Sample records for incandescent laptop load

  1. Energy-Agile Laptops: Demand Response of Mobile Plug Loads Using Sensor/Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Energy-Agile Laptops: Demand Response of Mobile Plug Loads Using Sensor/Actuator Networks Nathan@me.berkeley.edu Abstract--This paper explores demand response techniques for managing mobile, distributed loads with on observed. Our first simulation study explores a classic demand response scenario in which a large number

  2. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  3. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  4. Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonsight Inc.

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination was initially projected. The work performed provided answers to a number of important questions. The first is that, with the investigated approaches, the maximum sustained emitter efficiencies are about 1.5 times that of a standard incandescent bulb. This was seen to be the case for both thick and thin emitters, and for both mono-layer and bi-layer designs. While observed VIS/NIR ratios represent improvements over standard incandescent bulbs, it does not appear sufficient to overcome higher cost (i.e. up to five times that of the standard bulb) and ensure commercial success. Another result is that high temperatures (i.e. 2650 K) are routinely attainable without platinum electrodes. This is significant for reducing material costs. A novel dual heating arrangement and insulated electrodes were used to attain these temperatures. Another observed characteristic of the emitter was significant grain growth soon after attaining operating temperatures. This is an undesirable characteristic that results in substantially less optical scattering and spectral selectivity, and which significantly limits emitter efficiencies to the values reported. Further work is required to address this problem.

  5. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save 75 each year. Compared to traditional incandescents, energy-efficient lightbulbs...

  6. Cost effectiveness of long life incandescent lamps and energy buttons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen hours are determined for each lamp system. It is found that the most important component lighting cost is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial unit cost of $20.00, is the most cost-effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined.

  7. G54SIM Lab 02 Tutorial: Laptop Simulation Build a simulation model of a laptop operation. When the laptop is on and the user is working, i.e. is pressing the keyboard keys and moving the mouse, the laptop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    the battery usage. To wake the laptop up you need to press the power button. In any of the three states On {EnergyConsumption} [EnergyConsumption=: Laptop.isStateActive(On)?5 : Laptop.isStateActive(ScreenOff)?31 G54SIM Lab 02 Tutorial: Laptop Simulation Task Build a simulation model of a laptop operation

  8. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  9. Apparatus to facilitate lengthening the life of incandescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spissinger, F.H.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An energizing circuit is described for an incandescent bulb comprising a transformer having a primary winding connectable to an AC mains source and first and second secondary windings for producing first and second voltages. The first secondary winding is connected to an input of a first full-wave rectifier means and the second secondary winding is connected to an input of a second full-wave rectifier means, the full-wave rectifier means having outputs connected in parallel across the bulb. The first voltage is sufficient to fully illuminate the bulb and the second voltage is sufficient to maintain the bulb warm but with little or no light output, a first switch being connected between the first secondary winding and the first rectifier means whereby, when the first switch is open, the bulb is energized solely by the second voltage.

  10. LAPTOP COMPUTER CHECKOUT POLICY There are two laptop computers that can be checked out by faculty who need them for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    LAPTOP COMPUTER CHECKOUT POLICY There are two laptop computers that can be checked out by faculty policy which was adopted by College Council: (1) The pool laptop computers can be checked out for no more than 2 weeks at a time. (2) Reservation requests for portable computers should be submitted at least 1

  11. User Monitor & Feedback Mechanism for Social Scientific Study on Laptop Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamp, Mark

    change among laptop users via interactive energy-usage feedback with college students as the initiali User Monitor & Feedback Mechanism for Social Scientific Study on Laptop Energy Reduction SCIENTIFIC STUDY ON LAPTOP ENERGY REDUCTION by Namrata Buddhadev APPROVED FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER

  12. 1. Create your AUDIENCE RESPONSE (rwpoll account ) on your laptop.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1. Create your AUDIENCE RESPONSE (rwpoll account ) on your laptop. Follow these steps so your the Device ID to complete step 2 of the Audience Response registration! By clicking Continue, you. This will allow your account to automatically sync with the MCW participant list for Audience Response Sessions

  13. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state in lighting products without compromising their performance and useful lifespan. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Energy to increase energy efficiency for general lighting. Therefore, consumers are replacing incandescent light

  14. TRAVELING WITH A LAPTOP COMPUTER OR ELECTRONIC DEVICES Faculty, staff, and students often travel with a laptop computer, PDA, flash drive or other electronic devices. It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    TRAVELING WITH A LAPTOP COMPUTER OR ELECTRONIC DEVICES Faculty, staff, and students often travel with a laptop computer, PDA, flash drive or other electronic devices. It is important to note, that these electronic devices, their underlying software, and the technical data stored in them may be subject

  15. Posted on Thu, Apr. 06, 2006 Laptop Orchestra boots up in N.J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posted on Thu, Apr. 06, 2006 Laptop Orchestra boots up in N.J. By David Patrick Stearns Inquirer for its highly portable equipment, and has up to 15 people onstage operating laptop computers, each/Still), to prosaic hand signals or, in one case, pieces of paper held up with printed directions containing

  16. Just Add Wheels: Leveraging Commodity Laptop Hardware for Robotics and AI Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    . By adding wheels, motors and a motor control board, a modern laptop can be transformed into a capable robot-rich devices. This trend, driven by consumer demand and enabled by improve- ments in solid-state sensor, by using a student's own laptop as part of a capable robot. With the addition of servo motors, a motor

  17. The Victorian Laptop: Narrative Engagement through Place and Time J. Cassell & J. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cassell, Justine

    The Victorian Laptop: Narrative Engagement through Place and Time J. Cassell & J. Smith MIT Media Lab E15-315, 20 Ames Street Cambridge, MA 02139 {justine, jsmith}@media.mit.edu Abstract We introduce

  18. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  19. The One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) Project and Its Applicability to Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchele, Suzanne Fox

    specially designed for rugged, low or no electricity conditions, and has a screen that is readable in direct be developed by interested individuals and third parties in parallel to launch and would grow in proportion to demand. Currently, the OLPC laptop is being sold only to governments, for distribution by the countries

  20. IEEE Wireless Communications April 200762 1536-1284/07/$20.00 2007 IEEE pilot Laptop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Robert C

    are those located about the user's person, and remote devices are those owned/controlled by the user communications device but a diverse range of devices forming a personal area net- work (PAN of wireless processing devices. These devices will include wireless enabled laptops, PDAs, and smartphones

  1. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  2. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  3. EIND510 Usability Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering\\EIND510\\EIND510 Fall 2011\\EIND510 syllabus Fall 2011.docx 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    EIND510 ­ Usability Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering\\EIND510\\EIND510 Fall 2011\\EIND;EIND510 ­ Usability Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering\\EI

  4. Mobile Technology Choices and Considerations Purdue maintains and manages desktop and laptop computers for learning, research, engagement, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or laptop? The industry has exploded with a new class of personal devices that are just a bit bigger than, Maintenance and Patching The types of devices being discussed here are typically built for both personal established good models for maintaining these types of devices. Programs have been established to standardize

  5. PFLOTRAN: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan; Mills, Richard T.

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    PFLOTRAN, a next-generation reactive flow and transport code for modeling subsurface processes, has been designed from the ground up to run efficiently on machines ranging from leadership-class supercomputers to laptops. Based on an object-oriented design, the code is easily extensible to incorporate additional processes. It can interface seamlessly with Fortran 9X, C and C++ codes. Domain decomposition parallelism is employed, with the PETSc parallel framework used to manage parallel solvers, data structures and communication. Features of the code include a modular input file, implementation of high-performance I/O using parallel HDF5, ability to perform multiple realization simulations with multiple processors per realization in a seamless manner, and multiple modes for multiphase flow and multicomponent geochemical transport. Chemical reactions currently implemented in the code include homogeneous aqueous complexing reactions and heterogeneous mineral precipitation/dissolution, ion exchange, surface complexation and a multirate kinetic sorption model. PFLOTRAN has demonstrated petascale performance using 2{sup 17} processor cores with over 2 billion degrees of freedom. Accomplishments achieved to date include applications to the Hanford 300 Area and modeling CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep geologic formations.

  6. Plug Load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996)representative of thePlug-Load Sign In

  7. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P.Department ofMaking | Department ofGive Drivers

  8. Fig. 1. On the right is the Cloud Chamber, on the left is a laptop running the Cloud Catcher software ( Alexis Kirke.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    in real time. A glass cloud chamber was used onstage to make radioactivity visible in bright white tracksFig. 1. On the right is the Cloud Chamber, on the left is a laptop running the Cloud Catcher software (© Alexis Kirke.) CLOUD CHAMBER: A PERFORMANCE WITH REAL TIME TWO-WAY INTERACTION BETWEEN

  9. Load Management for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    customer management programs exist. EPRI Report (EM-1606) loads to beneficially alter a'utility's load curve. (Page 1-2) list them as: Load management alternatives are covered. 1. Direct or voluntary control of customer Load management methods can... and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report energy management programs. (EM-1606) states that "the objective of load manage ment is to alter the real or apparent pattern of Our load management program was designed electricity use in order to...

  10. Power Capture (PowCap) Board for Non Intrusive Load Monitoring and Power Line Communication Exploration and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Vikram

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the LED Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.13 Predictionfor the LED Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction tableappliances, including a) LED lamp, b) incandescent lamp, c)

  11. Buildings Stock Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing...

  12. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  13. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  14. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  15. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  16. 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke

    -to-day operations, system analysis in smart grids, system visualization, system performance reliability, energy..............................................................................................................397 #12;376 Smart Grids The load forecast generally provides annual peak values for the whole system saving, and accuracy in system planning [1­4]. * This work is partly supported by a collaborative

  17. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  18. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  19. Power System load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, Yu.N.; Semenov, V.A.; Sovalov, S.A.; Syutkin, B.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in demand nonuniformity is analyzed for the Unified Electric Power System of the USSR and certain interconnected power systems; the conditions for handling such nonuniformity with utilization of generating equipment having differing flexibility capabilities are also considered. On this basis approaches and techniques for acting on user loads, load management, in order to assure a balance between generated and consumed power are considered.

  20. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  1. Ceramic Mugs & Dishes Incandescent Light Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    , MU East Rock Hall/19-B CELL PHONES - EYEGLASSES 654 Minnesota Street Room 208, copy room CVRI Helen. Zion Cancer Research Building N423 Parnassus Campus: eyeglasses "I" level, Optometry Store, MU West

  2. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,United States NuclearSessionEnergy Efficiency and

  3. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,United States NuclearSessionEnergy Efficiency andlightbulbs -

  4. Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37EnergySubmitRoad |WaterEdition |

  5. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  6. contingency Nominal loading margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Member Member Fellow Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract: The change in the loading margin to voltage collapse when line outages occur the line outages of the IEEE 118 bus system. The results show the effective ranking of contingencies

  7. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  8. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  9. The International Mass Loading Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  10. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  11. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and 

  12. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  13. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrodynamic loading

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loading High-Fidelity Hydrostructural Analysis of Ocean Renewable Power Company's (ORPC's) TidGen Turbine On March 19, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News,...

  15. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  16. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  17. Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda IBRAHIM MATTA y the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling

  18. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for ...

  19. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  20. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs...

  1. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  2. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  3. Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

  4. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  5. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  6. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

  7. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Software Downloads Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Sandia Wind...

  8. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  9. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  10. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analyt- ical models) is well matched to the role of load following. Re- search into the behavior of TCLs began with the work was then employed in a minimum variance control law to demonstrate the load following capability of a population

  11. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve #12;1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve #12;What are they? How do you make one? #12;Describes

  12. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve 1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve What are they? How do you make one? Describes the percent of time a flow rate

  13. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  14. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

  15. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  16. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  17. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  18. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  19. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs... minimized. Because of the difficully in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly...

  20. Communication Load Reduction for Neural Network Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    the total amount of communication load, followed by a placement of partitions onto proces- sors 3]. We

  1. Load Management DSM: Past, Present & Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Several current load control programs have discovered that the best FIGURE 6 I marketing method is a "direct mailing" that gets across the message "Load Management will help keep everyone's electrical rates ~ low." The offer of the rebate may catch... thermostat was satisfied or whether the LCR prevented the electrical demand. At the 1993 DA/DSM conference, Scientific-Atlanta introduced the industry's first Load Management Interface &MI) circuit board which fits in a standard load control receiver...

  2. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  3. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    become apparent that dynamic, or sud- denly applied loads, present a different type of problem to the engineer. Wind loads on tall structures, pile driving, nuclear blasts, and many other familiar loading conditions cannot be de- scribed or handled... an earthquake or nuclear blast. Also under this category of loading is the pulse which would be purposely induced to fail the soil structure for the purpose of excavation or pile driving. As part of a broader research project concerned with pile dri- ving...

  4. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  5. Detecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @cray.com) © Cray Inc. Slide 10 Profile with Load Distribution by Groups Table 1: Profile by Function GroupDetecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT Luiz DeRose Programming Environment Director Cray Inc. ldr@cray.com #12;Slide 2 Motivation for Load Imbalance Analysis Increasing system software and architecture

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  7. Beam heat load in superconducting wigglers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casalbuoni, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam heat load is a fundamental input parameter for the design of superconducting wigglers since it is needed to specify the cooling power. In this presentation I will review the possible beam heat load sources and the measurements of beam heat load performed and planned onto the cold vacuum chambers installed at different synchrotron light sources.

  8. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  9. AdaptLoad: e ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riska, Alma

    manner [4, 17]. In this paper we concentrate on e#11;ective load sharing for a clustered web server makes e#11;ective request scheduling a diĆcult task that traditional load balancing methods failAdaptLoad: e#11;ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions #3; Alma

  10. Balancing load under large and fast load changes in distributed computing systems A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthomieu, Bernard

    have been written about load sharing or load balancing (see e.g. [2] for references), but our sharing'' [7] technique. Load transfer can be implemented by moving processes at the time they are created (placement), but this method would not handle load implosions. Instead, we will use preemptive migrations

  11. Dynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemper, Alfons

    server during runtime. Figure 1 shows the load curve of a typical interactive service. In the morningDynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load Forecasting Daniel-organizing infrastructures to react proactively. For this pur- pose we present two techniques: Short-term load forecasting

  12. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  13. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  14. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  15. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for generators. A partial list of load attributes andpartial list includes: • Minimum run times • Minimum off times • Minimum load

  16. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  17. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  18. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  19. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  20. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  1. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  2. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  3. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioner Testing in WECC,” IEEE Power  Engineering Air Conditioner Modeling, WECC Load Modeling Task  Force in power system studies: WECC progress update,? Power and 

  4. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lights HVAC Figure 15 Demand Response and Market AnalysisHVAC Load % of Total Hour of Day Figure 16 Demand Response and Market

  5. Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duntley, Seibert Q

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    books. For eX3.I11ple, equation (5.49.1) on page 107 of Glastone and Edlund's, "Elements of Nuclear Reactor

  6. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Addthis Related Articles DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models and Allows Sale of Another Westinghouse and Fuzhou Permitted to Restart...

  7. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearningDepartmentDistributed

  8. Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCODepartmentEnergyCouncilAffairs, toReno Roundtable

  9. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions and PolicyCybersecurity Threats

  10. Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Gregory Robert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

  11. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  12. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  13. Thermionic converter in load-switching mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

  14. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  15. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  16. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Wind induced torsional loads on structures A. Kareem Department of Civil Engineering, University degrees of freedom. If the resultant wind forces do not coincide with the centre of mass at each floor is also sensitive to the ratio of torsional to translational frequencies. There is no existing wind load

  17. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  18. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  19. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  20. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  1. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  2. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  3. General solutions for thermopiezoelectrics with various holes under thermal loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    induced by thermal loads. The loads may be uniform remote heat ÂŻow, point heat source and temperature elastic plate with an hole of various shapes subjected to remote uniform mechanical loading. For plane

  4. Psychosocial mediators of ethnic disparities in Allostatic Load /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomfohr, Lianne Marie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Allostatic Load A dissertation submitted in partialPartial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load……………………………………………………………………………………Partial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load

  5. axial compressive load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  6. axial loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  7. axial loaded mri: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  8. axial compressive loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  9. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  10. Load-follow control simulation with optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Man-Sung; Christenson, J.M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the simulation of load-follow control operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the system model needs to describe both primary and secondary system behaviors, because the load-change signal in the secondary system delivers a change in the primary system through the thermal-hydraulic interactions in the steam generator. In this study, the characteristics of load-follow control for a PWR were investigated using a one-dimensional core model combined with a simplified nuclear steam supply system model using optimization. The overall system model includes one-dimensional core neutronics with all the space-dependent feedback effects, Xe-I dynamics, core thermal balances, primary loop thermal balances, and steam generator dynamic responses to turbine load changes. The final system equations were manipulated for the lumped parameter representations by using the model expansion technique for the core model.

  11. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  12. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  13. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  14. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  15. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  16. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Team

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures.

  17. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  18. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  19. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study emulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement as completed by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years 1991--92 through 2010--11. The study shows the federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electrical demand and monthly maximum generating capability -- capacity -- for OY 1991--92, 1996--97, 2001--02 and 2010--11. The federal system and regional monthly capacity surpluses/deficits are summarized for 20 operating years. 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  1. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  2. amplitude dynamic loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University February 6, 2001 Abstract We present the load-calculus, used to model dynamic loading, and prove it sound. The calculus extends the polymorphic -calculus with a...

  3. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  4. acute acid loading an: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 queries Meagher, Mary 29 An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid Engineering Websites Summary: An Automatic Load Sharing Approach...

  5. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  6. Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar Cells Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar...

  7. Activity Stream - NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 22 days ago harvest created the dataset NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 1 month ago harvest created...

  8. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for wh

  9. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  10. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  11. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  12. Improved Load Distribution for Load Rating of Low-Fill Box Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Raju

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The distribution of live loads on the top slab of a box culvert plays a major role in determining the rating factor of the culvert. The current AASHTO guidelines do not consider the effects of pavements present above the fill while determining the load distribution...

  13. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  14. Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero strength is highly desirable, and in the past years composite materials such as resin matrix filled- tors, and composites containing carbon black and titanium dioxide have recently been tested

  15. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  16. Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter reading. For the others, EDF must estimate this curve. Usually a clustering of the load curves is performed, followed

  17. Discharge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    : effective discharge, transport, sediment, constituents, rating curve, half-load Citation: Vogel, R. M., J. RDischarge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel Department of Civil and Environmental load is ultimately the quantity of interest, we define a new index, the half-load discharge, which

  18. ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Duška; Martin Barták; František Drkal; Jan Hensen

    equation in cooling load calculations. The performance of nine different procedures (the four methods and

  19. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that demonstrated the quantitative impact of WL on the number of cells (each Saltstone vault contains two cells) required to disposition all of the {approx}100 million gallons of DSS available in the tanks. This calculation revealed that the number of cells required over the range of 0.48 to 0.62 w/cm ratio (equivalent to a WL range of 591 to 666 mL/L) varies from 65 to 57 cells (33 to 29 vaults). The intent of this oversimplified example was to show the range of variation in vaults expected due to w/cm ratio rather than to estimate the actual number of vaults required. There is a tradeoff between the waste loading and the processing and performance properties of Saltstone. The performance properties improve in general as the w/cm ratio decreases whereas the waste loading is reduced at lower w/cm ratios resulting in a larger number of Saltstone vaults. The final performance and processing requirements of Saltstone will determine the maximum waste loading achievable.

  20. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  1. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  2. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  3. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF SP&NDS SUBJECTED TO DTNAMIC LOADING A Tucsis By Gary N. Reeves Submitted to the Grad ate Coll Ee of the T xas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deEree of MASTER OF SCIPNCE AuBust 19G7 Major... Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I...

  4. Telemetering system supports load curtailment and billing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabry, R. (Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States)); Biagini, D. (Landis and Gyr Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the greatest challenges facing electric utilities today is satisfying increasing peak demand without adding new generating capacity. Supporting utilities in this quest are state-of-the-art computer systems designed to accommodate complex load management as well as billing and load survey programs. The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) is utilizing such computer technology along with an innovative organizational approach to implement a comprehensive energy plan for its customers. The plan is enabling the utility to meet the growing demand placed on its power system by intensive expansion in the greater Washington DC area.

  5. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

  6. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  7. Modularization and simulation techniques for heat balance-based energy and load calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard K. Strand

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Loads Toolkit research project is to obtain a heat balance based load calculation procedure that

  8. Development and application of the spatially explicit load enrichment calculation tool (select) to determine potential E. coli loads in watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riebschleager, Kendra Jean

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to contamination is the Load Duration Curve (LDC) method (USEPA, 2006a). The LDC approach was developed for assessing nutrient loading in streams (Cleland, 2002). This graphical approach combines daily 9 stream flow with water quality data for the pollutant... on the field data available, thus the LDC determines load reductions for the flow conditions at which measurements were taken (Li and Guo, 2003). Load reduction is based on the percent exceedance above the maximum allowable load line. In Texas, the water...

  9. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  10. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  11. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  12. load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LUCIA, load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems Eric Maisonnave, Arnaud Caubel TR-CMGC-14-63 #12;Table of contents 1. Description of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system..............................................................................................14 #12;This document focuses on how to optimize performances of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system

  13. Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Time of Use (TOU) rate plan, called "Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic Benefits model. The TOU data was rerun through the new spreadsheet model and the results are reported here. · Participation in the TOU rate option also resulted in an average net reduction of 292 kWh/year in annual

  14. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  15. LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PhD Thesis LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION Serge Caparos Goldsmiths). This thesis examined (1) the shape of the profile of perceptual resources in space and (2) the effect of several factors on the focus of this profile. The spatial profile of perceptual resources was indexed

  16. A LOADING-DEPENDENT MODEL OF PROBABILISTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    of the salient features of large blackouts of electric power trans- mission systems+ This leads to a new loadings+ 1. INTRODUCTION Cascading failure is the usual mechanism for large blackouts of electric power and containing 50 million people @33#+ The vital importance of the electrical infrastructure to society motivates

  17. Fig. 1. Example System phase loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power system (SPS) consists of various components such as generators, cables, switchboards, load centers Transformer 9 25 12 Alternate path Generator switchboard Bus-tie breaker Generator 1 Generator 3 Generator 2 4 26 G 29 7 8 ABT 3 single phase cables Visualization for Shipboard Power Systems Karen L. Butler

  18. CALIFORNIA'S NEXT GENERATION OF LOAD MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy the need for new peaking generation capacity and associated transmission and distribution capacity's "load management" authority as a way to achieve higher levels of costeffective demand response

  19. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  20. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2004 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring; The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes the following: (1) Detailed Operation Plan operation for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004; (2) PNCA planning criteria for OY 2004; and (3) Juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2004 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2004 White Book analysis updates the 2003 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2006 through 2015. The study shows the Federal s

  1. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  2. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  3. Loading and pre-loading processes generate a distinct siRNA population in Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi, E-mail: kazufumi.mochizuki@imba.oeaw.ac.at; Kurth, Henriette M.

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The Tetrahymena Argonaute protein Twi1p binds to ?28–30-nt siRNAs called scnRNAs. •The size of scnRNAs is determined during a pre-loading process. •The 5? uracil bias of scnRNAs is attributed to pre-loading and loading processes. •The thermodynamic asymmetry of scnRNA duplex doesnot affect the guide strand decision. •scnRNAs may be produced non-sequentially from dsRNA substrates by Dicer. -- Abstract: The various properties of small RNAs, such as length, terminal nucleotide, thermodynamic asymmetry and duplex mismatches, can impact their sorting into different Argonaute proteins in diverse eukaryotes. The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5? end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5? uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3? terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo.

  4. Deterministic Josephson Vortex Ratchet with a load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Knufinke; K. Ilin; M. Siegel; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner; E. Goldobin

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate experimentally a deterministic underdamped Josephson vortex ratchet -- a fluxon-particle moving along a Josephson junction in an asymmetric periodic potential. By applying a sinusoidal driving current one can compel the vortex to move in a certain direction, producing average dc voltage across the junction. Being in such a rectification regime we also load the ratchet, i.e., apply an additional dc bias current I_dc (counterforce) which tilts the potential so that the fluxon climbs uphill due to the ratchet effect. The value of the bias current at which the fluxon stops climbing up defines the strength of the ratchet effect and is determined experimentally. This allows us to estimate the loading capability of the ratchet, the output power and efficiency. For the quasi-static regime we present a simple model which delivers simple analytic expressions for the above mentioned figures of merit.

  5. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  6. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  7. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  8. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ellefson, Robert E. (Centerville, OH); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  9. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  10. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  11. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  12. Structural loading of cross deck connections for trimaran vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Jason L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates the fundamental relationships of wave loading on cross deck structures for trimaran vessels. In contrast with a monohull ship, trimaran vessels experience several possible structural loading cases ...

  13. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  14. acute cholesterol loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  15. acute sodium loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  16. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heat transfer for cooling load calculation.heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculation approach for radiant systems, Corgnati [17] also tackled the direct radiant heat

  17. assessing critical loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  18. aerodynamic loads estimated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  20. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The load plan determines which shipments are packed together into the ...... More importantly, however, from an implementation perspective, this “profile”.

  1. Industrial Load Shaping: A Utility Strategy to Deal with Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D.

    manufacturing facilities. Both the customer and the utility should realize benefits from these changes. There are five generic load shaping categories: rescheduling operations, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing... Implementation * Program Monitoring LOAD SHAPE ALTERNATIVES General categories of load shape alternatives include process rescheduling, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing and electrotechnologies. Process rescheduling...

  2. Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the Super Electric Energy System #12;Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the SuperOPF." (PSERC

  3. AIAA980057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA­98­0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rainflow counted turbulence measures---can be used to estimate fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. We first de­ scribe

  4. Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry Peter Bjřrn Andersen, Mac Loads, Trailing Edge Flaps, PID control, Signal Noise. 1 Introduction Wind turbine blades are subject to 40% when signal noise is added to the control. Keywords: Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue

  5. Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements TECH BRIEF SEPTEMBER 2011 #12;#12;GUIDE TO DOWEL LOAD TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR JOINTED CONCRETE ROADWAY PAVEMENTS i Technical and Subtitle Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements 5. Report Date

  6. Simultaneous confidence bands in curve prediction applied to load curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Simultaneous confidence bands in curve prediction applied to load curves J.M. Aza¨is1, S. Bercu2, J, load curve. 1 Introduction In curve prediction, one is generally interested in deriving simultaneous this technique in the numerical context of load curve pre- diction: power producers like EDF, the electrical

  7. Checkpointed Early Load Retirement Nevin Kirman Meyrem Kirman Mainak Chaudhuri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirer, Emin Gun

    Checkpointed Early Load Retirement Nevin Kirman Meyrem Kirman Mainak ChaudhuriŁ Jos´e F. Mart propose checkpointed early load retirement, a mechanism that combines register check- pointing and back-value prediction to consumers, and (3) EARly-retiring the long-latency load. This unclogs the ROB, thereby

  8. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  9. Exploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    of the divertor system is described in Sec. III, together with the plate heat load profile, and the conditions is power reaching the plate, AD is the total plate area, Wpk is the design peak heat load limitExploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors T.K. Maua , H. Mc

  10. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes CALIFORNIA ENERGY #12;LBNL-49095 Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators during Load Changes Prepared of Capstone and Honeywell Microturbine Generators During Load Changes ii Abstract This report describes test

  11. THERMAL LOADING OF A DIRECT DRIVE TARGET IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    optics. A background gas, such as Xe, could reduce the damage on the wall from ion and heat loading fusion micro explosion (~ 10 Hz), ions and heat loads threaten to damage the reactor wall and driver. · The thermal loading of a target (radiation from the chamber wall and convection from the protective gas) may

  12. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  13. Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method Korn Saranyasoontorn, TX 78712 When interest is in establishing ultimate design loads for wind turbines such that a service). The parametric conditional load distri- butions require extensive turbine response simulations over the entire

  14. 2000 IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Seattle, USA Phantom Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    exhibit a great variety of different features, while loads that generate such currents provide only very specific currents, characteristic for particular loads. Also some loads that gene- rate non on identification of non-periodic currents and their compensation by providing a technical tool for verification

  15. Evaluating the Long-term Impact of a Continuously Increasing Harmonic Load Demand on Feeder Level Voltage Distortion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simőes, Marcelo Godoy

    , fluorescent tube lighting, pc's and laptops have become more prominent in the residential household. With an expectation of higher penetrations of electric vehicle chargers and renewable energy devices the increased usage of nonlinear devices by type. The disadvantage to this approach is that it relies upon

  16. Abstract--This paper addresses the impact of load dynamics, and in particular induction motor loads, on voltage recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    load flow techniques or with full scale dynamic simulations. Studies are performed usually off-scale dynamic simulations. The approach uses load flow techniques with advanced modeling capabilities that allow from several classes of electric loads, such as induction motors. It is well known that the voltage

  17. Rotordynamic coefficients for a load-between-pad, flexible-pivot tilting pad bearing at high loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, John Eric

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic and static performance of a flexure-pivot tilting pad bearing is presented at a load between pad configuration for various load and speed combinations. A similar work performed on the same bearing at lower loads ranging from 0-1 MPa (0...

  18. Performance of Geogrid Reinforced Ballast under Dynamic Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowkar, Milad

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    string pot versus dynamic loading at 1100 psi (9 psi tie bearing pressure) 37 4.1.3 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 2500 psi (21 psi tie bearing pressure) 38 4.1.4 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 3500 psi (31 psi tie bearing pressure...) 39 4.1.5 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 4500 psi (38 psi tie bearing pressure) 41 4.1.6 East string pot versus dynamic loading at 4500 psi (soaked) (40 psi tie bearing pressure) 43 4.2 Unreinforced test 45 4.2.1 West string pot 45 4...

  19. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If successful, the technique developed will provide a means of accurately and reproducibly loading a priori specified amounts of metals onto zeolites. In addition, we will try to relate the physico-chemical properties of the catalyst to'its catalytic activity.... The zeolite powder is placed in the round bottomed flask. The solution containing the cat. 'on to be exchanged is poured over zhe zeolite, and the slurry is stirred with a magnetic stirring bar. The temperature between the heating mantle and the flask...

  20. Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = 100w PAR38 • No maintenance for years ? 50,000 LED vs.10,000 CFL • Improved light quality ? 80 CRI LED vs. 25 CRI HPS • Reduce HVAC cooling load • Advanced control options ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San... Fragile Durable Optical Efficiency 50 50 70-80 Indoor LED Advantages ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Expected ROI 1.17 Years Case Study: LUGGAGE & LEATHER Sugar Land, Texas ESL-KT-13...

  1. Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Take a Bite Out of Lighting Loads With LEDs Stephen Williams Toshiba Sales Support Manager ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Some LED Advantages • Less electricity ? 18w LED... Fragile Durable Optical Efficiency 50 50 70-80 Indoor LED Advantages ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Expected ROI 1.17 Years Case Study: LUGGAGE & LEATHER Sugar Land, Texas ESL-KT-13...

  2. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  3. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  4. Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system. Loads are frequently barred from providing the highest value and most critical reliability services; regulation and spinning reserve. Advances in communications and control technology now make it possible for some loads to provide both of these services. The limited storage incorporated in some loads better matches their response capabilities to the fast reliability-service markets than to the hourly energy markets. Responsive loads are frequently significantly faster and more accurate than generators, increasing power system reliability. Incorporating fast load response into microgrids further extends the reliability response capabilities that can be offered to the interconnected power system. The paper discusses the desired reliability responses, why this matches some loads' capabilities, what the advantages are for the power system, implications for communications and monitoring requirements, and how this resource can be exploited.

  5. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: electrical demand--firm loads--under the medium 1990 Draft Joint Load Forecast; generating resources; and contracts both inside and outside the region.

  6. Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.

  7. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Modeling of highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, G.G.; Lawler, J.E.; Curry, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the positive column of fluorescent lamps under conditions of high current density are of current interest, particularly in view of recent developments in electrodeless lamps. Current models tend to overestimate radiation output, and consequently the maintenance electric field in these discharges. Under highly loaded conditions, mercury-rare gas fluorescent lamps exhibit strong mercury depletion on axis (cataphoresis), and an understanding of resonance radiation transport under these conditions is therefore vital to the development of models with a predictive capability. The authors have explored the effect of radial cataphoresis on resonance radiation trapping for situations in which the radiation transport is dominated by foreign gas broadening, Doppler broadening, or resonance collisional broadening of the spectral line. Several different production rates per unit volume of resonance (excited) atoms have also been studied. It is advantageous in many cases to parameterize the trapped decay rate in terms of the total number of ground state atoms in the positive column independent of their radial distribution. The results of this work have been included in a numerical model of the positive column and the predicted influence on discharge parameters will be presented for cases of interest to highly loaded lamps.

  9. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  10. 514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook--Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1997) and the Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (Mc514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are Load Calculation Methods (942-RP)" are also given. INTRODUCTION Design cooling load calculation

  11. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Profiles Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, Central Research Institute of Electric PowerElectric Power Industry. A Meanwhile, load profiles of each

  12. Protecting Consumer Privacy from Electric Load Stephen McLaughlin Patrick McDaniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much sensors to collect and report load profiles. Load profiles are histories of energy usage collected as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM): Load monitoring Load profile Lighting Oven Heater ... Appliance

  13. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  14. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, John R. (Overland Park, KS)

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  15. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  16. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  17. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  18. Estimating market potential for reducing customer peak loads through photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, J. [Citizens Advisory Panel, Central Islip, NY (United States); Perez, R. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past studies have quantified photovoltaics` (PV) peak load matching capability on a utility-wide scale. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the number of utility subloads (e.g., customers, substations) whose peak loads are well matched with solar availability. A simple tool based on the utility scale load-PV match is developed to estimate the market size of customer scale PV applications with high load-PV matches. Illustrative examples of customer owned PV economics are also provided. The authors show that (1) the market size of high load matching PV applications on the subload scale is significant even within utility systems whose load requirements are not particularly well matched with PV output; and (2) the cost of PV as a peak shaving resource for utility customers is approaching competitive levels.

  19. Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  20. Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasch, Vernon R

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will be used to develop rational criteria for the design of drilled shafts that support precast panel retaining walls. The procedure used in conducting the study was: 1. Design and construct a reaction and loading system capable of applying large magnitude... lateral loads to large diameter drilled shafts. 2. Construct a large diameter instrumented drilled shaft. 3. Test the shaft by applying lateral loads. 4. Obtain undisturbed soil samples from the drilled shaft con- struction site and perform laboratory...

  1. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  2. A development of MOS linear active load schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallett, Robert Alan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistor. A solution to this problem is to use a single or multiply interconnected MOS transistors to simulate resistors. These simulated resistors are termed "active loads". The advantages of using MOSFETs over passive monolithic resistors are the high...'s inverted parallel load . General description of the fully linear active block Fully linear active block Three transistor fully linear block Cktl Ckt2 Ckt3 Ckt4 Complex single transistor loads IPL DEPR FLAB I ? V measuring system THD measuring...

  3. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  4. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    output data. 1 E.g., if the installed PV capacity is 10MW, the objective is for PV + SLC to meet 100% of the loads above a threshold equal to the utility peak minus 10 MW. 2 #12;UPEX-02 PV output data: PV output the report is PTC (AC output at 25 degrees ambient). Load data: Hourly SMUD system load data from 1996

  5. advanced load alleviation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    paradox of the pulsar wind nebula. Maxim Lyutikov 2002-02-19 89 A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution...

  6. Retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry to resist tornado loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorshorst, Evan G. (Evan Gregory)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in structural design and building materials have significantly increased the performance of many structures under the extreme loading conditions associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes. However, ...

  7. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during...

  8. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  9. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  10. axle loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  11. alkohilimgi load lhiajalisemaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  12. alkoholimgi load lhiajalisemaks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  13. adenosine triphosphate loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  14. autologous plasma loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are dynamically adjusted. Taking into account the speed at which loads vary and the latency of the underlying network, we specify conditions under which the algorithm is...

  15. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dandan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Judkoff, R. ,room and calculation of air conditioning load. ASHRAE Trans,Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

  16. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  17. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  18. activated carbon load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading Materials Science Websites Summary: Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube...

  19. activated carbon loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube composites to shock wave loading Materials Science Websites Summary: Dynamic response of phenolic resin and its carbon-nanotube...

  20. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  1. A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramya Rachmawati

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 12, 2015 ... A mixed integer programming approach to reduce fuel load accumulation for prescribed burn planning. Ramya Rachmawati(ramya.rachmawati ...

  2. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

  3. Efficient approaches for the robust network loading problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The next section presents the formulations of the robust network load-. 3 ...... Figure 1: Performance profile comparing Compact-2, Benders-3, and Benders-4 for ...

  4. Newbie question: How to view commercial/residential load profile...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newbie question: How to view commercialresidential load profile datasets? Home > Groups > Buildings I have downloaded SAM (20112414) and cannot access open the .tar files. Help...

  5. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  6. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. Technical...

  7. air conditioning load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Deying, L. 2006-01-01 2 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: 1...

  8. active load management: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint...

  9. air conditioning loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  10. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  12. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  13. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6034E Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Dandan Zhu1 , Tianzhen Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U;Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads A joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley

  14. Load Alleviation through Adaptive Trailing Edge Control Surfaces: ADAPWING Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to investigate the potential of using adaptive trailing edge geometry on wind turbine blades as load alleviation field experienced by wind turbine blades is turbulent which causes fluctuating loads during nor- mal for the wind turbine industry if the alleviation systems do not add considerable extra cost. Recent work has

  15. Numerical Simulation of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures ­ p. #12;VOF Free Surface Flow Model Modelling of Free Surface-cell resolution of prescribed wave forms in relaxation zones · Support for dynamic mesh with 6-DOF solver meshNumerical Simulation of Wave Loads on Static Offshore Structures Hrvoje Jasak, Inno Gatin, Vuko

  16. Load as a Controllable Resource for Dynamic Security Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    to steer the system through events. Model predictive control is proposed for the higher-level control. Index Terms-- Load control, voltage collapse, model predictive control. I. INTRODUCTION DYNAMIC security1 Load as a Controllable Resource for Dynamic Security Enhancement Ian A. Hiskens, Fellow, IEEE

  17. Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combining daylighting, personal controls, and load shedding offers enormous potential for reducing lighting system to respond to available daylight and demand response control · Allows building occupants--Consider the improved cost-effectiveness of wireless dimming to promote daylighting controls and load- shedding

  18. Dynamic Transfer Capability Analysis with Wind Farms and Dynamic Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . An investigation on the effect of dynamics loads, wind farms and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices capability unnecessarily limits the power transfers and is a costly and inefficient use of a network with increasing loads, the need to transfer power over long transmission lines increases. Deregulation

  19. Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

  20. REVIEW OF METHODS TO REDUCE URBAN STORMWATER LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) capable of controlling or removing Hg and PCBs from urban for preliminary prioritization of best management practices (BMPs) (Section 5). Section 3: Describes areas and storm water, measurements of loads in stormwater, and demonstration that either loads

  1. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE By BEREKET, Australia 1998 Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE Dissertation Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D

  2. SURF 2005; final report Load Balancing Strategies for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SURF 2005; final report Load Balancing Strategies for Parallel SAMR Algorithms A Study of partial differential equations are important in many areas of science and technology. Only adaptive mesh in a load-balanced manner is even more difficult than for unstructured mesh refinement techniques. Therefore

  3. Improved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    circuit. Low frequency bandwidths in the milli-Hertz range can be achieved. Keywords: Current, Charge acceptance14 ". Although the circuit topology of a charge or current amplifier is much the same as a simple short circuit the load every 400 ms or so, thus periodically discharging the load capacitance

  4. A Fuzzy Model of Heavy Metal Loadings in Marine Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncheva, Ludmila I.

    A Fuzzy Model of Heavy Metal Loadings in Marine Environment L.I. Kuncheva1 , J. Wrench2 , L.C. Jain model of the loadings of heavy metals for two coastal areas of the Irish Sea (Liverpool Bay, Morecambe Bay, heavy metal concentrations, index of spa- tial distribution, spatial data analysis. 1

  5. Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giller, R.A.

    1994-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements.

  6. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City federal complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A. [AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP`s Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications.

  7. Modelling of transient wind turbine loads during pitch motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling of transient wind turbine loads during pitch motion Niels.N. Sřrensen, Helge Aa. Madsen In connection with the design of wind turbines and their control algorithms, the transient loads, especially widespread tool in the wind turbine industry, the time constants necessary to describe these problems

  8. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  9. A Practical Approach to Dynamic Load Balancing Jerrell Watts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Vector Calculation ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¤ £ ¢ 8 2.3.1 Heat DiffusionA Practical Approach to Dynamic Load Balancing Jerrell Watts Scalable Concurrent Programming versions of the node adaption and movement routines which were used by the load balancing code; he also

  10. Temperature Aware Microprocessor Floorplanning Considering Application Dependent Power Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    heat diffusion model taking into account the ap- plication dependent power load for thermal analysis is calculated to evaluate each new floorplan, which is time-consuming. [7] proposed a simple deterministic heatTemperature Aware Microprocessor Floorplanning Considering Application Dependent Power Load Chun

  11. actinides loading optimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinides loading optimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Building load control...

  12. Ris-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines Gunner Chr. Larsen, Knut Ronold, Hans E analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition to establish

  13. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  14. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  15. Recovery Act: Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects. 1) An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing. 2) A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution. 3) Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  16. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  17. Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc Cryostats: Final Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parma, V

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note presents the final assessment of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, using different experimental methods during the first commissioning period in 2007. This assessment further develops and completes previous estimates made during the commissioning of sector 7_8 [1]. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the internal energy balance during natural as well as powered warm-ups of the helium baths in different subsector. The helium inventory is calculated from the internal energy balance during powered warm-ups and matched with previous assessments. Furthermore, heat loads to the thermal shield are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E. The comparison of measured heat loads with previous estimates and with budgeted values is then presented, while their correlation with some important parameters like insulation vacuum pressure and some heat ...

  18. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

  19. Numerical simulation of ice-induced loads on ships and comparison with field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nřrvĺg, Kjetil

    Numerical simulation of ice-induced loads on ships and comparison with field measurements Biao Su Department of Marine Technology, NTNU May 28, 2013 #12;Motivation Local ice load Global ice load Ship's performance · Ice-hull interaction · Local ice load · Global ice load · Ship's performance #12;Outline

  20. Load capacity and rupture displacement in viscoelastic fiber bundles Theocharis Baxevanis1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

    for this critical load is given. For stress levels below the critical value, the system suffers only partial failureLoad capacity and rupture displacement in viscoelastic fiber bundles Theocharis Baxevanis1 loading, assuming global load sharing GLS for the redistribution of load following fiber failure. We

  1. Load Profiling for Efficient Route Selection in MultiClass Networks \\Lambda Azer Bestavros Ibrahim Matta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Load Profiling for Efficient Route Selection in Multi­Class Networks \\Lambda Azer Bestavros Ibrahim on the concept of ``load profiling'', which allows a distribution of ``available'' bandwidth across a set load­profiling approach when compared to traditional load­balancing and load­packing VC routing schemes

  2. Evaluation of A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda Ibrahim Matta balancing practice and proposed the use of load profiling as an alternative. Load profiling techniques allow profiling and contrast it to routing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically

  3. A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda Ibrahim Matta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Load Profiling Approach to Routing Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda Ibrahim Matta College recently proposed concept of load profiling [4]. We thoroughly characterize routing performance using load profiling and contrast it to rout­ ing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically

  4. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REALTIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REAL­TIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All'' Azer Bestavros a new load­profiling strategy that allows the nodes of a distributed system to be unequally loaded. Using load profiling, the system attempts to distribute the load amongst its nodes so as to maximize

  5. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  6. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of hydrogen loaded B-hydroquinone clathrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschbach, John L.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Corrales, Louis R.; Dang, Liem X.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the molecular interactions of hydrogen loaded beta-hydroquinone clathrate. It is found that at lower temperatures, higher loadings are more stable, whereas, at higher temperatures, lower loadings are more stable. This trend can be understood based on the interactions in the system. For loadings greater than one, the repulsive forces between the guest molecules shove each other towards the attractive forces between the guest and host molecules leading to a stabilized minimum energy configuration at low temperatures. At higher temperatures greater displacements take the system away from the shallow energy minimum and the trend reverses. The asymmetries of the clathrate cage structure are due to the presence of the attractive forces at loadings greater than one that lead to confined states. The nature of the cavity structure is nearly spherical for a loading of one, leads to preferential occupation near the hydroxyl ring crowns of the cavity with a loading of two, and at higher loadings, leads to occupation of the interstitial sites (the hydroxyl rings) between cages by a single H2 molecule with the remaining molecules occupying the equatorial plane of the cavity. At higher temperatures, the cavity is more uniformly occupied for all loadings, where the occupation of the interstitial positions of the cavities leads to facile diffusion. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was partially supported by NIDO (Japan), LDRD (PNNL), EERE U.S. Department of Energy, and by OBES, U.S. DOE. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

  8. Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    , Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study loads for a 600kW three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine. Only operating loads ­ here, flapwise (out

  9. Electromagnetic fields in nonuniform disk-loaded waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayzatsky, M I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the base of general approach we obtain some results that can be useful in the process of tuning of nonunifrom disc-loaded waveguides. Our consideration has shown that simple values that characterize the detuning of the cells can be introduced only for the disc-loaded waveguide with parameters that change very slow. In general case it is needed to conduct full numerical simulation of specific disc-loaded waveguide and obtain all necessary coupling coefficients. After that one can start the tuning process on the base of bead-pull field distribution measurements.

  10. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  11. Modeling of FRP-jacketed RC columns subject to combined axial and lateral loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-Sheng

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LOCATIONS #6 u-bars @ 4" 3" PVC for axial load and verticalsteel Steel jacket encasing load stub 2" PVC for clevisattatch 3" PVC for axial load A B Vertical tiedown Column

  12. Operator Performance in Long Duration Control Operations: Switching from Low to High Task Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornburg, K. M.

    Long duration, low task load environments are typical for nuclear power plant control rooms, where operators, after hours of operating under a low task load situation, may have to shift to a high task load situation. The ...

  13. Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications of Thesis: Spatiotemporal nutrient loading to Cultus Lake: Context for eutrophication and implications Cultus Lake, British Columbia experiences significant anthropogenic nutrient loadings and eutrophication

  14. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants) W = zone cooling load (supply and return plenumm]. W L is the zone cooling load (supply and return plenumthe total UFAD cooling load between the supply plenum, the

  15. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the UFAD cooling load between the supply plenum, zone (split the UFAD cooling load into the supply plenum, the zonesplit the UFAD cooling load into the supply plenum, zone and

  16. VaR Constrained Hedging of Fixed Price Load-Following Obligations in Competitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VaR Constrained Hedging of Fixed Price Load-Following Obligations in Competitive Electricity. In either case the entity holding the load following obligation is exposed to the load variation

  17. Determination of the Price-Load Curve by Using Smoothing Splines Under Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Determination of the Price-Load Curve by Using Smoothing Splines Under Tension Master Thesis 4.2. Price-Load Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4 load and price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.5. Merit order curve with operating

  18. active cold loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterized by N2 adsorption and the hydrophilic-hydrophobic property was measured by water adsorption. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2 nanoparticles loaded on HMF(F20)...

  19. SHOCKLESS LOADING WITH RECOVERY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaney, J M; Torralva, B; Lorenz, K T; Remington, B A; Wall, M; Kumar, M

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new recovery based method for investigating material response to non-Hugoniot loading paths is described. The work makes use of a laser generated plasma piston that produces ramped loading at high strain rates (> {approx} 10{sup 7}/s). Large sample sizes are utilized to prevent reflected wave interactions. The overall deformation path is characterized by two transients: one at very high strain rate on the 5-10 nanosecond time scale and one at a lower strain rate occurring over a 1-2 microsecond timescale. It was found that a sufficiently large region of material experiences shockless loading conditions such that recovery based characterization is feasible. The presence of two strain transients makes the method more applicable to comparative assessments between shockless and shock loading conditions.

  20. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6417E Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability Profiles Resources 4 #12;#12;#12;CHAPTER 3: Results: DR Profiles 3.1 Projected Demand Response Availability in 2020

  1. Energy Storage for Use in Load Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitermann, Olivia

    Certain energy storage technologies are well-suited to the high-frequency, high-cycling operation which is required in provision of load frequency control (LFC). To limit the total stored energy capacity required while ...

  2. Responses of an articulated loading platform in waves and currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ran, Zhihuang

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The responses of an articulated loading platform (ALP) in regular and irregular unidirectional waves (with or without currents) are investigated both in frequency and time domain. The first- and second-order wave diffraction radiation are solved...

  3. Characterizing tensile loading responses of 3D printed samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haid, Christopher M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to characterize the loading response of samples manufactured through 3D printing. Tensile testing was performed on a number of 3D printed samples created through Fused Filament Fabrication ...

  4. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  5. Improving Dynamic Load and Generator Response Performance Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in dynamic simulations of power systems. Using the PCMDynamic Simulations: The Probabilistic Collocation Method,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,Dynamic Simulations with Improved Representation of Loads and their Connection to a Power System,”

  6. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  7. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  8. Nutrient load analysis of Lago de Yojoa, Honduras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trate, Tia M. (Tia Marie)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Yojoa, Honduras is an important natural resource to the people of Honduras. The lake's water quality has been a controversial subject. This thesis describes a nutrient load analysis performed to gain a better understanding ...

  9. Shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Jack S

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) provides a method of measuring component performance and source power quality through a single point of entry in the power distribution system. A study was performed utilizing the NILM ...

  10. A framework for non-intrusive load monitoring and diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of electrical and electromechanical systems places increasing demands on monitoring and diagnostic techniques. The non-intrusive load monitor (NILM) provides a low-cost, low-maintenance way to perform ...

  11. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenssen, P.D. (Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Aas (Norway). Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Nutrient sources and loadings for the proposed Millican Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigil, Samuel Alexander

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Lee(14), sources of phosphorus and nitrogen in urban runoff include fertilizers used on lawns, dust fall, leaves, wastes from pets, automobile ngine cmiosicns, and othe- combustion sources. Weibel, et al. , (38) found total phosphorus loadings of 0...

  13. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  14. analysis load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a water-loaded structure excited by an impulse force is of interest for the acoustic stealth of submarines Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 43 Mechanics of Fastening System Rail...

  15. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  16. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question ŤWhat are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  17. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  18. Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, C. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation of electrical energy and load management can reduce industry's electric bills, conserves natural resources and reduces the need for new generating plants. In recent years, industry has implemented extensive conservation programs. Some...

  19. NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data...

  20. Improving shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard A. (Richard Alan), Nav. E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) measures equipment performance by measuring and analyzing the source power to the equipment at a single point in the electrical system. Previous studies have proven the usefulness of ...

  1. Undrained behavior of plate anchors subjected to general loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ming

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a method for predicting the undrained behavior of plate anchors, including out-of-plane loading of simple plates and performance of suction embedded plate anchors (SEPLA). Three dimensional finite element models are used...

  2. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2006, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) charged a seven-person Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force with: * examining approaches...

  3. Front End Loading (FEL) and Process Engineering Workflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spangler, Ryan

    2005-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Project development for the oil refining industry is typically performed through a process called Front End Loading (FEL). In recent years, the Process and Industrial Division of Burns and McDonnell has performed several ...

  4. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how an electric utility system is modeled by using load flow techniques to establish a validated power flow case suitable for simulating and evaluating alternative system scenarios. Details of the load flow model are supported by additional technical and descriptive information intended to correlate modeled electrical system parameters with the corresponding physical equipment that makes up the system. Pictures and technical specifications of system equipment from the utility, public, or vendor are provided to support this association for many system components. The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load flow parameters and other electrical system information.

  5. NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Open Data Catalog Dataset Activity Stream NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations...

  6. Sandia's research spans generation, storage, and load management at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kW diesel genset, fuel cells, and additional interchangeable generators. Storage capabilitiesSandia's research spans generation, storage, and load management at the component and systems participate in the generation of industry guidelines, protocols, electric codes, and national

  7. Scalability of Non-intrusive Load Monitoring for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, James

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-intrusive load monitor has been demonstrated as an effective tool for evaluating and monitoring shipboard electro-mechanical systems through analysis of electrical power data. A key advantage of the non-intrusive ...

  8. Geometric nonlinear analysis of microbeam under electrostatic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murgude, Nikhil C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the behavior of a microbeam subjected to electrostatic loading. Two devices, namely, a tungsten microtweezer and a clamped-clamped beam which is part of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), are used as the vehicles...

  9. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  10. Improved load models for multi-area reliability calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Sanjesh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SANJESH PATHAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SAN JESH PATHAK Approved as to style and content by: Chanan Singh (Chair of Committee) Prasad Enjeti (Member) Ces . Mal, e...

  11. Effective Load Management for the City of College Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hecox, O. D.; Bauer, V.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aspects a. Complete energy survey of all faci- lities whose utilities the city pays to Valerie Bauer Chairman College Station Energy Hanagement Committee College Station, TX establish load reduction possibilities. b. Sub-station load surveillance... for tech- nical assistance, resulting in Orlin D. Hecox assist- ing throughout the summer. Several meetings were arranged in June with city department heads to provide them with billing histories and meter sheets on their facilities and to outline...

  12. A study conducted on laterally loaded cylindrical footings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Kenneth Joseph

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY CONDUCTED ON LATERALLY LOADED CYLINDRICAL FOOTINGS A Thesis by Kenneth Joseph Koch Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree oi MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1968... Major Subject Civil Engineering A STUDY CONDUCTED ON LATERALLY LOADED CYLINDRICAL FOOTINGS A Thesis by Kenneth Joseph Koch Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (M ber) May 1968...

  13. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

  14. A model for short term electric load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tigue, John Robert

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A MODEL FOR SHORT TERM ELECTRIC LOAD FORECASTING A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT TIGUE, III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major... Subject: Electrical Engineering A MODEL FOR SHORT TERM ELECTRIC LOAD FORECASTING A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT TIGUE& III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head Depart t) (Member) ;(Me r (Member) (Member) May 1975 ABSTRACT...

  15. Pilot plant used to develop load and pressure controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagata, Kazue; Yamada, Toshihiro; Hiza, Tomoyuki

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viewed from the perspective of the power-generation mixture in Japan, nuclear power plants will continue to be operated to meet the base load. Meanwhile, integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants will be required to serve as thermal power plants to cover the middle load, as is the case with conventional thermal power plants. In terms of operational performance, therefore, IGCC power plants will need to have a capability of following a wide range of load demand at high speed. For this purpose, a load and pressure controller was developed and tested during the operational research on a 200 tons/day entrained flow IGCC pilot plant at the Nakoso Power Station by the Engineering Research Association for IGCC Power Systems (IGC Association). This article reports on the development of the load and pressure controller and the results of the control test carried out to check the load follow capability of the pilot plant, while touching upon the simulation study also being conducted.

  16. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  17. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  18. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    described in future papers. While the high peak-cooling ratecooling load can be in the range of 10-40% higher depending on the load conditions. Future

  19. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationheat gain and building thermal mass, which is particularly important in cooling load calculation,

  20. Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat transfer is handled in traditional cooling load calculationheat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculations for radiant systems should use the ASHRAE heat

  1. California customer load reductions during the electricity crisis: Did they help to keep the lights on?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.; Eto, Joseph H.; Barbose, Galen L.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainability of Customer Load Reductions Customers reduced their electricity loads during summer 2001 through conservation behavior, increased attention to managing energy

  2. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  3. FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.F. Saterlie

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of primary hard data, uncertainties in derived data, unsubstantiated models, and the inability to fully consider simultaneously coupled processes. As such, the study must rely on idealized models and available data to compare the thermal loading options. This report presents the findings of the FY 1993 MGDS Thermal Loading Systems Study. The objectives of the study were to: (1) if justified, place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading that is ''too hot''; (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance as a function of thermal loading of the potential repository to contain high level spent nuclear fuel against performance criteria; (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability; and (4) recommend the additional types of tests and/or analyses to be conducted to provide the necessary information for a thermal loading selection.

  4. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  5. The evaluation of a turbulent loads characterization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss an on-line turbulent load characterization system that has been designed to acquire loading spectra from turbines of the same design operating in several different environments and from different turbine designs operating in the same environment. This System simultaneously measures the rainflow-counted alternating and mean loading spectra and the hub-height turbulent mean shearing stress and atmospheric stability associated with the turbulent inflow. We discuss the theory behind the measurement configuration and the results of proof-of-concept testing recently performed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using a Bergey EXCEL-S 10-kW wind turbine. The on-line approach to characterizing the load spectra and the inflow turbulent scaling parameter produces results that are consistent with other measurements. The on-line approximation of the turbulent shear stress or friction velocity u* also is considered adequate. The system can be used to characterize turbulence loads during turbine deployment in a wide variety of environments. Using the WISPER protocol, we found that a wide-range, variable-speed turbine will accumulate a larger number of stress cycles in the low-cycle, high-amplitude (LCHA) region when compared with a constant speed rotor under similar inflow conditions.

  6. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  7. AGN Jet Mass Loading and Truncation by Stellar Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Hubbard; Eric G. Blackman

    2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active Galactic Nuclei can produce extremely powerful jets. While tightly collimated, the scale of these jets and the stellar density at galactic centers implies that there will be many jet/star interactions, which can mass-load the jet through stellar winds. Previous work employed modest wind mass outflow rates, but this does not apply when mass loading is provided by a small number of high mass-loss stars. We construct a framework for jet mass-loading by stellar winds for a broader spectrum of wind mass-loss rates than has been previously considered. Given the observed stellar mass distributions in galactic centers, we find that even highly efficient (0.1 Eddington luminosity) jets from supermassive black holes of masses $M_{BH} \\la 10^4M_{\\odot}$ are rapidly mass loaded and quenched by stellar winds. For $10^4 M_{\\odot}jets is independent of the jet's mechanical luminosity. Stellar wind mass-loading is unable to quench efficient jets from more massive engines, but can account for the observed truncation of the inefficient M87 jet, and implies a baryon dominated composition on scales $\\ga 2$ kpc therein even if the jet is initially pair plasma dominated.

  8. Analysis of the Thermal Loads on the KSTAR Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Kim, W.C.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, S.B.; Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H.; Cho, K.W.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Yusung-Ku, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale helium refrigeration system is one of the key components for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device. In the design of the refrigeration system, an estimation of the thermal loads on the cold mass is an important issue according to the operation scenario. The cold mass of the KSTAR device is about 250 tons including 30 superconducting (SC) coils and the magnet structure. In addition to the static thermal loads, pulsed thermal loads to the refrigeration system have been considered in the operation stage. The main pulsed thermal loads on magnet system are AC losses in the SC coils and eddy current losses in the magnet structure that depend on the magnetic field variation rate. The nuclear radiation loss due to plasma pulse operation is also considered. The designed cooling capacity of the refrigeration system is estimated to be about 9 kW at 4.5 K isothermal. In this paper, calculation of the various kinds of thermal loads on KSTAR cryogenic system and design of the large-scale helium refrigeration system are presented.

  9. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, R.L.; Casamajor, A.B.; Parsons, R.E.

    1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupling mechanism for engaging and lifting a load has a housing with a guide passage for receiving a knob which is secured to the load through a neck of smaller diameter. A hollow ball in the housing has an opening which receives the knob and the ball is then turned to displace the opening from the housing passage and to cause the neck to enter a slot in the ball thereby securing the load to the coupling mechanism as elements of the housing block travel of the neck back into the opening when the ball is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball is preferably turned by a motor through worm gearing and the coupling mechanism may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements.

  10. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes test measurements of the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) under transient conditions. The tests were conducted under three different operating conditions: grid-connect; stand-alone single MTG with load banks; and two MTGs running in parallel with load banks. Tests were conducted with both the Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75-kW MTGs. All tests were conducted at the Southern California Edison /University of California, Irvine (UCI) test facility. In the grid-connected mode, several test runs were conducted with different set-point changes both up and down and a start up and shutdown were recorded for each MTG. For the stand-alone mode, load changes were initiated by changing load-bank values (both watts and VARs). For the parallel mode, tests involved changes in the load-bank settings as well as changes in the power set point of the MTG running in grid-connect mode. Detailed graphs of the test results are presented. It should be noted that these tests were done using a specific hardware and software configuration. Use of different software and hardware could result in different performance characteristics for the same units.

  11. Probability of Potential Multi-Canister Overpack Loading System Drop of Proof Load in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of a probabilistic analysis of the potential for load drop during the load test of the K West Basin South Loadout Pit Gantry. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject load test of the gantry. The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of the per lift potential for drop of a test load by the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Loading System (MLS) during load testing at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The MLS subproject needs to load test the MLS in the K West Basin south loadout pit. To perform this test, a basket mockup weighing approximately 4,500 lb (125% of a fully loaded MCO basket accounting for water displacement) needs to be used for one or more load tests. The test load will comprise a standard basket lifting attachment with several ring-shaped steel segments to provide the required weight. The test load will exceed the K Basin Safety Analysis Report (WHC-SD-WM-SAR-062) (SAR) allowances for load drop in the K West Basin south loadout pit. This probabilistic calculation will be used as part of the basis for seeking U.S. Department of Energy approval to use an MLS test weight that exceeds SAR allowances.

  12. Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP-1222)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP in a program for hourly load calculations of a single thermal zone. The heat balance model for load and energy to heat balance model load and energy calculations," HVAC&R Research, 10(2), 91-111. #12;2 · Mixed

  13. Intracellular transactivation of HIV can account for the decelerating decay of virus load during drug therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    between an activated and latent state results in the typical decelerating decay of virus load following

  14. A Comparison of Load Balancing Algorithms for AMR Qingyu Meng, Justin Luitjens, Martin Berzins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    that we implemented a better new space-curve filling load balancing algorithm comparing to Zoltan Load1 A Comparison of Load Balancing Algorithms for AMR in Uintah Qingyu Meng, Justin Luitjens, Martin 84112 USA October 27, 2008 Abstract: This technical report discussed load balancing algorithms for AMR

  15. Failure Modes of Vacuum Plasma Spray Tungsten Coating Created on Carbon Fibre Composites under Thermal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Failure Modes of Vacuum Plasma Spray Tungsten Coating Created on Carbon Fibre Composites under Thermal Loads

  16. A Generalized Battery Model of a Collection of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Ancillary Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    . Residential Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) such as air conditioner, heat pump, water heater, and re

  17. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  18. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost of service differentials, maintenance of the extensive and lightly-loaded network, and overloaded substations

  19. An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

  20. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauser, Aaron D. (Washington, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Coldren, Dana R. (Fairbury, IL)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  1. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA’s Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit 1) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The 1998 study uses the same economic forecast used for the 1997 study. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads.

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  3. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  4. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  5. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  6. Prognostic Control and Load Survivability in Shipboard Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Laurence J.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , 650VDC, and AC loads from 800VDC power converters. The four zones on the IPS are energized from PCM4?s through two DC buses. The two DC buses are labeled as the port and starboard buses. The power flow is radial and it flows from the bus directly.../Starboard Split Bus Mode provides power by opening breakers to split the ring in half. The Port/Starboard Split Bus Mode divides the ship into an upper region and lower region which generators 1MTG and 1ATG work together to energize loads connected to the star...

  7. Photoionisation loading of large Sr+ ion clouds with ultrafast pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sébastien Removille; Romain Dubessy; Quentin Glorieux; Samuel Guibal; Thomas Coudreau; Luca Guidoni; Jean-Pierre Likforman

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on photoionisation loading based on ultrafast pulses of singly-ionised strontium ions in a linear Paul trap. We take advantage of an autoionising resonance of Sr neutral atoms to form Sr+ by two-photon absorption of femtosecond pulses at a wavelength of 431nm. We compare this technique to electron-bombardment ionisation and observe several advantages of photoionisation. It actually allows the loading of a pure Sr+ ion cloud in a low radio-frequency voltage amplitude regime. In these conditions up to 4x10^4 laser-cooled Sr+ ions were trapped.

  8. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  9. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  10. Transverse wave loading on partially buried marine pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Richard Edgar

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSVERSE WAVE LOADING ON PARTIALLY BURIED MARINE PIPELINES A Thesis by RICHARD EDGAR WEBB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December l988 Ma)or Subject: Civil Engineering TRANSVERSE WAVE LOADING ON PARTIALLY BURIED MARINE PIPELINES A Thesis bY RICHARD EDGAR WEBB Approved as to style and content by: Derek V. M ris (Chair of Committee) Calvin E. Woods (Member) Norman R...

  11. Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

  12. Liquidus temperature limited waste loading maximization for vitrified HLW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P.; Vienna, J.D.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquidus temperature often limits the loading of vitrified high-level waste in the glass. For spinel primary crystallization phase, the maximum achievable waste loading is determined analytically using first-order models, and then calculated for a Hanford nominal blend waste. The results show that the glass volume can be reduced if the glass melting temperature is not constrained and no restrictions are imposed on minimum B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and U{sub 2}O concentrations in the glass.

  13. Influence Of Lateral Load Distributions On Pushover Analysis Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colajanni, P.; Potenzone, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universita di Messina, Contrada Di Dio, S. Agata, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of two simple load distributions for pushover analysis recently proposed by the authors is investigated through a comparative study, involving static and dynamic analyses of seismic response of eccentrically braced frames. It is shown that in the upper floors only multimodal pushover procedures provide results close to the dynamic profile, while the proposed load patterns are always conservative in the lower floors. They over-estimate the seismic response less than the uniform distribution, representing a reliable alternative to the uniform or more sophisticated adaptive procedures proposed by seismic codes.

  14. Economics of cool storage for electric load leveling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asbury, J.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Dougherty, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment and methods for cold storage in commercial buildings to effect reduced summer peak load demands for electric utilities are described and the economics of this load leveling means is examined using the Potomac Electric Power Co. (PEPCO) studies and data. This examination reveals that investments in this technology can offer attractive paybacks (3 to 5 y) in new building applications. Partial storage, because of chiller-capacity savings, offers faster payback than full-storage systems. Estimates of its market potential indicate that cool storage will play an important role in PEPCO's Energy Use Management Plan. (LCL)

  15. Measured and predicted rotordynamic coefficients and static performance of a rocker-pivot, tilt pad bearing in load-on-pad and load-between-pad configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Clint Ryan

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the static and dynamic performance data for a 5 pad tilting pad bearing in both the load-on-pad (LOP) and the load-between-pad (LBP) configurations over a variety of different loads and speeds. The bearing tested was an Orion...

  16. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  17. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 1990 (ITS-90). ,” Metrologia, vol. 27, p. 3, Mar. 1990. [Wavelength Pyrometry,” Metrologia, vol. 17, p. 103, 1981. [

  18. Aerosol Mass Spectrometry via Laser-Induced Incandescence Particle Vaporization Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy B. Onasch

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully developed and commercialized a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) instrument to measure mass, size, and chemical information of soot particles in ambient environments. The SP-AMS instrument has been calibrated and extensively tested in the laboratory and during initial field studies. The first instrument paper describing the SP-AMS has been submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal and there are several related papers covering initial field studies and laboratory studies that are in preparation. We have currently sold 5 SP-AMS instruments (either as complete systems or as SP modules to existing AMS instrument operators).

  19. A calibration-independent laser-induced incandescence technique for soot measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

    , and viral in- fections. The soot emitted from various combustion devices, such as engines, power generation range of applications, such as steady flames, flickering flames, and Diesel engine exhausts. We present. Introduction Recent studies have drawn attention to the role of combustion-generated particulate matter

  20. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Pop, “Infrared Microscopy of Joule Heating in Graphenenear infrared is attainable through gating and heating of

  1. 2013 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2013 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (2013 White Book) is BPA's latest projection of the Pacific Northwest regional retail loads, contract obligations, contract purchases, and resource capabilities. The 2013 White Book is a snapshot of conditions as of October 1, 2013, documenting the loads and resources for the Federal system and region for the 10-year study period OY 2014 through 2023. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). Starting with the 2012 White Book, BPA changed the annual production schedule for future White Books. BPA is scheduled to publish a complete White Book, which includes a Federal System Needs Assessment analysis, every other year (even years). In the odd-numbered years, BPA will publish a biennial summary update (Supplement) that only contains major changes to the Federal System and Regional System analyses that have occurred since the last White Book. http://www.bpa.gov/power/pgp/whitebook/2013/index.shtml.

  2. Markovian Models for Electrical Load Prediction in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Markovian Models for Electrical Load Prediction in Smart Buildings Muhammad Kumail Haider, Asad,13100004,ihsan.qazi}@lums.edu.pk Abstract. Developing energy consumption models for smart buildings is important develop parsimo- nious Markovian models of smart buildings for different periods in a day for predicting

  3. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  4. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  5. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  6. Load Management - An Industrial Perspective on This Developing Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, R. M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Management is a rapidly developing technology which can have a significant impact on all electric users, especially large users. It is mandated by P.U.R.P.A. (Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act) and is akin to energy conservation but its...

  7. Ris-R-Report Load Consequences when Sweeping Blades -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reference wind turbine model is used to investigate the influence of different blade sweep curves studies regarding swept wind turbine blades for pitch controlled turbines have indicated that a flapRisř-R-Report Load Consequences when Sweeping Blades - A Case Study of a 5 MW Pitch Controlled Wind

  8. Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    energy. However, solar powered sys- tems must also consider the output level of the solar panel for power be counterproductive. Another problem that is of particular importance to solar pan- els is load matching. Solar panels is around 0.7­1.2, solar panels have a much larger Ri value as a function of the solar output and current

  9. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Reliable Server Pooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreibholz, Thomas

    Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Reliable Server Pooling in Heterogeneous Capacity@iem.uni-due.de Abstract. The IETF is currently standardizing a light-weight protocol frame- work for server redundancy and session failover: Reliable Server Pooling (RSer- Pool). It is the novel combination of ideas from

  10. Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.

  11. Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload Muhammad Abdullah to enhancements of the electrical grid raise the possibility of utilizing "cloud computing" for energy efficient computing. Energy efficiency in the cloud has been explored recently in [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. While

  12. Adaptive Load Forecasting Philip Anton de Saint-Aubain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mathematical models for the heat load. Based on district heating consumption data from four houses in a small taken is to reveal the details in the heating consumption in resi- dential houses by developing the heating signals into different components. One of the models is able to split the overall consumption

  13. Leveraging Load Migration and Basestaion Consolidation for Green Communications in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Jian "Neil"

    as a useful technology for improving resource utilization and power efficiency. For example, in a virtualized power-efficient BSs in its neighborhood such that idle BSs can be turned off or put into sleep to save power. In this paper, we propose to leverage load migration and BS consolidation for green

  14. Surface Loading of a Multilayered Viscoelastic Pavement: Semianalytical Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ernie

    Surface Loading of a Multilayered Viscoelastic Pavement: Semianalytical Solution Ewan Y. G. Chen1 response of a linear viscoelastic pavement. The material parameters of the asphalt concrete analytically. Therefore, responses of the viscoelastic pavement are finally expressed analytically in the time

  15. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing...

  16. Dynamic Loading of Polycrystalline Shape Memory Alloy Rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a cylindrical SMA rod in- duced by an impact loading is considered. Some applications of this model problem. Examples include joints that connect the hull of an underwater vehicle with its internal structure, tank armor, cargo con- tainers, etc. Another promising field of applications includes various active

  17. Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Cell with Dynamic PHEV Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) load. It is expected that PHEVs are going to be charged during the day--PHEVs, Solar PV, MPPT. I. INTRODUCTION PHEV should be a logical choice for the car user due to advances in battery and hybrid-electric power technologies, coupled with the financial, energy security requirement

  18. Reducing Power Load Fluctuations on Ships Using Power Redistribution Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    controller is demonstrated through simulation studies on a supply vessel power plant, using the SIMULINK plant with electric propulsion, the power generation will con- sist of multiple engines, whereReducing Power Load Fluctuations on Ships Using Power Redistribution Control Damir Radan,1 Asgeir J

  19. Automatic load follow control system for PWR plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakakura, H.; Ishiguro, A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Japan, load follow operation (daily load follow, automatic frequency control (AFC) operation, and governor free (GF) operation) of nuclear plants will be required in the near future to control grid frequency, as the ratio of nuclear plant electrical production to total grid production will increase. The AFC operation regulated power by demand from the central load dispatcher to control mainly the fringe component of the grid frequency fluctuation, and GF operation regulates power by turbine revolution or grid frequency to control mainly the cyclic component of grid frequency fluctuation. This paper deals with the automatic power distribution control system, which is important to load follow operation and possibly will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear plants. The reactor control systems noted below are conventional design with some improvements for AFC/GF operation, so that the reactor operates the turbine as before: (1) rod control system (reactor power control); (2) pressurizer pressure control system; (3) pressurizer level control system; and (4) steam generator level control system.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Frictional systems subjected to oscillating loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, James R.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Frictional systems subjected to oscillating loads J. R. Barber Received: 3 and a generalized Hertzian contact problem with friction. Keywords Coulomb friction Á Shakedown Á Damping Á of appropriate interaction laws for use in the analysis of masonry structures [1] and for the discrete element

  1. Thermally Triggered Calcium Phosphate Formation from Calcium-Loaded Liposomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of utilizing lipid vesicles for the synthesis of inorganic solids of controlled shape and/or size is well the rapid in situ formation of polymer hydrogels, inorganic solids, and other materials for medical. Mixing of a calcium-loaded lipid vesicle suspension with aqueous inorganic phosphate resulted in a stable

  2. Frequency Regulation from Flexible Loads: Potential, Economics, and Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    regulation procurement by as much as 40% [4]. This issue has been recognized in the power and energy system energy capacity into the day-ahead regulation market, and CAISO will dispatch these resources soFrequency Regulation from Flexible Loads: Potential, Economics, and Implementation He Hao1,, Borhan

  3. ELEMENT C: Management Measures Necessary to Achieve Your Load Reductions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , public education, ordinances, pet waste programs, erosion control plans. Regulatory Tools as Management · Identify new management opportunities · Identify critical areas in watershed where additional measures1 ELEMENT C: Management Measures Necessary to Achieve Your Load Reductions, Along with the Critical

  4. Discontinuous Load Rating Problem for Induction Motors Gennady A. Leonov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonov, Gennady A.

    , is the parameter of influence of electromagnetic processes in a rotor on processes in the stator windings the influence of electromagnetic processes in a rotor on processes in the stator windings we assume in system (1Discontinuous Load Rating Problem for Induction Motors Gennady A. Leonov The transient processes

  5. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  6. Park Load Reduction by Preconditioning of Buildings at Night

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabl, A.; Norford, L. K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads during the peak period can be reduced if a building is subcooled a few degrees below its normal thermostat setpoint during the preceding night. During the day, the thermostat must control the warmup in such a way that the stored energy...

  7. 2006 Haulage & Loading Conference: big equipment, big crowd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of this year's Haulage and Loading Conference was 'Is better still better?' Most of the presenters either considered the effectiveness of bigger equipment or examined other strategies from various perspectives, based on their experiences. Papers were presented on trucks, shovels, loaders, excavators, haul road design and maintenance, and incorporating IT equipment. 5 photos.

  8. Load Distribution in Large Scale Network Monitoring Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politčcnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Load Distribution in Large Scale Network Monitoring Infrastructures Josep Sanju`as-Cuxart, Pere to build a scalable, distributed passive network mon- itoring system that can run several arbitrary the principal research challenges behind building a distributed network monitoring system to support

  9. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  10. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  11. Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    with graphite. · Two layers of polymer separator with electrolyte. #12;Lithium Polymer Battery Structure Cu strain of the battery. #12;Anode - Graphite Crushed Uncrushed #12;Cathode ­ LiCoO2 Crushed Uncrushed #12Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading Karl Suabedissen1, Christina Peabody2

  12. Grid Load Balancing Using Intelligent Agents Junwei Cao1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarvis, Stephen

    - 1 - Grid Load Balancing Using Intelligent Agents Junwei Cao1 , Daniel P. Spooner* , Stephen A for grid computing. The management and scheduling of dynamic grid resources in a scalable way requires new technologies to implement a next generation intelligent grid environment. This work demonstrates that AI

  13. Exploiting Home Automation Protocols for Load Monitoring in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    to reduce consumption is also impor- tant. Smart buildings use demand-side energy management to self consumption with renewable generation [17]. Demand- side management requires buildings to 1) continuously mon@cs.williams.edu Abstract Monitoring and controlling electrical loads is crucial for demand-side energy management in smart

  14. Experiences with Load Balancing and Caching for Semantic Web Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Ralf

    and load KBs on demand. Compared to previous versions, the functionality of RacerManager has been to successfully build applications that exploit these KB servers, an appropriate middleware is required. In particular, if there are many servers for a specific KB, the middleware is responsible for managing request

  15. Nitrogen Loading and Attenuation in the West Falmouth Harbor Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    in nitrogen loading due to the opening of the wastewater treatment plant and increased septic inputs Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and septic tanks arrive in the form of plumes of higher nitrogen. The treatment plant provides secondary treatment to the incoming wastewater but is not designed to provide

  16. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands—firm loads—are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and “contracted for” resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA’s Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem.

  17. PLOrk: The Princeton Laptop Orchestra, Year 1 Daniel Trueman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , a multi-channel hemispherical speaker, a variety of control devices (key- boards, graphics tablets. The challenges are many: what kinds of sounds can we create? how can we physically control these sounds? how do

  18. Price-Responsive Load (PRL) Program - Framing Paper No.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market and to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.

  19. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  20. Microstructure evolution during tensile loading histories of a polyurea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinaldi, R.G.; Boyce, M.C.; Weigand, S.J.; Londono, D.J.; Guise, M.W. (MIT); (NWU); (Dupont)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution in the hard/soft domain microstructure of an elastomeric-like polyurea during different tensile loading histories was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The nonlinear stress-strain behavior is initially stiff with a rollover yield to a more compliant response; unloading is highly nonlinear showing substantial hysteresis while also exhibiting significant recovery. Reloading reveals a substantially more compliant 'softened' behavior and dramatically reduced hysteresis. WAXS peaks monitor characteristic dimensions of regular features within the hard domains; the peak location remains unchanged with tensile deformation indicating no separation of the internal structure within a domain, but the peak intensity becomes anisotropic with deformation evolving in a reversible manner consistent with orientation due to stretch. The SAXS profiles provide information between major hard domains. SAXS peaks are found to shift with tensile loading in a relatively affine manner up to a tensile true strain of {approx}0.4, which, using a Bragg reduction to aid interpretation, reveals an axial increase and a transverse decrease in interdomain spacings; this evolution is reversible for strains less than {approx}0.4. Increasing axial strain beyond a true strain of {approx}0.4 is accompanied by a dramatic, progressive, and irreversible reduction in axial Bragg spacing, indicating a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure. A four-point pattern is seen to develop during stretching. The breakdown in networked structure during a first load cycle gives a new structure for subsequent load cycles, which is seen to evolve in a reversible manner for strains less than or equal to the prior maximum strain. However, for strains exceeding the prior maximum strain excursion, additional breakdown is found. These SAXS results show that a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure is a governing mechanism for the large dissipation (hysteresis) loops of the first load cycle and are also responsible for the softened reloading response. The absence of structure breakdown during subsequent load cycles corresponds to the substantially reduced hysteresis loops as well as the stable softened behavior. DMA data on pristine and previously deformed samples show a more compliant storage modulus in the predeformed sample, supporting the softened cyclic stress-strain data and the structural breakdown observed in the SAXS; the loss modulus was unchanged with deformation, which correlates with the lossy features measured in DMA with time-dependent viscosity rather than losses due to structural breakdown.

  1. An adaptive neural network approach to one-week ahead load forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, T.M. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Hubele, N.F.; Karady, G.G. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new neural network approach is applied to one-week ahead load forecasting. This approach uses a linear adaptive neuron or adaptive linear combiner called Adaline.'' An energy spectrum is used to analyze the periodic components in a load sequence. The load sequence mainly consists of three components: base load component, and low and high frequency load components. Each load component has a unique frequency range. Load decomposition is made for the load sequence using digital filters with different passband frequencies. After load decomposition, each load component can be forecasted by an Adaline. Each Adaline has an input sequence, an output sequence, and a desired response-signal sequence. It also has a set of adjustable parameters called the weight vector. In load forecasting, the weight vector is designed to make the output sequence, the forecasted load, follow the actual load sequence; it also has a minimized Least Mean Square error. This approach is useful in forecasting unit scheduling commitments. Mean absolute percentage errors of less than 3.4 percent are derived from five months of utility data, thus demonstrating the high degree of accuracy that can be obtained without dependence on weather forecasts.

  2. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  3. Loading on a vertical cylinder in multidirectional waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaplin, J.R.; Subbiah, K. [City Univ., London (United Kingdom). Ocean Engineering Research Center; Irani, M. [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Institute for Marine Dynamics

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents laboratory measurements of local and total loading on an isolated vertical cylinder in irregular unidirectional and multidirectional waves. Maximum Keulegan-Carpenter numbers in individual waves were about 16, and maximum reynolds numbers about 3 {times} 10{sup 4}. It is shown that in these conditions, existing theoretical and numerical models underestimate the reduction in loading on a cylinder due to wave spreading. Besides the changes that are predicted when Morison`s equation is used with constant coefficients, there are hydrodynamic influences that contribute further force reductions. Comparisons with Dena`s (1977) hybrid approach suggest that in the present conditions these reductions are in the region of 3 and 6 percent for a spreading function cos{sup 2s} {theta}, with s = 8 and s = 2, respectively. Larger reductions can be expected at higher Keulegan-Carpenter numbers, though scale effects are likely to become more important in the drag-dominated regime.

  4. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, R. [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  5. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  6. Core/corona modeling of diode-imploded annular loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, R.E.; Guillory, J.U.

    1980-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a tenuous exterior plasma corona with anomalous resistivity on the compression and heating of a hollow, collisional aluminum z-pinch plasma are predicted by a one-dimensional code. As the interior ('core') plasma is imploded by its axial current, the energy exchange between core and corona determines the current partition. Under the conditions of rapid core heating and compression, the increase in coronal current provides a trade-off between radial acceleration and compression, which reduces the implosion forces and softens the pitch. Combined with a heuristic account of energy and momentum transport in the strongly coupled core plasma and an approximate radiative loss calculation including Al line, recombination and Bremsstrahlung emission, the current model can provide a reasonably accurate description of imploding annular plasma loads that remain azimuthally symmetric. The implications for optimization of generator load coupling are examined.

  7. Load-follow operation with the MSHIM control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, T.; Carlsen, B.W.; Kutz, J.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's ongoing efforts to improve plant daily load-follow capability, a system has been developed that promises a significant enhancement of current load-maneuvering capabilities, while simultaneously reducing the burden on operators and plant systems. This concept, the mechanical shim (MSHIM), control system utilizes two independently operable groups of control banks for essentially simultaneous control of reactivity and axial power distribution. This system has been developed with the goal of supporting either of two operational modes. One mode is designed to maximize spinning reserve (MAXSR) capacity (return to full-power capability). The other mode minimizes boric (MINB) acid changes, hence effluent production, during the power maneuver. The features of the two control modes are summarized.

  8. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  9. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aurand, John F. (Edgewood, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  10. Simulations of Alpha Wall Load in ITER. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The partially DOE funded International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will produce massive amounts of energetic charged alpha particles, which are imperfectly confined by a strong magnetic field. The wall of the experiment is designed to withstand an estimated wall load from these fusion alpha particles, but the accuracy of this estimate needs to be improved to avoid potentially catastrophic surprises when the experiment becomes operational. We have added a more accurate, gyro-dynamic model of particle motion to the existing drift-dynamic model in the DELTA5D simulation software used for the project. We have also added the ability to load a detailed engineering model of the wall and use it in the simulations.

  11. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar. A fraction of interstellar neutrals penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of both non-relativistic and relativistic flow, and focusing on scales much larger than the stand-off distance, we find that a relatively small density of neutrals, as low as $n_{\\rm ISM}=10^{-4}\\,\\text{cm}^{-3}$, is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  12. Wind loading on tracking and field-mounted solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all of the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three, or possibly more, seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  13. An experimental investigation of eccentrically loaded riveted and bolted connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias, Samy E. G

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of CO1'if"tCCC fOA At*Id j f p f' 0 tt3w~ !%1Cfk1 f)C 13 TEST PROCEDURE 1. Determine basic rivet shear strength. 2. Rivet the plate to the angle. 3. Bolt the plate to the loading arm, 4. Bolt the angle td the jig. 5. Bolt the jig to the machine...

  14. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  15. Utility -Owned Central Plant Load Management at the Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilley, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP Customer Energy Solutions, Austin Energy Mission: Deliver clean, affordable, reliable energy and excellent customer service. Utility Owned Load Management – Thermal Energy Storage ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air... District – Ice Storage • Two (2) localized plants – Chilled Water Storage • An estimated 112,000 ton-hours of storage capacity 4 Austin Energy – Thermal Utility ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas...

  16. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Line Power Pu? 3. Governor- Turbine System 4. Overall Single-Area System Model 5. Two-Area System B. IEEE Models of Turbines snd Boilers 1. Reheat Turbine Model . 2. Governor Representation with Deadband 3. Boiler System C. Factors in Generating Unit... fluctuations and major generation or load disturbances. The processes involved are the dynamics of boilers, governors, turbines and their interactions with the power system. Governors and boilers as primary control units are responsible for maintaining...

  17. Optimizing Process Loads in Industrial Cogeneration Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Babson, P. E.

    processes. AUTOMATION REQUIREMENTS The Operations energy Management System (OEMS) can require on-line operation using current measurements (e.g. flow, powers, temperatures, etc.), and calculating optimum energy purchase and equipment dispatch within...kW., A.. kW >- kW OPTIMIZING PROCESS LOADS IN INDUSTRIAL COGENERAnON ENERGY SYSTEMS DJ. Ahner Manager, Generation Technology Power Tecbnologies, Inc. Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT Optimum dispatcb of energy supply systems can...

  18. An experimental investigation of eccentrically loaded riveted and bolted connections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias, Samy E. G

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of CO1'if"tCCC fOA At*Id j f p f' 0 tt3w~ !%1Cfk1 f)C 13 TEST PROCEDURE 1. Determine basic rivet shear strength. 2. Rivet the plate to the angle. 3. Bolt the plate to the loading arm, 4. Bolt the angle td the jig. 5. Bolt the jig to the machine...

  19. Notes 04. Static load performance of plain journal bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .s/m 2 ] ? 2 4 LR L WC ? ? ? ?? = ?? ?? Modified Sommerfeld number (short length bearing) ? Journal angular speed (rad/s) NOTES 4. STATIC LOAD PERFORMANCE OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS. Dr. Luis San Andr?s ? 2010 2 For incompressible...) pressure profiles for a short length journal bearing with the following dimensions and operating characteristics. Length L=50 mm; clearance, C=100 ?m, rotational speed at 3,000 rpm (?=314 rad/s), and lubricant viscosity ?=19 centipoise (19 10 -3 N...

  20. Dynamic response of containment vessels to blast loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpp, R.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Neal, T.R.; Warnes, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic response of steel, spherical containment vessels loaded by internal explosive blast was studied by experiments, computations, and analysis. Instrumentation used in the experiments consisted of strain and pressure gauges and a velocity interferometer. Data were used to rank the blast wave mitigating properties of several filler materials and to develop a scaling law relating strain, filler material, and explosive energy or explosive mass.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  2. Test experience with multiterminal HVDC load flow and stability programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, D.G.; Davies, J.B. (Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (CA)); McNichol, J.R. (Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba (CA)); Gulachenski, E.M.; Doe, S. (New England Power Service Co., Westboro, MA (US)); Balu, N.J. (EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (US))

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powerful new set of load flow and stability programs for the study of HVdc systems has recently been completed. During the development of the programs novel applications of multiterminal HVdc systems were investigated, firstly on a large test system and later on actual utility models. This paper describes the test systems used, the HVdc systems studied and some of the interesting system related aspects of the HVdc system performance.

  3. Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, J. D.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESIDENTIAL AIR CONDITIONER DIRECT LOAD CONTROL "ENERGY PARTNERS PROGRAMn John D. Cook Supervisor Houston ABSTRACT Demand side management programs like Energy Partners can provide an effective peak reducing capability which within a.... In this partnership the customer allows HLfP to install a I switch on his/her air conditioner or heat pump and i periodically cycle the unit off during the hottest summer 1 days. In return the customer benefits by receiving an incentive payment, as well...

  4. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Discussion Series on PURPA Related Topics is composed of five volumes: Metering, Billing, Information to Customers, Load Management Techniques and Master Metering. These reports are based on twenty-five Demonstration and Implementation projects sponsored and directed during the past five years by the US Department of Energy, Office of Utility Systems. Each of the topics bears directly on one or more of the federal standards contained in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This volume, Load Management Techniques, relates primarily to the Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3. The experiences related in this report deal, in part, with the procedures and equipment which are affected when time-of-day rates are implemented. One goal of this report is to describe how people in a variety of settings have dealt with the many practical issues in load management. Another is to highlight the lessons and summarize the experiences of the Project participants. This report does not stand as a manual nor provide prescriptive guidelines on how to deal with the topic. Rather it offers an account for those charged with the responsibility of implementing PURPA requirements to learn from the insights and problems which occurred during the Rate Demonstration projects.

  5. Energy-Aware Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Vimal; Shenoy, Prashant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internet-scale distributed systems such as content delivery networks (CDNs) operate hundreds of thousands of servers deployed in thousands of data center locations around the globe. Since the energy costs of operating such a large IT infrastructure are a significant fraction of the total operating costs, we argue for redesigning CDNs to incorporate energy optimizations as a first-order principle. We propose techniques to turn off CDN servers during periods of low load while seeking to balance three key design goals: maximize energy reduction, minimize the impact on client-perceived service availability (SLAs), and limit the frequency of on-off server transitions to reduce wear-and-tear and its impact on hardware reliability. We propose an optimal offline algorithm and an online algorithm to extract energy savings both at the level of local load balancing within a data center and global load balancing across data centers. We evaluate our algorithms using real production workload traces from a large commercial ...

  6. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  7. High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  8. HCCI Combustion: the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion: the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection HCCI Combustion: the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection...

  9. An analog and digital data acquisition system for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford, Zachary Alan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a method for characterizing and monitoring discrete loads connected to a power distribution system. This can include a ship, a car, or a utility distribution system. The entire concept ...

  10. Utilizing Load Response for Wind and Solar Integration and Power System Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is still the most underutilized reliability resource in North America. This paper examines the characteristics of concern to the power system, the renewables, and to the loads.

  11. Benefits and costs of load management: a technical assistance and resource material handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Ronald; Ackerman, Gary; Lau, Ronald; Patmore, James; Ma, Fred; Sechan, Neil; Schoor, Alan; Simon, Lois; Bleiweis, Bruce; Lloyd, Kevin

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This handbook will assist state regulatory authorities and electric utilities in complying with the Load Management Standard of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The handbook has two major sections. The first discusses load-management techniques in terms of equipment, customer applications, combinations of techniques, etc. Key steps for evaluating the costs and benefits of load management options also are presented. These steps are intended to sequentially eliminate ineffective load-management options as the cost-benefit calculation becomes more detailed. The second section includes up-to-date information on available load-management technologies, models for utility costing, load-management data transfer, prescreening of load-management options, and the load-management literature.

  12. Wind load comparison for the ASCE standard 7 and the Hanford site design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giller, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides calculations and discussions to compare Hanford Site wind load criteria with the current national standard for wind loads (ASCE 7, 1995). Site criteria uses the 1988 edition ASCE 7.

  13. discusses the widespread use of load-following products in regions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    discusses the widespread use of load- following products in regions with retail competition the lucrative consulting practice to push the load- following product. We are confident that readers will see

  14. Evaluation of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring for shipboard cycling system diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosman, James P. (James Paul)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a device that utilizes voltage and current measurements to determine the operating schedule of all of the major loads on an electrical service. Additionally, the NILM can use its ...

  15. Reservoir-Wellbore Coupled Simulation of Liquid Loaded Gas Well Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riza, Muhammad Feldy

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid loading of gas wells causes production difficulty and reduces ultimate recovery from these wells. In 1969, Turner proposed that existence of annular two-phase flow at the wellhead is necessary for the well to avoid liquid loading...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD FOR COOLING LOAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD FOR COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS By IP SENG College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree LOAD CALCULATIONS Thesis Approved: _______________________________________ Thesis Advisor

  17. Measuring Cognitive Load in Multimedia Instruction: A Comparison of Two Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is that cognitive load which is not necessary for learning, and is under the control of the designer. Factors determining extraneous load include presentation format and use of graphics or animations (Paas et al., 2003

  18. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into account in the heat load calculation; (2) for the firststratification on heat load calculations was raised but itload calculation section the following advice was given: (1) the convective heat

  19. azo-polymer film loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  20. Response of a grooved plate subjected to out-of-plane contact loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastien, Christopher J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of a grooved plate subjected to out-of-plane contact loading is examined. The influence of selected geometric and loading parameters are investigated, as well as the effects of various boundary conditions. The ...

  1. Soil-Spring Model for Fatigue Evaluation of Cyclic-Loaded Offshore Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilupeju, Olusola Ayandire

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    more important. Design considerations and methodology for dealing with conductors and piles subjected to cyclic lateral loads, have been based on modifications to formulations for monotonic loads. Soil-structure interaction problems involving offshore...

  2. Quantifying plasticity-independent creep compliance and relaxation of viscoelastoplastic materials under contact loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandamme, Matthieu

    Here we quantify the time-dependent mechanical properties of a linear viscoelastoplastic material under contact loading. For contact load relaxation, we showed that the relaxation modulus can be measured independently of ...

  3. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building”, CECBuilding Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response”,Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings

  4. Design of Single-Switch Inverters for Variable Resistance/Load Modulation Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roslaniec, Lukasz

    Single-Switch inverters such as the conventional Class-E inverter are often highly load sensitive, and maintain zero-voltage switching over only a narrow range of load resistances. This paper introduces a design methodology ...

  5. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  6. ensl-00083379,version1-30Jun2006 Cooperative effect of load and disorder in thermally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for a sample to break under a prescribed load. The lifetime follows an Arrehnius law [9, 10], but thermal noise

  7. The relation of mechanical impedance to selected soil responses under rapid loading conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zirjacks, Winston Luther

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and white interface. Many different paints were tested for cracking und. . r elongation, and this rombination proved to perform satis- factori ly. During the preliminary static testing of samples, it was found that the expected vei. tical deformation... the loading part of the saw-tooth function, however, the dial gauge was hard to read and overshoot was present. So, the load was dialed in using various percentages of maximum load statically, and the actual load from the proving ring, the percentage...

  8. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlleddemand side management has been a keen topic of interest. Buildings,

  9. Power Generation Loading Optimization using a Multi-Objective Constraint-Handling Method via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaodong

    power industry. A major objective for the coal-fired power generation loading optimization results of the power generation loading optimization based on a coal-fired power plant demonstratesPower Generation Loading Optimization using a Multi-Objective Constraint-Handling Method via PSO

  10. Failover and Load Sharing in SIP Telephony Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IP telephony context. The paper compares various failover and load sharing methods for registrationFailover and Load Sharing in SIP Telephony Kundan Singh and Henning Schulzrinne Department address takeover, and the load sharing techniques using DNS, SIP identifiers, network address translators

  11. Towards Feasible and Effective Load Sharing in a Heterogeneous Computational Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Yeh-Ching

    speed. Heterogeneity puts a challenge on designing effective load sharing methods. Methods developedTowards Feasible and Effective Load Sharing in a Heterogeneous Computational Grid Kuo-Chan Huang local user communities. Feasible and effective load sharing is key to fulfilling such a concern

  12. Dynamic Load Balancing for I/O-and Memory-Intensive Workload in Clusters Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yifeng

    Load-Balancing Scheme We consider the issue of a feedback control method in a cluster, M = {M1, ..., Mn/O, respectively, without any resource sharing. For a newly arrived job j at a node i, load balancing schemesDynamic Load Balancing for I/O- and Memory-Intensive Workload in Clusters Using a Feedback Control

  13. Inspector-Executor Load Balancing Algorithms for Block-Sparse Tensor Contractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Pavan

    --Developing effective yet scalable load-balancing methods for irregular computations is critical to the successful, any form of centralized dynamic load balancing, such as master-worker or a shared counter (eInspector-Executor Load Balancing Algorithms for Block-Sparse Tensor Contractions David Ozog, Jeff

  14. Swing Dynamics as Primal-Dual Algorithm for Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    al. studied the aggregate response character- istics when individual loads are turned on networks, loads can pro- vide flexible, fast responsive, and decentralized sources for frequency regulation and generation-demand balancing, com- plementary to generation control. We consider an optimal load control (OLC

  15. AIAA-98-0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA-98-0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rain ow counted measures|can be used to estimate fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. We rst de- scribe a general approach

  16. An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid M. A. Barik and H generator. An automatic load sharing approach for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind wind velocity. The load demand for the wind generator is determined based on the variation of its

  17. Design and Stability of Load-Side Primary Frequency Control in Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    1 Design and Stability of Load-Side Primary Frequency Control in Power Systems Changhong Zhao for primary frequency regulation in power networks, by formulating an optimal load control (OLC) problem where--We present a systematic method to design ubiqui- tous continuous fast-acting distributed load control

  18. Evaluation of Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings Xinzhong Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Evaluation of Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings Xinzhong Chen1 and Ahsan Kareem2 1 Professor of Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, kareem@nd.edu ABSTRACT Wind loads or by high frequency force balance (HFFB) measurements. Although this loading infor- mation can be directly

  19. Flexible Loads in Future Energy Networks Jay Taneja, Ken Lutz, and David Culler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    electrical loads in the form of a domestic refrigerator augmented with a thermal storage system and a supply re- sults show that with 10% penetration of thermal storage across refrigeration and freezer load. These types of loads, primarily refrigeration and freezer systems but also electric vehicles or rooftop ice

  20. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE LOAD-FOLLOWING POTENTIAL OF A HOT DRY ROCK GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE LOAD-FOLLOWING POTENTIAL OF A HOT DRY ROCK GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR. The objective of this cyclic load-following experiment was to investigate the performance of the reservoir, this series of cyclic flow tests is referred to as the Load-Following Experiment, with the objective