National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for incandescent lamp produces

  1. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingard, R. D.; Myer, M. A.; Paget, M. L.

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  2. EA-1911: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps.

  3. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  4. DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a final rule regarding the request for exclusion of 100 Watt R20 short incandescent reflector lamps from energy conservation standards.

  5. Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps consist of a wire filament inside a glass bulb that is usually filled with inert gas, and they produce light when an electric current heats the filament to a high temperature. Incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options-because most of the energy released is in the form of heat rather than light-and a short average operating life

  6. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Halogen Incandescent MR16 Lamps and LED Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paget, M. L.; Lingard, R. D.; Myer, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses the halogen MR16 lamp and its commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  7. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting » Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings. Although

  8. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    courtesy of iStockphotoTokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings....

  9. Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2005-03-22

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  10. Photonically engineered incandescent emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2003-08-26

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  11. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  12. Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Fluorescent Lamps Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps This tool calculates the payback period for your calc retrofit project. Modify the default values to suit your project requirements. Existing incandescent lamp wattage Watts Incandescent lamp cost dollars Incandescent lamp life 1000 hours calc wattage Watts calc cost dollars calc life (6000 hours for moderate use, 10000 hours for high use) 8000 hours Number of lamps in retrofit project Hours operating per week hours

  13. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These lamps produce visible light by heating a tiny coil or filament of tungsten wire that glows when it is heated by an electrical current. "Long-life" lamps are an example of ...

  14. DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. New Funding Opportunity: High-Efficacy Lamp Product Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January 1, 2020. ET's Lighting Alternatives Maximizing Performance and Suitability (LAMPS) program seeks to create suitable high-efficacy lighting options for incandescent ...

  16. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  17. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  18. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral replacement lamps - currently in its second draft. Robert Lingard of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) gave an

  19. Laser-induced incandescence (LII)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    induced incandescence (LII) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lightbulbs - high-resolution EPS (2.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy-Saving Incandescents CFL Lightbulbs CFL Lightbulbs

  1. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents November 5, 2014 - 11:39pm Addthis By...

  2. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lighbulbs - high-resolution JPG (3.85 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy-Saving Incandescents CFL Lightbulbs Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard)

  3. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  4. A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lights | Department of Energy A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights July 21, 2009 - 5:18pm Addthis John Lippert Pretty soon, lighting is going to get a lot more efficient. New standards for incandescent reflector bulbs, general purpose fluorescent bulbs, and regular incandescent bulbs are going into effect beginning in approximately three years. You may be curious about

  5. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  7. General Service LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that compares general service incandescent lamps—i.e., light bulbs—to LED and CFL alternatives.

  8. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  9. Lamp Divisions

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    --- /A;; i :' r%i;in~house ilEc;' i:Z3:~cra:ion Lamp Divisions , _.. (I +i. 0 :,,,rg. . I . . -= i?e p/q! qe)-' &se pw E.rcale?l iev, Je!sey 07m March 20, 1 gs? ::r . J. A. Jones I ti. 5. Muclear Regulatory Commission .> = ..- haterials Licensing Branch -s - ,.I, - - Division of Fuel Cycle and hateri al Safety LY. , $2 - _ . ' -' . 3 _- - Yeshington, C. C. 2@555 - :_ :--, =-- -- .-?J -.: y...., : :- 7 Dear Mr. Jones : y-- --, ? . *I 2=15 2 r; X -P The following is our final report of the

  10. Aperture lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  11. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  12. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save $75 each year. By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save $75 each

  13. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  14. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent Reflector Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has issued Notices of Non-Compliance Determination to Westinghouse Lighting Corporation and Fuzhou Sunlight Lighting Electrical Appliance Company requiring that they halt the sale of 8 basic...

  15. LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-07-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that describes the performance of LED MR16 lamps and discusses electronic compatibility concerns.

  16. Snapshot: Linear Lamps (TLEDs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A report using LED Lighting Facts data to examine the current state of the market for linear fluorescent lamps. (8 pages, July 2016)

  17. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  18. Fluorescent Tube Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP temporarily suspended its energy efficiency requirements for fluorescent tube lamps as it evaluates the market impact of the pending 2012 minimum efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps. The program will issue updated energy efficiency requirements when the market distribution of this product category stabilizes and when doing so has the potential to result in significant Federal energy savings.

  19. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  20. Turning on LAMP

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-07-16

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  1. Turning on LAMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-06-30

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  2. Rapid flash lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavenonis, Thomas L.; Hewitt, William H.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  3. Rapid flash lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavenonis, Thomas L.; Hewitt, William H.

    1989-06-06

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  4. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  5. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  6. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and

  7. LED MR16 Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED MR16 Lamps LED MR16 Lamps A U.S. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program technology fact sheet on LED MR16 lamps. PDF icon ledmr16-lamps.pdf More Documents & Publications Report ...

  8. LED MR16 Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The following CALiPER report provides detailed analysis of LED MR16 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Pending reports will offer analysis on performance attributes that are not captured by LM-79 testing. These reports are intended to educate the industry on market trends, potential issues, and important areas for improvement.

  9. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  10. Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

    2010-01-01

    LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

  11. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the ...

  12. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  13. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  14. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens

  15. LED Directional Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Directional Lamps LED Directional Lamps BTP EERE Solid-State Lighting Program PDF icon leddirectionallamps.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Estimates of Light ...

  16. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian; Ury, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  17. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  18. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  19. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CALiPER Testing » Application Reports » Retail Replacement Lamps Retail Replacement Lamps Annual CALiPER testing of A19, G25, candelabra, night light, MR16/PAR16, PAR20, and PAR30 replacement lamps - purchased directly from store shelves - offers insights on performance trends from year to year. The report findings offer valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers alike. Retail Lamps Study 3 (48 pages, February 2014) Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

  20. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  1. CALiPER Snapshot: MR16 Lamps

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    C L E A N C I T I E S www.lightingfacts.com CALiPER last issued an LED Lighting Facts ... MR16 lamp is one of the most difficult lamps for LED technology to successfully replicate. ...

  2. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2002-04-11

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  3. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operated in Steady-State Conditions | Department of Energy Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions (42 pages, December 2014) (2.29 MB) More Documents & Publications Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes

  4. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  5. LED PAR38 Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Technology Application R&D » CALiPER Testing » Application Reports » LED PAR38 Lamps LED PAR38 Lamps The following CALiPER reports provide a detailed investigation of LED PAR38 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Further analysis is provided on flicker, dimming, and power quality characteristics; stress testing; lumen and chromaticity maintenance; and chromaticity

  6. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  7. The low-pressure sodium lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    For many years before the introduction of the sodium vapor lamp, scientists had been aware of the remarkably high luminous efficacy of the sodium discharge. However, many technical problems had to be overcome before these lamps could be marketed. The first commercial low pressure sodium lamps were introduced in the early 1930s and to this day they remain the most efficient light sources available. The high efficacy is due partly to the fact that these lamps emit nearly monochromatic yellow light, which is very close to the peak sensitivity of the human eye. Sodium lamps have come a long way since their introduction, and efficacies are now approaching 200 lumens per watt. Despite increasing competition from other types of discharge lamp, low pressure sodium lamps of the SOX type find widespread use in road and security lighting, particularly in Great Britain and many other parts of Europe. This paper reviews the operation and development of the low pressure sodium lamp, and shows what makes it different from the many other types of discharge lamp available.

  8. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Izrail; Shanks, Bruce; Sumner, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  9. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  10. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Signature Identification Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, C.

    2009-03-17

    This is an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) signature design program called LAVA (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis). LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs.

  11. TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ISSUANCE 2016-02-26: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Certain Categories ... Service Lamps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Test Procedure for Compact Fluorescent Lamps:

  12. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  13. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  14. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  15. LED T8 Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T8 Replacement Lamps LED T8 Replacement Lamps This documents provides an overview of LED T8 replacement lamps and helps define a reasonable minimum performance level for the purpose of plant-wide improvement. LED T8 Replacement Lamps (April 2010) (809.84 KB) More Documents & Publications Emerging Lighting Technology General Service LED Lamps Guiding Market Introduction of High-Performance SSL Products

  16. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp

  17. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Dymond, Jr., Lauren E.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Grimm, William G.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Ola, Samuel A.; Simpson, James E.; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  18. Incentive Fee Determination Summary Contractor: Washington Closure Hanford LLC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps consist of a wire filament inside a glass bulb that is usually filled with inert gas, and they produce light when an electric current heats the filament to a high temperature. Incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options-because most of the energy released is in the form of heat rather than light-and a short average operating life

  19. DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that DuraLamp USA, Inc. failed to certify a variety of general service fluorescent lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  1. Demonstration of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.

    2011-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of art in Eugene, OR

  2. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  3. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  4. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  5. LED lamp color control system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  6. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  7. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  9. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Bass, Gary K.; Copsey, Jesse F.; Garber, Jr., William E.; Kwong, Vincent H.; Levin, Izrail; MacLennan, Donald A.; Roy, Robert J.; Steiner, Paul E.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  10. EA-1664: Final Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Standards: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps

  11. Seeking Feedback on General Service Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seeking Feedback on General Service Lamps Seeking Feedback on General Service Lamps March 18, 2016 - 10:47am Addthis The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office (BTO) Emerging Technologies Program is seeking information from the public regarding lamps in general illumination applications. The Emerging Technologies Program supports applied research and development (R&D) for technologies and systems that contribute to reductions in building energy

  12. Purchasing Energy-Efficient General Service Fluorescent Lamps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Purchasing Energy-Efficient General Service Fluorescent Lamps Purchasing Energy-Efficient General Service Fluorescent Lamps The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for general service fluorescent lamps (GSFLs), a product category covered by FEMP efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR qualified or FEMP designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any

  13. TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice of Proposed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rulemaking | Department of Energy TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking GSL TP SNOPR.pdf (309.44 KB) More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2016-02-26: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Certain Categories of General Service Lamps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ISSUANCE 2016-02-12: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards

  14. Candelabra and Intermediate Base Lamps Enforcement Policy Statement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Candelabra and Intermediate Base Lamps Enforcement Policy Statement Candelabra and Intermediate Base Lamps Enforcement Policy Statement July 1, 2011 - 5:00pm Addthis The Department issued guidance today advising manufacturers, importers and private labelers that DOE will not enforce the energy conservation standards and compliance certification requirements for candelabra and intermediate base lamps until January 1, 2012. Addthis Related Articles New Funding Opportunity:

  15. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail salea distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions of

  16. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope.

  17. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  18. Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Final...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps - Final Rule (532.58 KB) More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures ...

  19. Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork You are ...

  20. Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Germicidal ...

  1. Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork Ultraviolet; UV; ...

  2. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  3. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Rubenstein, Francis M.; Whitman, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

  4. Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps caliper_22-1_mr16.pdf (4.52 MB) More Documents & Publications LED MR16 Lamps Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps LED Directional

  5. Compact microwave lamp having a tuning block and a dielectric located in a lamp cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E.

    2000-01-01

    A microwave lamp having a compact structure utilizing a coupling slot which has a dielectric member extending therethrough and a tuning block adjoining the coupling slot. A non-conventional waveguide is used which has about the width of a WR-284 waveguide and about the length of a WR-340 waveguide.

  6. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George; Orr, Thomas Robert; Greene, Charles Maurice; Crawford, Douglas Gordon; Berman, Samuel Maurice

    1998-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  7. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1998-10-20

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  8. Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gary L.; Potter, James M.

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

  9. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A ...

  10. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality ...

  11. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  12. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  13. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, Bruce A.; Siminovitch, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures.

  14. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, Philip E.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  15. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  16. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  17. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  18. DOE Publishes Long-Term Testing Investigation of Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released another special report on LED lamps that are available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. CALiPER...

  19. CALiPER Publishes New Snapshot on MR16 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s CALiPER program has published a new Snapshot Report on LED MR16 lamps, which updates a similar Snapshot Report published in January 2014. In the past two years, LED technology has progressed...

  20. This document, concerning general service lamps is an action...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... efforts on reducing the price of LED lamps ... Table V-14 Summary of Inputs and Methods for the ... installed on coal-fired power plants to comply with the MATS ...

  1. DOE Publishes Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. The report follows similar...

  2. DOE Publishes New CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. While previous reports in...

  3. Studies on Temperature Dependence of Rubidium Lamp for Atomic Frequency Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Bikash; Banik, Alak; Vats, Vaibhav; Pal, Sukamal; Bahl, R. K

    2011-10-20

    Rb lamp is a very critical component of the Rb atomic clock's Physics Package. The Rb lamp's performance is very sensitive to temperature and its stability. In this paper we discuss the behaviors of Rb Lamp with temperature. The Rb lamp exciter power and temperature of Rb bulb are very important parameters in controlling the performance of the Rb Lamp. It is observed that at temperatures beyond 110 deg. C, the lamp mode changes from the ring to red mode resulting in abnormal broadening of emission lines and self reversal. The results of our studies on spectral analysis of Rb lamp under various operating conditions are reported in the paper.

  4. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  5. Magnetic fluorescent lamp having reduced ultraviolet self-absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Samuel M.; Richardson, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly (10) is enhanced by providing means (30) for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb (12) of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  6. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B39. Lighting Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",67338,64321,38156,60344,20666,19223,17926 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  7. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, M. A.; Paget, M. L.; Lingard, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    This report examines standard fluorescent lamps, the recessed troffers they are commonly used in, and available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps and their application in fluorescent troffers.

  8. Effects of repetitive pulsing on multi-kHz planar laser-induced incandescence imaging in laminar and turbulent flames

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael, James B.; Venkateswaran, Prabhakar; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Meyer, Terrence R.

    2015-04-08

    Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging is reported at repetition rates up to 100 kHz using a burst-mode laser system to enable studies of soot formation dynamics in highly turbulent flames. Furthermore, to quantify the accuracy and uncertainty of relative soot volume fraction measurements, the temporal evolution of the LII field in laminar and turbulent flames is examined at various laser operating conditions. Under high-speed repetitive probing, it is found that LII signals are sensitive to changes in soot physical characteristics when operating at high laser fluences within the soot vaporization regime. For these laser conditions, strong planar LII signals aremore » observed at measurement rates up to 100 kHz but are primarily useful for qualitative tracking of soot structure dynamics. However, LII signals collected at lower fluences allow sequential planar measurements of the relative soot volume fraction with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio at repetition rates of 10–50 kHz. Finally, guidelines for identifying and avoiding the onset of repetitive probe effects in the LII signals are discussed, along with other potential sources of measurement error and uncertainty.« less

  9. Effects of aggregate morphology and size on laser-induced incandescence and scattering from black carbon (mature soot)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bambha, Ray P.; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2015-07-03

    We have used a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to measure time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) and laser scatter from combustion-generated mature soot with a fractal dimension of 1.88 extracted from a burner. We have also made measurements on restructured mature-soot particles with a fractal dimension of 2.3–2.4. We reproduced the LII and laser-scatter temporal profiles with an energy- and mass-balance model, which accounted for heating of particles passed through a CW-laser beam over laser–particle interaction times of ~10 μs. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a strong influence of aggregate size and morphology on LII and scattering signals. Conductive cooling competes with absorptivemore » heating on these time scales; the effects are reduced with increasing aggregate size and fractal dimension. These effects can lead to a significant delay in the onset of the LII signal and may explain an apparent low bias in the SP2 measurements for small particle sizes, particularly for fresh, mature soot. The results also reveal significant perturbations to the measured scattering signal from LII interference and suggest rapid expansion of the aggregates during sublimation.« less

  10. Laser-induced incandescence: Particulate diagnostics for combustion, atmospheric, and industrial applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Schulz, C.; Smallwood, G. J.; Will, S.

    2015-09-09

    The understanding of soot formation in combustion processes and the optimization of practical combustion systems require in situ measurement techniques that can provide important characteristics, such as particle concentrations and sizes, under a variety of conditions. Of equal importance are techniques suitable for characterizing soot particles produced from incomplete combustion and emitted into the environment. Also, the production of engineered nanoparticles, such as carbon blacks, may benefit from techniques that allow for online monitoring of these processes.

  11. Laser-induced incandescence: Particulate diagnostics for combustion, atmospheric, and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Schulz, C.; Smallwood, G. J.; Will, S.

    2015-09-09

    The understanding of soot formation in combustion processes and the optimization of practical combustion systems require in situ measurement techniques that can provide important characteristics, such as particle concentrations and sizes, under a variety of conditions. Of equal importance are techniques suitable for characterizing soot particles produced from incomplete combustion and emitted into the environment. Also, the production of engineered nanoparticles, such as carbon blacks, may benefit from techniques that allow for online monitoring of these processes.

  12. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  13. Design and investigation of a novel concentrator used in solar fiber lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Kaiyan; Zheng, Hongfei; Taotao, Jing; Dai; Li, Zhengliang

    2009-11-15

    A novel concentrator used in solar fiber lamp has been designed and made. The method of the design has been introduced. The lamp has been tested under the real solar condition and the experiment curves have been given. The light transmission will be influenced by the structure of the lamp and the diameter of the fiber, which has been studied in this paper. The experimental results show that the brightness of this solar fiber lamp is about the brightness of a 6-W ordinary electrical energy-saving lamp. The computer simulation for the lamp has been presented and the improvement schemes are proposed. (author)

  14. Quantification of online removal of refractory black carbon using laser-induced incandescence in the single particle soot photometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aiken, Allison C.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; DeMott, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2016-04-05

    Refractory black carbon (rBC) is an aerosol that has important impacts on climate and human health. rBC is often mixed with other species, making it difficult to isolate and quantify its important effects on physical and optical properties of ambient aerosol. To solve this measurement challenge, a new method to remove rBC was developed using laser-induced incandescence (LII) by Levin et al. in 2014. Application of the method with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) is used to determine the effects of rBC on ice nucleating particles (INP). Here, we quantify the efficacy of the method in the laboratory usingmore » the rBC surrogate Aquadag. Polydisperse and mobility-selected samples (100–500 nm diameter, 0.44–36.05 fg), are quantified by a second SP2. Removal rates are reported by mass and number. For the mobility-selected samples, the average percentages removed by mass and number of the original size are 88.9 ± 18.6% and 87.3 ± 21.9%, respectively. Removal of Aquadag is efficient for particles >100 nm mass-equivalent diameter (dme), enabling application for microphysical studies. However, the removal of particles ≤100 nm dme is less efficient. Absorption and scattering measurements are reported to assess its use to isolate brown carbon (BrC) absorption. Scattering removal rates for the mobility-selected samples are >90% on average, yet absorption rates are 53% on average across all wavelengths. Therefore, application to isolate effects of microphysical properties determined by larger sizes is promising, but will be challenging for optical properties. Lastly, the results reported also have implications for other instruments employing internal LII, e.g., the Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS).« less

  15. 2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule | Department of Energy 30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule 2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and

  16. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1987-01-01

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  17. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.D.

    1985-10-03

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  18. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... for Lamps (Light Bulbs), available at: https:www.energystar.govsitesdefaultfilesENERGY%20STAR%20Lamps%20V1%201Specification.pdf 8 The RRL3 summary report is available at: ...

  19. Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions PDF ...

  20. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.3, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.3 details a set of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51W total power draw) over a 10-year study period.

  1. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Rosenfeld, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC.

  2. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Lighting Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",4657,4172,2193,3778,607,430,572 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)"

  3. New Funding Opportunity: High-Efficacy Lamp Product Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Submission deadline for letter of intent: May 6, 2016, 5 p.m. ET Submission deadline for full applications: May 23, 2016, 5 p.m. ET The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office Emerging Technologies (ET) program is announcing the availability of up to $3 million in funding to develop energy efficient replacement lamps in general illumination applications.

  4. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  5. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  6. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface.

  7. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.

    1992-11-10

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface. 12 figs.

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  9. Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steady-State Conditions | Department of Energy 0.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions (8.45 MB) More Documents & Publications MARCH 2016 POSTINGS Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

  10. ISSUANCE 2014-12-29: Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

  11. ISSUANCE 2016-03-24: Energy Conservation Program: Clarification of Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamps Ballasts, Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Clarification of Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamps Ballasts, Final Rule

  12. ISSUANCE 2016-02-12: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  13. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  14. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, François Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  15. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  16. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  17. Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerators Freezers Room air conditioners Televisions Clothes washers Dishwashers Battery chargers Water heaters Fluorescent lamp ballasts Incandescent reflector lamps If your ...

  18. APPLIANCE STANDARDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Equipment General Service Incandescent Lamps General Service Fluorescent Lamps Small Electric Motors Electric Motors Water Heaters Furnace Fans Distribution Transformers Water...

  19. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    All CFLs and LED lamps and most incandescent lamps exceeded California thresholds for Copper; * Most CFL samples exceeded California thresholds for Antimony and Nickel, and half ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... All CFLs and LED lamps and most incandescent lamps exceeded California thresholds for Copper; * Most CFL samples exceeded California thresholds for Antimony and Nickel, and half ...

  1. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation ...

  2. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  3. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for high-intesity discharge lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy

  4. 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures Correction for Fluorescent Lamp

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ballasts; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy 4 Issuance: Test Procedures Correction for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures Correction for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 14,

  5. DOE Publishes Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps DOE Publishes Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps March 4, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. The report follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012. LED replacement lamps are available through many retail outlets, and CALiPER testing offers insights on performance trends from year to year.

  6. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-17

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on LED T8 Lamps | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Likewise, some of the LED lamps had similar color quality and power quality to their fluorescent counterparts. But none of the LED products matched the luminous intensity ...

  8. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following is a text version of a video about CALiPER Application Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting.

  9. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  10. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps March 23, 2016 - 11:33am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 20.5, which is part of a series of investigations on LED PAR38 lamps. The new report builds on CALiPER Report 20.4 by providing a tear-down analysis of its 32 LED PAR38 lamp models and also performing additional analyses on the spectroradiometric data

  11. EA-1881: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including fluorescent lamp ballasts.

  12. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-23

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael G.; Turner, Brian; Wooten, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  15. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  17. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  18. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  19. CALiPER Application Summary Report 17. LED AR111 and PAR36 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    Report 17 analyzes the performance of a group of six LED products labeled as AR111 lamps. Results indicate that this product category lags behind other types of directional LED lamps but may perform acceptably in some applications and provide some energy savings.

  20. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  1. CALiPER Application Summary Report 21. Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    This report focuses on the bare lamp performance of 31 linear LED lamps intended as an alternative to T8 fluorescent lamps. Data obtained in accordance with IES LM-79-08 indicated that the mean efficacy is similar to that of fluorescent lamps, but that lumen output is often much lower. This presents a situation where something must change in order for energy savings and equivalent illumination levels to be achieved simultaneously. In this case, the luminous intensity distribution of all the tested lamps was directional or semi-directional, rather than omnidirectional. Also discussed in this report are several issues related to the electrical configuration of the lamps, such as the required socket types and power feed location. While no configuration is necessarily better, the multitude of options can make specifying and installing linear LED lamps more difficult, with the potential for safety issues. Similarly, the variety of color and power quality attributes adds a layer of complexity to the specification process. Many products offered good or excellent quality attributes, but some did not and thus could be perceived as inferior to fluorescent lamps in some installations.

  2. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  3. Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

  4. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  5. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  6. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  7. CALiPER Report 21.1. Linear (T8) Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    This report focuses on the performance of the same 31 linear LED lamps operated in a typical troffer with a K12 prismatic lens. In general, luminaire efficacy is strongly dictated by lamp efficacy, but the optical system of the luminaire substantially reduces the differences between the luminous intensity distributions of the lamps. While the distributions in the luminaire are similar, the differences remain large enough that workplane illuminance uniformity may be reduced if linear LED lamps with a narrow distribution are used. At the same time, linear LED lamps with a narrower distribution result in slightly higher luminaire efficiency.

  8. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  9. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

  11. ISSUANCE 2016-02-26: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Certain Categories of General Service Lamps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Certain Categories of General Service Lamps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  12. DOE Publishes CALiPER Application Summary Report on LED MR16 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s CALiPER program has released an Application Summary Report that focuses on the photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. Entitled Application Summary Report 22:...

  13. DOE Publishes CALiPER Snapshot Report on LED A Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CALiPER program has released a Snapshot Report on LED A lamps, which utilizes the LED Lighting Facts program's extensive product database to help industry stakeholders understand the current state and trajectory of the market for that class

  14. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Report Series 20 on LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer, Lighting Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: The CALiPER program looks at typical LED lamp performance attributes. As we've gone through the progression of reports, we...

  15. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 20.4, which is part of a series of investigations on LED PAR38 lamps. Report 20.4 focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity...

  16. DOE Publishes CALiPER Snapshot Report on LED MR16 Lamps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a Snapshot Report on MR16 lamps, which utilizes the LED Lighting Facts program's extensive product database to help ...

  17. CALiPER Report 20.5: Chromaticity Shift Modes of LED PAR38 Lamps...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Report 20.2: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps (March 2014) 9 This report focused on the flicker and power quality performance of the Series 20 ...

  18. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  19. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on the Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 22.1, which is part of a series of investigations on LED MR16 lamps. Report 22 investigated the photometric performance of 27 LED...

  20. Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borowiec, Joseph Christopher; Cocoma, John Paul; Roberts, Victor David

    1998-01-01

    An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

  1. Bayesian Models for Life Prediction and Fault-Mode Classification in Solid State Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Sakalaukus, Peter

    2015-04-19

    A new method has been developed for assessment of the onset of degradation in solid state luminaires to classifY failure mechanisms by using metrics beyond lumen degradation that are currently used for identification of failure. Luminous Flux output, Correlated Color Temperature Data on Philips LED Lamps has been gathered under 85°C/85%RH till lamp failure. The acquired data has been used in conjunction with Bayesian Probabilistic Models to identifY luminaires with onset of degradation much prior to failure through identification of decision boundaries between lamps with accrued damage and lamps beyond the failure threshold in the feature space. In addition luminaires with different failure modes have been classified separately from healthy pristine luminaires. It is expected that, the new test technique will allow the development of failure distributions without testing till L 70 life for the manifestation of failure.

  2. DOE Publishes New CALiPER Report on Subjective Evaluation of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has published the first in a series of four special investigations intended to extend the findings of CALiPER Application Summary Report 20: LED PAR38 Lamps, which was published late last year.

  3. CALiPER Application Summary Report 20. LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-11-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 38 LED PAR38 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR. Additional testing that focuses on performance attributes beyond those covered by LM-79-08 is planned for this group of lamps, and will be presented in subsequent reports.

  4. Use of Standard Fluorescent UV Weathering Lamps to Perform UV Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tests Prescribed in IEC Qualification Standards | Department of Energy Use of Standard Fluorescent UV Weathering Lamps to Perform UV Conditioning Tests Prescribed in IEC Qualification Standards Use of Standard Fluorescent UV Weathering Lamps to Perform UV Conditioning Tests Prescribed in IEC Qualification Standards Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps5_qlab_fowler.pdf (691.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Weathering

  5. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  6. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  7. DOE Publishes Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for General Service Lamps Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a Federal Register notice of public meeting and availability of the framework document regarding energy conservation standards for general service lamps.

  8. Laser-induced incandescence (LII)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Mountain Gondola to see the amazing views of the mountain and the lake at the top. ... folklore, statistics, landmarks, beaches, movies, and secret sports of Lake Tahoe. ...

  9. Electric lamp, base for use therewith and method of assembling same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Harold L.; English, George J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1989-02-14

    An electric lamp including a reflector, at least one conductive ferrule located within a surface of the reflector and a lead-in conductor electrically connected to the ferrule and extending within the reflector. The lamp includes a base having an insulative (e.g., ceramic) cap located substantially about the ferrule, barrier means (e.g., ceramic fiber) located within the cap to define an open chamber substantially about the ferrule, an electrical conductor (e.g., wire) extending within the cap and electrically connected (e.g., silver soldered) to the ferrule, and sealing means (e.g., high temperature cement) located within the cap to provide a seal therefore. The barrier means serves to separate the sealing means from the open chamber about the ferrule such that the heat generated by the ferrule can be vented through spaced apertures located within the cap's side wall. A method of assembling a base on an electric lamp is also provided.

  10. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution | Department of Energy Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution January 30, 2014 - 9:30am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Energy Department's efforts to develop efficiency standards that cut carbon pollution and save money by saving energy, U.S. Energy Secretary

  11. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer May 2, 2014 - 4:48pm Addthis The U.S. Department ...

  12. ISSUANCE 2015-06-17: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

  13. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-08-14: Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

  15. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Druzik, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, CA.

  16. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride. [DOE patent application; mercury arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.

    1981-09-03

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  17. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

  18. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  19. Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A small sample of each of the Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. (24 pages, December 2014)

  20. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.3, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.3 details a set of life-cycle cost simulations...

  1. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in Recessed Troffers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.2, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.2 focuses on the performance of three linear (T8...

  2. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George; Orr, Thomas Robert; Greene, Charles Maurice; Crawford, Douglas Gordon; Berman, Samuel Maurice

    1999-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  3. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  4. CALiPER Application Summary Report 16. LED BR30 and R30 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested performance of 13 LED products labeled as BR30 or R30 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR.

  5. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.E.

    1999-06-08

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

  6. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1999-06-22

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  7. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for

  8. Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - by far the most common form of fluorescent lighting but rarely found in residential buildings -- are much more energy efficient than incandescent lamps and are ideally suited...

  9. Study: Environmental Benefits of LEDs Greater Than CFLs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to date. The study - which evaluated not only the use but also the manufacturing, transport, and disposal of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps throughout each product...

  10. DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Company to allow the companies to resume sales of an incandescent reflector lamp ... issued Notices allowing Fuzhou and Westinghouse to resume distribution of those products. ...

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. LED; light-emitting diode; CFL; incandescent; halogen; lamp; bulb; TCLP; STLC; TTLC; WET; hazardous waste; electronic...

  12. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)","USDOE","LED; light-emitting diode; CFL; incandescent; halogen; lamp; bulb; TCLP; STLC; TTLC; WET; hazardous waste; electronic...

  13. Westinghouse Lighting: Noncompliance Determination (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Westinghouse Lighting Corporation finding that various models of incandescent reflector lamps do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  14. CALiPER Report 20.2: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    This report focuses on the flicker and power quality performance of the Series 20 lamps at full output and various dimmed levels. All of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps that manufacturers claimed to be dimmable (including all halogen lamps) were evaluated individually (one lamp at a time) both on a switch and under the control of a phase-cut dimmer designed for use with "all classes of bulbs." Measurements of luminous flux, flicker, and power quality were taken at 10 target dimmed settings and compared with operation on a switch. Because only a single unit of each product was evaluated on a single dimmer that may or may not have been recommended by its manufacturer, this report focuses on the performance of the products relative to each other, rather than the best-case performance of each lamp or variation in performance delivered from each lamp. Despite these limitations, the results suggest that LED performance is improving, and performance trends are beginning to emerge, perhaps due in part to the identification of preferred LED driver strategies for lamp products.

  15. CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps View the video about CALiPER Report 20.1 which focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality in LED PAR38 lamps. View the text-alternative version. Solid-State Lighting Home About the Solid-State Lighting Program Research & Development

  16. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan; Beers, William Winder; Toth, Katalin; Balazs, Laszlo D.

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  17. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  18. Magical Mystery Devices or Not: How do LED Lamps and Luminaires Really Measure-Up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paget, Maria L.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Steward, Heidi E.

    2008-08-15

    Solid-state lighting products for general lighting applications are now gaining a market presence, and more and more people are asking, “Which of these are ‘good’ products? Do they perform as claimed? How do they compare? Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) differ from other light sources enough to require new procedures for measuring their performance and comparing to other lighting options, so both manufacturers and buyers are facing a learning curve. The energy-efficiency community has traditionally compared light sources based on system efficacy: rated lamp lumens divided by power into the system. This doesn’t work for LEDs because there are no standard LED “lamp” packages and no lamp ratings, and because LED performance depends heavily on thermal, electrical, and optical design of complete lighting unit or ‘luminaire’. Luminaire efficacy is the preferred metric for LEDs because it measures the net light output from the luminaire divided by power into the system.

  19. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  20. 2015-01-28 Issuance: Test Procedure for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 28, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  1. LAMP detection assays for boxwood blight pathogens: A comparative genomics approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Demers, Jill E.; Veltri, Daniel; Marra, Robert E.; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2016-05-20

    Rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic tools are critical to efforts to minimize the impact and spread of emergent pathogens. The identification of diagnostic markers for novel pathogens presents several challenges, especially in the absence of information about population diversity and where genetic resources are limited. The objective of this study was to use comparative genomics datasets to find unique target regions suitable for the diagnosis of two fungal species causing a newly emergent blight disease of boxwood. Candidate marker regions for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were identified from draft genomes of Calonectria henricotiae and C. pseudonaviculata, as well asmore » three related species not associated with this disease. To increase the probability of identifying unique targets, we used three approaches to mine genome datasets, based on (i) unique regions, (ii) polymorphisms, and (iii) presence/absence of regions across datasets. From a pool of candidate markers, we demonstrate LAMP assay specificity by testing related fungal species, common boxwood pathogens, and environmental samples containing 445 diverse fungal taxa. In conclusion, this comparative-genomics-based approach to the development of LAMP diagnostic assays is the first of its kind for fungi and could be easily applied to diagnostic marker development for other newly emergent plant pathogens.« less

  2. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  3. CALiPER Report 21.2. Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looks at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps—chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles)—as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  4. DOE SSL Postings: March 16, 2015, issue

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    800 lm, roughly equivalent to a 60W incandescent lamp. The first of the new reports, Retail Lamps Study 3.1, focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of...

  5. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. Majid, Amran Ab. Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  6. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  7. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.6 Efficiency Standards for Lighting

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Lighting Standards for General Service Incandescent Lamps Prescribed by EISA 2007 General Service Incandescent Effective Date Maximum Wattage Rated Lumen Range Minimum Life Modified Spectrum General Service Incandescent Effective Date Maximum Wattage Rated Lumen Range Minimum Life By 2020, the minimum efficacy for general service incandescent will be 45 lm/W unless the Secretary of Energy has implemented another standard which saves as much or more energy than a 45 lm/W standard. Source(s): U.

  9. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  10. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunsu, Cristian Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  11. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  12. Docket No’s EERE–2010–BT–TP–0044 and EERE–2010–BT–STD–0043 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for HID Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This memorandum memorializes a communication involving NEMA Lamp Section members and DOE staff in connection with this proceeding.

  13. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 20.2, which is part of a series of investigations on LED PAR38 lamps. Report 20.2 focuses on dimming, flicker, and power quality...

  14. THERMAL ANNEALING OF ZNO FILMS USING HIGH-DENSITY PLASMA ARC LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Xu, Jun; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Harper, David C

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are rarely synthesized with appropriate phase and/or morphology. In this study, critical additional of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing and/or activation of dopants, are addressed using infrared plasma arc lamps (PAL) over areas as large as 1,000 cm2. The broad spectral range of the PAL and the spectral variation of light absorption in nanostructured materials make the selection of processing parameters extremely difficult, posing a major technological barrier. In this study, the measurement of the surface temperature using various techniques for ZnO films on crystalline silicon wafers is discussed. An energy transport model for the simulation of rapid thermal processing using PAL is presented. The experimental and computational results show that the surface temperature cannot be measured directly and that computer simulation results are an effective tool for obtaining accurate data on processing temperatures.

  15. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  16. Mercury reduction studies to facilitate the thermal decontamination of phosphor powder residues from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves Durao, Walter; Andreva de Castro, Camila; Carvalhinho Windmoeller, Claudia

    2008-11-15

    This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushed with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 deg. C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg{sup -1} of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg{sup -1}.

  17. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.; Denissen, C.; Suijker, J.

    2015-08-07

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  18. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  19. Application of a three-dimensional model for a study of the energy transfer of a high-pressure mercury horizontal lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Hamida, M. B.; Charrada, K.

    2012-06-15

    This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of a discharge lamp with high intensity in a horizontal position. As an example of application, we chose the high-pressure mercury lamp. For this, we realized a three-dimensional model, a stable and powered DC. After the validation of this model, we used it to reproduce the influence of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp operating in a horizontal position. Indeed, the mass of mercury and the electric current are modified and the effect of convective transport is studied.

  20. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z. Belasri, A.

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  1. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael; Sowers, Frank; Harper, Curt; Love, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet.

  2. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.; Sowers, F.; Harper, C.; Love, W.

    1998-11-24

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet. 7 figs.

  3. Analysis of a four lamp flash system for calibrating multi-junction solar cells under concentrated light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schachtner, Michael Prado, Marcelo Loyo; Reichmuth, S. Kasimir; Siefer, Gerald; Bett, Andreas W.

    2015-09-28

    It has been known for a long time that the precise characterization of multi-junction solar cells demands spectrally tunable solar simulators. The calibration of innovative multi-junction solar cells for CPV applications now requires tunable solar simulators which provide high irradiation levels. This paper describes the commissioning and calibration of a flash-based four-lamp simulator to be used for the measurement of multi-junction solar cells with up to four subcells under concentrated light.

  4. Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

    2013-11-26

    An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

  5. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-04-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3 and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore » in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach two orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s−1) ten-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ∼ 100 s−1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. This finding may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over an order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ± 25% for OH exposure and within ± 60% for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty

  6. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and

  7. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  8. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  9. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral

  10. 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  11. 2015-01-26 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of comment period regarding energy conservation standards for general service lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  12. Influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of a XeCl exciplex lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Sosnin, E. A.; Saghi, B.; Panarin, V. A.; Rahmani, B.

    2013-09-15

    The influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of coaxial exciplex lamps (excilamps) excited by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures at pressures of 240–250 Torr is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.01–1%. The DBD characteristics were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.1–5%. It is found that the radiation intensities of the emission bands of Xe*{sub 2}(172 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) are comparable when the chlorine concentration in the mixture is in the range of 0.01–0.1%. In this case, in the mixture, the radiation intensity of the Xe*{sub 2} molecule rapidly decreases with increasing Cl{sub 2} concentration and, at a chlorine concentration of ≥0.2%, the radiation of the B → X band of XeCl* molecules with a peak at 308 nm dominates in the discharge radiation. The radiation efficiency of this band reaches its maximum value at chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.4–0.5%. The calculated efficiencies of DBD radiation exceed those obtained experimentally. This is due to limitations of the one-dimensional model, which assumes the discharge to be uniform in the transverse direction, whereas the actual excilamp discharge is highly inhomogeneous. The influence of the chlorine concentration on the properties of the DBD plasma in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures is studied numerically. It is shown that an increase in the Cl{sub 2} concentration in the mixture leads to the attachment of electrons to chlorine atoms and a decrease in the electron density and discharge conductivity. As a result, the electric field and the voltage drop across the discharge gap increase, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the average electron energy and the probability of dissociation of Cl{sub 2} molecules and ionization of Xe atoms and Cl{sub 2} molecules

  13. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased

  14. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  15. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supporting Data-Producing Facilities and Instruments Co-Chairs: David Skinner & Stuart Campbell 1 Contributors * Kaki Kelly, LANL * David Smith, LLNL * Jeff Cunningham, LBNL * Yao Zhang, ANL * John Harney, ORNL * Stuart Campbell, ORNL * Ilana Stern, NCAR * David Skinner, NERSC * Craig Ulmer, Sandia * Dino Pavlakos, Sandia * Rudy Garcia, Sandia * Jack Deslippe, NERSC 2 Some Questions ? * How does a Data-Producing Facility or Instrument plug in to HPC facilities ? * Do we support facilities

  16. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  17. CX-010744: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule to Exempt 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conversion Standards CX(s) Applied: A5 Date: 08/02/2013 Location(s): Nationwide Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  18. CX-010755: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule to Exempt 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conversion Standards CX(s) Applied: A5 Date: 08/02/2013 Location(s): Nationwide Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  19. Lumiram Electric: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-1014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Lumiram Electric Corporation failed to certify a variety of incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  20. Georgia Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or halogen: 6.50 LED lamp replacing incandescent or halogen: 9 Lighting Occupancy Sensor: 7 Lighting Daylight Sensor: 25 SplitPackaged Air Conditioners: 20-30ton Split...

  1. Fuzhou Sunlight: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-1402)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Fuzhou Sunlight Lighting Electrical Appliance Co., Ltd. finding that a variety of models of incandescent reflector lamps do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  2. Aero-Tech: Order (2010-CE-1012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued an Order and closed this case against Aero-Tech Light Bulb Co., without civil penalty, after DOE found that Aero-Tech manufactured and/or privately labeled incandescent reflector lamps, but did not violate DOE regulations.

  3. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Mary; Chwastyk, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Report estimating LED energy savings in nine applications where LEDs compete with traditional lighting sources such as incandescent, halogen, high-pressure sodium, and certain types of fluorescent. The analysis includes indoor lamp, indoor luminaire, and outdoor luminaire applications.

  4. Product Efficiency Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards). In its exception request, TLI requests exception relief for its principal product, a PAR-shaped daylight incandescent reflector lamp known as the SoLux PAR. September...

  5. Aero-Tech: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-1012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Aero-Tech Light Bulb Co. failed to certify a variety of incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Westinghouse Lighting: Order (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Westinghouse Lighting Corporation to pay a $50,000 civil penalty after finding Westinghouse Lighting had failed to certify that certain models of general service flourescent and incandescent reflector lamps comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Jason R Hollomon Brad Dillon Heather E Snowden Swan Lesley J LED light emitting diode CFL incandescent halogen lamp bulb TCLP STLC TTLC WET hazardous waste electronic waste e...

  8. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    41 51 61 INCANDESCENT HALOGEN CFL LED 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 COUNCIL BASELINE MARKET AVERAGE TYPE: CURRENT PRACTICE BASELINE EFFICACY Linear Fluorescent Lamps, 4ft...

  9. Westinghouse Lighting: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Westinghouse Lighting Corporation failed to certify various flourescent and incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Changes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of lit buildings to more than 20 percent (Figure 17 and Table 5). The use of halogen lamps nearly doubled, from 7 percent to 13 percent of lit buildings. Use of incandescent...

  11. EiKO: Order (2011-CE-2702)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered EiKO Ltd. - North America to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding EiKO had failed to certify that certain models of incandescent reflector lamps comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. EiKO: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-2702)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that EiKO Ltd. - North America failed to certify a variety of incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  13. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3, and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore » in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach 2 orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s−1), 10-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ~ 100 s−1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. The range of modeled OH suppression for literature experiments is consistent with the measured values except for those with isoprene. The finding on OH suppression may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over a 1-order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross

  14. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  15. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  16. Method of producing imines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  17. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  18. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed Troffer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.1, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.1 focuses on the performance of 31 types of...

  19. Formation of shallow boron emitters in crystalline silicon using flash lamp annealing: Role of excess silicon interstitials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riise, Heine Nygard Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G.; Monakhov, Edouard

    2015-07-13

    Shallow, Boron (B)-doped p{sup +} emitters have been realized using spin-on deposition and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) to diffuse B into monocrystalline float zone Silicon (Si). The emitters extend between 50 and 140 nm in depth below the surface, have peak concentrations between 9 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup –3} and 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup –3}, and exhibit sheet resistances between 70 and 3000 Ω/□. An exceptionally large increase in B diffusion occurs for FLA energy densities exceeding ∼93 J/cm{sup 2} irrespective of 10 or 20 ms pulse duration. The effect is attributed to enhanced diffusion of B caused by Si interstitial injection following a thermally activated reaction between the spin-on diffusant film and the silicon wafer.

  20. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  1. Coal-Producing Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,446 2,298 4,022 2,446 4,022 -39.2 Alaska 310 328 265 310 265 16.7 Arizona 1,335 1,376 1,755 1,335 1,755 -23.9 Arkansas 11 18 21 11 21 -48.0 Colorado 2,482 3,258 5,263 2,482 5,263 -52.8 Illinois 11,312 11,886 16,779 11,312 16,779 -32.6 Indiana 7,224 7,264 9,463 7,224 9,463 -23.7 Kansas 27 55 53 27 53

  2. Produce diesel from gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, A.H.; Regier, S.

    1983-05-01

    The Gulf Badger process converts natural gas directly to hydrocarbon liquids by a catalytic chemical route. Fischer-Tropsch process--which is a carbon monoxide polymerization/ hydrogenation process--is used. Because the process is exothermal, heat removal by either tubular fixed bed, fluidized bed, or slurry are considered. A wax build up of high molecular weight material is removed by hydro-stripping two-bed system. The demonstration plant flow diagram shows the process to be: natural gas is compressed, recycled with CO/sub 2/, sulfur is removed in a zinc oxide drum, CO is removed in amine scrubbers, H/sub 2//CO ratio is adjusted to produce a hydrogen rich stream, and stabilization and distribution follow. A monitoring system using computers is part of the demonstration unit.

  3. Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent lamps use 25%-35% of the energy used by incandescent products to provide a similar amount of light. They also last about 10 times longer (7,000-24,000 hours). The two general types of fluorescent lamps are: Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) -- commonly found with integral ballasts and screw bases, these are popular lamps often used in household fixtures Fluorescent tube and circline

  4. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  5. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J.; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry; Bowman, Robert S.; Kwon, Soondong

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  6. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  7. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10

    illuminance measurements taken on the walls, indicating better lateral dispersion of the light. The undercabinet fixture’s light output was midway between the low and high power halogen undercabinet fixture light outputs (35.8 foot candle versus 13.4 fc and 53.4 fc) but it produced a more uniform light (max/min ratio of 7.0 versus 10.8). The color correlated temperature (CCT, the blue or yellowness) of the LED light correlated well with the halogen and incandescent lights (2675 K vs 2700 K). The color rendering of the LED downlight also correlated well at 92 CRI compared to 100 CRI for the halogen and incandescent lamps. The LED undercabinet fixture had measures of 2880 K CCT and 71 CRI compared to the 2700 K and 100 CRI scores for the halogen undercabinet fixture. Builders who toured the homes were surveyed; they gave the LED downlight high marks for brightness, said the undercabinet improved shadows and glare and said both products improved overall visibility, home appearance, and home value. Paybacks on the LED downlight ranged from 7.6 years (assuming electricity cost of 11 c/kWh) to 13.5 years (at 5C/kWh). Paybacks on the LED undercabinet fixture in a new home ranged from 4.4 years (11c/kWh electricity) to 7.6 years (5c/kWh) based on product costs of $95 per LED downlight and $140 per LED undercabinet fixture at 3 hrs per day of usage for the downlight and 2 hrs per day for the undercabinet lighting.

  8. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  9. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  10. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2013-11-07

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank-ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members' ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  11. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  12. High-Heat-Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten-Based Materials for Fusion Applications Using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36-× 36-× 18-cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.

  13. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design andmore » implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  14. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2014-01-20

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H{sub 2} molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H{sub 2} inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H{sub 2} versus H{sub 2} seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF{sub 2} versus CaF{sub 2}). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H{sub 2} molecular emission ranges.

  16. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  17. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore » with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  18. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  19. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  20. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments

  1. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2010-06-22

    A method for producing a borohydride is described that includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material that chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of the borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature that substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  2. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  3. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  4. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and ... A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor ...

  5. High-Heat Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten based Materials for Fusion Applications using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans Jr, James O; Schaich, Charles Ross; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Byun, Thak Sang

    2014-01-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research has proved challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat flux testing facility based on water-wall Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) is now being used for materials and small component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12,000 C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, are currently in use. The first PAL system provides a maximum incident heat flux of 4.2 MW/m2 over an area of 9x12 cm2. The second PAL available at ORNL provides a maximum incident heat flux of 27 MW/m2 over an area of 1x10 cm2. The absorbed heat fluxes into a tungsten target for the two PALs are approximately 1.97 and 12.7 MW/m2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design of the new PAL facilities as well as the design and implementation of the Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interested, such as those for plasma facing components. Moreover, IMTS designs are underway to extend the testing of small mock-ups for assessing the combined heating and thermomechanical effects of cooled, irradiated components. For the testing of material coupons , the specimens are placed in a shallow recess within the molybdenum holder that is attached to a water-cooled copper alloy rod. As the measurement of the specimen temperature for PAL is historically challenging since traditional approaches of temperature measurement cannot be employed due to the infrared heating and proximity of the PAL reflector to the specimen that does not allow a direct line of site, experiments for temperature calibration are presented. Finally, results for the high-heat flux testing of tungsten-based materials using the PAL are presented. As a demonstration of the system, results will be

  6. Phosphors for LED lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  7. Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  8. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  9. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  10. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  11. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  12. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  13. Formation and photoluminescence of GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} dilute nitride achieved by N-implantation and flash lamp annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kun Helm, M.; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, we present the fabrication of dilute nitride semiconductor GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} by nitrogen-ion-implantation and flash lamp annealing (FLA). N was implanted into the GaAs wafers with atomic concentration of about x{sub imp1} = 0.38% and x{sub imp2} = 0.76%. The GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} layer is regrown on GaAs during FLA treatment in a solid phase epitaxy process. Room temperature near band-edge photoluminescence (PL) has been observed from the FLA treated GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} samples. According to the redshift of the near band-edge PL peak, up to 80% and 44% of the implanted N atoms have been incorporated into the lattice by FLA for x{sub imp1} = 0.38% and x{sub imp2} = 0.76%, respectively. Our investigation shows that ion implantation followed by ultrashort flash lamp treatment, which allows for large scale production, exhibits a promising prospect on bandgap engineering of GaAs based semiconductors.

  14. A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    July 21, 2009 - 5:18pm Addthis John Lippert Pretty soon, lighting is going to get a lot ... trying to adopt more energy-efficient lighting; it has also spurred media articles ...

  15. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional ... The table below compares a 60 watt (W) traditional ... *Based on 2 hrsday of usage, an electricity rate of 11 ...

  16. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Non-Compliance Determination to Westinghouse Lighting Corporation and Fuzhou Sunlight Lighting Electrical Appliance Company requiring that they halt the sale of 8 basic...

  17. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection. (auth)

  18. Method for producing laser targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Baker, William R.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25.mu. to 75.mu. diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection.

  19. Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Producers LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC Place: Alexandria, South Dakota Zip: 57311 Product: South Dakota-based biodiesel producer....

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.6 Efficiency Standards for Lighting

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Efficiency Standards for Incandescent Reflector Lamps (1) Effective for lamps manufactured after November 1, 1995 and before July 14, 2012 Minimum Nominal Average Lamp Lamp Wattage Efficacy (lm/W) 40-50 10.5 51-66 11.0 67-85 12.5 86-115 14.0 116-155 14.5 156-205 15.0 Effective for lamps manufactured on or after July 14, 2012 Minimum Rated Lamp Rated Average Lamp Lamp Wattage Lamp Spectrum Diameter (in) Voltage (V) Efficacy (lm/W) (2) 40-205 Standard Spectrum >2.5 ≥125 6.8*P^0.27 40-205

  1. METHOD FOR PRODUCING DIBORON TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.; Holzmann, R.T.

    1961-08-01

    A method of producing diboron tetrachloride from boron trichloride is described. Gaseous boron trichloride is passed through a cavity resonating at a microwave frequency whereby a portion of the boron trichloride is converted into diboron tetrachloride. The diboron tetrachloride may then be separated from the boron trichloride by conventional means. (AEC)

  2. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  3. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  4. Office Energy Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office Energy Checklist Office Energy Checklist This checklist outlines actions that conserve energy at the office. Checkbox Replace incandescent lights with compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for desk lamps and overhead lighting. Using CFLs instead of comparable incandescent bulbs can save about 50% on your lighting costs. CFLs use only one-fourth the energy and last up to 10 times longer. Checkbox Switch off all unnecessary lights. Use dimmers, motion sensors, or

  5. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HALIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphree, E.V.

    1957-10-29

    A process amd associated apparatus for producing UF/sub 4/ from U/sub 3/ O/sub 8/ by a fluidized'' technique are reported. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is first reduced to UO/sub 2/ by reaction with hydrogen, and the lower oxide of uranium is then reacted with gaseous HF to produce UF/sub 4/. In each case the reactant gas is used, alone or in combination with inert gases, to fluidize'' the finely divided reactant solid. The complete setup of the plant equipment including bins, reactor and the associated piping and valving, is described. An auxiliary fluorination reactor allows for the direct production of UF/sub 6/ from UF/sub 4/ and fluorine gas, or if desired, UF/sub 4/ may be collected as the product.

  6. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  7. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  8. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, B.G.

    1954-09-14

    >This patent relates to improvements in the method for producing uranium tetrafluoride by treating an aqueous solutlon of a uranyl salt at an elevated temperature with a reducing agent effective in acld solutlon in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Uranium tetrafluoride produced this way frequentiy contains impurities in the raw material serving as the source of uranium. Uranium tetrafluoride much less contaminated with impurities than when prepared by the above method can be prepared from materials containing such impurities by first adding a small proportion of reducing agent so as to cause a small fraction, for example 1 to 5% of the uranium tetrafluoride to be precipitated, rejecting such precipitate, and then precipitating and recovering the remainder of the uranium tetrafluoride.

  9. Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fish Producers...

  10. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  11. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  12. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  13. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  14. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  15. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.

    1999-12-21

    A method is described for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  16. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  17. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoske, Richard; Kennedy, Patrick; Duty, Chad E; Smith, Rob R; Huxford, Theodore J; Bonavita, Angelo M; Engleman, Greg; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Griest, Wayne H; Ilgner, Ralph H; Brown, Gilbert M

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  18. Characterization of a 6 kW high-flux solar simulator with an array of xenon arc lamps capable of concentrations of nearly 5000 suns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Robert; Bush, Evan; Loutzenhiser, Peter; Haueter, Philipp

    2015-12-15

    A systematic methodology for characterizing a novel and newly fabricated high-flux solar simulator is presented. The high-flux solar simulator consists of seven xenon short-arc lamps mounted in truncated ellipsoidal reflectors. Characterization of spatial radiative heat flux distribution was performed using calorimetric measurements of heat flow coupled with CCD camera imaging of a Lambertian target mounted in the focal plane. The calorimetric measurements and images of the Lambertian target were obtained in two separate runs under identical conditions. Detailed modeling in the high-flux solar simulator was accomplished using Monte Carlo ray tracing to capture radiative heat transport. A least-squares regression model was used on the Monte Carlo radiative heat transfer analysis with the experimental data to account for manufacturing defects. The Monte Carlo ray tracing was calibrated by regressing modeled radiative heat flux as a function of specular error and electric power to radiation conversion onto measured radiative heat flux from experimental results. Specular error and electric power to radiation conversion efficiency were 5.92 ± 0.05 mrad and 0.537 ± 0.004, respectively. An average radiative heat flux with 95% errors bounds of 4880 ± 223 kW ⋅ m{sup −2} was measured over a 40 mm diameter with a cavity-type calorimeter with an apparent absorptivity of 0.994. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing resulted in an average radiative heat flux of 893.3 kW ⋅ m{sup −2} for a single lamp, comparable to the measured radiative heat fluxes with 95% error bounds of 892.5 ± 105.3 kW ⋅ m{sup −2} from calorimetry.

  19. METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

    1960-03-15

    A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

  20. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  1. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  2. Method for producing a tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  3. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  4. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  5. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  6. Method of producing metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2004-02-10

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2-7 additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  7. Number of Producing Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Producing Gas Wells Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 493,100 487,627 514,637 482,822 484,994 514,786 1989-2014 Alabama 6,913 7,026 7,063 6,327 6,165 6,118 1989-2014 Alaska 261 269 277 185 159 170 1989-2014 Arizona 6 5 5 5 5 5 1989-2014 Arkansas 6,314 7,397 8,388 8,538 9,843 10,150 1989-2014 California 1,643 1,580 1,308 1,423 1,335 1,118 1989-2014

  8. Methods for producing secreted polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Fidantsef, Ana; Brody, Howard

    2008-07-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a polypeptide, comprising: (a) cultivating a fungal host cell in a medium conducive for the production of the polypeptide, wherein the fungal host cell comprises a nucleic acid construct comprising a first nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide operably linked to a second nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide, wherein the first nucleotide sequence is foreign to the second nucleotide sequence and the 3' end of the first nucleotide sequence is immediately upstream of the initiator codon of the second nucleotide sequence. The present invention also relates to the isolated signal peptide sequences and to constructs, vectors, and fungal host cells comprising the signal peptide sequences operably linked to nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptides.

  9. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  10. Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Fung, Inez; Thornton, Peter E; Covey, Curtis; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained by N

  11. Applications of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral particles on ITO glass in photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under a halogen tungsten lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Wei; Sun, Fengqiang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lihe; Min, Zhilin; Li, Weishan

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals on ITO glass was studied. • They showed high abilities in degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount could affect the degradation efficiency. • Such particles could be easily recycled and still kept high activity. • Many dye pollutants and their mixtures could be efficiently degraded. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals were prepared on the ITO glass by galvanostatic electrodeposition in CuSO{sub 4} solution with poly(vinylpryrrolidone) as the surfactant. By controlling the electrodeposition time, the microcrystals could be randomly distributed on the ITO glass and separated from each other, resulting in as many as possible (1 1 1) crystalline planes were exposed. Such microcrystals immobilized on ITO glass were employed in photodegradation of dye pollutants in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under a 150 W halogen tungsten lamp. The photodegradation of methylene blue was taken as an example to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the octahedral Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Effects of electrodeposition time and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount on the degradation efficiency was discussed, giving the optimum conditions and the corresponding degradation mechanism. The catalyst showed high ability in degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, eosin B and their mixtures under identical conditions.

  12. Liquid phase epitaxy of binary III–V nanocrystals in thin Si layers triggered by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wutzler, Rene Rebohle, Lars; Prucnal, Slawomir; Bregolin, Felipe L.; Hübner, Rene; Voelskow, Matthias; Helm, Manfred; Skorupa, Wolfgang

    2015-05-07

    The integration of III–V compound semiconductors in Si is a crucial step towards faster and smaller devices in future technologies. In this work, we investigate the formation process of III–V compound semiconductor nanocrystals, namely, GaAs, GaSb, and InP, by ion implantation and sub-second flash lamp annealing in a SiO{sub 2}/Si/SiO{sub 2} layer stack on Si grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to identify the structural and optical properties of these structures. Raman spectra of the nanocomposites show typical phonon modes of the compound semiconductors. The formation process of the III–V compounds is found to be based on liquid phase epitaxy, and the model is extended to the case of an amorphous matrix without an epitaxial template from a Si substrate. It is shown that the particular segregation and diffusion coefficients of the implanted group-III and group-V ions in molten Si significantly determine the final appearance of the nanostructure and thus their suitability for potential applications.

  13. Lighting In the Library: A Student Energy Audit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights (formally called "lamps" in the lighting industry,) which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting. New lamp designs that use energy-efficient technology are now readily available in the

  14. Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights (formally called "lamps" in the lighting industry,) which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting. New lamp designs that use energy-efficient technology are now readily available in the

  15. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  16. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technology is expected to produce biofuel that reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 80% compared to fossil fuel and help make California a leader in advanced biofuel production. ...

  17. Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book:...

  18. CX-007850: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Reflector Lamps CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 01/09/2012 Location(s): Nationwide Offices(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  19. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  20. Method for producing microporous metal bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danko, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Tungsten is vapor-deposited by hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) to produce a tungsten body having from 40 to 100 ppm fluorine. The tungsten is then heated under vacuum to produce grain boundary porosity for a sufficient period of time to allow the pores along the grain boundaries to become interconnected.

  1. Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  2. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND MANIPULATING PLASMAS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colgate, S.A.; Ferguson, J.P.; Furth, H.P.; Wright, R.E.

    1960-07-26

    An electrical pinch discharge apparatus is described for producing and manipulating high-temperature plasmas. The apparatus may be of either the linear or toroidal pinch discharge type. Arrangements are provided whereby stabilizing fields may be trapped in the plasma external to the main pinch discharge path and the boundary condition of the stabilizing field programed so as to stabilize the discharge or to promote instabilities in the discharge as desired. The produced plasmas may be employed for various purposes, and fusion neutrons have been produced with the apparatus.

  3. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.

    1976-06-15

    A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

  4. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  5. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Logos Technologies and EERE are partnering with Edeniq of Visalia to build a plant that will produce cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass, wood chips, and corn leaves, stalks, and husks--all plentiful, nonfood feedstock sources in California.

  6. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  7. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  8. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  9. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  10. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  11. Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » News & Publications » News » Science News » Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? After running simulations at NERSC researchers believe it's possible May 2, 2016 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, 510.495.2402 Graphical Abstract AlN Sci Rep no logo cropped This graphic illustrates an engineered nitrogen vacancy in aluminum nitride. Quantum computers have the potential to break common cryptography techniques, search huge datasets and

  12. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  13. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING IONS OF VAPORIZABLE MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, B.T.

    1958-01-28

    a uniform and copious supply of ions. The source comprises a hollow arc- block and means for establishing a magnetic field through the arc-block. Vaporization of the material to be ionized is produced by an electric heated filament. The arc producing structure within the arc-block consists of a cathode disposed between a pair of collimating electrodes along with an anode adjacent each collimating electrode on the side opposite the cathode. A positive potential applied to the anodes and collimating electrodes, with respect to the cathode, and the magnetic field act to accelerate the electrons from the cathode through a slit in each collimating clectrode towards the respective anode. In this manner a pair of collinear arc discharges are produced in the gas region which can be tapped for an abundant supply of ions of the material being analyzed.

  14. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively

  15. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  16. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  17. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  18. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  19. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  20. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Annual Cost Active Idle Off Active Idle Off ($) (2) Kitchen Coffee Maker 1,000 70 0 38 229 8,493 58 5.6 Dishwasher (3) 365 (4) 120 11.6 Microwave Oven 1,500 3 70 8,690 131 12.6 Toaster Oven 1,051 37 54 5.2 Refrigerator-Freezer 660 63.1 Freezer 470 45.0 Lighting 18-W Compact Fluorescent 18 1,189 20 2.1 60-W Incandescent Lamp 60 672 40 3.9 100-W Incandescent Lamp 100 672 70 6.4 Torchiere Lamp-Halogen 300 1,460 440 42.0 Bedroom and Bathroom Hair Dryer 710 50 40 3.4 Waterbed Heater 350 3,051 1,070

  2. United Wisconsin Grain Producers UWGP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: United Wisconsin Grain Producers (UWGP) Place: Friesland, Wisconsin Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock References: United Wisconsin Grain Producers...

  3. Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces Upgrades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Best Offer Ever Produces Upgrades in Record Time Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces Upgrades in Record Time Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces ...

  4. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  5. RANDOM PULSE GENERATOR PRODUCING FIDUCIAL MARKS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, W.F.

    1960-02-01

    The apparatus for automatically applying a fiducial marking, having a nonrepetitive pattern, to a plurality of simultaneously made records comprises, in series, a bypass filter, a trigger circuit, and a pulse generator, with printing means connected to and controlled by the pulse generator for simultaneously making the visible fiducial marks on a plurality of simultaneously produced records.

  6. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  7. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  8. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  9. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  10. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  11. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  12. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and

  13. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  14. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  15. Method of producing .sup.67 Cu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Barnes, John W.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Thomas, Kenneth E.; Bentley, Glenn E.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing carrier-free .sup.67 Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including .sup.67 Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.

  16. Method for producing /sup 67/Cu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, H.A. Jr.; Barnes, J.W.; Taylor, W.A.; Thomas, K.E.; Bentley, G.E.

    A method of producing carrier-free /sup 67/Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including /sup 67/Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.

  17. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  18. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, John V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

  19. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  20. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Derbyshire, Frank; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Jagtoyen, Marit

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  1. Improved method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, A.; Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.

    An improved method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100..mu.. to about 500..mu.. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5 to 20..mu.. are described. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions.

  2. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  3. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  4. Hydrogenase mimic produces hydrogen under the light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Hydrogenase mimic produces hydrogen under the light 24 Jan 2013 Researchers from the laboratory of Giovanna Ghirlanda working on Subtask 3 (Fuel Production Complex) have achieved the synthesis of a peptide-based hydrogenase mimic

  5. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1981-08-28

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

  6. Experiments with Wind to Produce Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nat EXPERIMENTS WITH WIND TO PRODUCE ENERGY Curriculum: Wind Power (simple machines, weather/climatology, aerodynamics, leverage, mechanics, atmospheric pressure, and energy resources/transformations) Grade Level: K-5 Small groups (3 to 4) Time: Constructing equipment needed in these activities varies based on student ability levels. Activities can be done in 1 or 2 class periods. Summary: There are five activities. The first activity demonstrates wind as energy, and that energy causes

  7. Method of producing microchannel and nanochannel articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.

    2010-05-04

    A method of making an article having channels therethrough includes the steps of: providing a ductile structure defining at least one macro-channel, the macro-channel containing a salt; drawing the ductile structure in the axial direction of the at least one macro-channel to reduce diameter of the macro-channel; and contacting the salt with a solvent to dissolve the salt to produce an article having at least one microchannel.

  8. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a

  9. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1984-08-07

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James T.; Miller, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

  11. Method of producing encapsulated thermonuclear fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Warren H.; Taylor, William L.; Turner, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    A method of producing a fuel particle is disclosed, which comprises forming hollow spheroids which have a mass number greater than 50, immersing said spheroids while under the presence of pressure and heat in a gaseous atmosphere containing an isotope, such as deuterium and tritium, so as to diffuse the gas into the spheroid and thereafter cooling said spheroids up to about 77.degree. Kelvin to about 4.degree. Kelvin.

  12. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  13. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program was intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research was to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by

  14. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe.sup.3+, Cr.sup.3+, Al.sup.3+, Ga.sup.3+, In.sup.3+, Hf.sup.4+, Sn.sup.4+, Zr.sup.4+, Nb.sup.5+, W.sup.6+, Pr.sup.3+, Er.sup.3+, Nd.sup.3+, Ce.sup.3+, U.sup.3+ and Y.sup.3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of Fe.sub.xO.sub.y gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  15. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1998-05-26

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  16. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  17. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh; Dale, Gregory E.

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  18. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (ARC EXTERNAL TO BLOCK)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.H.

    1958-09-01

    This patent pentains to an ion producing mechanism employed in a calutron which has the decided advantage of an increased amount of ionization effectuated by the arc, and a substantially uniform arc in poiat of time, i arc location and along the arc length. The unique features of the disclosed ion source lie in the specific structural arrangement of the source block, gas ionizing passage, filament shield and filament whereby the arc is established both within the ionizing passage and immediately outside the exit of the ionizing passage at the block face.

  19. Tensor mesons produced in tau lepton decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Castro, G.; Munoz, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    Light tensor mesons (T=a{sub 2}, f{sub 2} and K{sub 2}*) can be produced in decays of {tau} leptons. In this paper we compute the branching ratios of {tau}{yields}T{pi}{nu} decays by assuming the dominance of intermediate virtual states to model the form factors involved in the relevant hadronic matrix elements. The exclusive f{sub 2}(1270){pi}{sup -} decay mode turns out to have the largest branching ratio, of O(10{sup -4}). Our results indicate that the contribution of tensor meson intermediate states to the three-pseudoscalar channels of {tau} decays are rather small.

  20. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Paul C.; Argetsinger, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  1. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  2. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  4. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  5. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  6. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chyung, Kenneth; Day, J. Paul; Holleran, Louis M.; Olszewski, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  7. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Mendoza, Daniel; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  8. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  9. Method of producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesmann, Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by thermally decomposing silane (SiH.sub.4) or other gases comprising H and Si, from a tungsten or carbon foil heated to a temperature of about 1400.degree.-1600.degree. C., in a vacuum of about 10.sup.-6 to 19.sup.-4 torr, to form a gaseous mixture of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon, and depositing said gaseos mixture onto a substrate independent of and outside said source of thermal decomposition, to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The presence of an ammonia atmosphere in the vacuum chamber enhances the photoconductivity of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film.

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  11. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A.; Benemann, J.R.; Tredici, M.R.

    1998-08-01

    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  12. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, Allen; Koo, Jackson C.; Dressler, John L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

  13. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J.

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  14. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jones B.; Steger, Philip J.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  15. Method for producing and treating coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calderon, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

  16. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-29

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  17. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  18. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  19. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don Mayo; Walter, Kevin Carl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  20. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  2. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William; Singbeil, Douglas; Keiser, James R

    2012-01-01

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  3. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  4. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R.; Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-01-17

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  5. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  6. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  7. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  8. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  9. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  11. Producing power from a cryogenic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhemann, M.S.W.

    1983-08-30

    Power is produced from a methane-containing cryogenic liquid such as LNG by compressing the liquid and employing the compressed liquid as a refrigerant in the condensers of two closed and independent power cycles. The heat exchange medium in the first of the cycles evaporates in a lower temperature range than that at which the heat exchange medium in the second cycle condenses. The first heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a first heat exchange step with the compressed cryogenic liquid and the second heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a second heat exchange step with compressed cryogenic liquid recovered from the first heat exchange step and evaporating first heat exchange medium. Power is recovered from the expansion engines associated with the two power cycles.

  12. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.6 Lighting

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 2010 Lamp Wattage, Number of Lamps, and Hours of Usage Lamp Wattage (Watts per lamp) Number of Lamps per Building Hours of Usage per Day Res Com Ind Other (1) Res Com Ind Res Com Ind Other Incandescent 56 53 46 68 32 14 1 2 10 13 9 General (A-type, Decorative) (2) 58 58 46 N/A 27 8 1 2 10 13 N/A Reflector 69 79 65 N/A 4 4 0 (3) 2 10 12 N/A Miscellaneous 45 7 0 68 1 3 N/A 2 11 0 9 Halogen 65 68 68 149 2 9 0 2 12 12 11 General 50 46 36 N/A 0 0 0 2 12 12 N/A Reflector 68 78 64 N/A 1 4 0 2 12 12

  15. How is shale gas produced? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? (3.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids

  16. Co-Produced Geothermal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal System: Co-Produced water is the water that is produced as a by-product during oil and gas production. If there is enough water produced at a high enough temperature...

  17. How Much Energy Does Each State Produce? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Does Each State Produce? How Much Energy Does Each State Produce? Energy Production in Trillion Btu: 2012 Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it produces Source: EIA State Energy Data Systems

  18. Methods for producing nanoparticles using palladium salt and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Siu-Wai; Liang, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The disclosed subject matter is directed to a method for producing nanoparticles, as well as the nanoparticles produced by this method. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles produced by the disclosed method have a high defect density.

  19. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life

  20. Proton Radiography of Magnetic Fields in a Laser Produced Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Proton Radiography of Magnetic Fields in a Laser Produced Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proton Radiography of Magnetic Fields in a Laser Produced Plasma ...

  1. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine ...

  2. Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc (MEPI) Place: O'Neill, Nebraska Zip: 68763 Product: Focused on ethanol production....

  3. Chapter 7 - Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 - Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels Chapter 7 - Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels Chapter 7 - Advancing Systems and ...

  4. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Produced water volumes and management practices in the United ...

  5. NREL Updates Survey of Advanced Biofuel Producers in the United...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. The survey report, titled 2015 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers, documents important ...

  6. USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Power Producers Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance Place: Sacramento, California Sector: Biomass Product: National trade...

  7. Association of Renewable Energy Producers Spain | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Producers Spain Jump to: navigation, search Name: Association of Renewable Energy Producers (Spain) Place: Barcelona, Spain Zip: 8008 Sector: Renewable Energy...

  8. Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces 564 Upgrades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces 564 Upgrades in Record Time Spotlight on Austin, Texas: Best Offer Ever Produces 564 Upgrades in Record Time This Better ...

  9. Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured Resources (Fact Sheet), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured ...

  10. NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae February 11, 2016 ...

  11. Energy Department Announces $12 Million for Technologies to Produce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Announces 12 Million for Technologies to Produce Renewable Carbon Fiber from Biomass Energy Department Announces 12 Million for Technologies to Produce Renewable Carbon Fiber ...

  12. ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Jump to: navigation, search Name: ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Place: Germany Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A...

  13. Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods...

  14. Clean Hydrogen Producers Ltd CHP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Producers Ltd CHP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Hydrogen Producers Ltd (CHP) Place: Geneva, Switzerland Zip: 1209 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Solar Product: Swiss...

  15. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves ...

  16. Employee-Focused Structure Helps Produce Upgrades for Contractor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employee-Focused Structure Helps Produce Upgrades for Contractor Employee-Focused Structure Helps Produce Upgrades for Contractor Photo of a young man sitting on a couch, looking ...

  17. Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor Arco, ID The Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 located at the National Reactor Testing ...

  18. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major ...

  19. Thamna Bio power and Organic Producers Company TBPOPC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thamna Bio power and Organic Producers Company TBPOPC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thamna Bio-power and Organic Producers Company (TBPOPC) Place: Thamna, Gujarat, India...

  20. Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum Authors: ...