED technology holds promise to provide affordable, high quality lighting services, the widespread dissemination of low quality products may make it difficult to realize this potential. This study includes performance results for three brands of commonly available LED flashlights that were purchased in Kenya in 2009. The performance of the flashlights was evaluated by testing five units for each of the three brands. The tests included measurements of battery capacity, time required to charge the battery, maximum illuminance at one meter, operation time and lux-hours from a fully charged battery, light distribution, and color rendering. All flashlights tested performed well below the manufacturers? rated specifications; the measured battery capacity was 30-50percent lower than the rated capacity and the time required to fully charge the battery was 6-25percent greater than the rated time requirement. Our analysis further shows that within each brand there is considerable variability in each performance indicator. The five samples within a single brand varied from each other by as much as 22percent for battery capacity measurements, 3.6percent for the number of hours required for a full charge, 23percent for maximum initial lux, 38percent for run time, 11percent for light distribution and by as much as 200percent for color rendering. Results obtained are useful for creating a framework for quality assurance of off-grid LED products and will be valuable for informing consumers, distributors and product manufacturers about product performance.

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Commercial Garage Lights In the Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Demonstration project studied the applicability of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires for commercial parking garage applications. High-pressure sodium (HPS) area luminaires were replaced with new LED area luminaires. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid State Lighting Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included Providence Portland Medical Center in Portland, Oregon, the Energy Trust of Oregon, and Lighting Sciences Group (LSG) Inc. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. PNNL manages GATEWAY demonstrations for DOE and represents their perspective in the conduct of the work. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light and electrical power were taken at the site for both HPS and LED light sources. Economic costs were estimated and garage users’ responses to the new light sources were gauged with a survey. Six LED luminaires were installed in the below-ground parking level A, replacing six existing 150W HPS lamps spread out over two rows of parking spaces. Illuminance measurements were taken at floor level approximately every 4 ft on a 60-ft x 40-ft grid to measure light output of these LED luminaires which were termed the “Version 1” luminaires. PNNL conducted power measurements of the circuit in the garage to which the 6 luminaires were connected and determined that they drew an average of 82 W per lamp. An improved LED luminaire, Version 2, was installed in Level B of the parking garage. Illuminance measurements were not made of this second luminaire on site due to higher traffic conditions, but photometric measurements of this lamp and Version 1 were made in an independent testing laboratory and power usage for Version 2 was also measured. Version 1 was found to produce 3600 lumens and Version 2 was found to produce 4700 lumens of light and to consume 78 Watts. Maximum and minimum light levels were measured for the HPS and LED Version 1 luminaires and projected for the Version 2 luminaires. Maximum light levels were 23.51 foot candles, 20.54 fc, and 26.7 fc respectively and minimum light levels were 1.49 fc, 1.45 fc, and 1.88 fc. These results indicate very similar or even slightly higher light levels produced by the LED lamps, despite the higher lumen output of the HPS lamp. The LED lamps provide higher luminaire efficacy because all of the light is directed down and out. None of it is “lost” in the fixture. Also the HPS luminaire had poorly designed optics and a plastic covering that tended to get dirty and cracked, further decreasing the realized light output.[is this an accurate way to say this?] Consumer perceptions of the Version 2 LED were collected via a written survey form given to maintenance and security personnel. More than half felt the LED luminaires provided more light than the HPS lamps and a majority expressed a preference for the new lamps when viewing the relamped area through a security camera. Respondents commented that the LED luminaires were less glary, created less shadows, had a positive impact on visibility, and improved the overall appearance of the area. PNNL conducted an economic analysis and found that the Version 1 lamp produced annual energy savings of 955 kWh and energy cost savings of $76.39 per lamp at electricity rates of 6.5 cents per kWh and $105.03 at 11 cents per kWh. PNNL found that the Version 2 lamp produced annual energy savings of 991 kWh and energy cost savings of $79.26 per lamp at electricity rates of 6.5 cents per kWh and $108.98 at 11 cents per kWh. PNNL also calculated simple payback and found that Version 1 showed paybacks of 5.4 yrs at 6.5c/kWh and 4.1 yrs at 11c/kWh while Version 2 showed paybacks of 5.2 yrs at 6.5c/kWh and 3.9 yrs at 11c/kWh.

  20. The photocatalysis of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} under the irradiation of blue LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzwang@mail.sic.ac.cn; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Songmei

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ·OH trap and hole sink were involved to investigate the active radicals. • Holes play a more important role in the degradation of RhB. • The ·OH were related to the decomposition of phenol. • The ·O{sub 2}-played a leading role in the photodegradation of phenol. • Blue LED is competitive and promising alternative for the future application. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} has been reported as a promising photocatalyst in wastewater treatment. The active radicals generated over the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} during the photocatalytic process were thought to be hydroxyl radical (·OH) but have not been proved. Herein, Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with nanoplate like morphology was synthesized and its photocatalytic performances in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol as colored and colorless model pollutants respectively were evaluated under the irradiation of blue light emitting diode (LED). The tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as a ·OH trap and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a hole sink were involved to investigate the main active groups that are generated on Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and function during the photodegradation of RhB and phenol. In addition, it is a competitive and promising alternative plan to use blue LED as light source for the future practical application in environmental remediation.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of rare earth activated phosphors for near UV-emitting LEDs for efficacious generation of white light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jinkyu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LEDs is the significant current droop at high current, whicha binning problem and current droop problems [9]. Thus, theinvestigated due to less current droop and improved binning

  2. Data Sheet Fujitsu Display B24T-7 LED proGREEN Displays Page 1 / 4 http://www.fujitsu.com/fts/displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Albrecht

    , EN 60950, RoHS, WEEE, IT-Eco-Declaration Model B24T- LED Germany TÜV GS Russia GOST USA/Canada FCC

  3. Data Sheet Fujitsu Display B22T-7 LED proGREEN Displays Page 1 / 4 http://www.fujitsu.com/fts/displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Albrecht

    , EN 60950, RoHS, WEEE, IT-Eco-Declaration Model B22T-7 LED Germany TÜV GS Russia GOST USA/Canada FCC

  4. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calciati, Marco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Goano, Michele, E-mail: michele.goano@polito.it; Bertazzi, Francesco [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); IEIIT-CNR, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Universitŕ di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bellotti, Enrico [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, 02215 Boston, MA (United States); Verzellesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell'Ingegneria, Universitŕ di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10{sup ?30} cm{sup 6}/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary attempt at uncertainty quantification confirms, beyond the present case, the need for an improved description of carrier transport and microscopic radiative and nonradiative recombination mechanisms in device-level LED numerical models.

  5. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with high efficiency, dimmabil-ity, long life, and directional light output, could be the ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Issue Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with high efficiency, dimmabil- ity, long life, and directional light output, could be the ideal light source for the common recessed-can downlight. How- ever, many existing LED downlight products fail to live up to expectations, providing poor light distribution

  6. AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, K. X.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

  7. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 17, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST 2011 971 Highly Efficient and Bright LEDs Overgrown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient and Bright LEDs Overgrown on GaN Nanopillar Substrates Ching-Hsueh Chiu, Po-Min Tu, Chien emitting diodes (LEDs) using a GaN nanopillars (NPs) structure grown on sapphire substrate by integrating. However, lack of a suitable, inexpensive substrate restrains the improve- ment of GaN-based devices. Even

  8. Phosphors for LED lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  9. Expandable LED array interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  10. Recessed LED Downlights

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of 2007, DOE estimated that there were roughly 800 million downlights installed in residential and commercial buildings, noting that in both settings, relatively inefficient...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Photovoltaic, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solid-State Lighting Titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles show great promise as fillers to tune the refractive...

  12. Innovations in LEDs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - N. Holonyak and S.F. Bevacgua * 1962-Present Continuing development and optimization of various direct bandgap ternary (GaAsP, AlGaAs) and quarternary (AlInGaP,...

  13. LED Frequently Asked Questions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PMDOE-STD-1107-97LSEED:LDV HVAC

  14. LED Market Intelligence Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9LDRD, What does

  15. LEd:JCD

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNewCF INDUSTRIES,L? .-I I2 m.m

  16. Energy Efficiency ISSN 1570-646X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    ConEd Consolidated Edison CRT Cathode ray tube LCD Liquid crystal display LED Light emitting diode included combustion, incandescent and compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs, and now light emitting diode (LED emitting diodes (LED), has been sug- gested as a way of reducing energy used for lighting. Such predictions

  17. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  18. Pousset, Obein, Razet, LED lighting quality with CQS samples CIE 2010 : Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, 14-17 March 2010, Vienna, Austria 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A psychophysical experiment developed to evaluate light quality of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is described. Keywords: Light Emitting Diode, quality of light, Color Rendering Index, Color Quality Scale, visual

  19. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This December 3, 2013 webinar explored the findings of CALiPER 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps and discussed what attributes to...

  20. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time period Pre 07/2008 Lighting Technology (Nightly Cost,2 Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Comparedto Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity

  1. 2011 Automotive Industry Seminar -"Challenges after the Earthquake" In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced a severe economic depression led by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011 Automotive Industry Seminar - "Challenges after the Earthquake" In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced a severe economic depression led by subprime loan issues, recalls Automotive Industry Seminar "Challenges after the Earthquake" in cooperation with the Consulate

  2. Text-Alternative Version: The L Prize-Winning LED A19 Replacement—What Commercial Building Owners/Operators Can Expect in 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "The L Prize-Winning LED A19 Replacement—What Commercial Building Owners/Operators Can Expect in 2012" webcast, held January 18, 2012.

  3. Webinar: The L Prize-Winning LED A19 Replacement—What Commercial Building Owners/Operators Can Expect in 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This January 18, 2012 webinar presented an update on the status of LED A19 lamp options for commercial businesses, with an overview of DOE's L Prize competition and the rigorous lab, lifetime, and...

  4. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  5. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  6. Illuminating the Pecking Order in Off-Grid Lighting: A Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in the Poultry Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Mills, Evan

    2010-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lumina Project and Lighting Africa conducted a full-scale field test involving a switch from kerosene to solar-LED lighting for commercial broiler chicken production at an off-grid farm in Kenya. The test achieved lower operating costs, produced substantially more light, improved the working environment, and had no adverse effect on yields. A strategy using conventional solar-fluorescent lighting also achieved comparable yields, but entailed a six-fold higher capital cost and significantly higher recurring battery replacement costs. Thanks to higher energy and optical efficiencies, the LED system provided approximately twice the illumination to the chicken-production area and yet drew less than half the power.At the study farm, 3000 chickens were grown in each of three identical houses under kerosene, fluorescent, and LED lighting configurations. Under baseline conditions, a yearly expenditure of 1,200 USD is required to illuminate the three houses with kerosene. The LED system eliminates this fuel use and expense with a corresponding simple payback time of 1.5 years, while the solar-fluorescent system has a payback time of 9.3 years. The corresponding reduction in fuel expenditure in both cases represents a 15percent increase in after-tax net income (revenues minus expenses) across the entire business operation. The differential cost-effectiveness between the LED and fluorescent systems would be substantially greater if the fluorescent system were upsized to provide the same light as the LED system. Providing light with the fluorescent or LED systems is also far more economical than connecting to the grid in this case. The estimated grid-connection cost at this facility is 1.7 million Kenya Schillings (approximately 21,250 USD), which is nearly six-times the cost of the fluorescent system and 35-times the cost of the LED system.The LED system also confers various non-energy benefits. The relative uniformity of LED lighting, compared to the fluorescent or kerosene lighting, reduced crowding which in turn created a less stressful environment for the chickens. The far higher levels of illumination also created a better environment for the workers, while eliminating the time required for obtaining fuel and maintaining kerosene lanterns. An additional advantage of the LED system relative to the solar fluorescent system was that the former does not require a skilled technician to carry out the installation. The portable LED system lighting layout is also more easily adjusted than that of the hardwired fluorescent systems. Furthermore, switching to the LED system avoids over one metric ton of carbon dioxide emissions per house on an annual basis compared to kerosene. There is high potential for replication of this particular LED lighting strategy in the developing world. In order to estimate the scale of kerosene use and the potential for savings, more information is needed on the numbers of chickens produced off-grid, as well as lighting uses for other categories of poultry production (egg layers, indigenous broilers ). Our discovery that weight gain did not slow in the solar-fluorescent house after it experienced extended lighting outages beginning on day 14 of the 35-day study suggests that conventional farming practices in Kenyan broiler operations may call for more hours of lighting than is needed to achieve least-cost production.

  7. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  8. a coarse grinding with recycling of the largest particles on the hammer-mill only led to a very small decrease in the digestibility of the main components of the diet. It had

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - a coarse grinding with recycling of the largest particles on the hammer-mill only led to a very the utilization conditions of protein-rich peas in bacon pig feeding (PEREZ, LEUILLET, BOURDON, 1979) led

  9. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  10. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A report describing the process and results of replacing existing parking lot lighting, looking at a LED option with occupancy sensors, and conventional alternates. Criteria include payback, light levels, occupant satisfaction. This report is Phase I of II. Phase I deals with initial installation.

  11. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.1, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.1 focuses on the performance of 31 types of...

  12. "Integrating Scientific Instrumentation with the Grid" "Recent developments in the scientific world have led to the building of large-size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of industrial automation (flexible manufacturing systems). Since 1994 he has been a technologist at Sincrotrone in the scientific world have led to the building of large-size installations of scientific equipment, producing data * Examples / Use cases * GRIDCC middleware / System overview * System components * Addressing

  13. Driving Down HB-LED Costs: Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Quinn

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LEDâ??s into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield. Programmatically, improvements made in Phase I are applied to developments of Phase II when applicable. Phase three is the culmination of the individual tasks from both phases one and two applied to proposed production platforms. We selectively combine previously demonstrated tasks and other options to develop a high-volume production-worthy MOCVD system demonstrating >3x throughput, 1.3x capital efficiency, and 0.7x cost of ownership. In a parallel demonstration we validate the concept of an improved, larger deposition system which utilizes the predictive modeling of chemistry-based flow analysis and extensions of the improvements demonstrated on the current platforms. This validation includes the build and testing of a prototype version of the hardware and demonstration of 69% reduction in the cost of ownership. Also, in this phase we present a stand-alone project to develop a high-temperature system which improves source efficiency by 30% while concurrently increasing growth rate by 1.3x. The material quality is held to the same material quality specifications of our existing baseline processes. The merits of other line item tasks in phase three are discussed for inclusion on next-generation platforms.

  14. Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and solar panels. 17. Key Words Solar Energy, Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Intersections, Incandescent Bulbs No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Feasibility of Solar Powered Traffic Signs. By retrofitting the signals to solar energy and switching to LED the city will see major energy and cost savings

  15. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  17. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  18. I tnR(I J UCI t~ G f~ SK, A S IMP LE nw~~ LED GEABLE SYSTE1'1 Bozena H. Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;I tnR(I J UCI t~ G f~ SK, A S IMP LE nw~~ LED GEABLE SYSTE1'1 Bozena H. Thompson Frederick B. Thompson 5054:H1:82 Submitted to Confo:'r,?nce on Appl i ed Natural Languago:' Processi ng Santa Monica. and F. Thompson INTRODUCING ASK, A SIMPLE KNOWLEDGEABLE SYSTEM Bozena H. Thompson Frederick B. Thompson

  19. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 1990 (ITS-90). ,” Metrologia, vol. 27, p. 3, Mar. 1990. [Wavelength Pyrometry,” Metrologia, vol. 17, p. 103, 1981. [

  20. Aerosol Mass Spectrometry via Laser-Induced Incandescence Particle Vaporization Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy B. Onasch

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully developed and commercialized a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) instrument to measure mass, size, and chemical information of soot particles in ambient environments. The SP-AMS instrument has been calibrated and extensively tested in the laboratory and during initial field studies. The first instrument paper describing the SP-AMS has been submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal and there are several related papers covering initial field studies and laboratory studies that are in preparation. We have currently sold 5 SP-AMS instruments (either as complete systems or as SP modules to existing AMS instrument operators).

  1. A calibration-independent laser-induced incandescence technique for soot measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

    , and viral in- fections. The soot emitted from various combustion devices, such as engines, power generation range of applications, such as steady flames, flickering flames, and Diesel engine exhausts. We present. Introduction Recent studies have drawn attention to the role of combustion-generated particulate matter

  2. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Pop, “Infrared Microscopy of Joule Heating in Graphenenear infrared is attainable through gating and heating of

  3. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Walkway Lighting at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center, in Atlantic City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a collaborative project to demonstrate a solid state lighting (SSL) general illumination product in an outdoor area walkway application. In the project, six light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires were installed to replace six existing high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires mounted on 14-foot poles on a set of exterior walkways and stairs at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, during December, 2007. The effort was a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SSL Technology Gateway Demonstration that involved a collaborative teaming agreement between DOE, FAA and Ruud Lighting (and their wholly owned division, Beta LED). Pre- and post-installation power and illumination measurements were taken and used in calculations of energy savings and related economic payback, while personnel impacted by the new lights were provided questionnaires to gauge their perceptions and feedback. The SSL product demonstrated energy savings of over 25% while maintaining illuminance levels and improving illuminance uniformity. PNNL's economic analysis yielded a variety of potential payback results depending on the assumptions used. In the best case, replacing HPS with the LED luminaire can yield a payback as low as 3 years. The new lamps were quite popular with the affected personnel, who gave the lighting an average score of 4.46 out of 5 for improvement.

  4. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking venetian blinds, LED (light emitting diodes) lighting and Building Management system. 1.01 Modeling And Simulation Of Double Skin Active Facade The modeling and simulation of the Double Skin Fa?ade Cavity is a complicated task, since... sweating/condensation on the water coil. 3.06 LED (Light Emitting Diode) Lighting The building is illuminated using extremely energy efficient LED?s which last 5 times as long as fluorescents and 50 times longer than typical incandescent. So...

  5. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking venetian blinds, LED (light emitting diodes) lighting and Building Management system. 1.01 Modeling And Simulation Of Double Skin Active Facade The modeling and simulation of the Double Skin Fa?ade Cavity is a complicated task, since... sweating/condensation on the water coil. 3.06 LED (Light Emitting Diode) Lighting The building is illuminated using extremely energy efficient LED?s which last 5 times as long as fluorescents and 50 times longer than typical incandescent. So...

  6. Gravity Control produced by a Thermoionic Current through the Air at Very Low Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fran De Aquino

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    It was observed that samples hung above a thermoionic current exhibit a weight decrease directly proportional to the intensity of the current. The observed phenomenon appears to be absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the framework of the general relativity. It is pointed out the possibility that this unexpected effect is connected with a possible correlation between gravity and electromagnetism.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Large-scale storage of low-pressure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel and grid-scale energy applications offers several advantages over above-ground storage, says a recent Sandia study sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies...

  8. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Producido por AgriLife Communications and Marketing, El Sistema Universitario Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas Agri...

  9. Thermal expansion of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition polysilicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    polysilicon films were deposited on the sub- strates by LPCVD in a hot-walled horizontal tube fur- nace with an inner diameter of 225 mm, using SiH4 at a flow rate of 100 sccm and a pressure of 300 mtorr J. Mater

  10. Simulation of subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions with RELAP5-3D computer program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reza, S.M. Mohsin

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of subcooled boiling was carried out using RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computer programs. Both one-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses were carried out with one-dimensional RELAP5/MOD3.2 and three-dimensional RELAP5-3D code...

  11. Capstone Low Pressure Grid-connect Tests Capstone LP Stand-alone Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /25/2001 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Seconds Output 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20

  12. Modeling particle formation during low-pressure silane oxidation: Detailed chemical kinetics and aerosol dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachariah, Michael R.

    that the generation of SiOHx species from fast gas- phase reactions can significantly degrade film quality. Based conservation equations and a moment-type aerosol dynamics model were formulated for a batch reactor undergoing to impurity diffusion.1 During LPCVD film deposition rates are limited by the gas-phase nucleation

  13. Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. An "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates an electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer. Furthermore, chambers maintained at different pressures can allow for more optimal operating conditions for an electrospray emitter and an ion guide.

  14. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Low-Pressure Dosing System (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Producido por AgriLife Communications and Marketing, El Sistema Universitario Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas Agri...

  15. Electrical time resolved metrology of dust particles growing in low pressure cold plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wattieaux, Gaeetan [PRISME, Orleans University, 12 rue de Blois BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Mezeghrane, Abdelaziz [LPCQ, Mouloud Mammeri University, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Boufendi, Laiefa [GREMI, Orleans University, 14 rue d'Issoudun BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical parameters of a capacitively coupled radiofrequency (CCRF) discharge change significantly when dust arises in the discharge. This work demonstrates the ability to follow in real time the evolution of the size and of the concentration of dust particles forming in a CCRF discharge from the variation of the electron density and of the self-bias voltage of the active electrode. According to experimental findings, it appears that the variation of this self-bias voltage depends on the surface of the dust particles. This trend is confirmed by an analytical modelling considering the low frequency behaviour of the phenomenon.

  16. Decay of a low-pressure oxygen magnetized and unmagnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, Dmitry [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Extraction of negative ions from electronegative plasmas is one of the key issues addressed during the study of these plasmas. One of the widely used methods is the turn off of the electron heating power. This results in the escape of electrons from the plasma and results in the formation of almost pure ion-ion plasma. In the latter case, the plasma sheath collapses, which enables the extraction of negative ions from the plasma. Another method is the application of a large magnetic field to the plasma. If the electrons become magnetized and trapped near the center of discharge chamber, the plasma sheaths near the walls collapse. This also enables the negative ion extraction from the plasma even during the power-on stage. The aim of the present paper is the comparison of these two methods.

  17. Measurement of effective sheath width around cutoff probe in low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@kriss.re.kr; Kim, J. H. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies indicated that the measurement results of microwave probes can be improved by applying the adequate sheath width to their measurement models, and consequently the sheath width around the microwave probe tips has become very important information for microwave probe diagnostics. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring the argon plasma sheath width around the cutoff probe tips by applying the circuit model to the cutoff probe phase spectrum. The measured sheath width of the cutoff probe was found to be in good agreement with the floated sheath width calculated from the Child-Langmuir sheath law. The physical reasons for a discrepancy between the two measurements are also discussed.

  18. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  19. Performance characteristics of a low pressure cyclone for axial-flow fan exhausts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Shay Lynn

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on axial-flow fan exhausts to significantly reduce particulate emissions. Average emission concentrations, cut-point diameters, PMIO emission concentrations, and fractional efficiencies from this cyclone operating at different cyclone inlet velocities...

  20. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.