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1

High efficiency incandescent lighting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

2

,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B39. Lighting Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" B39. Lighting Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",67338,64321,38156,60344,20666,19223,17926 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5859,2946,5154,738,245,600 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7464,4047,6722,1108,663,991 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,10393,6055,9815,1759,1701,1996 "25,001 to 50,000 .............",9311,9053,5004,8344,2296,2224,1611

3

Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

halogenhiresweb.eps Description Energy-saving incandescent lightbulbs - high-resolution EPS More Documents & Publications Energy-Saving Incandescents CFL Lightbulbs CFL...

4

Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

halogenshires.jpg Description Energy-saving incandescent lighbulbs - high-resolution JPG More Documents & Publications Energy-Saving Incandescents CFL Lightbulbs Lighting Tip Card...

5

General service incandescent lamp with improved efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A high efficiency general service incandescent lamp is disclosed. The disclosed improved general service incandescent lamp has an outer and an inner envelope. The inner envelope has a relatively small housing containing a halogen gas and a relatively high pressure efficient fill-gas and in which a low voltage filament is spatially disposed therein.

Berlec, I.

1985-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

6

Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. It can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when it replaces incandescent lighting. Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas

8

Energy-efficient incandescent lamp: Final report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy Conserving Incandescent Lamps", J . Brett, R.July 1981. "Filaments for Incandescent Lamps with Radiation20-22 "Energy Saving Incandescent Lamps with Infrared

Verderber, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Incandescent | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Incandescent Incandescent Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

10

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

SciTech Connect

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

SciTech Connect

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting October 17, 2013 - 6:15pm Addthis Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings. Although inefficient, incandescent lamps possess a number of key advantages--they are inexpensive to buy, turn on instantly, are available in a huge array of sizes and shapes and provide a pleasant, warm light with excellent color rendition. However, because of their relative inefficiency and short life spans, they

13

Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting October 17, 2013 - 6:15pm Addthis Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings. Although inefficient, incandescent lamps possess a number of key advantages--they are inexpensive to buy, turn on instantly, are available in a huge array of sizes and shapes and provide a pleasant, warm light with excellent color rendition. However, because of their relative inefficiency and short life spans, they

14

The incandescent disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The electrotechnology device being introduced to the low-level waste market is an Incandescent Disposal System (IDS) for volume reduction and vitrification. The process changes the composition of the waste material, usually long molecular chains, into simple molecules and elements. It renders the volume of low-level wastes to a manageable solid vitrified residue, carbon black, and a water discharge. The solid material, which has been vitrified if silica is introduced into the waste stream, is an ideal inert filler. The carbon black is non-leaching and is readily available for vitrification as it comes out of the IDS.

Smith, R.G.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. (General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination was initially projected. The work performed provided answers to a number of important questions. The first is that, with the investigated approaches, the maximum sustained emitter efficiencies are about 1.5 times that of a standard incandescent bulb. This was seen to be the case for both thick and thin emitters, and for both mono-layer and bi-layer designs. While observed VIS/NIR ratios represent improvements over standard incandescent bulbs, it does not appear sufficient to overcome higher cost (i.e. up to five times that of the standard bulb) and ensure commercial success. Another result is that high temperatures (i.e. 2650 K) are routinely attainable without platinum electrodes. This is significant for reducing material costs. A novel dual heating arrangement and insulated electrodes were used to attain these temperatures. Another observed characteristic of the emitter was significant grain growth soon after attaining operating temperatures. This is an undesirable characteristic that results in substantially less optical scattering and spectral selectivity, and which significantly limits emitter efficiencies to the values reported. Further work is required to address this problem.

Sonsight Inc.

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

High intensity femtosecond enhancement cavities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To produce extreme ultraviolet radiation via high harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases, light intensities in excess of 1014 W/cm 2 are required. Usually such high intensity are obtained by parametric amplification of ...

Abram, Gilberto

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of color compared with the incandescent reference source isin this report. Standard Incandescent Halogen Low-Pressure:value equivalent to an incandescent filament lamp. Taking

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and collimated underwater incandescent projector. The laser-collimated underwater incandescent projector used for beamBY SUBMERGED LASERS and Incandescent Sources DESCRIPTIVE

Duntley, Seibert Q

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGY BUTTONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as any 1ong-li incandescent lamp or system evaluated in thisEFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGYEFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGY

Verderber, Rudy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps operate simply by heating a metal filament inside a bulb filled with inert gas. Because they operate directly on variety of common power types including common household alternating current or direct current such as batteries or automobiles, they do not require a special power supply or ballast. They turn on up instantly, providing a warm light with excellent color rendition because the light is produced in much the same way as the light from the sun. They can also be easily dimmed using inexpensive controls and are available in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. However, incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options and a short average

22

Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics Incandescent Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Incandescent lamps operate simply by heating a metal filament inside a bulb filled with inert gas. Because they operate directly on variety of common power types including common household alternating current or direct current such as batteries or automobiles, they do not require a special power supply or ballast. They turn on up instantly, providing a warm light with excellent color rendition because the light is produced in much the same way as the light from the sun. They can also be easily dimmed using inexpensive controls and are available in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes. However, incandescent lamps have a low efficacy (10-17 lumens per watt) compared with other lighting options and a short average

23

How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents July 28, 2014 - 11:39pm Addthis...

24

Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fluorescent and Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on AddThis.com... About Standards & Test Procedures Implementation, Certification & Enforcement

25

Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4.17 Image of incandescent tungsten ?to collect data from incandescent MWCNTs. An illustration ofand of Carbon at Incandescent Temper- atures, Physical

Singer, Scott

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent Reflector Lamps DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent Reflector Lamps June 24, 2010 - 2:40pm...

27

A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights July 21, 2009 - 5:18pm Addthis John Lippert Pretty soon, lighting is going to get a lot more efficient. New standards for incandescent reflector bulbs, general purpose fluorescent bulbs, and regular incandescent bulbs are going into effect beginning in approximately three years. You may be curious about how these standards will affect the most popular types of incandescent bulbs we've all used for so long: the common non-reflector 40-watt, 60-watt, 75-watt, and 100-watt bulbs. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (also known as EISA) requires that these incandescent bulbs use 30% less energy than today's

28

Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Bulbs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Artificial lighting systems are transitioning from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs in response to the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act and the EU Ecodesign Directive, which leads to energy savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. ... The CFLs and LEDs have higher resource depletion and toxicity potentials than the incandescent bulb due primarily to their high aluminum, copper, gold, lead, silver, and zinc. ... mercury pollution; redn. in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. ...

Seong-Rin Lim; Daniel Kang; Oladele A. Ogunseitan; Julie M. Schoenung

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

29

Future High-Intensity Proton Accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of currently planned high-intensity proton accelerators. While for high energies (>10GeV) synchrotrons remain the preferred tools to produce high-intensity beams, recent years have seen an impressive development of linac-based lower-energy (intensity proton drivers for spallation sources, accelerator driven systems (ADS), production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) and various neutrino applications (beta-beam, superbeam, neutrino factory). This paper discusses the optimum machine types for the various beam requirements and uses a range of projects, which are likely to be realised within the coming decade, to illustrate the different approaches to reach high average beam power with the application-specific time structure. Only machines with a beam power above 100kW are considered.

Gerigk, F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

High-frequency, high-intensity photoionization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two analytical methods for computing ionization by high-frequency fields are compared. Predicted ionization rates compare well, but energy predictions for the onset of ionization...

Reiss, H R

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts July 29, 2012 - 5:16pm Addthis Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. What does this mean for me? For the greatest energy efficiency, use new fixtures with new lightbulbs. Replace A-type lightbulbs with more energy-efficient options such as CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving (halogen) incandescents. Matching replacement lightbulbs to existing fixtures and ballasts can be tricky, especially with older fixtures. Using new fixtures made for new lightbulbs gives you the greatest energy savings, reliability, and

32

How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents July 29, 2012 - 6:25pm Addthis Energy-efficient light bulbs are available today and could save you about $50 per year in energy costs when you replace 15 traditional incandescent bulbs in your home. Energy-efficient light bulbs are available today and could save you about $50 per year in energy costs when you replace 15 traditional incandescent bulbs in your home. Compared to traditional incandescents, energy-efficient lightbulbs such as energy-saving incandescents, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the following advantages: Typically use about 25%-80% less energy, saving you money

33

Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts July 29, 2012 - 5:16pm Addthis Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. What does this mean for me? For the greatest energy efficiency, use new fixtures with new lightbulbs. Replace A-type lightbulbs with more energy-efficient options such as CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving (halogen) incandescents. Matching replacement lightbulbs to existing fixtures and ballasts can be tricky, especially with older fixtures. Using new fixtures made for new

34

AN ANALYTICAL AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LASER-INDUCED INCANDESCENCE OF SOOT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN ANALYTICAL AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LASER-INDUCED INCANDESCENCE OF SOOT A Thesis-INDUCED INCANDESCENCE OF SOOT Approved: _________________________ Jerry M. Seitzman, Chairman

Seitzman, Jerry M.

35

High intensity specular reflectometry - first experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selene is the attempt to implement a new scheme for high-intensity specular reflectometry. Instead of a highly collimated beam one uses a convergent beam covering a large angular range. The angular resolution is then performed by a position-sensitive detector. Off-specular scattering in this set-up leads to some background, but for screening of wide parameter ranges (e.g. temperature, electric and magnetic fields) the intensity gain of at least one order of magnitude is essential. If necessary, the high precession measurements (even with off-specular components) then are performed with the conventional set-up. The heart of this new set-up is an elliptically focusing guide element of 2\\,m length. Though this guide is optimised for the use on the TOF reflectometer Amor at SINQ, it can be used as stand-alone device to check the possible application also for other neutron scattering techniques. The first measurements on AMOR confirmed the general concept and the various operation modes. A draw-back occurred due t...

Stahn, J; Panzner, T

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

37

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

Sprangle, Phillip [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Hafizi, Bahman [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cost effectiveness of long life incandescent lamps and energy buttons  

SciTech Connect

Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen hours are determined for each lamp system. It is found that the most important component lighting cost is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial unit cost of $20.00, is the most cost-effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined.

Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

1980-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

40

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-induced incandescence (LII) has been successfully used for soot volume fraction and particle size measurements

Hahn, David W.

42

Introduction The Sun is a mass of incandescent gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1 Introduction The Sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Building that our bodies contain atoms that, like most elements and their isotopes in the Solar System, were part of the molecular cloud from which the Solar System condensed, and were trapped in primitive

Nittler, Larry R.

43

Metallic photonic-band-gap filament architectures for optimized incandescent lighting Sajeev John and Rongzhou Wang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallic photonic-band-gap filament architectures for optimized incandescent lighting Sajeev John occur 3,4 . Tra- ditionally incandescent lighting filaments, despite being driven from equilibrium the blackbody spectrum. This suggests the pos- sibility of higher efficiency incandescent lighting, through

John, Sajeev

44

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Laser Induced Incandescence Dr. Adri van Duin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) Dr. Adri van Duin Associate of Engineering. Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) is a popular method to estimate the properties of soot. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Laser-Induced Incandescence of Soot Using an Extended ReaxFF Reactive

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

45

A calibration-independent laser-induced incandescence technique for soot measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A calibration-independent laser-induced incandescence technique for soot measurement by detecting D. Bachalo Laser-induced incandescence (LII) has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool for spatially incandescence inten- sity, avoiding the need for ex situ calibration that typically uses a source of particles

Gülder, ?mer L.

46

L'EMISSION ELECTRIQUE DU PLATINE INCANDESCENT DANS UNE ATMOSPHRE D'IODE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L'EMISSION ELECTRIQUE DU PLATINE INCANDESCENT DANS UNE ATMOSPH?RE D'IODE par M. S. KALANDYK influence devient nulle aux températures de chauffage élevées. 3. Pour une faible incandescence du platine approximativement linéaire; aux fortes incandescences, cette variation offre un caractère beaucoup plus compliqué. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

J.-A. FLEMING. 2014 On the characteristic curves and surfaces of incandescence lamps (Courbes caractristiques des lampes incandescence) ; Phil. Mag.,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

80 J.-A. FLEMING. 2014 On the characteristic curves and surfaces of incandescence lamps (Courbes caractéristiques des lampes à incandescence) ; Phil. Mag., 5e série, t. XIX, p. 368; I885. L'auteur étudie les résistance correspondant à la force électromotrice vo à laquelle l'incandescence commence à se produire, et r

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

High energy density physics generated by intense heavy ion beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intense ion beams from accelerators are now available to generate high energy density matter and to study astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory under controlled and reproducible conditions. A detailed unde...

D. H. H. Hoffmann; V. E. Fortov; M. Kuster; V. Mintsev

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PLAN MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS Nicholas Simos, Harold Kirk and removal from the target system ·Target thermo-mechanical response from energetic, high intensity protons are: ·Inconel-718 ·Aluminum-3000 ·Havar ·Ti-6Al-6V ·Graphite (ATJ) ·Carbon-Carbon ·SuperInvar #12

McDonald, Kirk

50

Transverse spreading of electrons in high-intensity laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that for collisions of electrons with a high-intensity laser, discrete photon emissions introduce a transverse beam spread which is distinct from that due to classical (or beam shape) effects. Via numerical simulations, we show that this quantum induced transverse momentum gain of the electron is manifest in collisions with a realistic laser pulse of intensity within reach of current technology, and we propose it as a measurable signature of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

D. G. Green; C. N. Harvey

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

51

L'MISSION LECTRIQUE DU PLATINE INCANDESCENT DANS UNE ATMOSPHRE D'IODE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L'?MISSION ?LECTRIQUE DU PLATINE INCANDESCENT DANS UNE ATMOSPH?RE D'IODE par M. PIERRE JEZ],du platine incandescent ~dans une atmosphère d'iode en fonction : 1, de la température ; 2, du temps; 3, de électrodes, d'un grillage métallique pour éviter les influences extérieures. L'incandescence des électrodes s

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

LE RAYONNEMENT DES MANCHONS A INCANDESCENCE ; Par M. H. RUBENS1).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

306 LE RAYONNEMENT DES MANCHONS A INCANDESCENCE ; Par M. H. RUBENS1). 1. - INTRODUCTION. Les remarquables propriétés du manchon à incandescence Auer ont dès l'origine excité au plus haut point l été entreprises par Langley pour la lampe à incandescence au pétrole avec l'aide de ses bolomètres

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

PROCD RAPIDE POUR LA PHOTOMTRIE DES BECS A INCANDESCENCE PAR LE GAZ (1) ;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

469 PROC?D? RAPIDE POUR LA PHOTOM?TRIE DES BECS A INCANDESCENCE PAR LE GAZ (1) ; Par P. LAURIOL. Les essais des becs à incandescence par le gaz destinés à l'éclai- rage public comportent un très pendant une série de mesures. On emploie une lampe à incandescence électrique dont on #12;471 maintint la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

MISSION CATHODIQUE A L'INTRIEUR DES LAMPES A INCANDESCENCE ; par M. L. HOULLEVIGUE (1).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

523 ?MISSION CATHODIQUE A L'INT?RIEUR DES LAMPES A INCANDESCENCE ; par M. L. HOULLEVIGUE (1). I. Lorsqu'on survolte fortement une lampe à incandescence à filament de charbon, par exemple en mettant sous incandescent. ' , Fic.. 1. Tous ces effets peuvent être attribués, en première analyse, aux électrons émanés du

Boyer, Edmond

55

EA-1911: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps.

56

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schamaun, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Donald C. (Los Alamos, NM); Potter, R. Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Joseph A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

A. Tawfik

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

59

High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex  

SciTech Connect

With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Metal reflectivity under high?intensity optical radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single high?intensity (106?109 W/cm2) pulses of 1.06?? radiation emitted from a Q?switched Nd : YAG laser have been used to study reflectivity behavior of single?crystal copper and tantalum samples. Metalreflectivity during irradiation undergoes a significant drop to values much lower than can be attributed to high?temperature effects. This reflectivity drop under high radiation intensity has two characteristic features. First if vaporization is avoided then during the rising portion of the laser pulse the reflectivity drops continuously until it reaches a constant low value. For copper this occurs at an intensity of 3108 W/cm2 and has a reflectivity value of ?0.64. The corresponding values for tantalum are I?2.5107 W/cm2 and R?0.41. For still higher intensities a further drop in reflectivity beyond the plateau region is observed. This drop in reflectivity is always accompanied by heavy melting and followed by some vaporization. As suggested by Prokhorov e t a l. this further drop in reflectivity could be associated with dielectriclike behavior of the molten zone.

T. E. Zavecz; M. A. Saifi; M. Notis

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental...

62

HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.  

SciTech Connect

Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

LUCCIO, A.; D'IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

64

Apparatus to facilitate lengthening the life of incandescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

An energizing circuit is described for an incandescent bulb comprising a transformer having a primary winding connectable to an AC mains source and first and second secondary windings for producing first and second voltages. The first secondary winding is connected to an input of a first full-wave rectifier means and the second secondary winding is connected to an input of a second full-wave rectifier means, the full-wave rectifier means having outputs connected in parallel across the bulb. The first voltage is sufficient to fully illuminate the bulb and the second voltage is sufficient to maintain the bulb warm but with little or no light output, a first switch being connected between the first secondary winding and the first rectifier means whereby, when the first switch is open, the bulb is energized solely by the second voltage.

Spissinger, F.H.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration  

SciTech Connect

A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.

Thoe, R.S.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

L'MISSION LECTRIQUE DU TUNGSTNE INCANDESCENT DANS UNE ATMOSPHRE D'IODE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L'?MISSION ?LECTRIQUE DU TUNGST?NE INCANDESCENT DANS UNE ATMOSPH?RE D'IODE. par S. KALANDYK'émission négative du tungstène; l'influence de l'iode est prépondérante aux basses températures d'incandescence 3. L vapeur d'iode augmente l'émis sion électrique négative du platine incandescent. L'influence de l'iode se

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

Gubin, K V; Bak, P A; Kot, N K; Logatchev, P V

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron  

SciTech Connect

The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming.

Cho, Y.; Lessner, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Symon, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma  

SciTech Connect

I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-?energy-? density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-?energy-? density plasma the ideas for steady-?state current drive developed for low-?energy-? density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-?energy-?density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

Fisch, Nathaniel J

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

70

Comparison of 60-Hz electric fields and incandescent light as aversive stimuli controlling the behavior of rats  

SciTech Connect

Rats were exposed to two procedures which enabled them to press a lever to turn off a 90 or 100 kV/m 60-Hz electric field or, later in the study, illumination from an incandescent lamp. Under one procedure, a response turned off the stimulus for a fixed duration, after which the stimulus was turned on again. A response during the off-period restarted the fixed duration. None of the rats turned the field off reliably. Next, under an alternative procedure, pressing one lever turned the field off; pressing the other lever turned it back on; responding under those conditions differed little from that seen at 0 kV/m. Under both procedures, when illumination from an incandescent lamp served as the stimulus, each rat did turn the stimulus off, and performances varied with stimulus intensity. The results show that a 100 kV/m 60-Hz electric field is not sufficient to function as an aversive stimulus under two procedures where illumination from a lamp does function as an aversive stimulus.

Stern, S.; Laties, V.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Solar?energy conversion at high solar intensities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concentration of sunlight offers distinct advantages for solarelectrical generation either by thermal conversion or by photovoltaics. A large variety of concentration techniques are available with concentration ratios of 11000. Concentration is required for thermal conversion systems to attain the high temperatures needed for efficiencies in the desired range of about 25%35%. The projected costs for some of the solar thermal systems (especially the central receiver and the fixed mirror) indicate that they could be economically competitive in the southwestern states. The southwest may be required for these high?concentration systems to overcome the main disadvantage of concentration which is the use of the direct component of sunlight only. Other concerns of high?intensity systems are in tracking requirements reflective surface accuracy and material lifetimes of both the reflecting and absorbing components. Selective surface absorbers will be required for systems with concentration ratios below a few hundred. The present high cost of solar?cell?generated electricity can be reduced considerably by using concentrators. Cells can be used with any of the concentrator designs and the major concern is keeping them at acceptable operating temperatures. Planar silicon cells vertical multijunction and galliumaluminumarsenide cells all look attractive for concentrating systems.

Charles E. Backus

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electronsa...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electronsa... I. D. Kaganovich beams,13 the physics of solar flares,14 high-intensity high- energy particle beam propagation Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range

Kaganovich, Igor

73

How to upgrade your incandescent light bulbs Many people are choosing replacements for their standard incandescent light bulbs to save money or energy, because they've heard of new LED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for their standard incandescent light bulbs to save money or energy, because they've heard of new LED options to choose replacement light bulbs. You can save energy and money by replacing any standard incandescent from The Lighting Pattern Book for Homes, LRC 1993. Lighting Energy Use by Room BR · Note the type

Bystroff, Chris

74

Highintensity lasers: interactions with atoms, molecules and clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tra from around 2500-atom xenon clusters irradiated by 2 1016...charge states up to 12+ in xenon and 8+ in krypton at an intensity...process converts the coherent oscillation energy of the electron cloud...result of a resonantly driven oscillation of the entire cluster elec...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser18, deliver an intense uranium beam that deposit about 1 kJ0g specific energy in solid matter. Using 2004! Abstract Intense heavy ion beams from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung ~GSI, Darmstadt

76

Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the above premise. The application of vortex stabilized high intensity burners for reformer furnaces in the petrochemical industry is then reviewed and emphasized....

Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

High-frequency intensity noise of lead-salt diode lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high-frequency intensity noise spectra of mid-infrared diode lasers have been investigated. Theoretical estimates are compared with experimental results of spectral noise...

Fischer, H; Tacke, M

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON  

SciTech Connect

We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Intense and Highly Energetic Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Arrays.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis documents the efforts taken to produce highly ionized and concentrated atmospheric pressure plasma using an arrayed atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system. The (more)

Furmanski, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used to inject plasma into the final focus region right inplasma flow is slowed down once entering the high field region of the final focus

Bieniosek, F.M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used to inject plasma into the final focus region right inplasma flow is slowed down once entering the high field region of the final focus

Henestroza, E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High intensity proton accelerator project in Japan (J-PARC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......elements such as Li in lithium battery can be seen with higher contrast...magnetic memories, long-life batteries, medicines and so on. Figure...reprocessing of 1 kg of nuclear fuel for nuclear power plants...system will be assembled by MA fuels and a high energy and high......

Shun-ichi Tanaka

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

83

Third harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intensity inter- actions, i.e., fast ignition fusion, laser based ion acceleration etc., where fluctuationsThird harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions, Glasgow, UK 4 Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Chilton, Didcot, Didcot, UK 5

Strathclyde, University of

84

Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams , H. Ludewig1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, an intensive search has been under way for both "smart" target designs and target materials that exhibit and "smart" materials have recently become available to serve the needs of special industries and someTarget Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams N. Simos1* , H. Kirk1 , H

McDonald, Kirk

85

The SCORE and CitySmart Programs: Sustaining Investment in High Performance Buildings in Schools and Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17 N/A N/A Total 432 143 89 ESL-IC-09-11-22 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 8 Lighting Quality The types of projects completed under the SCORE and City.... Cities and city buildings utilize all lighting technologies available ? incandescent and halogen, fluorescent (linear and CFL), high-intensity discharge (MH, HPS, LPS, MV), LED, cold cathode, and neon. No matter the application, there are almost...

Kleinman, J.; McMinn, S.

86

L-Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interagency Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International March 15, 2012 Cost of electricity 1 cent per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 8, 2012 Page One 2 Cost of electricity 11 cents per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 9, 2012 Page Two 3 What Is the L Prize? * Technology competition to spur innovation and exceptional performance * Created by Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Sec. 655 * Two key lamp replacements: 60W Incandescent and PAR 38 Halogen * Future focus: 21 st Century Lamp * Cash prizes, federal purchasing, utility programs 4 Philips Wins First L Prize * August 3, 2011: Philips

87

L-Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interagency Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International March 15, 2012 Cost of electricity 1 cent per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 8, 2012 Page One 2 Cost of electricity 11 cents per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 9, 2012 Page Two 3 What Is the L Prize? * Technology competition to spur innovation and exceptional performance * Created by Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Sec. 655 * Two key lamp replacements: 60W Incandescent and PAR 38 Halogen * Future focus: 21 st Century Lamp * Cash prizes, federal purchasing, utility programs 4 Philips Wins First L Prize * August 3, 2011: Philips

88

Fundamental physics on natures of the macroscopic vacuum under high intense electromagnetic fields with accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High intense electromagnetic fields can be unique probes to study natures of macroscopic vacua by themselves. Combining accelerators with the intense field can provide more fruitful probes which can neither be achieved by only intense fields nor only high energy accelerators. We will overview the natures of vacua which can be accessible via intense laser-laser and intense laser-electron interactions. In the case of the laser-laser interaction, we propose how to observe nonlinear QED effects and effects of new fields like light scalar and pseudo scalar fields which may contribute to a macroscopic nature of our universe such as dark energy. In the case of the laser-electron interaction, in addition to nonlinear QED effects, we can further discuss the nature of accelerating field in the vacuum where we can access physics related with event horizons such as Hawking-Unruh radiations. We will introduce a recent experimental trial to search for this kind of odd radiations.

Kensuke Homma

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Two-color phase control of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a time-independent generalized Floquet approach for nonperturbative treatment of high-order harmonic generation (HG) in intense onea (i) determination of the complex quasienergy eigenvalue and eigenfunction by means of the non...

Telnov, Dmitry A.; Wang, Jingyan; Chu, Shih-I

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Feedback on the Intensity of Western Pacific Subtropical High to Microphysics Scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Advanced Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model is used to examine the sensitivity of simulated tropical cyclone (TC) track and associated intensity of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) to microphysical parameterization (MP) scheme. It is ...

Yuan Sun; Zhong Zhong; Wei Lu

91

INVESTIGATION OF THERAPY IMPROVEMENT USING REAL-TIME PHOTOACOUSTIC IMAGING GUIDED HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are a lot of risks in cancer treatment by invasive surgery, such as bleeding, wound infection, and long recovery time, etc. Therefore, there is great need for minimally- or non-invasive treatment. High intensity ...

Cui, Huizhong

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Creating markets for new products to replace incandescent lamps: The international experience  

SciTech Connect

Since the summer of 1995, several organizations have been in pursuit of what many consider the Holy Grail of lighting technology--a low-cost, drop-in, energy-efficient replacement for the incandescent lamp. This paper summarizes the international experience in attempting to catalyze the commercialization of a mass-market, replacement product that could have major impact on residential lighting energy consumption in US and EU homes. The technology procurement effort was originally spearheaded by US Federal Government through a loose collaboration between the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The DoD agreed to serve as the anchor buyer for a low-cost, drop-in replacement product for standard-sized light bulbs that provide at least 30 percent energy savings compared to traditional incandescent lamps. In parallel to the US effort, the International Energy Agency launched a co-operative technology procurement effort by assembling large buyers' groups in Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to pull a similar efficient lighting product into the European market. The lukewarm response from lamp manufacturers to these two technology procurement efforts illustrates the challenges of transforming residential lighting from incandescent to efficient lighting.

Rubinstein, F.; Borg, N.; Horowitz, N.; Narel, T.; Morehouse, E.T. Jr.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications  

SciTech Connect

The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

Britten, J

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

94

The effects of high intensity continuous auditory stimulation on the perception of visual display information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY CONTINUOUS AUDITORY STIMULATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF VISUAL DISPLAY INFORMATION A Thesis by WILLIAM HAROLD PERSKY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AS M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY CONTINUOUS AUDITORY STIMULATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF VISUAL DISPLAY INFORMATION A Thesis by WILLIAM HAROLD PERSKY Approved...

Persky, William Harold

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A High Intensity Linear e+ e- Collider Facility at Low Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I discuss a proposal for a high intensity $e^+e^-$ linear collider operated at low center of mass energies $\\sqrt{s}intensity beams. Such a facility would provide high statistics samples of (charmed) vector mesons and would permit searches for LFV with unprecedented precision in decays of $\\tau$ leptons and mesons. Implications on the design of the linear accelerator are discussed together with requirements to achieve luminosities of $10^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ or more.

A. Schoning

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

96

Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence.

Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity) The effects of interference due to crossed laser beams were studied experimentally in the high- intensity regime. Two ultrashort (400 fs), high-intensity (4 1017 and 1:6 1018 W=cm2) and 1 m wavelength laser

Umstadter, Donald

98

MATERIAL R&D FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM PROGRESS REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MATERIAL R&D FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS PROGRESS REPORT Nicholas Simos, BNL January 4 strength, very low thermal expansion or high ductility #12;Experimentation with Graphite & Carbon-Carbon Targets (BNL E951) #12;Graphite vs. Carbon-Carbon ­ A Clear Choice ..... really? BNL E951 Target

McDonald, Kirk

99

Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening  

SciTech Connect

Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

Townsend, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conservation Standards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Energy has published a final rule regarding the request for exclusion of 100 Watt R20 short incandescent reflector lamps from energy conservation standards.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Saturation of Photoluminescence from Carbon Nanotubes at High Laser Intensities: Exciton-Exciton Annihilation near the Mott Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Saturation of Photoluminescence from Carbon Nanotubes at High Laser Intensities: Exciton) spectroscopy of individualized carbon nanotube ensembles has been carried out using wavelength completely flat, where the PL intensity became independent of the excitation wavelength (Fig. 1). Through

Maruyama, Shigeo

102

A theoretical study of the incandescent filament lamp performance under voltage flicker  

SciTech Connect

Incandescent filament lamp flicker, produced by voltage fluctuation, is a power quality problem that caused engineering concern since the onset of electrical illumination technology. The flicker phenomenon was analyzed and explained in early studies. Standards dealing with acceptable flicker levels are well known, nevertheless, today the discussion about flicker continues to be a top priority topic due to the fact that steady-state and transient voltage waveform distortion is a growing problem in low and medium voltage systems. In many situations voltage flicker is caused by subharmonics and interharmonics of voltage. Cycloconverters, welders and arc furnaces, eccentrically operating tools and integral cycle controlled power equipment are notorious for producing voltage flicker. The goal of this paper is to provide solid mathematical basis for the analytical modeling of incandescent filament lamp flicker when the voltage is nonsinusoidal. A mathematical model that enables the evaluation of the luminous flux modulation caused by noninteger harmonics (subharmonics and interharmonics) is presented. Three situations are detailed: square-wave voltage modulation, sinusoidal modulation and the case of noninteger harmonics with nearly contiguous frequencies.

Peretto, L. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)] [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); Emanuel, A.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States)] [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Experimental Observation of Electrons Accelerated in Vacuum to Relativistic Energies by a High-Intensity Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Free electrons have been accelerated in vacuum to MeV energies by a high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse ( 1019 W/cm2, 300 fs). The experimental data are in good agreement with the relativistic motion of electrons in a spatially and temporally finite electromagnetic field, both in terms of maximum energy and scattering angle.

G. Malka; E. Lefebvre; J. L. Miquel

1997-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

SOLVING BY PARALLEL COMPUTATION THE POISSON PROBLEM FOR HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS IN CIRCULAR ACCELERATORS.  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of high intensity accelerators leads to the solution of the Poisson Equation, to calculate space charge forces in the presence of acceleration chamber walls. We reduced the problem to ''two-and-a-half'' dimensions for long particle bunches, characteristic of large circular accelerators, and applied the results to the tracking code Orbit.

LUCCIO,A.U.; DIMPERIO,N.L.; SAMULYAK,R.; BEEB-WANG,J.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

105

Time Structure of Particle Production in the MERIT High-Intensity Liquid Mer-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiment is a proofofprinciple test of a target system for a high power proton beam to be used as frontend target size and velocity study jet disruption (cavitation ?) by varying the PS spill structure extracted from PS max. Intensity : 30?1012 protons/pulse 115 kJ of beam power--an PS machine record beam

McDonald, Kirk

106

Narrowband inverse Compton scattering x-ray sources at high laser intensities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Narrowband x- and gamma-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering of laser pulses suffer from a limitation of the allowed laser intensity due to the onset of nonlinear effects that increase their bandwidth. It has been suggested that laser pulses with a suitable frequency modulation could compensate this ponderomotive broadening and reduce the bandwidth of the spectral lines, which would allow to operate narrowband Compton sources in the high-intensity regime. In this paper we, therefore, present the theory of nonlinear Compton scattering in a frequency modulated intense laser pulse. We systematically derive the optimal frequency modulation of the laser pulse from the scattering matrix element of nonlinear Compton scattering, taking into account the electron spin and recoil. We show that, for some particular scattering angle, an optimized frequency modulation completely cancels the ponderomotive broadening for all harmonics of the backscattered light. We also explore how sensitive this compensation ...

Seipt, D; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fermilab Main Injector (MI) for the High Intensity Neutrinofor the Fermilab maininjector (MI) show the existence of amitance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an

Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.  

SciTech Connect

The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

109

Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

Weiren Chou and J. Wei

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Calculation of synchrotron radiation from high intensity electron beam at eRHIC  

SciTech Connect

The Electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab is an upgrade project for the existing RHIC. A 30 GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) will provide a high charge and high quality electron beam to collide with proton and ion beams. This will improve the luminosity by at least 2 orders of magnitude. The synchrotron radiation (SR) from the bending magnets and strong quadrupoles for such an intense beam could be penetrating the vacuum chamber and producing hazards to electronic devices and undesired background for detectors. In this paper, we calculate the SR spectral intensity, power density distributions and heat load on the chamber wall. We suggest the wall thickness required to stop the SR and estimate spectral characteristics of the residual and scattered background radiation outside the chamber.

Jing Y.; Chubar, O.; Litvinenko, V.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

111

Linings with optimum heat-emission surfaces for cars receiving and transporting incandescent coke  

SciTech Connect

The least reliable components of the cars which receive and transport incandescent coke are the lining plates. This applies to both the quenching cars used for wet quenching and the hot-coke cars used in the dry cooling process. Technical advances have been described whereby the life of car linings is prolonged by increasing heat emission from the lining plate surfaces. As the heat emission level is enhanced the mean plate temperature is lowered and the lining life thereby prolonged; moreover, the between-servicings period is prolonged. This involves providing fins on the non-working (outer) plate surfaces. The problem of optimizing the size and shape of the fins with reference to heat emission remains unsolved: the requirement is maximum heat emission from plates of a given weight, or conversely minimum plate weight for a given heat emission level. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Kotlyar, B.D.; Pleshkov, P.I.; Gadyatskii, V.G. [and others

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

HIGH INTENSITY LINAC DRIVER FOR THE SPIRAL-2 PROJECT : DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING 88 MHZ QUARTER WAVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGH INTENSITY LINAC DRIVER FOR THE SPIRAL-2 PROJECT : DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING 88 MHZ QUARTER to the required energy. · Capability to accelerate ion beams of q/A=1/6 (up to 1 mA) in the future. The initial Abstract A superconducting linac driver, delivering deuterons with an energy up to 40 MeV (5 mA) and heavy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Dynamical Schwinger effect and high-intensity lasers. Realising nonperturbative QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of experimental verification of vacuum e^+e^- pair creation at the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with intensities 10^{20}-10^{22} W/cm^2, achievable with present-day petawatt lasers, and approaching the Schwinger limit: 10^{29} W/cm^2 to be reached at ELI. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the evolution of the e^+ and e^- distribution functions governed by a non-Markovian source term for pair production. As possible experimental signals of vacuum pair production we consider e^+e^- annihilation into gamma-pairs and the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e^+e^- plasma. We discuss the dependence of the dynamical pair production process on laser wavelength, with special emphasis on applications in the X-ray domain (X-FEL), as well as the prospects for \\mu^+\\mu^- and \\pi^+\\pi^- pair creation at high-intensity lasers. We investigate perspectives for using high-intensity lasers as ``boosters'' of ion beams in the few-GeV per nucleon range, which is relevant, e.g., to the exploration of the QCD phase transition in laboratory experiments.

D. B. Blaschke; A. V. Prozorkevich; G. Roepke; C. D. Roberts; S. M. Schmidt; D. S. Shkirmanov; S. A. Smolyansky

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

114

Dense plasma heating and Gbar shock formation by a high intensity flux of energetic electrons  

SciTech Connect

Process of shock ignition in inertial confinement fusion implies creation of a high pressure shock with a laser spike having intensity of the order of a few PW/cm{sup 2}. However, the collisional (Bremsstrahlung) absorption at these intensities is inefficient and a significant part of laser energy is converted in a stream of energetic electrons. The process of shock formation in a dense plasma by an intense electron beam is studied in this paper in a planar geometry. The energy deposition takes place in a fixed mass target layer with the areal density determined by the electron range. A self-similar isothermal rarefaction wave of a fixed mass describes the expanding plasma. Formation of a shock wave in the target under the pressure of expanding plasma is described. The efficiency of electron beam energy conversion into the shock wave energy depends on the fast electron energy and the pulse duration. The model is applied to the laser produced fast electrons. The fast electron energy transport could be the dominant mechanism of ablation pressure creation under the conditions of shock ignition. The shock wave pressure exceeding 1 Gbar during 200300 ps can be generated with the electron pulse intensity in the range of 510 PW/cm{sup 2}. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations with a radiation hydrodynamic code coupled with a fast electron transport module.

Ribeyre, X.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicola, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France)] [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Gus'kov, S. [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France) [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53, Leninskii Prospect, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

High-energy-density physics experiments with intense heavy ion beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss physical and technical issues of high-energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments with intense heavy ion beams that are being performed at the Gesellschaft fr Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. Special attention is given to a comparison of some recent results on expansion dynamics of evaporating lead that have been obtained in heavy ion beam driven HIHEX (Heavy-Ion Heating and Expansion) experiments at GSI-Darmstadt and in high-explosive driven shock wave loading and release experiments at IPCPChernogolovka.

D. Varentsov; V. Ya. Ternovoi; M. Kulish; D. Fernengel; A. Fertman; A. Hug; J. Menzel; P. Ni; D.N. Nikolaev; N. Shilkin; V. Turtikov; S. Udrea; V.E. Fortov; A.A. Golubev; V.K. Gryaznov; D.H.H. Hoffmann; V. Kim; I.V. Lomonosov; V. Mintsev; B.Yu. Sharkov; A. Shutov; P. Spiller; N.A. Tahir; H. Wahl

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

117

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

118

Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams  

SciTech Connect

Filamented electron beams have been observed to be emitted from the rear of thin solid targets irradiated by a high-intensity short-pulse laser when there is low-density plasma present at the back of the target. These observations are consistent with a laser-generated beam of relativistic electrons propagating through the target, which is subsequently fragmented by a Weibel-like instability in the low-density plasma at the rear. These measurements are in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations and theory, since the filamentation instability is predicted to be dramatically enhanced when the electron beam density approaches that of the background plasma.

Wei, M.S.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Gopal, A.; Tatarakis, M.; Krushelnick, K. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clark, E.L.; Evans, R.G. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ledingham, K.W.D. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Norreys, P.A. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Department of Physics, The Queen's University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A focusable, convergent fast-electron beam from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel scheme for the creation of a convergent, or focussing, fast-electron beam generated from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions is described. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of this scheme in two dimensions. It is shown that a beam of fast-electrons of energy 500 keV - 3 MeV propagates within a solid-density plasma, focussing at depth. The depth of focus of the fast-electron beam is controlled via the target dimensions and focussing optics.

Scott, R H H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A Class Of Generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij Solutions And Associated Envelope Equations For High-intensity Charged Particle Beams  

SciTech Connect

A class of generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij solutions of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations and the associated envelope equations for high-intensity beams in a periodic lattice is derived. It includes the classical Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij solution as a special case. For a given lattice, the distribution functions and the envelope equations are specified by eight free parameters. The class of solutions derived captures a wider range of dynamical envelope behavior for high-intensity beams, and thus provides a new theoretical tool to investigate the dynamics of high-intensity beams.

Hong Qin and Ronald C. Davidson

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Bishop, Alan R. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Santa Fe, NM); Gorshkov, Vacheslav N. (Kiev, UA)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

122

A New High-intensity, Low-momentum Muon Beam for the Generation of Low-energy Muons at PSI  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) a new high-intensity muon beam line with momentum p...< 40MeV/c is currently being commissioned. The beam line is especially designed to serve the need...

T. Prokscha; E. Morenzoni; K. Deiters; F. Foroughi; D. George

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

A New High-Intensity, Low-Momentum Muon Beam for the Generation of Low-Energy Muons at PSI  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) a new high-intensity muon beam line with momentum p...< 40 MeV/c is currently being commissioned. The beam line is especially designed to serve the need...

T. Prokscha; E. Morenzoni; K. Deiters; F. Foroughi; D. George; R. Kobler

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fast neutron emission from a deuterated polystyrene solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast neutrons were generated from a deuterated polystyrene (C8D8) solid-target irradiated by a high-intensity laser. A TOF neutron signal is analyzed in detail. A...

Lee, Sungman; Kwon, Sungok; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Yong-Ho; Yea, Kwon-hae; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Jeong, Young Uk; Rhee, Yong Joo; Cha, Hyungki

125

Fast neutron emission from a deuterated polystyrene solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast neutrons were generated from a deuterated polystyrene (C8D8) solid-target irradiated by a high-intensity laser. A TOF neutron signal is analyzed in detail....

Lee, Sungman; Kwon, Sungok; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Yong-Ho; Yea, Kwon-hae; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Jeong, Young Uk; Rhee, Yong Joo; Cha, Hyungki

126

Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities  

SciTech Connect

The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

On the GCR intensity and the inversion of the heliospheric magnetic field during the periods of the high solar activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the long-term behavior of the solar and heliospheric parameters and the GCR intensity in the periods of high solar activity and the inversions of heliospheric magnetic field (HMF). The classification of the HMF polarity structures and the meaning of the HMF inversion are discussed. The procedure is considered how to use the known HMF polarity distribution for the GCR intensity modeling during the periods of high solar activity. We also briefly discuss the development and the nearest future of the sunspot activity and the GCR intensity in the current unusual solar cycle 24.

Krainev, M B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Industrial Fabrication of Medium-Beta SCRF Cavities for a High-Intensity Proton Linac  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During 1999, four 700-MHz, medium-beta (b = 0.64), superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities for a high-intensity proton linac project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were manufactured by industry. The SCRF cavities were designed by a LANL team in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, and manufactured at a CERCA plant in Romans, France. The cavities were made of 4-mm-thick, solid niobium sheets with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250. These niobium sheets were supplied by Wah Chang (USA), Heraeus AG (Germany), and Tokyo Denkai (Japan). The SCRF cavities were shipped to LANL for performance testing. This paper describes the experience gained during the manufacturing process at CERCA.

Kuzminski, J; Gentzlinger, R C; Maccioni, P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes  

SciTech Connect

The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect

A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.

Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L; Mackinnon, A; Mariscal, D; Nakamura, H; Nakanii, N; Beg, F N

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

131

Dynamic stress intensity factors of mode-I crack in high temperature superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The coupled magneto-mechanical model is established for the dynamic fracture problem for the high temperature superconductor (HTS). The superconductor EJ constitutive law is characterized by power law model where the critical current density is assumed to depend exponentially on the flux density. The cracked superconductor under dynamic loading are employed to investigate dynamic fracture behavior such as the variation of dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) for different applied magnetic field amplitude, the thickness of HTS, and critical current density. To evaluate \\{DSIFs\\} for a type-II superconductor under alternating magnetic field, the flux pinning induced magnetoelasticity model proposed to evaluate DSIFs, and is implemented in conjunction with finite element method. The results show that the applied magnetic field amplitude, thickness of HTS, and critical current density are three important factors affecting the dynamic fracture behavior of the HTS.

Zhiwen Gao; Youhe Zhou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Project-X: A new high intensity proton accelerator complext at Fermilab  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fermilab has been working with the international particle physics and nuclear physics communities to explore and develop research programs possible with a new high intensity proton source known as "Project-X". Project X will provide multi-megawatt proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector over the energy range 60-120 GeV simultaneous with multi-megawatt protons beams at 3 GeV with very flexible beam-timing characteristics and up to 300 kW of pulsed beam at 8 GeV. The Project-X research program includes world leading sensitivity in longbaseline neutrino experiments, neutrino scattering experiments, a rich program of ultra-rare muon and kaon decays, opportunities for next-generation electric dipole moment experiments and other nuclear/particle physics probes that reach far beyond the Standard Model.

R. Tschirhart

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Ethanol injection induced cavitation and heating in tissue exposed to high intensity focused ultrasound  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can ablatetumors located deep in the body through highly localized energy deposition and tissue heating at the target location. The volume of a HIFU-induced thermal lesion can be increased in the presence of cavitation. This study explores the effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating in tissue-mimicking phantoms and bovine liver tissues exposed to HIFU. The HIFU transducer (0.825 MHz) operated at seven acoustic power levels ranging from 1.3 W to 26.8 W. The cavitation events were quantified by B-mode ultrasound imaging needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection (PCD). Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The onset of inertial cavitation in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver tissues occurred at a lower power level than in the untreated samples (control). The cavitation occurrence in turn resulted in a sudden rise of temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in control. The results of this work indicate that the use of percutaneous ethanol injection prior to HIFU exposure may improve the HIFU therapeutic efficiency.

Chong Chen; Yunbo Liu; Subha Maruvada; Matthew Myers; Damir Khismatullin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beams thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Incoherent-light temporal stretching of high-speed intensity waveforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose and demonstrate experimentally the first incoherent-light scheme for temporal imaging (magnification) of intensity waveforms. The scheme is based on a time-domain equivalent...

Li, Bo; Azaa, Jos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Forecasting a large number of tropical cyclone intensities around Japan using a high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work quantifies the benefits of using a high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled model in the tropical cyclone (TC) intensity forecasts in the vicinity of Japan. To do so, a large number of high-resolution calculations were performed by ...

Kosuke Ito; Tohru Kuroda; Kazuo Saito; Akiyoshi Wada

137

2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 30, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

138

Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lamps in Texas Description Value Reference Total Housing Units in Texas in 2013: 10,204,056 Real Estate Center, Texas A&M University3, U.S. Census Bureau4 5 Average Lighting Electricity Usage per House: 1,946 kWh/yr NREL Building America Program6... Savings in Texas: 10,424,973 MWh/yr OSD CFL Savings in Texas: 28,562 MWh/day By 2013, it is estimated that total savings of 10,424,973 MWh/yr would be achieved from replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) in residential...

Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

139

Generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij Distribution and Envelope Equation for High-Intensity Beams in a Coupled Transverse Focusing Lattice  

SciTech Connect

In an uncoupled lattice, the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution function first analyzed in 1959 is the only known exact solution of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for high-intensity beams including self-fields in a self-consistent manner. The KV solution is generalized here to high-intensity beams in a coupled transverse lattice using the recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder invariant for coupled transverse dynamics. This solution projects to a rotating, pulsating elliptical beam in transverse configuration space, determined by the generalized matrix envelope equation.

Qin Hong; Davidson, Ronald C. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Chung, Moses [Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

140

Generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij Distribution and Envelope Equation for High-intensity Beams in a Coupled Transverse Focusing Lattice  

SciTech Connect

In an uncoupled lattice, the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution function first analyzed in 1959 is the only known exact solution of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for high- intensity beams including self-fields in a self-consistent manner. The KV solution is generalized here to high-intensity beams in a coupled transverse lattice using the recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder invariant for coupled transverse dynamics. This solution projects to a rotating, pulsating elliptical beam in transverse configuration space, determined by the generalized matrix envelope equation.

Hong Qin, Moses Chung, and Ronald C. Davidson

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

Limpouch, Jiri

142

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

Limpouch, Jiri

143

Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams M. S. Wei,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be necessary for actual ignition experiments, the required laser needs to have energies of tens of kObservations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams M. S. Wei,1 F. N Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 OQX, United Kingdom 5

Strathclyde, University of

144

Highly efficient second-harmonic generation of intense femtosecond pulses with a significant effect of cubic nonlinearity  

SciTech Connect

A highly efficient (73%) second-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in a 1-mm-thick KDP crystal at a fundamentalharmonic peak intensity of 2 TW cm{sup -2} has been demonstrated experimentally. In a 0.5-mm-thick KDP crystal, a 50% efficiency has been reached at a peak intensity of 3.5 TW cm{sup -2}. We examine the key factors that limit the conversion efficiency and present numerical simulation results on further temporal compression of second-harmonic pulses.

Mironov, S Yu; Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Kirsanov, Aleksei V; Yakovlev, I V; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaykin, A A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

Generation of high-quality mega-electron volt proton beams with intense-laser-driven nanotube accelerator  

SciTech Connect

An ion acceleration scheme using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed, in which embedded fragments of low-Z materials are irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser to eject substantial numbers of electrons. Due to the resultant characteristic electrostatic field, the nanotube and embedded materials play the roles of the barrel and bullets of a gun, respectively, to produce highly collimated and quasimonoenergetic ion beams. Three-dimensional particle simulations, that take all the two-body Coulomb interactions into account, demonstrate generation of quasimonoenergetic MeV-order proton beams using nanometer-size CNT under a super-intense electrostatic field {approx}10{sup 14} V m{sup -1}.

Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Department of Engineering, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Engineering, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

146

Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

Sametoglu, Ferhat

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Self-focusing, channel formation, and high-energy ion generation in interaction of an intense short laser pulse with a He jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-focusing, channel formation, and high-energy ion generation in interaction of an intense short of interaction of a relativistically intense 4-TW, 400-fs laser pulse with a He gas jet. We observe a stable data, we reconstructed the axial profile of laser channel and on-axis laser intensity. The estimated

Umstadter, Donald

148

Theoretical and experimental investigations into the particular features of the process of converting coal gas hydrocarbons on incandescent coke  

SciTech Connect

The prospects of the use of reducing gases in ferrous metallurgy and the possibilities for using them as a basis for coke production have been presented by the authors of the present article in the past. In the present report, the authors present certain results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the process of converting coal gas hydrocarbons on incandescent coke. The modification of the present-day method of thermodynamically calculating stable compositions of coking products, which was developed by the authors, has made it possible to apply it to specific chemical systems and process conditions not met with before, such as the conversion of hydrocarbons in mixtures of actual industrial gases (coal gas and blast furnace gas) in the presence of carbon and considerable amounts of hydrogen.

Zubilin, I.G.; Umanskii, V.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Intense multimicrojoule high-order harmonics generated from neutral atoms of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We studied high-order harmonic generation from plasma that contains an abundance of indium oxide nanoparticles. We found that harmonics from nanoparticle-containing plasma are considerably more intense than from plasma produced on the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk target, with high-order harmonic energy ranging from 6 {mu}J (for the ninth harmonic) to 1 {mu}J (for the 17th harmonic) in the former case. The harmonic cutoff from nanoparticles was at the 21st order, which is lower than that observed using indium oxide solid target. By comparing the harmonic spectra obtained from solid and nanoparticle indium oxide targets, we concluded that intense harmonics in the latter case are dominantly generated from neutral atoms of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.

Elouga Bom, L. B.; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Vidal, F.; Ozaki, T. [Centre Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ganeev, R. A. [Centre Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Scientific Association Akadempribor, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan)

2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

Sensitivity to Dark Energy candidates by searching for four-wave mixing of high-intensity lasers in the vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical challenges to understand Dark Matter and Dark Energy suggest the existence of low-mass and weakly coupling fields in the universe. The quasi-parallel photon-photon collision system (QPS) can provide chances to probe the resonant production of these light dark fields and the induced decay by the coherent nature of laser fields simultaneously. By focusing high-intensity lasers with different colors in the vacuum, new colors emerge as the signature of the interaction. Because four photons in the initial and final states interplay via the dark field exchange, this process is analogous to four-wave mixing in quantum optics, where the frequency sum and difference among the incident three waves generate the fourth wave with a new frequency via the nonlinear property of crystals. The interaction rate of the four-wave mixing process has the cubic dependence on the intensity of each wave. Therefore, if high-intensity laser fields are given, the sensitivity to the weakly coupling of dark fields to photons rapidly increases over the wide mass range below sub-eV. Based on the experimentally measurable photon energies and the linear polarization states, we formulate the relation between the accessible mass-coupling domains and the high-intensity laser parameters, where the effects of the finite spectrum width of pulse lasers are taken into account. The expected sensitivity suggests that we have a potential to explore interactions at the Super-Planckian coupling strength in the sub-eV mass range, if the cutting-edge laser technologies are properly combined.

Kensuke Homma

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

151

Centroid and Envelope Dynamics of High-intensity Charged Particle Beams in an External Focusing Lattice and Oscillating Wobbler  

SciTech Connect

The centroid and envelope dynamics of a high-intensity charged particle beam are investigated as a beam smoothing technique to achieve uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target for applications to ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion. The motion of the beam centroid projected onto the target follows a smooth pattern to achieve the desired illumination, for improved stability properties during the beam-target interaction. The centroid dynamics is controlled by an oscillating "wobbler", a set of electrically-biased plates driven by RF voltage. __________________________________________________

Hong Qin, Ronald C. Davidson and B. Grant Logan

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

152

Generation of Initial Kinetic Distributions for Simulation of Long-Pulse Charged Particle Beams with High Space-Charge intensity  

SciTech Connect

Self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel--both in terms of low-order rms (envelope) properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of kinetic distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of unbunched or weakly bunched beams with intense space-charge fields including: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various non-equilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of usual accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial kinetic distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear-focusing single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for non-continuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulation applications that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

Lund, Steven M.; Kikuchi, Takashi; Davidson, Ronald C.

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

Generation of initial Vlasov distributions for simulation of charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity  

SciTech Connect

Self-consistent Vlasov simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel, both in terms of low-order rms (envelope) properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of beams with intense space-charge fields including: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various non-equilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of usual accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear-focusing single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for non-continuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulation applications that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

Lund, S M; Kikuchi, T; Davidson, R C

2007-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

Application of high intensity UVC-LED for the removal of acetamiprid with the photo-Fenton process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Research into the use of light-emitting diodes (LED) for wastewater treatment has increased in recent years. \\{LEDs\\} are more efficient than other UV lamps because of their reduced heat dissipation and much longer life span. However, most of the UVC-LEDs that are currently available are of such low intensity that the large number of bulbs required for effective treatment of wastewater streams makes their application uneconomic. The development of higher intensity UVC-LEDs may therefore lead to more feasible technology options for wastewater treatment with UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of high-intensity UVC-LED lamps (20 W/m2) for the removal of micropollutants with the photo-Fenton process. The pesticide acetamiprid was used as model pollutant at a concentration of 100 ?g/L in synthetic secondary effluent due to its recalcitrant nature. Degradation using a low-pressure UVC-lamp (LPL) was also assessed for comparative purposes. The process was operated at pH 2.8 and at natural pH. The volumetric photon absorption (VRPA) was calculated for the results at acidic pH, where the catalyst was soluble, to investigate the influence of iron and hydrogen peroxide concentrations on acetamiprid degradation, based on their absorption for both systems. A model was proposed and results indicated that the contribution of both hydrogen peroxide and iron to the generation of radicals was the same in the LED system. At natural pH, the high intensity LED system was effective in the removal of acetamiprid, achieving degradation in 20 min adding 1+1+1 mg Fe/L (sequential iron dosage) and 12 mg H2O2/L.

Irene Carra; Jos Antonio Snchez Prez; Sixto Malato; Olivier Autin; Bruce Jefferson; Peter Jarvis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

HiRadMat at CERN/SPS - A dedicated facility providing high intensity beam pulses to material samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials), constructed in 2011, is a facility at CERN designed to provide high?intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, high power beam targets, collimators) can be tested. The facility uses a 440 GeV proton beam extracted from the CERN SPS with a pulse length of up to 7.2 us, and with a maximum pulse energy of 3.4 MJ (3xE13 proton/pulse). In addition to protons, ion beams with energy of 440 GeV/charge and total pulse energy of 21 kJ can be provided. The beam parameters can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. HiRadMat is not an irradiation facility where large doses on equipment can be accumulated. It is rather a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high?intensity pulsed beams on materials or accelerator component assemblies in a controlled environment. The fa? cility is designed for a maximum of 1E16 protons per year, dist...

Charitonidis, N; Efthymiopoulos, I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

OPERATION STATUS OF HIGH INTENSITY ION BEAMS AT GANIL F. Chautard, G. Sncal, GANIL, Caen, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · A high-energy experiment. · An auxiliary experiments sharing the CSS2 beam · Additionally, the cyclotron, Venice, Italy 54 Circular Accelerators in2p3-00396700,version1-29Jul2010 Author manuscript, published

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams , H. Ludewig1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the auspices of the US DOE 1. BACKGROUND With increasing demand for high-power accelerators in support) Material Handbook study and the Spallation Neutron Source studies in the US, Europe and Japan. While

McDonald, Kirk

158

Effect of Nuclear Motion on Molecular High-Order Harmonics and on Generation of Attosecond Pulses in Intense Laser Pulses  

SciTech Connect

We calculate harmonic spectra and shapes of attosecond-pulse trains using numerical solutions of Non-Born-Oppenheimer time-dependent Shroedinger equation for 1D H{sub 2} molecules in an intense laser pulse. A very strong signature of nuclear motion is seen in the time profiles of high-order harmonics. In general the nuclear motion shortens the part of the attosecond-pulse train originating from the first electron contribution, but it may enhance the second electron contribution for longer pulses. The shape of time profiles of harmonics can thus be used for monitoring the nuclear motion.

Bandrauk, Andre D.; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Kawai, Shinnosuke; Lu, Huizhong [Departement de Chimie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qc, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

159

Automation and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Individualized High-Quality Tangent Breast Treatment Plans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To demonstrate the large-scale clinical implementation and performance of an automated treatment planning methodology for tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials Automated planning was used to prospectively plan tangential breast IMRT treatment for 1661 patients between June 2009 and November 2012. The automated planning method emulates the manual steps performed by the user during treatment planning, including anatomical segmentation, beam placement, optimization, dose calculation, and plan documentation. The user specifies clinical requirements of the plan to be generated through a user interface embedded in the planning system. The automated method uses heuristic algorithms to define and simplify the technical aspects of the treatment planning process. Results Automated planning was used in 1661 of 1708 patients receiving tangential breast IMRT during the time interval studied. Therefore, automated planning was applicable in greater than 97% of cases. The time for treatment planning using the automated process is routinely 5 to 6minutes on standard commercially available planning hardware. We have shown a consistent reduction in plan rejections from plan reviews through the standard quality control process or weekly quality review multidisciplinary breast rounds as we have automated the planning process for tangential breast IMRT. Clinical plan acceptance increased from 97.3% using our previous semiautomated inverse method to 98.9% using the fully automated method. Conclusions Automation has become the routine standard method for treatment planning of tangential breast IMRT at our institution and is clinically feasible on a large scale. The method has wide clinical applicability and can add tremendous efficiency, standardization, and quality to the current treatment planning process. The use of automated methods can allow centers to more rapidly adopt IMRT and enhance access to the documented improvements in care for breast cancer patients, using technologies that are widely available and already in clinical use.

Thomas G. Purdie; Robert E. Dinniwell; Anthony Fyles; Michael B. Sharpe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Intense 2.3-Hz electric field pulsations in the stratosphere at high auroral latitude  

SciTech Connect

A survey has been performed of the power spectra of the electric field measured by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments during the 1985-1986 South Pole Balloon Campaign. The survey reviewed all 468 hours of available data and covered the frequency range from 0 to 4 Hz. Three episodes of narrow-band emissions were detected in this frequency range. These narrow-band emissions had frequencies in the horizontal component between 2 and 2.5 Hz. The frequencies observed in the vertical component were different, with several bands present. The fundamental frequency in the vertical component was around 0.8 to 1.4 Hz depending on event. The spectra of the events in the vertical component showed multiple emission bands, not all harmonically spaced. The vertical component showed much more pronounced time variations of the frequencies of the emission bands than the horizontal component showed. The ratio E{sub V}/E{sub H} was typically {approximately}2-3. The amplitude of the horizontal components of the emissions was quite large in one of the three events, with individual bursts having amplitudes of 60 mV/m. The polarization was complicated. An extensive list of possible explanations for these emissions was considered. Distant sources associated with tropospheric storms were considered in detail. During the most intense of the 2-Hz emission events, the nearest bad weather was more than 1000 km away. It proved impossible to account for the amplitude and polarization of the horizontal component with any reasonable tropospheric source. Explaining the narrow-band tuning was also a problem for any weather source model. An ionospheric model based on the concept of the ionospheric Alfven resonator is capable of accounting for the tuning, amplitude, and polarization of the horizontal components. However, this model has moderate difficulty in accounting for the observed vertical component of the emissions. 36 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

Bering, E.A.; Benbrook, J.R. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Monte Carlo calculations of pair production in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma-ray and electron-positron pair production will figure prominently in laser-plasma experiments with next generation lasers. Using a Monte Carlo approach we show that straggling effects arising from the finite recoil an electron experiences when it emits a high energy photon, increase the number of pairs produced on further interaction with the laser fields.

Roland Duclous; John Kirk; Anthony Bell

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

162

Analysis of two-dimensional high-energy photoelectron momentum distributions in the single ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, using longer pulses at lower intensities. The energy spectra above 4Up, where Up is the ponderomotive energy, have been found to vary rapidly with small changes in laser intensities 10,11 when laser pulseAnalysis of two-dimensional high-energy photoelectron momentum distributions in the single

Lin, Chii-Dong

163

Data Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Intensive Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program In 2014 NERSC is conducting its second and last round of allocations to projects in data intensive science. This pilot aims to...

164

DOE/EA-1664: Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 430 Energy Conservation Standards: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps (June 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 4 Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Standards: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps June 2009 16-i CHAPTER 16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 16-1 16.2 AIR EMISSIONS ANALYSIS...................................................................................... 16-1 16.2.1 Air Emissions Descriptions............................................................................................ 16-1 16.2.2 Air Quality Regulation................................................................................................... 16-3 16.2.3 Global Climate Change..................................................................................................

165

Contribution to the numerical study of turbulence in high intensity discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect

We present in this paper a comparison between results obtained with a laminar and turbulent models for high-pressure mercury arc. The two models are based on the resolution of bidimensional time-dependent equations by a semi-implicit finite-element code. The numerical computation of turbulent model is solved with large eddy simulation model; this approach takes into account the various scales of turbulence by a filtering method on each scale. The results show the quantitative influence of turbulence on the flow fields and also the difference between laminar and turbulent effects on the dynamic thermal behaviour and on the characteristics of the discharge.

Kaziz, S.; Ben Ahmed, R.; Helali, H.; Gazzah, H.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effects of high-energy intense multi-bunches proton beam on materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The prediction of material response in case of interaction with successive high energy proton bunches requires new tools and multidisciplinary approaches. The impact leads the propagation of shock-waves, which travels through the hit component causing a substantial density reduction and the appearance of tunneling effect along the beam direction. For taking into account this effect, an automatic procedure, consisting in coupling FLUKA Monte-Carlo and FE LS-DYNA codes, is developed. The case study consists of the accidental loss of 60 bunches of one of the 7TeV proton beams of the Large Hadron Collider (CERN) on a tungsten collimator.

M. Scapin; L. Peroni; V. Boccone; F. Cerutti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Influence of nanosized semiconducting additives on the properties of energy-storage phase-change materials subjected to a high-intensity electron beam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stability of paraffin with a different concentration of copper nanopowder (a particle size of 50 and 100 nm) against a high-intensity nanosecond electron beam is studied experimentally. It is shown that th...

G. G. Savenkov; V. A. Morozov; V. A. Bragin; V. M. Kats; A. A. Lukin

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Neutron production from 7Li(d,xn) nuclear fusion reactions driven by high-intensity lasertarget interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of neutron production from deuteriumlithium nuclear fusion reactions have been performed. A set of differential cross sections for the 7Li(d,xn) reaction for incident deuteron energies of up to 50?MeV is assembled. The angular distribution of neutrons from a thick lithium target is simulated and benchmarked against experimental data. Two-stage neutron production from lasertarget experiments has been studied as a function of laser intensity and energy. During the first stage a well collimated deuteron beam is generated using a high-intensity ultrashort pulse laser. During the second stage it is transported through a lithium target using a 3D Monte-Carlo ion beamtarget deposition model. The neutron yield is estimated to be ~108?neutrons?J?1 laser energy. Some 1010 neutrons can be expected from a ~100?J petawatt-class laser. For incident deuteron energies above 1?MeV the proposed scheme for neutron production from dLi reactions is superior to that from dd reactions, producing a collimated beam of neutrons with higher neutron yield.

J Davis; G M Petrov; Tz Petrova; L Willingale; A Maksimchuk; K Krushelnick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Physics with a High Intensity Proton Source at Fermilab: Project X Golden Book  

SciTech Connect

Within the next ten years the Standard Model will likely have to be modified to encompass a wide range of newly discovered phenomena, new elementary particles, new symmetries, and new dynamics. These phenomena will be revealed through experiment with high energy particle accelerators, mainly the LHC. This will represent a revolution in our understanding of nature, and will either bring us closer to an understanding of all phenomena, through existing ideas such as supersymmetry to superstrings, or will cause us to scramble to find new ideas and a new sense of direction. We are thus entering a dramatic and important time in the quest to understand the fundamental laws of nature and their role in shaping the universe. The energy scales now probed by the Tevatron, of order hundreds of GeV, will soon be subsumed by the LHC and extended up to a few TeV. We expect the unknown structure of the mysterious symmetry breaking of the Standard Model to be revealed. We will then learn the answer to a question that has a fundamental bearing upon our own existence: 'What is the origin of mass?' All modern theories of 'electroweak symmetry breaking' involve many new particles, mainly to provide a 'naturalness' rationale for the weak scale. Supersymmetry (SUSY) represents extra (fermionic) dimensions of space, leading to a doubling of the number of known elementary particles and ushering in many additional new particles and phenomena associated with the various symmetry breaking sectors. The possibility of additional bosonic dimensions of space would likewise usher in an even greater multitude of new states and new phenomena. Alternatively, any new spectroscopy may indicate new principles we have not yet anticipated, and we may see new strong forces and/or a dynamical origin of mass. The wealth of new particles, parameters, CP-phases, and other phenomena carries important implications for precision quark flavor physics experiments that are uniquely sensitive probes of new phenomena. We have already begun to see the enlargement of the Standard Model in the leptonic sector. Neutrino masses and mixing angles, which in the early 1990's were unknown, must now be incorporated into our full description of nature. In a minimal scenario of Majorana masses and mixings amongst the three known left-handed neutrinos, we see a strong hint of a new and very large mass scale, possibly associated with grand unification or the scale of quantum gravity, the Planck mass. We are not yet sure what the proper description of neutrino masses and mixing angles will be. Experiments may reveal additional unexpected particles coupled to the neutrino sector. New phenomena, such as leptonic CP-violation, will be major focal points of our expanding understanding of the lepton sector. There is much to be done with experiment to attack the issues that neutrinos now present. Already, developments in neutrino physics and the possibility of a novel source of CP-violation in the lepton sector have spawned hopes that the cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry may be explained through leptogenesis. Neutrino physics, together with the search for new energy frontier physics, offers the possibility of experimental handles on the questions of dark matter and dark energy. Without the discovery of new particles in accelerator experiments, the telescope-based cosmological observations of the early universe would remain unexplained puzzles. The process of understanding the laws of physics in greater detail through accelerator-based high energy physics will potentially have incisive impact on our understanding of dark matter and dark energy. Precision flavor physics in both the quark and the lepton sectors offers a window on the sensitive entanglement of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics with rare processes, through quantum loop effects involving known or new states. Flavor physics offers sensitive indirect probes and may be the first place to reveal additional key components of the post-Standard Model physics. The main arenas for quark flavor physics include strange, charm and beauty, hence

Appel, Jeffrey; /Fermilab; Asner, David; /Carleton U.; Bigi, Ikaros; /Notre Dame U.; Bryman, Douglas; /British Columbia U.; Buras, Andrzej; /Munich, Tech. U.; Carena, Marcela /Fermilab; Carosi, Roberto; /INFN, Pisa; Christian, Dave; /Fermilab; Conrad, Janet; /Columbia U.; Diwan, Milind; /Brookhaven; Dukes, Craig; /Virginia U. /Fermilab

2008-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

170

Neutron Halo Isomers in Stable Nuclei and their Possible Application for the Production of Low Energy, Pulsed, Polarized Neutron Beams of High Intensity and High Brilliance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose to search for neutron halo isomers populated via $\\gamma$-capture in stable nuclei with mass numbers of about A=140-180 or A=40-60, where the $4s_{1/2}$ or $3s_{1/2}$ neutron shell model state reaches zero binding energy. These halo nuclei can be produced for the first time with new $\\gamma$-beams of high intensity and small band width ($\\le$ 0.1%) achievable via Compton back-scattering off brilliant electron beams thus offering a promising perspective to selectively populate these isomers with small separation energies of 1 eV to a few keV. Similar to single-neutron halo states for very light, extremely neutron-rich, radioactive nuclei \\cite{hansen95,tanihata96,aumann00}, the low neutron separation energy and short-range nuclear force allows the neutron to tunnel far out into free space much beyond the nuclear core radius. This results in prolonged half lives of the isomers for the $\\gamma$-decay back to the ground state in the 100 ps-$\\mu$s range. Similar to the treatment of photodisintegration of the deuteron, the neutron release from the neutron halo isomer via a second, low-energy, intense photon beam has a known much larger cross section with a typical energy threshold behavior. In the second step, the neutrons can be released as a low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beam of high intensity and high brilliance, possibly being much superior to presently existing beams from reactors or spallation neutron sources.

D. Habs; M. Gross; P. G. Thirolf; P. Bni

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $?$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. We discuss in detail many specific radioisotopes for diagnostics and therapy applications. Photonuclear reactions with $\\gamma$ beams allow to produce certain radioisotopes, e.g. $^{47}$Sc, $^{44}$Ti, $^{67}$Cu, $^{103}$Pd, $^{117m}$Sn, $^{169}$Er, $^{195m}$Pt or $^{225}$Ac, with higher specific activity and/or more economically than with classical methods. This will open the way for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes. For example $^{195m}$Pt could be used to verify the patient's response to chemotherapy with platinum compounds before a complete treatment is performed. Also innovative isotopes like $^{47}$Sc, $^{67}$Cu and $^{225}$Ac could be produced for the first time in sufficient quantities for large-scale application in targeted radionuclide therapy.

D. Habs; U. Kster

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on a Highly Amorphous Iridium(III) Orange Phosphor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- didates as future illumination sources over the conventional incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps of the electroluminescence spectrum is observed, with the blue color intensity increasing relative to the orange component been prepared using this stacked concept with both fluorescent12,13 and phosphorescent emitters.14

173

Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362MJ, sufficient to melt 500kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440GeV while it has the same bunch structure as the LHC beam, except that it has only up to 288 bunches. Beam focal spot sizes of ?=0.1, 0.2, and 0.5mm have been considered. The phenomenon of significant hydrodynamic tunneling due to the hydrodynamic effects is also expected for the experiments.

N. A. Tahir, J. Blanco Sancho, A. Shutov, R. Schmidt, and A. R. Piriz

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

174

High Hats, Swiss Cheese, and Fluorescent Lighting?  

SciTech Connect

For DOE, PNNL is conducting a competitive procurement to promote market introduction of new residential recessed downlights (also known as ''recessed cans'' or ''high hats'') that are airtight, rated for insulated ceilings, and hard-wired for CFLs. This paper discusses the potential energy savings of new high-efficiency downlights, and the results of product testing to date. Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixtures in the United States, with 21.7 million fixtures sold in 2000. An estimated 350 million are currently installed in American homes. Recessed cans are relatively inexpensive, and provide an unobtrusive, directed source of light for kitchens, hallways, and living rooms. Recessed cans are energy-intensive in three ways. First, virtually all recessed cans currently installed in the residential sector use incandescent light sources, typically reflector-type lamps drawing 65-150 watts. Second, heat from incandescent lamps adds to air-conditioning loads. Third, most installed recessed cans are not airtight, so they allow conditioned air to escape from the living area into unconditioned spaces such as attics. Addressing both lighting energy use and air leakage in recessed cans has proven challenging. Lighting energy efficiency is greatly improved by using CFLs. Air leakage can be addressed by making fixtures airtight. But when CFLs are used in an airtight recessed can, heat generated by the lamp and ballast is trapped within the fixture. Excessive heat causes reduced light output and shorter lifespan of the CFL. The procurement was designed to overcome these technical challenges and make new products available in the marketplace.

McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography  

SciTech Connect

Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 ?m (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Edwards, R.; Aedy, C. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Effect of ethanol injection on cavitation and heating of tissues exposed to high-intensity focused ultrasound  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cavitation activity and temperature rise have been investigated in a tissue-mimicking material and excised bovine liver treated with ethanol and insonated with a 0.825 MHz focused acoustic transducer. The acoustic power was varied from 1.3 to 26.8 W to find the threshold leading to the onset of inertial cavitation. Cavitation events were quantified by three independent techniques: B-mode ultrasound imaging, needle hydrophone measurements and passive cavitation detection. Temperature in or near the focal zone was measured by thermocouples embedded in the samples. The results of this study indicate that the treatment of tissue phantoms and bovine liver samples with ethanol reduces their threshold power for inertial cavitation. This in turn leads to a sudden rise in temperature in ethanol-treated samples at a lower acoustic power than that in untreated ones. The analysis of passive cavitation detection data shows that once the threshold acoustic power is reached, inertial cavitation becomes a major contributor to acoustic scattering in ethanol-treated phantoms and bovine liver samples as compared to control. This study opens up the possibility of improved tumor ablation therapy via a combination of percutaneous ethanol injection and high-intensity focused ultrasound.

C Chen; Y Liu; S Maruvada; M Myers; D Khismatullin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Management of Respiratory Motion in Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Upper Abdominal Organs: Current Status and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive therapy considered with increased interest for the ablation of small tumors in deeply located organs while sparing surrounding critical tissues. A multitude of preclinical and clinical studies have showed the feasibility of the method; however, concurrently they showed several obstacles, among which the management of respiratory motion of abdominal organs is at the forefront. The aim of this review is to describe the different methods that have been proposed for managing respiratory motion and to identify their advantages and weaknesses. First, we specify the characteristics of respiratory motion for the liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the problems it causes during HIFU planning, treatment, and monitoring. Second, we make an inventory of the preclinical and clinical approaches used to overcome the problem of organ motion. Third, we analyze their respective benefits and drawbacks to identify the remaining physical, technological, and clinical challenges. We thereby consider the outlook of motion compensation techniques and those that would be the most suitable for clinical use, particularly under magnetic resonance thermometry monitoring.

Muller, A., E-mail: arnaud.muller@chu-lyon.fr [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Petrusca, L.; Auboiroux, V. [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland)] [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland); Valette, P. J. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)] [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Salomir, R. [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland)] [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland); Cotton, F. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)] [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Real time two?dimensional temperature imaging for guidance and monitoring of high?intensity focused ultrasound beams.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have recently introduced a fully real time 2?D temperature imaging system using diagnostic ultrasound. A SonixRP is used to collect beamformed M2D mode data with frame rates in the 200400 fps during the application of pulsed high?intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). M2D mode is a modification on the SonixRP allowing for maximizing the number of scanlines per frame for a specified frame rate. This allows for capturing the full range of tissue motions during the application of the pHIFU beams including native motions due to breathing and pulsations radiation forces due to pHIFU and temperature?induced strains. In this paper we demonstrate the use of this image?guidance mode in the control of the pHIFU exposure in real time with millisecond temporal resolution. Results from heating and lesion formation experiments in the hindlimb of nude mice in vivo will be presented. Temperature imaging results during the application of subtherapeutic pHIFU beams before therapeutic pHIFU lesion formation will demonstrate the advantages of this approach in the guidance and dose estimation. In addition temperature imaging of subtherapeutic pHIFU after lesion formation allows for the measurement of changes in tissue properties that may be used as indicators of irreversible tissue damage.

Dalong Liu; John R. Ballard; Alyona Haritonova; Jing Jiang; John C. Bischof; Emad S. Ebbini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The Transmutation of Nuclear Waste in the Two-Zone Subcritical System Driven by High- Intensity Neutron Generator - 12098  

SciTech Connect

The main problems of transmutation of high-level radioactive waste (minor actinides and long-lived fission products) are considered in our work. The range of radioactive waste of nuclear power is analyzed. The conditions under which the transmutation of radioactive waste will be most effective are analyzed too. The modeling results of a transmutation of the main radioactive isotopes are presented and discussed. The transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products are modeled in our work (minor actinides - Np-237, Am-241, Am-242, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245; long-lived fission products - I-129, Tc-99). The two-zone subcritical system is calculated with help of different neutron-physical codes (MCNP, Scale, Montebarn, Origen). The ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library used in above calculations. Thus, radioactive wastes can be divided into two main groups that need to be transmuted. The minor actinides form the first group and the long-lived fission products form the second one. For the purpose of effective transmutation these isotopes must be extracted from the spent nuclear fuel with the help of either PUREX technology or pyrometallurgical technology. The two-zone reactor system with fast and thermal regions is more effective for nuclear waste transmutation than the one-zone reactor. Modeling results show that nearly all radioactive wastes can be transmuted in the two-zone subcritical system driven by a high-intensity neutron generator with the external neutron source strength of 1.10{sup 13} n/sec. Obviously, transmutation rate will increase with a rise of the external neutron source strength. From the results above we can also see that the initial loading of radioactive isotopes into the reactor system should exceed by mass those isotopes that are finally produced. (authors)

Babenko, V.O. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrolohichna str. 14-b, Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Gulik, V.I.; Pavlovych, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Production of neutrons up to 18 MeV in high-intensity, short-pulse laser matter interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was 0.5%, an order of magnitude greater than into deuterons. Maximum neutron energy was shown-intensity, petawatt class lasers may provide an attractive alternate with rela- tively lower costs,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

X-ray spectroscopy of buried layer foils irradiated with an ultra high intensity short pulse laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the intensity of the ignition laser pulse is be at least 10fuel [19, 22]. Current ignition laser requirements mandatesShort pulse laser produced plasmas Fast Ignition guides much

Chen, Sophia Nan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Intrapleural Fluid Infusion for MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation in the Liver Dome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rationale and Objectives Magnetic resonanceguided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of tumors in the liver dome is challenging because of the presence of air in the costophrenic angle. In this study, we used a porcine liver model and a clinical MR-HIFU system to assess the feasibility and safety of using intrapleural fluid infusion (IPI) to create an acoustic window for MR-HIFU ablation in the liver dome. Materials and Methods Healthy adult Dalland land pigs (n=6) under general anesthesia were used with animal committee approval. Degassed saline (200800mL) was infused into the intrapleural space under ultrasound guidance. A clinical 1.5-T MR-HIFU system was used to perform sonications (4-mm treatment cells, 300450W, 2030seconds) in the liver dome under real-time MR thermometry. Anintercostal firing technique was used to prevent rib heating in one experiment. Technical success was defined as a temperature increase (>10C) in the target area. After termination, the animal was examined for thermal damage to liver, diaphragm, pleura, lung, or intercostal muscle. Results An acoustic window was established in all animals. A temperature increase in the target area was achieved in all animals (max. 47C67C). MR thermometry showed no heating outside the target area. Intercostal firing effectively reduced rib heating (55C vs. 42C). Postmortem examination revealed no unwanted thermal damage. One complication occurred, in the first experiment, because of an ill-suited needle (displacement of the needle). Conclusions The results indicate that IPI may be used safely to assist MR-HIFU ablation of tumors in the liver dome. For reliable tissue coagulation, IPI must be combined with an intercostal sonication technique. Considering the proportion of patients with tumors in the liver dome, IPI widens the applicability of MR-HIFU ablation for liver tumors considerably.

Joost W. Wijlemans; Martijn de Greef; Gerald Schubert; Chrit T.W. Moonen; Maurice A.A.J. van den Bosch; Mario Ries

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Dosimetric Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy as a Boost to the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We compared the dose conformity of two radiation modalities: high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to deliver a boost to the prostate after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Ten successive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with a single 10-Gy HDR BT boost after EBRT were investigated. Four theoretical IMRT plans were computed: (a) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (b) 26 Gy IMRT with CTV-PTV expansions, doses corresponding to the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) of one 10-Gy fraction calculated with a prostate alpha/beta ratio of respectively 1.5 and 3 Gy; and (c) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (d) 26 Gy IMRT without CTV-PTV expansions. The dose-volume histogram values converted in EQD2 with an alpha/beta ratio of 3 Gy for the organs at risk were compared. Results: The HDR BT plan delivered higher mean doses to the PTV compared with IMRT plans. In all, 33% of the rectal volume received a mean dose of 5.32 +- 0.65 Gy and 20% of bladder volume received 4.61 +- 1.24 Gy with HDR BT. In comparison, doses delivered with IMRT were respectively 13.4 +- 1.49 Gy and 10.81 +- 4 Gy, even if only 26 Gy was prescribed to the PTV with no CTV-PTV expansion (p < 0.0001). The hot spots inside the urethra were greater with HDR BT but acceptable. Conclusions: Use of HDR BT produced a more conformal plan for the boost to the prostate than IMRT even without CTV-PTV expansions.

Hermesse, Johanne, E-mail: jhermesse@chu.ulg.ac.b [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Biver, Sylvie; Jansen, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Lenaerts, Eric [Department of Medical Physics, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Nickers, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Generalized Courant-Snyder theory and Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij distribution for high-intensity beams in a coupled transverse focusing lattice  

SciTech Connect

The Courant-Snyder (CS) theory and the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution for high-intensity beams in an uncoupled focusing lattice are generalized to the case of coupled transverse dynamics. The envelope function is generalized to an envelope matrix, and the envelope equation becomes a matrix envelope equation with matrix operations that are noncommutative. In an uncoupled lattice, the KV distribution function, first analyzed in 1959, is the only known exact solution of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for high-intensity beams including self-fields in a self-consistent manner. The KV solution is generalized to high-intensity beams in a coupled transverse lattice using the generalized CS invariant. This solution projects to a rotating, pulsating elliptical beam in transverse configuration space. The fully self-consistent solution reduces the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations to a nonlinear matrix ordinary differential equation for the envelope matrix, which determines the geometry of the pulsating and rotating beam ellipse. These results provide us with a new theoretical tool to investigate the dynamics of high-intensity beams in a coupled transverse lattice. A strongly coupled lattice, a so-called N-rolling lattice, is studied as an example. It is found that strong coupling does not deteriorate the beam quality. Instead, the coupling induces beam rotation and reduces beam pulsation.

Qin Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Davidson, Ronald C. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Long-period fiber grating inscription under high-intensity 352 nm femtosecond irradiation: Three-photon absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-photon absorption and energy deposition in cladding Stephen A. Slattery, David N. Nikogosyan * Department of Physics-intensity 211 and 264 nm laser pulses. Three-photon absorption coefficients for pure fused silica in the fiber cladding and the core. It was shown that the deposition of the majority of the absorbed energy

Nikogosyan, David N.

186

A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment  

SciTech Connect

A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described.

Gribble, R.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Searching for minicharged particles via birefringence, dichroism and Raman spectroscopy of the vacuum polarized by a high-intensity laser wave  

SciTech Connect

Absorption and dispersion of probe photons in the field of a high-intensity circularly polarized laser wave are investigated. The optical theorem is applied for determining the absorption coefficients in terms of the imaginary part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Compact expressions for the vacuum refraction indices and the photon absorption coefficients are obtained in various asymptotic regimes of interest. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that, far from the region relatively close to the threshold of the two-photon reaction, the birefringence and dichroism of the vacuum are small and, in some cases, strongly suppressed. On the contrary, in a vicinity of the region in which the photo-production of a pair occurs, these optical properties are manifest with lasers of moderate intensities. We take advantage of such a property in the search of minicharged particles by considering high-precision polarimetric experiments. In addition, Raman-like electromagnetic waves resulting from the inelastic part of the vacuum polarization tensor are suggested as an alternative form for finding exclusion limits on these hypothetical charge carriers. The envisaged parameters of upcoming high-intensity laser facilities are used for establishing upper bounds on the minicharged particles. -- Highlights: Via dichroism and birefringence of the vacuum by a strong laser wave, minicharged particles can be probed. The discovery potential is the highest in a vicinity of the first pair production threshold. As alternative observable, Raman scattered waves are put forward.

Villalba-Chvez, S., E-mail: selymv@gmail.com; Mller, C., E-mail: c.mueller@tp1.uni-duesseldorf.de

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Neutron production from interactions of high-intensity ultrashort pulse laser with a planar deuterated polyethylene target  

SciTech Connect

The deuteron acceleration from a planar uniform deuterated polyethylene (CD{sub 2}) target was studied with a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell method in the ultrarelativistic regime for peak laser intensities between 10{sup 23} and 10{sup 25} W/m{sup 2}. Under identical conditions the deuteron energy and angular distributions are very different when compared to that produced from a double-layer target. The neutron production from D(d,n)-{sup 3}He nuclear fusion reactions was also investigated with a three-dimensional Monte Carlo ion beam-target deposition model. The neutron yield and its angular distribution were studied as a function of peak laser intensity and laser pulse duration. A neutron yield of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} neutrons per Joule laser energy is inferred from simulations of a 4 {mu}m thick planar uniform CD{sub 2} target. The angular scattering of neutrons is found to be nonisotropic and has a significant component in the forward (laser propagation) direction.

Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions  

SciTech Connect

A pump-probe polarimetric technique is demonstrated, which provides a complete, temporally and spatially resolved mapping of the megagauss magnetic fields generated in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions. A normally incident time-delayed probe pulse reflected from its critical surface undergoes a change in its ellipticity according to the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect due to the azimuthal nature of the ambient self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. The temporal resolution of the magnetic field mapping is typically of the order of the pulsewidth, limited by the laser intensity contrast, whereas a spatial resolution of a few ?m is achieved by this optical technique. High-harmonics of the probe can be employed to penetrate deeper into the plasma to even near-solid densities. The spatial and temporal evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields at the target front as well as at the target rear are presented. The ?m-scale resolution of the magnetic field mapping provides valuable information on the filamentary instabilities at the target front, whereas probing the target rear mirrors the highly complex fast electron transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

Chatterjee, Gourab, E-mail: gourab@tifr.res.in; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Kumar, G. Ravindra, E-mail: grk@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Formation of silver nanoparticles inside a soda-lime glass matrix in the presence of a high intensity Ar{sup +} laser beam  

SciTech Connect

Formation and motion of the silver nanoparticles inside an ion-exchanged soda-lime glass in the presence of a focused high intensity continuous wave Ar{sup +} laser beam (intensity: 9.2 x 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2}) have been studied in here. One-dimensional diffusion equation has been used to model the diffusion of the silver ions into the glass matrix, and a two-dimensional reverse diffusion model has been introduced to explain the motion of the silver clusters and their migration toward the glass surface in the presence of the laser beam. The results of the mentioned models were in agreement with our measurements on thickness of the ion-exchange layer by means of optical microscopy and recorded morphology of the glass surface around the laser beam axis by using a Mirau interferometer. SEM micrographs were used to extract the size distribution of the migrated silver particles over the glass surface.

Niry, M. D.; Khalesifard, H. R. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Optics Research Center, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Ahangary, A. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizian-Kalandaragh, Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili (UMA), P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Longevity of the quark-gluon plasma and the mixed phase from intensity interferometry of high energy photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-photon intensity interferometry is shown to provide an accurate measurement of lifetime of quark-gluon plasma created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions via the difference of outward and sidewardcorrelation radii. Under the assumption of a longitudinal, boost invariant expansion of the plasma, we obtain analytical expressions for the correlations from the quark-gluon plasma phase. A $3+1$ dimensional expansion of the plasma along with a first order phase transition to hadrons is next considered, and, leads to a source with two characteristic lifetimes, one for the quark-gluon plasma phase, and the other for the longer lived mixed phase. This may even help us to {\\em experimentally} determine the order of the phase transition.

Dinesh K. Srivastava; Charles Gale

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

192

Sensitivity to dark energy candidates by searching for four-wave mixing of high-intensity lasers in the vacuum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the energy frontier of high-energy physics is, of course, to produce new heavy particles; therefore, the realization of the high CMS energy is the most important task...Non-Newtonian Gravity (1998) New York: AIP Press. 17 Fujii Y......

Kensuke Homma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

The causes of the high energy intensity of the Kazakh economy: A characterization of its energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The primary energy intensity of Kazakhstan is among the highest in the world. The aim of this paper is to explore, in a quantitative way, the reasons for this condition, and to highlight the opportunities for improvement. To do so, we have developed a detailed bottom-up model of the Kazakh energy sector. With this model, we have calculated the potential energy savings on both the demand and supply sides, and for all the economy sectors. This potential is defined as the difference between the current energy consumption in each sector/activity and the energy consumption if best available technologies or energy efficiency standards prevailing in developed countries were adopted in Kazakhstan. We conclude that the main causes of the energy inefficiency in Kazakhstan are: the excessive energy demand of buildings (especially for space heating) in the household and service sector, the inefficiency of the industry sector, particularly in the iron and steel and non-ferrous metals subsectors, the obsolescence of the heating and power generation assets, and the inefficient management of associated gas (flaring and re-injection in oil wells). With current energy efficiency standards prevailing in developed countries, the primary energy consumption in Kazakhstan in 2010 would be reduced by 48.6%, from 75.4 to 38.7Mtoe.

Antonio Gmez; Csar Dopazo; Norberto Fueyo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the grant entitled, ???¢????????Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.???¢??????? The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

Mori, Warren, B.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Study of 18 keV K-? x-ray emission from high intensity femtosecond laser produced plasma  

SciTech Connect

We report an experimental study on the optimization of a laser plasma based x-ray source of ultra-short duration K-? line radiation. The interaction of pulses from a CPA based Ti:sapphire laser (10 TW, 45 fs, 10 Hz) system with magnesium, titanium, iron and copper solid target generates bright 1-8 keV K-? x-ray radiation. The x-ray yield was optimized with the laser pulse duration (at fixed fluence) which is varied in the range of 45 fs to 1.4 ps. It showed a maximum at laser pulse duration of ?740 fs, 420 fs, 350 and 250 fs for Mg (1.3 keV), Ti (4.5 keV), Fe (6.4 keV) and Cu (8.05 keV) respectively. The x-ray yield is observed to be independent of the sign of the chirp. The scaling of the K-? yield (I{sub x} ? I{sub L}{sup ?}) for 45 fs and optimized pulse duration were measured for laser intensities in the region of 3 10{sup 14} 8 10{sup 17}. The x-ray yield shows a much faster scaling exponent ? = 1.5, 2.1, 2.4 and 2.6 for Mg, Ti, Fe and Cu respectively at optimized pulse duration compared to scaling exponent of 0.65, 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 obtained for 45 fs duration laser pulses. The laser to x-ray energy conversion efficiencies obtained for different target materials are ?{sub Mg} = 1.2 10{sup ?5}, ?{sub Ti} = 3.1 10{sup ?5}, ?{sub Fe} = 2.7 10{sup ?5}, ?{sub Cu} = 1.9 10{sup ?5}. The results have been explained from the efficient generation of optimal energy hot electrons at longer laser pulse duration. The faster scaling observed at optimal pulse duration indicates that the x-ray source is generated at the target surface and saturation of x-ray emission would appear at larger laser fluence. An example of utilization of the source for measurement of shock-wave profiles in a silicon crystal by time resolved x-ray diffraction is also presented.

Arora, V., E-mail: arora@rrcat.gov.in; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Bagchi, S.; Tayyab, M.; Gupta, P. D. [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)] [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

2011 Intensity -1 INTENSITY OF SOUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rate at which energy is passing a certain point. This concept involves sound intensity. Consider the sound intensity. Recall the time rate of energy transfer is called "power". Thus, sound intensity2011 Intensity - 1 INTENSITY OF SOUND The objectives of this experiment are: · To understand

Glashausser, Charles

197

Origin of Reflection High-Energy Electron-Diffraction Intensity Oscillations during Molecular-Beam Epitaxy: A Computational Modeling Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporal oscillations in the specular beam of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) provide the primary method of monitoring growth by molecular-beam epitaxy. We develop a model to investigate the origin of these oscillations with which, by monitoring the step density of a growing sample, we are able to reproduce all of the principal features of recent RHEED measurements. Our work demonstrates the considerable advantages in adoption of simple monatomic growth models instead of the complex models used for studying the growth of compound semiconductors.

Shaun Clarke and Dimitri D. Vvedensky

1987-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

198

2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for high-intesity discharge lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on May 5, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

199

Modeling of dimmable High Power LED illumination distribution using ANFIS on the isolated area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High power light emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) are more suitable for energy saving applications and have becoming replacing traditional fluorescent and incandescent bulbs for its energy efficient. Therefore, HP-LED lighting has been regarded in the next-generation ... Keywords: ANFIS, High Power LED, Illumination distribution

?smail Kiyak; Vedat Topuz; Blent Oral

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Controls for Solid-State Lighting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

very high would replace incandescent and halogen A modernmotion sensor, the incandescent lamp switches on providing awork with fluorescent and incandescent lighting as well as

Rubinstein, Francis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of the change in the load resistance on the high voltage pulse transformer of the intense electron-beam accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A high voltage pulse transformer (HVPT) is usually used as a charging device for the pulse forming line (PFL) of intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBAs). Insulation of the HVPT is one of the important factors that restrict the development of the HVPT. Until now, considerable effort has been focused on minimizing high field regions to avoid insulation breakdown between windings. Characteristics of the HVPT have been widely discussed to achieve these goals, but the effects of the PFL and load resistance on HVPT are usually neglected. In this paper, a HVPT is used as a charging device for the PFL of an IEBA and the effect of the change in the load resistance on the HVPT of the IEBA is presented. When the load resistance does not match the wave impedance of the PFL, a high-frequency bipolar oscillating voltage will occur, and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage will increase with the decrease in the load resistance. The load resistance approximates to zero and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage is much higher. This makes it easier for surface flashover along the insulation materials to form and decrease the lifetime of the HVPT.

Cheng Xinbing; Liu Jinliang; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Yu; Zhang Hongbo [College of Photoelectrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

The intensity of motivation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rearranged before they were repeated in reverse sequence. Electrocardiographic T-wave amplitude (TWA) and changes were monitored during a 15-sec anticipatory phase, as well as during each 15-second mental manipulation phase. (This ensured that the measures..., and the subject was surreptitiously observed. The high-self-esteem subjects were observed to do more practice www.annualreviews.org/aronline Annual Reviews INTENSITY OF MOTIVATION 121 problems for the difficult- than for the easy-to-please experimenter...

Brehm, Jack W.; Self, E. A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Impact of Dose to the Bladder Trigone on Long-Term Urinary Function After High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the potential association between genitourinary (GU) toxicity and planning dosevolume parameters for GU pelvic structures after high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 268 patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy to a prescribed dose of 86.4 Gy in 48 fractions during June 2004-December 2008 were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Dosevolume histograms of the whole bladder, bladder wall, urethra, and bladder trigone were analyzed. The primary endpoint for GU toxicity was an IPSS sum increase ?10 points over baseline. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 3-7.7 years). Thirty-nine patients experienced an IPSS sum increase ?10 during follow-up; 84% remained event free at 5 years. After univariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.006), the V90 of the trigone (P=.006), and the maximal dose to the trigone (P=.003) were significantly associated with an IPSS sum increase ?10. After multivariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.009) and increased maximal dose to the trigone (P=.005) remained significantly associated. Seventy-two patients had both a lower baseline IPSS sum and a higher maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as high risk, and 68 patients had both a higher baseline IPSS sum and a lower maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as low risk for development of an IPSS sum increase ?10. Twenty-one of 72 high-risk patients (29%) and 5 of 68 low-risk patients (7%) experienced an IPSS sum increase ?10 (P=.001; odds ratio 5.19). Conclusions: The application of hot spots to the bladder trigone was significantly associated with relevant changes in IPSS during follow-up. Reduction of radiation dose to the lower bladder and specifically the bladder trigone seems to be associated with a reduction in late GU toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Munck af Rosenschld, Per; Oh, Jung Hun; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura; Yorke, Ellen; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew, E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Equation-of-state properties of high-energy-density matter using intense heavy ion beams with an annular focal spot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents two-dimensional numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic response of solid as well as hollow cylindrical targets made of lead that are irradiated by an intense beam of uranium ions which has an annular focal spot. Using a particle tracking computer code, it has been shown that a plasma lens can generate such a beam with parameters used in the calculations presented in this paper. The total number of particles in the beam is 21011 and the particle energy is about 200 MeV/u that means a total energy of approximately 1.5 kJ. This energy is delivered in a pulse that is 50 ns long. These beam parameters lead to a specific energy deposition of 50100 kJ/g and a specific power deposition of 12 TW/g in solid matter. These calculations show that in case of the solid lead cylinder, it may be possible to achieve more than 4 times solid lead density along the cylinder axis at the time of maximum compression. The pressure in the compressed region is about 20 Mbar and the temperature is a few eV. In the case of a hollow cylinder, one also achieves the same degree of compression but now the temperature in the compressed region is much higher (over 10 eV). Such samples of highly compressed matter can be used to study the equation-of-state properties of high-energy-density matter. It is expected that by the end of the year 2001, after completion of the upgrade of the existing facilities, the above beam parameters will be available at the Gesellschaft fr Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. This will open up the possibility to carry out very interesting experiments on a number of important problems including the investigation of the EOS of high-energy-density matter.

N. A. Tahir, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Kozyreva, A. Shutov, J. A. Maruhn, U. Neuner, A. Tauschwitz, P. Spiller, and R. Bock

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile  

SciTech Connect

The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

Habibi, M., E-mail: habibi.physics@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures  

SciTech Connect

The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R. [Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co., Englewood, CO (United States); Bonine, R.C. [Agri-Resource Management, Inc., Gallup, NM (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Vibration intensity difference thresholds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The intensity difference threshold is defined as the difference in the intensity of two stimuli which is just sufficient for their difference to be detected. (more)

Forta, Nazim Gizem

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Bilirubin phototransformation in vitro using a battery-powered, solar-charged, high-intensity blue light-emitting diode phototherapy blanket  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The availability of new, higher intensity Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), as used in the development of our LED phototherapy blanket, led us to hypothesise that our blue LED phototherapy system would phototransform bilirubin more rapidly, in vitro, than the current commercially available, state-of-the-art phototherapy system. Furthermore, we theorised that increasing light intensity, beyond levels previously studied, would lead to increasing rates of bilirubin phototransformation.

Harel Rosen; Jerome J. Hric; Arye Rosen; Danielle Rosen; Shalom Komornik; Kathy Zaleski; Susan Yaron

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

High-Dose and Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage NK/T-Cell Lymphoma of Waldeyer's Ring: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV{sub 50}]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV{sub 40}). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median mean doses to the PTV{sub 50} and PTV{sub 40} were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV{sub 50} and 0.9% of the PTV{sub 40} received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ?3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ?grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. Conclusions: IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL.

Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Fang, Hui; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Ren, Hua; Dai, Jian-Rong

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

No Impairment of Quality of Life 18 Months After High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine prospectively intermediate-term toxicity and quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer patients after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods: Fifty-five patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma were treated by IMRT (76 Gy). Physicians scored acute and late toxicity using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Patients assessed general and prostate-specific QoL before IMRT (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 18 months using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30(+3) and QLQ-PR25. Results: Median age was 73 years (range, 54-80 years). Risk categories were 18% low risk, 60% intermediate risk, and 22% high risk; 45% of patients received hormonal therapy (median duration, 6 months). The incidence of urinary and bowel toxicity immediately after IMRT was, respectively, 38% and 13% (Grade 2) and 2% and none (Grade 3); at 18 months it was 15% and 11% (Grade 2) and none (Grade 3). Significant worsening of QoL was reported at 2 months with regard to fatigue (+11.31, p = 1.10{sup -7}), urinary symptoms (+9.07, p = 3.10{sup -11}), dyspnea (+7.27, p = 0.008), and emotional (-7.02, p = 0.002), social (-6.36, p = 0.003), cognitive (-4.85, p = 0.004), and physical (-3.39, p = 0.007) functioning. Only fatigue (+5.86, p = 0.003) and urinary symptoms (+5.86, p = 0.0004) had not improved by 6 months. By 18 months all QoL scores except those for dyspnea (+8.02, p = 0.01) and treatment-related symptoms (+4.24, p = 0.01) had returned to baseline. These adverse effects were exacerbated by hormonal therapy. Conclusion: High-dose IMRT with accurate positioning induces only a temporary worsening of QoL.

Marchand, Virginie; Bourdin, Sylvain [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Rene Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain (France); Charbonnel, Christelle [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Rene Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain (France); Rio, Emmanuel [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Rene Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain (France)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

VOLUME 88, NUMBER 7 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 FEBRUARY 2002 Boosting Sonoluminescence with a High-Intensity Ultrasonic Pulse Focused  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Therefore, they are seriously limited by the narrow stability domain of the bubble, which results from Sonoluminescence with a High-Intensity Ultrasonic Pulse Focused on the Bubble by an Adaptive Array Jean Diderot, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris, France (Received 29 June 2001; published 1 February 2002) Single-bubble

Forterre, Yoël

213

Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.6 Lighting  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

(2) Standard Fluorescent 59.7 96% Incandescent 38.5 62% Compact Fluorescent 27.6 44% High-Intensity Discharge 20.6 33% Halogen 17.7 29% Note(s): Source(s): EIA, 2003 Commercial...

215

High-performance CFL downlights: The best and the brightest  

SciTech Connect

Downlight fixtures -- often referred to as ``recessed cans`` -- are among the most common lighting fixtures in commercial and residential settings. As such, they represent one of the most promising targets for improving lighting energy efficiency. The authors estimate that downlight fixtures account for more than one-fifth of the 2.8 billion incandescent lighting sockets in the US, and represent about 8 percent of total direct lighting energy use. Over 30 million new fixtures of this type are sold each year in the US. With existing and foreseeable technology, nearly two-thirds of the incandescent downlights in the US are candidates for retrofit or replacement with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or fixtures. The remaining one-third, however, are unlikely to ever be replaceable with CFL technology because of constraints on light output, lighting quality, size, and cost-effectiveness of CFL alternatives. High performance downlight systems using compact fluorescent lamps and incorporating advanced optical, thermal, and ballast designs use up to 75 percent less energy than conventional incandescent downlight fixtures. Many CFL downlight fixtures, however, perform poorly. In this report, the authors explore ways in which various elements of fixture design influence performance. They also describe exemplary elements of high-performance designs, and evaluate several emerging or experimental technologies that promise to further improve efficiency.

Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.; Newcomb, J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Compression and acceleration of electron bunches to high energies in the interference field of intense laser pulses with tilted amplitude fronts: concept and modelling  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of accelerating electrons by laser radiation is proposed, namely, direct acceleration by a laser field under the conditions of interference of several relativistic-intensity laser pulses with amplitude fronts tilted by the angle 45 Degree-Sign with respect to the phase fronts. Due to such interference the traps moving with the speed of light arise that capture the electrons, produced in the process of ionisation of low-density gas by the same laser radiation. The modelling on the basis of solving the relativistic Newton equation with the appropriate Lorenz force shows that these traps, moving in space, successively collect electrons from the target, compress the resulting electron ensemble in all directions up to the dimensions smaller than the wavelength of the laser radiation and accelerate it up to the energies of the order of a few GeV per electron. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Trofimov, V A; Shiryaev, O B [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Light intensity compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Effect of adaptation to high light intensity on the kinetics of energy transfer from phycobilisomes to photosystem II in Anabaena cylindrica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transfer efficiencies between phycobilisomes and photosystem II antenna chlorophylls were determined on membrane fragments isolated from low and high light adapted Anabaena cells. The observed increase in energy ...

E. Kaiseva; L. Zimnyi; I. Laczk

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

220

First Use of High-Frequency Intensity Modulation of Narrow-Linewidth Laser Light and Its Application in Determination of Fr206,205,204 Ground-State Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Collinear laser spectroscopy was performed on the nuclear ground states of the neutron-deficient isotopes Fr206,205,204. A new technique was developed to suppress hyperfine pumping in collinear laser spectroscopy of atoms. This involved high-frequency intensity modulation of narrow-linewidth laser light using fast-switching electro-optical modulators. The nuclear ground-state spins of Fr206,205,204 were determined to be 3, 9/2, and 3, respectively. Both the changes in mean-squared charge radii and nuclear magnetic dipole moments indicate a departure from single-particle estimates.

Annika Voss; Matthew R. Pearson; Jonathan Billowes; Fritz Buchinger; Bradley Cheal; John E. Crawford; Anna A. Kwiatkowski; C. D. Philip Levy; Olivier Shelbaya

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Building dependability arguments for software intensive systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method is introduced for structuring and guiding the development of end-to-end dependability arguments. The goal is to establish high-level requirements of complex software-intensive systems, especially properties that ...

Seater, Robert Morrison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Computational phase imaging based on intensity transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light is a wave, having both an amplitude and a phase. However, optical frequencies are too high to allow direct detection of phase; thus, our eyes and cameras see only real values - intensity. Phase carries important ...

Waller, Laura A. (Laura Ann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Under Contract No. DE-AC36-83CH10093 LARGE-AREA, HIGH-INTENSITY PV ARRAYS FOR SYSTEMS USING DISH CONCENTRATING OPTICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report on our efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot-size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

J. S. Ward; A. Duda; K. Zweibel; T. J. Coutts; J. S. Ward; A. Duda; K. Zweibel; T. J. Coutts

224

Laser-Matter Interaction Above the Plasma Ignition Threshold Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter we present the process of laser-matter interaction above the plasma ignition threshold intensity. The physics of the pulsed laser ablation process at high intensities is very complex since it invo...

Mihai Stafe; Aurelian Marcu; Niculae N. Puscas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Laser-Matter Interaction Below the Plasma Ignition Threshold Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter we present the process of laser-matter interaction below the plasma ignition threshold intensity. When the high power laser radiation characterized by electric field intensities around ...

Mihai Stafe; Aurelian Marcu; Niculae N. Puscas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care Ii (Mimic-Ii): A Public-Access Intensive Care Unit Database  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective: We sought to develop an intensive care unit research database applying automated techniques to aggregate high-resolution diagnostic and therapeutic data from a large, diverse population of adult intensive care ...

Saeed, Mohammed

227

Le Bail Intensity Extraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Le Bail Intensity Extraction Le Bail Intensity Extraction Presentation Goal Introduce the concepts behind LeBail fitting; why it is useful and how to perform a Le Bail fit with GSAS. Format: PDF slides or a RealPlayer video of the slides with accompanying audio and a demo video that shows how a Le Bail fit is performed. Presentation Outline What is the Le Bail method? Other approaches Why use the Le Bail method? Parameter fitting with Le Bail intensity extraction Le Bail refinement strategies Avoiding problems with background fitting: BKGEDIT Demo: an example Le Bail fit Links Le Bail lecture Slides (as PDF file) FlashMovie presentation with index (best viewed with 1024x768 or better screen resolution) FlashMovie file (800x600 pixels) Le Bail demo FlashMovie presentation with index (best viewed with 1024x768 or

228

High-power radio frequency pulse generation and extration based on wakefield excited by an intense charged particle beam in dielectric-loaded waveguides.  

SciTech Connect

Power extraction using a dielectric-loaded (DL) waveguide is a way to generate high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for future particle accelerators, especially for two-beam-acceleration. In a two-beam-acceleration scheme, a low-energy, high-current particle beam is passed through a deceleration section of waveguide (decelerator), where the power from the beam is partially transferred to trailing electromagnetic waves (wakefields); then with a properly designed RF output coupler, the power generated in the decelerator is extracted to an output waveguide, where finally the power can be transmitted and used to accelerate another usually high-energy low-current beam. The decelerator, together with the RF output coupler, is called a power extractor. At Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA), we designed a 7.8GHz power extractor with a circular DL waveguide and tested it with single electron bunches and bunch trains. The output RF frequency (7.8GHz) is the sixth harmonic of the operational frequency (1.3GHz) of the electron gun and the linac at AWA. In single bunch excitation, a 1.7ns RF pulse with 30MW of power was generated by a single 66nC electron bunch passing through the decelerator. In subsequent experiments, by employing different splitting-recombining optics for the photoinjector laser, electron bunch trains were generated and thus longer RF pulses could be successfully generated and extracted. In 16-bunch experiments, 10ns and 22ns RF pulses have been generated and extracted; and in 4-bunch experiments, the maximum power generated was 44MW with 40MW extracted. A 26GHz DL power extractor has also been designed to test this technique in the millimeter-wave range. A power level of 148MW is expected to be generated by a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 20nC each. The arrangement for the experiment is illustrated in a diagram. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power extraction has also been explored in a dual-frequency design. By using a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 50nC each, 90.4MW and 8.68MW of extracted power levels are expected to be reached at 20.8GHz and 35.1GHz, respectively. In order to improve efficiency in HOM power extraction, a novel technique has been proposed to suppress unintended modes.

Gao, F.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech

2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy Intensity Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our presentation will cover how we began the journey of conserving energy at our facility. Well discuss a basic layout of our energy intensity plan and the impact our team has had on the process, what tools were using, what goals have been...

Rappolee, D.; Shaw, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Device Architecture Simplification of Laser Pattering in High-Volume Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication using Intensive Computation for Design and Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Prices of Si based solar modules have been continuously declining in recent years. Goodrich is pointing out that a significant portion of these cost reductions have come about due to ?economies of scale? benefits, but there is a point of diminishing returns when trying to lower cost by simply expanding production capacity [1]. Developing innovative high volume production technologies resulting in an increase of conversion efficiency without adding significant production cost will be necessary to continue the projected cost reductions. The Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (F-PACE) is seeking to achieve this by closing the PV efficiency gap between theoretical achievable maximum conversion efficiency - 29% for c-Si - and the current typical production - 18.5% for a typical full area back contact c-Si Solar cell ? while targeting a module cost of $0.50/Watt . The research conducted by SolarWorldUSA and it?s partners within the FPACE framework focused on the development of a Hybrid metal-wrap-through (MWT) and laser-ablated PERC solar cell design employing a extrusion metallization scheme to achieve >20% efficient devices. The project team was able to simulate, develop and demonstrate the technologies necessary to build p-type MWT PERC cells with extruded front contacts. Conversion efficiencies approaching 20% were demonstrated and a path for further efficiency improvements identified. A detailed cost of ownership calculation for such a device was based on a NREL cost model and is predicting a $/Watt cost below 85 cents on a 180 micron substrate. Several completed or planned publications by SolarWorldUSA and our partners are based on the research conducted within this project and are adding to a better understanding of the involved technologies and materials. Several aspects and technologies of the proposed device have been assessed in regards to technical effectiveness and economic feasibility. It has been shown in a pilot demonstration with wafer thicknesses down to 120 micron that further wafer thickness reduction is only economically viable if handling and contact formation limitations are addressed simultaneously. Furthermore the project partners assessed and demonstrated the feasibility of processing wafers with vias connecting front and back sides through a PERC cell process and aligning and connecting those vias with a non-contact metallization. A close cooperation between industry and institutes of higher education in the Pacific Northwest as shown in this project is of direct benefit to the public and is contributing to the education of the next generation of PV engineers and scientist.

Grupp Mueller, Guenther [SolarWorld; Herfurth, Hans [Fraunhofer CLT; Dunham, Scott [University of Washington; Xu, Baomin [PARC

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

THE HISTORY AND TECHNICAL EVOLUTION OF HIGH FREQUENCY FLUORESCENT LIGHTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B L U E , G R E E N , INCANDESCENT FORM OF LAMPS OF VARIOUSTHE E F F I C I E N C Y INCANDESCENT A P P L I C A T I O N SI M E S , DEPENDING THE THE INCANDESCENT GENERAL LAMPS. THE

Campbell, John H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Title of Dissertation: CONTROL AND TRANSPORT OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: CONTROL AND TRANSPORT OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS Hui Li, Doctor Engineering The transport of intense beams for advanced accelerator applications with high-intensity beams of beam characteristics over long distances. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses

Anlage, Steven

233

Unlocking energy intensive habits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy intensive habits energy intensive habits Presentation at LBL Oct 10, 2013 by Hal Wilhite Professor and Research Director University of Oslo Centre for Development and the Environment Source: WWF US EIA Outlook 2011 Conventional framing of the energy consumption and savings * Sovereign consumers * Economically rational and persistentely reflexive. * Uninfluenced by social and material conditions of everyday life * Focus on efficiency and not on size and volume which is for the most part treated as an indifferent variable Cognitive reductionism The change of frame * From individual to socio-material * From rational/reflexive experience-based (practical) knowledge * From efficiency to reduction A theory of habit * Acknowledges the role of lived experience (history, both cultural and personal) in forming

234

Development of Indian High Intensity Proton Accelerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Brinkman, Director, US-DOE-OS met with Dr. Banerjee and Dr. Grover several time #12;Status: MOU: Fermilab The Fermilab Tevatron has now passed on the energy frontier to LHC, following 25 years as the highest energy particle collider in the world. Fermilab operates the highest power long baseline neutrino

Quigg, Chris

235

iterative regularization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the overall deliverable treatment is of high quality and obtained at less expense ...... Intensity modulated photon beams subject to a minimal surface smoothing.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Comparison of high and low intensity contact between secondary and primary care to detect people at ultra-high risk for psychosis: study protocol for a theory-based, cluster randomized controlled trial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Background The early detection and referral to specialized services of young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis may reduce the duration of untreated psychosis and, therefore, improve prognosis. General practitioners (GPs...

Perez, Jesus; Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Byford, Sarah; Zimbron, Jorge; Graffy, Jonathan P; Painter, Michelle; Croudace, Tim J; Jones, Peter B

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ceramic Mugs & Dishes Incandescent Light Bulbs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

502-6808 · Campus Recycling Service 476-2021 · sustainability.ucsf.edu/stay_informed/recycling_resources Binders Plastic Bags & Wrap Pretzel & Chip Bags Rubber bands Styrofoam Tyvek RECYCLE Aluminum foil & cans Reuse Recycle Compost receptacles can be found at campus cafes; Individual office composting is starting

Yamamoto, Keith

238

,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.",174,173,53,172,"Q","Q","Q" "Food Service ...",349,349,277,308,78,"Q",84 "Health Care ...",127,127,83,126,20,8,34 " Inpatient ...",11,...

239

A STAGED MUON-BASED FACILITY TO ENABLE INTENSITY AND ENERGY FRONTIER SCIENCE IN THE US*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STAGED MUON-BASED FACILITY TO ENABLE INTENSITY AND ENERGY FRONTIER SCIENCE IN THE US* Jean. It requires facilities at both high energy and high intensity frontiers. Neutrino oscillations are irrefutable precision flavour physics at the high intensity frontier. At the high energy frontier, a multi-TeV lepton

McDonald, Kirk

240

energy intensity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

intensity intensity Dataset Summary Description Energy intensity data and documentation published by the U.S. DOE's office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Energy intensity is defined as: amount of energy used in producing a given level of output or activity; expressed as energy per unit of output. This is the energy intensity of the the electricity sector, which is an energy consuming sector that generates electricity. Data are organized to separate electricity-only generators from combined heat and power (CHP) generators. Data is available for the period 1949 - 2004. Source EERE Date Released May 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Energy Consumption energy intensity fossil fuels renewable energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon electricity_indicators.xls (xls, 2.1 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

teChnologIes Program IntroduCtIon the research and development (r&d) portfolio for energy-Intensive Processes (eIP) addresses the top technology opportunities to save energy...

242

Neutral particle beam intensity controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

Dagenhart, W.K.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

243

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

244

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

245

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Imaging of high-speed dust particle trajectories on NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of high-speed incandescent dust particle trajectories in a tokamak plasma has been accomplished on NSTX using up to three high-speed cameras each viewing the same plasma volume from different locations and operating at speeds up to 68 000 frames/s with exposure times varying from 2 to 300 {mu}s. The dynamics of the dust trajectories can be quite complex exhibiting a large variation in both speed (10-200 m/s) and direction. Simulations of these trajectories will be utilized to ascertain the role dust may play in future machines such as ITER where significant dust production from wall erosion is expected. NSTX has numerous view ports including both tangential as well as radial views in both the midplane and lower divertors. Several vertical ports are also available so that a few specific regions in NSTX may be viewed simultaneously from several different camera positions. The cameras can be operated in the full visible spectrum but near-infrared filters can be utilized to enhance the observation of incandescent particles against a bright background. A description of the cameras and required optics is presented.

Roquemore, A. L.; Davis, W.; Kaita, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Maqueda, R.; Nishino, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theory for molecular processes in strong fields:? High-order harmonic generation of H2 in intense laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.29 215.30 25 210.20 210.19 49 216.48 216.50 FIG. 2. The induced dipole moment ^ z(t) & and dipole accelera- tion ^ (d2z(t)/dt2)/v02& of H2 at R51.4a0 as a function of time ~in optical cycles!. The laser intensity is 1014 W/cm2 and wavelength 1064 nm...

Chu, Shih-I; Chu, Xi

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

249

Table Set-up with Materials near Lamp Stand (below) Target Audience: Parents of elementary school students (grades 3-6) and Middle and High School Students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spectrum with different light sources; compact fluorescent, LED, incandescent. 5. Discuss light bulb. Observe difference of color spectrum with different light sources; compact fluorescent, LED, incandescent type of bulb at different horizontal level. Electromagnetic Spectrum handouts that includes spectrum

Linhardt, Robert J.

250

Modeling of dimmable High Power LED illumination distribution using ANFIS on the isolated area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High power light emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) are more suitable for energy saving applications and have becoming replacing traditional fluorescent and incandescent bulbs for its energy efficient. Therefore, HP-LED lighting has been regarded in the next-generation lighting. In this study, illumination distribution of white color HP-LED is modeled by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach on the isolated area while LED head is fixed. Subtractive clustering with hybrid learning approach is used to train the realized ANFIS architectures. End of the numerous experiment we finally concluded that, ANFIS could be used to modeling the illumination distribution applications perfectly.

?smail Kiyak; Vedat Topuz; Blent Oral

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Museum of Electricity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and businesses as an energy-saving alternative to incandescent. Related Electricity & Magnetism Pages Interactive Java Tutorials: Arc Lamp Museum: Arc Lamp Pioneers: Nikola Tesla...

252

Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Changes in Energy Intensity Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991 Overview Full Report The focus is on intensity of energy use measured by energy consumption relative to constant...

253

Intensive Skills Activities CAREERS SERVICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the state under the cover of night and in broad daylight, perhaps swimming in ship ballast water, tucked and the rest of the world focus more intensely on producing fuels and energy from grasses and other non to subscribe (it's free!), send a note to Futures Editor, 109 Agriculture Hall, Michigan State University, East

Bristol, University of

254

Neutral particle beam intensity controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Neutrino physics with an intense \  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study some of the physics potential of an intense $1\\,\\mathrm{MCi}$ $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr}$ source combined with the {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator} enriched germanium detector array. The {\\sc Demonstrator} will consist of detectors with ultra-low radioactive backgrounds and extremely low energy thresholds of~$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{eV}$. We show that it can improve the current limit on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment. We briefly discuss physics applications of the charged-current reaction of the $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr} neutrino with the $^{73}\\mathrm{Ge} isotope. Finally, we argue that the rate from a realistic, intense tritium source is below the detectable limit of even a tonne-scale HPGe experiment

R. Henning

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Intense Muon Beams for Experiments at Project X  

SciTech Connect

A coherent approach for providing muon beams to several experiments for the intensity-frontier program at Project X is described. Concepts developed for the front end of a muon collider/neutrino factory facility, such as phase rotation and ionization cooling, are applied, but with significant differences. High-intensity experiments typically require high-duty-factor beams pulsed at a time interval commensurate with the muon lifetime. It is challenging to provide large RF voltages at high duty factor, especially in the presence of intense radiation and strong magnetic fields, which may preclude the use of superconducting RF cavities. As an alternative, cavities made of materials such as ultra-pure Al and Be, which become very good but not super conductors at cryogenic temperatures, can be used.

C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, C. Y. Yoshikawa, V.S. Kashikhin, D.V. Neuffer, J. Miller, R.A. Rimmer

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Handbook of Pediatric Intensive Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...objectionable, but I found that it streamlined the text. This handbook is useful in at least two ways. First, it can serve as a mini-textbook on pediatric intensive care. It is not meant to be a substitute for any of the major works in the field, but it does provide enough information for the reader to gain more... In caring for critically ill children, the demands on one's time are great, and there is often little time left for reading. Although there are a number of excellent, comprehensive books on pediatric critical care that must be read by those in the field, ...

Trager J.D.K.

1996-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

258

Intensity Frontier: More Information | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Intensity Frontier » Intensity Frontier: More Information High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Snowmass / P5 Planning Process Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Research Highlights .pdf file (13.1MB) Questions for the Universe Accomplishments Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier: More Information Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Experiments at the Intensity Frontier aim to transform our understanding of

259

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas

260

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet First Use/Ton of steel End Uses of Consumption Blue Bullet Total End Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet Total End Use/Ton of Steel Boiler Fuel as End Use Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Value of Production Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Ton of Steel Process Heating as End Use Blue Bullet Process Heating Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Process Heating /Value of Production Machine Drive as End Use Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel/Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel /Value of Production Expenditures Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Value of Production

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the programs reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time.

262

Structural consequences of hen egg-white lysozyme orthorhombic crystal growth in a high magnetic field: validation of X-ray diffraction intensity, conformational energy searching and quantitative analysis of B factors and mosaicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown that a high magnetic field of 10 T improves the quality of lysozyme crystals as quantified by comparison of the X-ray diffraction of crystals grown in the presence and absence of a magnetic field of 10 T, from structure comparisons and from molecular-modelling studies with conformational energy searching, from analysis of the anisotropic B factors and finally from analysis of the mosaicity. It is concluded that magnetic enhancement in protein crystal perfection is an important material engineering tool in the study of protein structure and function.

Saijo, S.

2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

Experiments at the Intensity Frontier | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Facilities Facility Ops Experiments at the Energy Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Cosmic Frontier Projects, Missions, and Status HEP User Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees News & Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3624 F: (301) 903-2597 E: sc.hep@science.doe.gov More Information » Facilities Experiments at the Intensity Frontier Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page The Intensity Frontier, accessed with a combination of intense particle beams and highly sensitive detectors, offers a second, unique investigation

264

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but

265

Evaluation of High-intensity and Low-intensity Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

within breed and BW strata. The systems consisted of ad libitum access to a self-fed milo-based diet in drylot (DL); ad libitum access to the same self-fed diet while grazing dormant warm season pasture (SF); and hand-fed 20 precent CP pellets (2.1 kg 3...

Orsak, Andrew Nathan

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

266

Molecular-bond hardening and dynamics of molecular stabilization and trapping in intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stabilization and population trapping of high-lying vibrational states and chemical bond hardening are predicted for both continuous-wave (cw) lasers and short laser pulses. While the intensity dependences of the laser-induced stabilization are essentially...

Yao, Guanhua; Chu, Shih-I

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Calculations of population transfer during intense laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments by several groups have examined the question of population transfer to resonantly excited states during intense short laser pulses, in particular the amount of population that remains ``trapped`` in excited states at the end of a laser pulse. In this chapter we present calculations of population transfer and resonant ionization in xenon at both 660 and 620 nm. At the longer wavelength, the seven photon channel closes at 2.5{times}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. Pulses with peak intensities higher than this result in ``Rydberg trapping``, the resonant transfer of population to a broad range of high-lying states. The amount of population transferred depends on both the peak intensity and pulse duration. At 620 mm there are numerous possible six photon resonances to states with p or f angular momentum. We have done a large number of calculations for 40 fs pulses at different peak intensities and have examined the population transferred to these low-lying resonant states as a function of the peak laser intensity. We do not have room to comment upon the resonantly enhanced ionized electron energy spectra that we also determine in the same calculations. Our calculations involve the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for an atom interacting with a strong laser field. The time-dependent wave function of a given valence electron is calculated on a spatial grid using a one-electron pseudo potential. This single active electron approximation (SAE) has been shown to be a good approximation for the rare gases at the intensities and wavelengths that we will consider. The SAE potential we use has an explicit angular momentum dependence which allows us to reproduce all of the excited state energies for xenon quite well.

Schafer, K.J.; Kulander, K.C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Learn more at betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program...

269

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

world best practice energy intensity values for productionWorld best practice energy intensity values for productionWorld Best Practice Final Energy Intensity Values for Aluminium Production (

Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Best Practice Final Energy Intensity Values for Stand-AloneBest Practice Final Energy Intensity Values for Stand-AloneBest Practice Primary Energy Intensity Values for Stand-

Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

LANL | Physics | High Energy Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

high energy physics frontiers as defined by the Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics. Exploring the intensity frontier On the trail of one of the greatest...

272

Comparison of technologies for new energy-efficient lamps  

SciTech Connect

Energy-efficient light bulbs are being developed to replace the incandescent lamp where they can satisfy the design criteria and be used in sockets that have long hours of annual use. The four technologies discussed here include the compact fluorescent lamp, coated-filament lamp, electrodeless fluorescent lamp, and compact high-intensity discharge lamp. The systems demonstrate efficacy improvements of two to four times that of their incandescent counterparts. These new lamps have required considerable advances in lamp technology. They offer the potential for achieving efficacies close to 80 lumens per watt. These new lamps will reduce the energy used annually by incandescent lamps (190 BkWh) by more than 50% in the 1990s, at which times they will be commonly employed.

Verderber, R.R.; Rubinstein, F.R.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Comparison of technologies for new energy-efficient lamps  

SciTech Connect

Energy-efficient light bulbs are being developed to replace the incandescent lamp where they can satisfy the design criteria and be used in sockets that have long hours of annual use. The four technologies discussed include the compact fluorescent lamp, coated-filament lamp, electrodeless fluorescent lamp, and compact high-intensity discharge lamp. The systems demonstrate efficacy improvements of two to four times that of their incandescent counterparts. These new lamps have required considerable advances in lamp technology. They offer the potential for achieving efficacies close to 80 lm/W. These new lamps will reduce the energy used annually by incandescent lamps (190 billion kWh) by more than 50 percent in the 1990's, at which times they will be commonly employed.

Verderber, R.R.; Rubinstein, F.M.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fermilab | Science | Inquiring Minds | Questions About Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

high temperature, so high that the material will emit light, that is, glow like an incandescent light bulb. That is exactly what an incandescent bulb is: current passing through a...

275

D E V E L O P I N G E N E R G Y E F F I C I E N T R E S I D E N T I A L L I G H T F I X T U R E S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table Lamp by Fire & Water Lighting For a typical high use fixture, replacing a 120-watt incandescent/managers in the target markets. · Find buildings with high quantities of portable incandescent fixtures that would

276

A SPICE Compatible Model of High Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the arc's * Corresponding author behavior of HID lamps. This model are derived from the arc-linear resistance of the lamp, is the global specific conductance of the plasma, V is the volume of the plasma, L is the length of plasma and S is the cross section. ~ Vin G1 Lamp Model Ballast v(lamp) i(lamp) Analytical

277

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demonstration (like street lights) and commercialization andthe dominant light source for street and roadway lighting,has been a popular light source for street lighting because

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Operational radiation protection issues specific to high-intensity beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......calculation flow-diagram shown in Figure-7...calculation flow-diagram. Based on the estimated...radioactivity, the handling and maintenance...designed and the handling and maintenance...selected as the target material. The beam deposited...calculation flow-diagram shown in Figure-7......

Hiroshi Nakashima

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation of the electric discharge arc and the metals emitdefined as electric discharge lamps in which the arc tubelamp - an electric discharge lamp in which the arc tube wall

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Simulation of High-Intensity Mercury Jet Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kernels, EOS and other physics models · Exact conservation of mass (Lagrangian code) · Natural with proton pulses Entrance of spent mercury jets into the mercury pool #12;Muon Collider: 15 bunches / s 66 of the cavitation zone in water (the interval between frames is 200 s) But what is the internal structure

McDonald, Kirk

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Limitations on the Attainable Intensity of High Power Lasers  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that even a single e{sup -}e{sup +} pair created by a superstrong laser field in vacuum would cause development of an avalanchelike QED cascade which rapidly depletes the incoming laser pulse. This confirms Bohr's old conjecture that the electric field of the critical QED strength E{sub S}=m{sup 2}c{sup 3}/e({h_bar}/2{pi}) could never be created.

Fedotov, A. M.; Narozhny, N. B.; Mourou, G.; Korn, G. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Institut de la Lumiere Extreme, UMS 3205 ENSTA, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Max Plank Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching 85748 (Germany)

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

282

Ultra- high pulse intensity amplification and compression in plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This talk provides the summary of experimental research at Princeton on Raman Backscattering (RBS) amplification and compression in plasma [1]. The main subject of the talk is about...

Morozov, Anatoli; Li, Shuanglei; Turnbull, David; Suckewer, Szymon

283

PHOTOACOUSTIC IMAGING AND HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical and acoustical technologies for biomedical devices have been developed rapidly in the past years. These non-invasive technologies are used for diagnostic and therapeutic studies with great potential for improving biomedical applications...

Jo, Janggu

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Intense Muon Physics Working Group Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intense muon beams which will be available at a neutrino factory provide a unique opportunity for searching for physics beyond the standard model, both in lepton flavor violation and in the search for a permanent electric dipole moment for the muon. Other experiments which can use intense muon beams will also be possible.

B. Lee Roberts; Marco Grassi; Akira Sato

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

Description of Energy Intensity Tables (12)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables 3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables There are 12 data tables used as references for this report. Specifically, these tables are categorized as tables 1 and 2 present unadjusted energy-intensity ratios for Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy for 1985, 1988, 1991, and 1994; along with the percentage changes between 1985 and the three subsequent years (1988, 1991, and 1994) tables 3 and 4 present 1988, 1991, and 1994 energy-intensity ratios that have been adjusted to the mix of products shipped from manufacturing establishments in 1985 tables 5 and 6 present unadjusted energy-intensity ratios for Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy for 1988, 1991, and 1994; along with the percentage changes between 1988 and the two subsequent

286

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Lagrangian Formulation of Relativistic Particle Average Motion in a Laser Field of Arbitrary Intensity  

SciTech Connect

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.

I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman

2003-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

Refining intensity, energy consumption, and pulp quality in two-stage chip refining  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on thermomechanical pulps produced in two pilot plant installations. Both installations were conventional two-stage systems in which the first stage was pressurized and the second was atmospheric. At a given specific energy, pulp quality was improved. Alternatively, for a given pulp quality, the energy consumption was reduced when refining in the first stage was carried out at a high refining intensity. High refining intensity was reached by operating the first stage either at a high rotational speed or low consistency. There were indications that these benefits could be enhanced if the second stage were operated at a low refining intensity.

Miles, K.B.; May, W.D.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Boulevard, Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Impact Factors of Energy Intensity in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity reflects energy usage efficiency in the production and consumption process, and leads to carbon dioxide emissions and the energy security of an economy. Liao et al. (2007) analyzed factors contribute to the fluctuation of Chinas energy intensity from 1997 to 2006, and found that efficiency effects and structural effects are the major impacting factors. Therefore, they suggested that China should attach more importance to optimizing its sectoral structure, and lowering its investment ratio in the future. However, economic development and energy intensity are influenced by many factors. In their research, Liao et al. (2007) omitted some important contributing factors to energy intensities, and their suggestions also had some practical limitations. First of all, Liao et al. (2007) did not analyze impacts from energy prices in energy usage efficiency. In the existing literature, Birol and Keppler (2000) applied economics theory and suggested that higher energy prices can induce the improvements in energy usage efficiency, thereby lowering energy intensity. Hang and Tu (2007) studied the influence of energy price on the Chinese economy's energy intensity and their empirical results also showed that higher energy prices can lower energy intensity. Because energy prices have been regulated by the

unknown authors

290

Electron-ion collisions in intensely illuminated plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In the presence of a high-frequency intense uniform electric field, the collisions of electrons with ions can be made more frequent or less frequent, depending on the polarization of the hf field, the direction and magnitude of particle velocity, and the ratio of the plasma Debye length to the size of the electron oscillation in the hf field. The stimulated bremsstrahlung emission is calculated for both circularly and linearly polarized fields. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, T-149, Forrestal Center, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, T-149, Forrestal Center, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

Rushford, M.C.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

293

ECE 466: LED Lighting Systems -Incandescent lightings rise and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

versus cost - Power Electronic Drives for CFL and LED light sources to achieve dimmable operation - Basic electric AC and DC circuits at Sophomore level or equivalents Absolutes Lighting System Requirements index as a metric of a light source - Power Electronic Energy sources driving light sources in a compact

Schumacher, Russ

294

Modelling patient states in intensive care patients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extensive bedside monitoring in hospital Intensive Care Units (ICU) has resulted in a deluge of information on patient physiology. Consequently, clinical decision makers have to reason with data that is simultaneously large ...

Kshetri, Kanak Bikram

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Technical Change, Investment and Energy Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the role of different components of technical change on energy intensity by applying a Translog variable cost function setting to the new EU KLEMS dataset for 3 selected EU countries (Italy, Finland and ...

Kratena, Kurt

296

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experience has shown that significant opportunity for performance improvements exists in energy intensive operations. Often, efforts to improve efficiency focus on vendor-led initiatives to improve operations of particular equipment. This approach...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

298

Optimized Magnetic Components Improve Efficiency of Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

xtures (designed for incandescent bulbs) has allowed residential and small commercial electric customers of incandescent lamps and last 10 times longer [1]. High-frequency electronic ballasts are used to power CFLs

299

Laser intensity effects in noncommutative QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a two-fold extension of QED assuming the presence of strong external fields provided by an ultra-intense laser and noncommutativity of spacetime. While noncommutative effects leave the electron's intensity induced mass shift unchanged, the photons change significantly in character: they acquire a quasi-momentum that is no longer light-like. We study the consequences of this combined noncommutative strong-field effect for basic lepton-photon interactions.

Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton; Mattias Marklund

2010-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE (ULEHIIS) Materialenergy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials

Anders, Andre

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES  

SciTech Connect

A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

302

DUAL USE OF LEDS: SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN ITS Grantham Pang, Chi-ho Chan, Hugh Liu, Thomas Kwan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) over incandescent lights is well-supported. This is due to their high shown that the high brightness LEDs are significantly brighter than the incandescent lights lights with LEDs is a reduction in power consumption [7]. In addition, incandescent traffic signals burn

Pang, Grantham

303

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Museum of Electricity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydroelectric Power Station After Thomas Edison introduced the incandescent light bulb in the United States, he needed a way to provide power to a growing customer base. He built...

304

Short rise time intense electron beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

Olson, C.L.

1984-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the aggregate energy-intensity of industry. Applied Energyindustries with final energy intensities of 12.3 Billion BtuAs mentioned, the energy intensity of this sector is much

Can, Stephane de la Rue du

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments)...

307

ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers biomass-firedboilers.pd...

308

ARM - Evaluation Product - MFRSR-Column Intensive Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Product : MFRSR-Column Intensive Properties The MFRSR-Column Intensive Properties (CIP) value-added product (VAP) has been developed for estimating the microphysical (e.g.,...

309

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing...

310

2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2...

311

Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project Fact Sheet Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project Fact Sheet This fact sheet contains details regarding...

312

Issues, Models and Solutions for Triac Modulated Phase Dimming of LED Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

greater than incandescent lamps [1,2]. In fact, recent technological breakthroughs [3-7] in the high of LED lighting: An incandescent source produces 10 ­ 20 lumens/watt, while several manufacturers have? Incandescent bulbs primarily utilize phase modulating dimming through triac switches to control the power sent

Lehman, Brad

313

Molecules in intense laser fields: Beyond the dipole approximation  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for a Born-Oppenheimer (static nuclei) three-dimensional H{sub 2}{sup +} in super intense laser fields (I=4x10{sup 18}, 10{sup 19}, and 4x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) at wavelength {lambda}{sub L}=45 nm and 25 nm to assess the influence of nondipolar (magnetic) effects on high order harmonic generation spectra in molecules. It is found that even harmonics appear due to the magnetic field component direction perpendicular to the electric field polarization with intensities about two orders of magnitude less than the odd harmonics emitted along the electric field polarization. The even harmonics exhibit plateaus with cutoffs which exceed in intensity the odd harmonic plateaus and maximum energies predicted by semiclassical electron recollision models. Although the spectra are weak, the wavelength of the recollision electron in the maximum energy regions correspond to subatomic dimensions and the corresponding emitted photons have subnanometer wavelengths.

Bandrauk, A. D.; Lu, H. Z. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Cosmology with a SKA HI intensity mapping survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HI intensity mapping (IM) is a novel technique capable of mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in three dimensions and delivering exquisite constraints on cosmology, by using HI as a biased tracer of the dark matter density field. This is achieved by measuring the intensity of the redshifted 21cm line over the sky in a range of redshifts without the requirement to resolve individual galaxies. In this chapter, we investigate the potential of SKA1 to deliver HI intensity maps over a broad range of frequencies and a substantial fraction of the sky. By pinning down the baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion features in the matter power spectrum -- thus determining the expansion and growth history of the Universe -- these surveys can provide powerful tests of dark energy models and modifications to General Relativity. They can also be used to probe physics on extremely large scales, where precise measurements of spatial curvature and primordial non-Gaussianity can be used to test inflation; on small scales, by measuring the sum of neutrino masses; and at high redshifts where non-standard evolution models can be probed. We discuss the impact of foregrounds as well as various instrumental and survey design parameters on the achievable constraints. In particular we analyse the feasibility of using the SKA1 autocorrelations to probe the large-scale signal.

Mario G. Santos; Philip Bull; David Alonso; Stefano Camera; Pedro G. Ferreira; Gianni Bernardi; Roy Maartens; Matteo Viel; Francisco Villaescusa-Navarro; Filipe B. Abdalla; Matt Jarvis; R. Benton Metcalf; A. Pourtsidou; Laura Wolz

2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

315

WHERE ARE THE MOST INTENSE THUNDERSTORMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provided unparalleled information on the global distribution of intense convective storms. T he Tropical-alti- tude, non-sun-synchronous orbit permits sampling throughout the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The cloud-top temperature of storms has been measured using infrared (IR) bright- ness temperature (Tb

Nesbitt, Steve

316

Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have observed trapping of population in Rydberg states of atoms and ions exposed to intense laser radiation. The trapping occurs in nonstationary wave-packet superposition states, created, via ac Stark-shifted multiphoton resonances during the laser pulse. The formation of these highly excited bound states requires the nonresonant absorption of up to 20 or more photons; some of the ionic Rydberg states lie nearly 32 eV above the ionic ground state. All of the trapped states having binding energies much less than the photon energy but remain stable against ionization even when the multiphoton ionization probability of the atom is saturated.

R. R. Jones; D. W. Schumacher; P. H. Bucksbaum

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Nonlinear dynamics of ionization stabilization of atoms in intense laser fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the stabilization of ionization of atoms subjected to a superintense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. We provide an explanation for the lack of complete ionization at high intensity and for the decrease of the ionization probability as intensity is increased. We investigate the role of each part of the laser pulse (ramp-up, plateau, ramp-down) in this process. We emphasize the role of the choice for the ionization criterion, energy versus distance criterion.

Michael Norman; C. Chandre; T. Uzer; Peijie Wang

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

318

Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 2: Intensity Frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 2, on the Intensity Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-intensity beams and rare processes. This area includes experiments on neutrinos, proton decay, charged-lepton and quark weak interactions, atomic and nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries, and searches for new, light, weakly-interacting particles.

J. L. Hewett; H. Weerts; K. S. Babu; J. Butler; B. Casey; A. de Gouvea; R. Essig; Y. Grossman; D. Hitlin; J. Jaros; E. Kearns; K. Kumar; Z. Ligeti; Z. -T. Lu; K. Pitts; M. Ramsey-Musolf; J. Ritchie; K. Scholberg; W. Wester; G. P. Zeller

2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

319

Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 2: Intensity Frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 2, on the Intensity Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-intensity beams and rare processes. This area includes experiments on neutrinos, proton decay, charged-lepton and quark weak interactions, atomic and nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries, and searches for new, light, weakly-interacting particles.

Hewett, J L; Babu, K S; Butler, J; Casey, B; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Hitlin, D; Jaros, J; Kearns, E; Kumar, K; Ligeti, Z; Lu, Z -T; Pitts, K; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J; Scholberg, K; Wester, W; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",11.24893441,11.08565002,10.98332766,10.82852279,10.67400621,10.54170176,10.39583203,10.27184573,10.14478673,10.02575883,9.910410202,9.810812106,9.69894802,9.599821783,9.486985399,9.394733753,9.303329725,9.221322623 "AEO 1995",,10.86137373,10.75116461,10.60467959,10.42268977,10.28668187,10.14461664,10.01081222,9.883759026,9.759022105,9.627404949,9.513643295,9.400418762,9.311729546,9.226142899,9.147374752,9.071102491,8.99599906 "AEO 1996",,,10.71047701,10.59846153,10.43655044,10.27812088,10.12746866,9.9694713,9.824165152,9.714832565,9.621874334,9.532324916,9.428169355,9.32931308,9.232716414,9.170931044,9.086870061,9.019963901,8.945602337

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Session 9 Session 9 Energy Efficiency: Measuring Gains and Quantifying Opportunities April 7, 2010 2010 Energy Conference Washington, DC Steve Wade, Economist Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010 Steve Wade, 2010 Energy Conference, April 7, 2010 2 * What are the sources of efficiency in the AEO 2010? * What is the contribution of energy efficiency to projected U.S. energy intensity? * How do AEO scenarios relate to technical potential? Overview Steve Wade, 2010 Energy Conference, April 7, 2010 3 * Technology - Stock turnover - Progress and learning * Mandates - CAFÉ, efficiency standards (NAECA, EPACT), building codes... - Renewable fuel standards * Incentives - Tax credits, loan guarantees, grants, ...  Energy efficiency and renewables - ACESA, ARRA (stimulus bill) ...  Investment tax credits

322

How intense quality control improves hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect

Not unlike the subject of Forced Closure, Intense Quality Control is probably misnamed. What actually is discussed in this article is pilot testing of the fracturing fluids actually pumped at in-situ conditions of temperature and shear. Presented here is development of the need for onsite testing, equipment used, shear and viscosity curves from several jobs showing what went wrong that would otherwise not have been known, and a discussion of borate gel fluids.

Ely, J.W. [Ely and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

Lewis, Laura

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

324

Correlated-Intensity velocimeter for Arbitrary Reflector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A velocimetry apparatus and method comprising splitting incoming reflected laser light and directing the laser light into first and second arms, filtering the laser light with passband filters in the first and second arms, one having a positive passband slope and the other having a negative passband slope, and detecting the filtered laser light via light intensity detectors following the passband filters in the first and second arms

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Luo, Shengnian (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Arlington, VA); Paul, Stephen F. (West Orange, NJ)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

325

High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter  

SciTech Connect

Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut dOptique, CNRS, Universit Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Hadar, Riad [Office National dtudes et de Recherches Arospatiales, Chemin de la Hunire, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

326

Intensities of the Raman-active modes in single and multiwall nanotubes S. Reich and C. Thomsen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of recent experiments on aligned nanotubes we calculate the relative intensities for the high-energy modes of the nanotubes and on the excitation energy. As was shown by Milnera et al.3 the radial breathing modeIntensities of the Raman-active modes in single and multiwall nanotubes S. Reich and C. Thomsen

Nabben, Reinhard

327

Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams  

SciTech Connect

The use of multilayer reflectors under intense synchroton x-ray beams requires to develop a new generation of multilayered materials that can withstand a high-power load in excess of 100 W/mm/sup 2/. Multilayers with the high-/ital Z/ layer consisting either of a pure element or of compounds such as carbides, nitrides, or silicides have been produced. Because the fabrication conditions are not yet optimized, thin films with satisfactory layer were not obtained leading to poor reflectivities. Such multilayers have been both thermally annealed in a furnace and exposed to a synchrotron beam with a power density of about 1 W/mm/sup 2/. The resulting damage ranges from the total destruction of the layering to a reduction of the reflectivity by typically 40%--60%. In some cases an only 1%--15% loss in reflectivity has been observed.

Ziegler, E.; Lepetre, Y.; Joksch, S.; Saile, V.; Mourikis, S.; Viccaro, P. J.; Rolland, G.; Laugier, F.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Table Set-up with equipment Target Audience: Parents of elementary school students (grades 3-6), Middle and High School Students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on significantly different technology (e.g. incandescent, CFL, LED) as an example of information on light bulbs://sites.google.com/a/mobilestudioproject.com/www/ Approx. $150.00 each LED Bulb 40 Lumen equivalent (Sylvania) Lowe's or Home Depot Approx. $22.00 each Compact Fluorescent Bulb 40 Lumen equivalent (GE) Lowe's or Home Depot Approx. $6.50 each Incandescent

Linhardt, Robert J.

329

Capital budgeting methods, management control systems and the R&D intensity of the firm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of the Research and Development (R&D) intensity of the firm on the use of management control systems, capital budgeting methods and the methods to determine the cost of capital. Based on earlier literature, we develop several hypotheses that we test empirically, using survey data of the 101 Finnish firms operating in the capital area. The results indicate that the use of management control systems such as control and bonus systems, budgeting and strategic alliances increases with the degree of the R&D intensity of the firm. The results also indicate that high-R&D-intensity firms use formal capital budgeting methods within large and strategic projects. Finally, our results show that the use of sophisticated capital budgeting methods such as Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) methods increases with the R&D intensity of the firm. Our results remain materially the same after controlling for several firm characteristics.

Hanna Silvola

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Intense steady state electron beam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Kovarik, Vincent J. (Bohemia, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Accurate measurement of K x-ray intensities of elements with Z=7982  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using high-resolution and high-efficiency high-purity Ge Gamma-X detectors, relative intensities of K x rays of elements with Z=7982 have been very accurately (uncertainty ?1%) determined. Comparison of the data with other experimental works and theoretical calculations have been done. It is seen that a theory with the exchange effect taken into consideration is quite adequate to explain the radiative transition rates for the elements measured in the present work.

Binay Dasmahapatra and Anjali Mukherjee

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Probabilistic Multiple-Linear Regression Modeling for Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors describe the development and verification of a statistical model relating tropical cyclone intensity to the local large-scale environment. A multiple linear regression framework is used to estimate the expected intensity of a tropical ...

Chia-Ying Lee; Michael K. Tippett; Suzana J. Camargo; Adam H. Sobel

333

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992 - Index...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Energy End-Use Intensities 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Tables National estimates of energy consumption by fuel (electricity and natural gas) and end use (heating,...

334

China's energy intensity and its determinants at the provincial level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy consumed per dollar of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The People's Republic of China's (China's) energy intensity has been declining significantly since the late 1970s. ...

Zhang, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Diversitydisturbance relationships: frequency and intensity interact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...relationship depended on the frequency of disturbances by the...diversity as the response variable and frequency and intensity as factors...unequivocally that the frequency-intensity interaction drives the coexistence of ecologically...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated hypofractionated intensity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(IMRT) de- pendends on finding... technologies. I. INTRODUCTION Intensity modulated radiation ... Source: Censor, Yair - Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa...

337

PERI Auto-tuning Memory Intensive Kernels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PERI PERI - Auto-tuning Memory Intensive Kernels for Multicore Samuel Williams † , Kaushik Datta † , Jonathan Carter , Leonid Oliker † , John Shalf , Katherine Yelick † , David Bailey CRD/NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA † Computer Science Division, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA E-mail: SWWilliams@lbl.gov, kdatta@eecs.berkeley.edu, JTCarter@lbl.gov, LOliker@lbl.gov, JShalf@lbl.gov, KAYelick@lbl.gov, DHBailey@lbl.gov Abstract. We present an auto-tuning approach to optimize application performance on emerging multicore architectures. The methodology extends the idea of search-based performance optimizations, popular in linear algebra and FFT libraries, to application-specific computational kernels. Our work applies this strategy to Sparse Matrix Vector Multiplication

338

Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

AN INTENSE LOW ENERGY MUON SOURCE FOR THE MUON COLLIDER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN INTENSE LOW ENERGY MUON SOURCE FOR THE MUON COLLIDER D. Taqqu Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH Abstract A scheme for obtaining an intense source of low energy muons is described. It is based of the decay muons an intense intermediate energy muon beam is obtained. For the specific case of negative

McDonald, Kirk

340

Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Working Group Report: Computing for the Intensity Frontier  

SciTech Connect

This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

Rebel, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Wolbers, S.

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

342

ANALYSIS ON THE MAJOR INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ENERGY INTENSITY CHANGING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the energy intensity data of period 1990-2008, this paper uses impulse response function and variance decomposition model to empirical analysis the main influencing factors and effects of energy intensity,. The empirical results show that: the energy intensity of itself, and the proportion of secondary industry have a larger impact on energy intensity; the change of energy price and technological progress also play a certain impact on energy intensity; and the link with the internal relations and interaction mechanisms, which can play an active role in improving energy efficiency.

Xia Wang; Lu Tang

343

Investigation of contact acoustic nonlinearities on metal and composite airframe structures via intensity based health monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonlinear structural intensity (NSI) and nonlinear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection techniques were improved and extended to metal and composite airframe structures. In this study the measurement of NSI maps at sub-harmonic frequencies was completed to provide enhanced understanding of the energy flow characteristics associated with the damage induced contact acoustic nonlinearity mechanism. Important results include NSI source localization visualization at ultra-subharmonic (nf/2) frequencies and damage detection results utilizing structural surface intensity in the nonlinear domain. A detection metric relying on modulated wave spectroscopy was developed and implemented using the NSSI feature. The data fusion of the intensity formulation provided a distinct advantage as both the single interrogation frequency NSSI and its modulated wave extension (NSSI-MW) exhibited considerably higher sensitivities to damage than using single-sensor (strain or acceleration) nonlinear detection metrics. The active intensity based techniques were also extended to composite materials and results show both NSSI and NSSI-MW can be used to detect damage in the bond line of an integrally stiffened composite plate structure with high sensitivity. Initial damage detection measurements made on an OH-58 tailboom (Penn State Applied Research Laboratory State College PA) indicate the techniques can be transitioned to complex airframe structures achieving high detection sensitivities with minimal sensors and actuators.

P. Q. Romano; S. C. Conlon; E. C. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Researchers develop bistable nano switch Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by scientists all  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers develop bistable nano switch Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). A type of one-dimensional structure with high-aspect ratio, carbon nanotubes have properties. Now scientists from Northwestern University have demonstrated a novel carbon nanotube

Espinosa, Horacio D.

345

Northwestern Researchers Develop Bistable Nanoswitch Science Daily --Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Northwestern Researchers Develop Bistable Nanoswitch Science Daily -- Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been under intense study by scientists all over the world for more than a decade and are being thought with high-aspect ratio, carbon nanotubes have emerged as a promising material because of their many

Espinosa, Horacio D.

346

Table 23. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu / $Billion Nominal GDP) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 20.1 18.5 16.9 15.5 14.4 13.2 AEO 1983 19.9 18.7 17.4 16.2 15.1 14.0 9.5 AEO 1984 20.1 19.0 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.5 10.2 AEO 1985 20.0 19.1 18.0 16.9 15.9 14.7 13.7 12.7 11.8 11.0 10.3 AEO 1986 18.3 17.8 16.8 16.1 15.2 14.3 13.4 12.6 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.5 8.9 8.3 7.8 AEO 1987 17.6 17.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.1 11.4 8.2 AEO 1989* 16.9 16.2 15.2 14.2 13.3 12.5 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.0 AEO 1990 16.1 15.4 11.7 8.6 6.4 AEO 1991 15.5 14.9 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.5 11.9 11.3 10.8 10.3 9.7 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.3 6.0 AEO 1992 15.0 14.5 13.9 13.3 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.1 7.7 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 AEO 1993 14.7 13.9 13.4 12.8 12.3 11.8 11.2 10.7 10.2 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7 6.4

347

Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a months worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a months worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

348

Intense bipolar structures from stratified helical dynamos  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Umea as well as the Center for Parallel Computers at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden and the Nordic High Performance Computing Center in Iceland. REFERENCES Augustson K. , Brun A. S., Miesch M. S., Toomre J. (2013) preprint......

Dhrubaditya Mitra; A. Brandenburg; N. Kleeorin; I. Rogachevskii

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Analytical Solutions for the Nonlinear Longitudinal Drift Compression (Expansion) of Intense Charged Particle Beams  

SciTech Connect

To achieve high focal spot intensities in heavy ion fusion, the ion beam must be compressed longitudinally by factors of ten to one hundred before it is focused onto the target. The longitudinal compression is achieved by imposing an initial velocity profile tilt on the drifting beam. In this paper, the problem of longitudinal drift compression of intense charged particle beams is solved analytically for the two important cases corresponding to a cold beam, and a pressure-dominated beam, using a one-dimensional warm-fluid model describing the longitudinal beam dynamics.

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

2004-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

350

Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix B  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

APPENDIX B: APPENDIX B: Data Sheets for Existing Products Table of Contents Product Rulemaking Priority Page Product Rulemaking Priority Page Commercial Air-Cooled Central A/C & Air-Source HP, 65-240 kBtu/h Standards High B-1 High Intensity Discharge Lamps Determination High B-27 Central A/C & HP, 3 phase, < 65 kBtu/h Standards Medium B-2 Test Procedure Low B-28 Clothes Dryers Standards Low B-3 Lamps, Fluorescent Standards Low B-29 Test Procedure Low B-4 Test Procedure Low B-30 Clothes Washers Standards* Low B-5 Lamps, Incandescent General Service Standards Low B-31 Test Procedure* Low B-6 Test Procedure Low B-32 Commercial Water-Cooled A/C & Water- Source Heat Pumps Standards Low B-7 Lamps, Incandescent Reflector Standards Low B-33

351

Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix B  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APPENDIX B: APPENDIX B: Data Sheets for Existing Products Table of Contents Product Rulemaking Priority Page Product Rulemaking Priority Page Commercial Air-Cooled Central A/C & Air-Source HP, 65-240 kBtu/h Standards High B-1 High Intensity Discharge Lamps Determination High B-27 Central A/C & HP, 3 phase, < 65 kBtu/h Standards Medium B-2 Test Procedure Low B-28 Clothes Dryers Standards Low B-3 Lamps, Fluorescent Standards Low B-29 Test Procedure Low B-4 Test Procedure Low B-30 Clothes Washers Standards* Low B-5 Lamps, Incandescent General Service Standards Low B-31 Test Procedure* Low B-6 Test Procedure Low B-32 Commercial Water-Cooled A/C & Water- Source Heat Pumps Standards Low B-7 Lamps, Incandescent Reflector Standards Low B-33

352

Commissioning of intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT) has been developed using inhouse treatment planning and delivery systems at the Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University Fast Neutron Therapy facility. The process of commissioning IMNRT for clinical use is presented here. Results of commissioning tests are provided including validation measurements using representative patient plans as well as those from the TG-119 test suite. Methods: IMNRT plans were created using the Varian Eclipse optimization algorithm and an inhouse planning system for calculation of neutron dose distributions. Tissue equivalent ionization chambers and an ionization chamber array were used for point dose and planar dose distribution comparisons with calculated values. Validation plans were delivered to water and virtual water phantoms using TG-119 measurement points and evaluation techniques. Photon and neutron doses were evaluated both inside and outside the target volume for a typical IMNRT plan to determine effects of intensity modulation on the photon dose component. Monitor unit linearity and effects of beam current and gantry angle on output were investigated, and an independent validation of neutron dosimetry was obtained. Results: While IMNRT plan quality is superior to conventional fast neutron therapy plans for clinical sites such as prostate and head and neck, it is inferior to photon IMRT for most TG-119 planning goals, particularly for complex cases. This results significantly from current limitations on the number of segments. Measured and calculated doses for 11 representative plans (six prostate/five head and neck) agreed to within -0.8 {+-} 1.4% and 5.0 {+-} 6.0% within and outside the target, respectively. Nearly all (22/24) ion chamber point measurements in the two phantom arrangements were within the respective confidence intervals for the quantity [(measured-planned)/prescription dose] derived in TG-119. Mean differences for all measurements were 0.5% (max = 7.0%) and 1.4% (max = 4.1%) in water and virtual water, respectively. The mean gamma pass rate for all cases was 92.8% (min = 88.6%). These pass rates are lower than typically achieved with photon IMRT, warranting development of a planar dosimetry system designed specifically for IMNRT and/or the improvement of neutron beam modeling in the penumbral region. The fractional photon dose component did not change significantly in a typical IMNRT plan versus a conventional fast neutron therapy plan, and IMNRT delivery is not expected to significantly alter the RBE. All other commissioning results were considered satisfactory for clinical implementation of IMNRT, including the external neutron dose validation, which agreed with the predicted neutron dose to within 1%. Conclusions: IMNRT has been successfully commissioned for clinical use. While current plan quality is inferior to photon IMRT, it is superior to conventional fast neutron therapy. Ion chamber validation results for IMNRT commissioning are also comparable to those typically achieved with photon IMRT. Gamma pass rates for planar dose distributions are lower than typically observed for photon IMRT but may be improved with improved planar dosimetry equipment and beam modeling techniques. In the meantime, patient-specific quality assurance measurements should rely more heavily on point dose measurements with tissue equivalent ionization chambers. No significant technical impediments are anticipated in the clinical implementation of IMNRT as described here.

Burmeister, Jay; Snyder, Michael [Karmanos Cancer Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Spink, Robyn; Liang Liang; Bossenberger, Todd; Halford, Robert [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Brandon, John [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48201 (United States); Delauter, Jonathan [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

BEAM INTENSITY AND ENERGY CONTROL FOR THE SPIRAL2 FACILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BEAM INTENSITY AND ENERGY CONTROL FOR THE SPIRAL2 FACILITY C. Jamet, T. Andre, B. Ducoudret, C to control both beam intensity and energy by non-interceptive methods at the linac exit. The beam current will range in intensity from a few 10 A to 1mA for ions, up to 5 mA for deuterons, and in energy from 0.75 up

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Brookhaven High Energy Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Energy Physics High-Energy Physics High-energy physicists probe the properties and behavior of the most elementary particles in the universe. At the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), they perform experiments of unique sensitivity using high-intensity, intermediate-energy beams. The AGS currently provides the world's most intense high-energy proton beam. It is also the world's most versatile accelerator, accelerating protons, polarized protons, and heavy ions to near the speed of light. Magnet system at Brookhaven used to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. Important discoveries in high-energy physics were made at the AGS within the last decade. An international collaboration, including key physicists from Brookhaven, performed a very high-precision measurement of a property

355

ESMAP-China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensity Reduction Strategy Intensity Reduction Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name China-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Agency/Company /Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Forestry, Agriculture Topics Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Website http://www.esmap.org/filez/pub Country China Eastern Asia References China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy[1] Overview "The study involves the development of pragmatic "implementation" focused policy notes to support the Government of China's goal of reducing energy intensity in China focusing on: Reevaluation of renewable energy targets, growth path, and related

356

Long Range Correlations of Light Intensity inside Photonic Nanostructures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measured directly long range spatial intensity correlations inside quasi-two dimensional disordered photonic waveguides. Enhancement of long-range correlations is observed in...

Sarma, Raktim; Yamilov, Alexey G; Shapiro, Boris; Cao, Hui

357

Probing Long Range Intensity Correlations inside Disordered Photonic Waveguides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report direct measurements of long-range spatial intensity correlations and fluctuations inside quasi-two-dimensional random structures. Long-range correlations are enhanced by...

Sarma, Raktim; Yamilov, Alexey; Neupane, Pauf; Shapiro, Boris; Cao, Hui

358

User Training for Data Intensive Science Co-Chairs: Fernanda...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

User Training for Data Intensive Science Co-Chairs: Fernanda Foertter, Tim Fahey 1 Contributors * Blaise Barney, LLNL * Karen Haskell, SNL * Bob Balance, SNL * Fernanda Foertter,...

359

Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion Inventors..--.. James M. Mitrani, Igor D, Kaganovich, Ronald C, Davidson. A two...

360

China-Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Website http:www.esmap.orgfilezpub Country China Eastern Asia References China Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy1 Overview "The study involves the development of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Authority and its project partners will establish the Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction (the Center) to inform industrial facilities about the U.S....

362

Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7 and other parts of Europe, including Ukraine Elizabeth Sendich November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis...

363

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. Schaeffer, 1997, Energy Intensity in the Iron and Steelwhich is the ratio of the actual energy intensity to thebest practice energy intensity, where the best practice

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Energy-Efficiency Technologies and Benchmarking the Energy Intensity for the Textile Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmarking the Energy Intensity for the Textile Industryand Comparing the Energy Intensity in the Textile Industrywere visited. The energy intensity of each plant was

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedworld-best-practice-energy-intensity-values- selected-2005. Changes in energy intensities of Thai industry between

Can, Stephane de la Rue de

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Light intensity and image visualization of GDI injector sprays according to nozzle hole arrangements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The light intensity measurement and image visualization of multi-hole injection spray due to different hole arrangements and hole numbers were investigated. The light intensities and behavior characteristics of the GDI spray were analyzed through the axial and diagonal spray penetration, cone angle, and spray area from the spray images by using the image visualization system and image analysis system. The atomization performance of GDI injectors was analyzed by the local and overall Sauter mean diameter (SMD) measurement. It is revealed that the higher injection pressure shows higher light intensity levels due to the strong vortices and collision by a high injection pressure. The light intensity level at the outer and end region of the spray shows lower value compared to that at the center spray region. In all of test injectors, the increased injection pressure leads to the decrease of the droplet size distribution in the initial spray. But, there is little difference of the droplet size at low and high injection pressure in middle and latter period after the injection. The overall SMD of GDI injectors showed from 14 to 23.14?m.

Hyung Jun Kim; Su Han Park; Chang Sik Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate in an idealized model  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed using a simple global model with idealized physics and zonally symmetrical forcings to investigate the influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate. The heating within the Tropics is latitudinally concentrated, while the heating in the extratropics is kept unchanged. This leads to an increase in the intensity of the Hadley circulation. As found earlier by Hou, along with the increase in the intensity of the Hadley circulation, there is a statistically significant temperature increase in the winter high latitudes. Zonal-mean diagnostics have been performed in order to identify the link between the changes in the Tropics and the extratropics. Detailed diagnostics of the heat budget shows that warming in the winter high latitudes is induced by changes in the mean meridional circulation, over the opposing cooling effects caused by changes in the eddy heat fluxes. Such a change is consistent with an equatorward shift of the jet stream and its associated heating pattern. It is suggested that the equatorward shift in jet position is caused by an increase in westerly acceleration within the Tropics associated with the enhancement in the intensity of the Hadley circulation. Limitations of the model are also discussed. 28 refs., 16 figs.

Chang, E.K.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cyclone Center Using Crowdsourcing to Determine Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cyclone Center Using Crowdsourcing to Determine Tropical Cyclone Intensity Almost all tropical cyclones are not directly observed. Agency estimates of storm position and intensity are not homogeneous in time and space. Cyclone Center uses crowdsourcing to collect data that will lead to a consistent

Hennon, Christopher C.

369

Interactive situation modelling in knowledge-intensive domains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper shows how knowledge from various sources in a knowledge intensive domain can be modelled using principles of ethnography. This is achieved by bridging the symmetry of ignorance gap that exists between process owners and system developers. ... Keywords: ethnography, knowledge intensive domains, requirement engineering, situation modelling, systems modelling

Kiran Jude Fernandes

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Knowledge-Intensive Case-Based Reasoning and Intelligent Tutoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge-Intensive Case-Based Reasoning and Intelligent Tutoring Agnar Aamodt Department Norway agnar.aamodt@idi.ntnu.no Abstract. Knowledge-intensive CBR assumes that cases are enriched with general domain knowledge. In the system Creek, developed in our group, there is a strong coupling between

Aamodt, Agnar

371

Spectral Intensity Patterns and Vibrational Phase Space Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

91 Klamath Hall, Department of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1253 ... In ref 7, we examined energy patterns of molecules with a 2:1 Fermi resonance between the local stretch and bend of a C?H group. ... The goal is to analyze relative intensities within polyads; the actual experimental intensity falls off sharply with polyad number. ...

Vivian Tyng; Michael E. Kellman

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Optical absorption intensity of semiconductor single-wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical absorption intensity of semiconductor single-wall carbon nanotubes Y. Oyama1 , R. Saito1. The optical absorption intensity is inversely proportional to the diameter in the unit of per carbon atom of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) synthesized by alcohol CCVD (ACCVD) method and HiPco method [1

Maruyama, Shigeo

373

Response of GaAs to fast intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by recent experiments, we have performed simulations which show in detail how the electrons and ions in GaAs respond to fast intense laser pulses (with durations of order 100 fs and intensities of order 1-10 TW/cm(2)). The method of tight...

Graves, JS; Allen, Roland E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Automated Checkpointing for Enabling Intensive Applications on Energy Harvesting Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automated Checkpointing for Enabling Intensive Applications on Energy Harvesting Devices Azalia intensive computation on ultra-low power devices with discontinuous energy-harvesting supplies. We devise on a battery-less RF energy-harvester platform. Extensive experiments targeting applications in medical implant

375

The large-scale structure of software-intensive systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...necessary to explain the operation of a software-intensive system. If there is anything...software-intensive system that makes the operation of a Turing complete...all state-changing operations upon the system. 26 This is true of...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Memory Intensive Computing Shahar Kvatinsky, Avinoam Kolodny, and Uri C.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Memory Intensive Computing Shahar Kvatinsky, Avinoam Kolodny, and Uri C. Weiser Department, New York 14627, USA Abstract-- Over the past years, new memory technologies such as RRAM, STT present these emerging memory technologies as enablers to the era of memory- intensive computing, which

Friedman, Eby G.

377

Stochastic Local Intensity Loss Models with Interacting Particle Aurelien Alfonsi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by a unit increasing time inhomogeneous Markov process, whose deterministic jump intensity is called local (2008) allow to get a stochastic jump intensity while keeping the same marginal laws. These models)) and consider the following dynamics for the stock under a risk-neutral probability: dSt = rStdt + f(Yt)(t, St

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Possibilities for Nuclear Photo-Science with Intense Lasers  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of intense laser light with relativistic electrons can produce unique sources of high-energy x rays and gamma rays via Thomson scattering. ''Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray'' (T-REX) sources with peak photon brightness (photons per unit time per unit bandwidth per unit solid angle per unit area) that exceed that available from world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude are possible from optimally designed systems. Such sources offer the potential for development of ''nuclear photo-science'' applications in which the primary photon-atom interaction is with the nucleons and not the valence electrons. Applications include isotope-specific detection and imaging of materials, inverse density radiography, transmutation of nuclear waste and fundamental studies of nuclear structure. Because Thomson scattering cross sections are small, < 1 barn, the output from a T-REX source is optimized when the laser spot size and the electron spot size are minimized and when the electron and laser pulse durations are similar and short compared to the transit time through the focal region. The principle limitation to increased x-ray or gamma-ray brightness is ability to focus the electron beam. The effects of space charge on electron beam focus decrease approximately linearly with electron beam energy. For this reason, T-REX brightness increases rapidly as a function of the electron beam energy. As illustrated in Figure 1, above 100 keV these sources are unique in their ability to produce bright, narrow-beam, tunable, narrow-band gamma rays. New, intense, short-pulse, laser technologies for advanced T-REX sources are currently being developed at LLNL. The construction of a {approx}1 MeV-class machine with this technology is underway and will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in variety of materials. Nuclear resonance fluorescent spectra are unique signatures of each isotope and provide an ideal mechanism for identification of nuclear materials. With TREX it is possible to use NRF to provide high spatial resolution (micron scale) images of the isotopic distribution of all materials in a given object. Because of the high energy of the photons, imaging through dense and/or thick objects is possible. This technology will have applicability in many arenas including the survey of cargo for the presence of clandestine nuclear materials. It is also possible to address the more general radiographic challenge of imaging low-density objects that are shielded or placed behind high density objects. In this case, it is the NRF cross section and not the electron density of the material that provides contrast. Extensions of T-REX technology will be dependent upon the evolution of short pulse laser technology to high average powers. Concepts for sources that would produce 10's of kWs of gamma-rays by utilizing MW-class average-power, diode-pumped, short pulse lasers and energy recovery LINAC technology have been developed.

Barty, C J; Hartemann, F V; McNabb, D P; Messerly, M; Siders, C; Anderson, S; Barnes, P; Betts, S; Gibson, D; Hagmann, C; Hernandez, J; Johnson, M; Jovanovic, I; Norman, R; Pruet, J; Rosenswieg, J; Shverdin, M; Tremaine, A

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

379

EIA Energy Efficiency-Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities: 1992- 2003 Released Date: December 2004 Page Last Revised: August 2009 These tables provide estimates of commercial sector energy consumption and energy intensities for 1992, 1995, 1999 and 2003 based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). They also provide estimates of energy consumption and intensities adjusted for the effect of weather on heating, cooling, and ventilation energy use. Total Site Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) Html Excel PDF bullet By Principal Building Activity (Table 1a) html Table 1a excel table 1a. pdf table 1a. Weather-Adjusted by Principal Building Activity (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b pdf table 1b.

380

Visible line intensities of the triatomic hydrogen ion from experiment and theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The visible spectrum of H3+ is studied using high-sensitivity action spectroscopy in a cryogenic radiofrequency multipole trap. Advances are made to measure the weak ro-vibrational transitions from the lowest rotational states of H3+ up to high excitation energies providing visible line intensities and, after normalisation to an infrared calibration line, the corresponding Einstein $B$ coefficients. {\\it Ab initio} predictions for the Einstein $B$ coefficients are obtained from a highly precise dipole moment surface of H3+ and found to be in excellent agreement, even in the region where states have been classified as chaotic.

Petrignani, Annemieke; Grussie, Florian; Wolf, Andreas; Mizus, Irina I; Polyansky, Oleg L; Tennyson, Jonathan; Zobov, Nikolai F; Pavanello, Michele; Adamowicz, Ludwik

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Proc. 27th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC), Dec. 2008. Distributed Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Data-Intensive Applications with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 2008. 1 Distributed Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Data-Intensive Applications with Deadline the performance of data-intensive applications on data grids, a large number of data replicas inevitably increase energy dissipation in storage resources on the data grids. In order to implement a data grid with high

Qin, Xiao

382

Hole boring in a DT pellet and fast ion ignition with ultra-intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently achieved high intensities of short laser pulses open new prospects in their application to hole boring in inhomogeneous overdense plasmas and for ignition in precompressed DT fusion targets. A simple analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate that pulses with intensities exceeding 1022 W/cm2 may penetrate deeply into the plasma as a result of efficient ponderomotive acceleration of ions in the forward direction. The penetration depth as big as hundreds of microns depends on the laser fluence, which has to exceed a few tens of GJ/cm2. The fast ions, accelerated at the bottom of the channel with an efficiency of more than 20%, show a high directionality and may heat the precompressed target core to fusion conditions.

Naumova, N; Tikhonchuk, V T; Labaune, C; Sokolov, I V; Mourou, G; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.025002

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

CFL Lightbulbs | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

cflhiresweb.eps Description CFL lightbulbs - high-resolution EPS More Documents & Publications CFL Lightbulbs Energy-Saving Incandescents LED Lightbulbs...

384

LED Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Basics LED Basics Unlike incandescent and fluorescent lamps, LEDs are not inherently white light sources. Instead, LEDs emit nearly monochromatic light, making them highly...

385

Data:31d94db3-6c2b-472f-990d-9ee9a8ffef87 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

purposes or high mounting ornamental pole installed initially to support an incandescent luminaire 3.52 b) Low mounting ornamental pole or distribution pole preserved...

386

Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

crystals that can be used as highly efficient light sources.DescriptionOrdinary incandescent lamps waste most of the supplied electric power to emit invisible light such as...

387

Energy Implications of Solid-State Lighting Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficient yet highly controllable generation of light can be accomplished by light-emitting diodes that can have a 20 times greater efficiency than incandescent light sources....

Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu

388

Compact light source performance in recessed type luminaires  

SciTech Connect

Photometric comparisons were made with an indoor, recessed, type luminaire using incandescent, high intensity discharge and compact fluorescent lamps. The test results show substantial performance advantages, as expected, for the discharge light sources where the efficacy gains can be in the order for 400% even when including the ballast losses associated with the discharge lamps. The candlepower distribution patterns emerging from these luminaries are also different from those associated with the baseline incandescent lamps, and which are in some ways, even more desirable from a uniformity of illuminance perspective. A section on fluorescent lamp starting is also included which describes a system having excellent starting characteristics in terms of electrode starting temperature (RH/RC technique), proper operating frequency to minimize unwanted IR interactions, and satisfactory current crest factor values to help insure life performance.

Hammer, E.E.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Title Analysis and Decomposition of the Energy Intensity of Industries in California Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors de la du Can, Stephane Rue, Ali Hasanbeigi, and Jayant A. Sathaye Journal Energy Policy Volume 46 Pagination 234-245 Keywords california, co2 emissions, energy intensity, energy use Abstract In 2008, the gross domestic product (GDP) of California industry was larger than GDP of industry in any other U.S. states. This study analyses the energy use of and output from seventeen industry subsectors in California and performs decomposition analysis to assess the influence of different factors on California industry energy use. The logarithmic mean Divisia index method is used for the decomposition analysis. The decomposition analysis results show that the observed reduction of energy use in California industry since 2000 is the result of two main factors: the intensity effect and the structural effect. The intensity effect has started pushing final energy use downward in 2000 and has since amplified. The second large effect is the structural effect. The significant decrease of the energy-intensive "Oil and Gas Extraction" subsector's share of total industry value added, from 15% in 1997 to 5% in 2008, and the increase of the non-energy intensive "Electric and electronic equipment manufacturing" sector's share of value added, from 7% in 1997 to 30% in 2008, both contributed to a decrease in the energy intensity in the industry sector

390

Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

Moro, Erik A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Puckett, Anthony D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D [UCSD

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

391

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations govCampaignsWater Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations 2002.04.01 - 2002.06.30 Lead Scientist : Marvin Wesely For data sets, see below. Description The U.S. DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) is a 3-year feasibility investigation focused on accurately evaluating the water cycle components and using stable isotopes as an effective tool in doing so. The study area is primarily the Whitewater subbasin in the Walnut River Watershed in southeastern Kansas. Two intensive observations periods are planned, this first one in April to June 2002 and a second currently scheduled for December 2002 to February 2003. Observations will be made of precipitation

392

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes Best Management Practice: Other Water Intensive Processes October 8, 2013 - 9:48am Addthis Many water using processes beyond the previously covered best management practices (BMPs) are found at Federal facilities, including vehicle wash systems, maintenance services, cleaning/laundry services, single pass air conditioners, water softening systems, and others. Identify and analyze all water intensive processes for potential efficiency improvements. Overview Laundry facilities are often found at Federal facilities. The laundry facility may be a self-serve laundry where residents and personnel wash their own clothing, a commercial-type laundry service where residents drop off laundry to be washed or dry cleaned, or an industrial laundry facility

393

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT MINERvA MiniBooNE MINOS NOvA LBNE Cosmic Frontier Proposed Projects and Experiments ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through a large volume of argon can interact with an argon atom, producing secondary particles such as muons and protons, which then ionize other argon atoms. An electric field within the detector causes

394

Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project ID "LM077" USAMP AMP800 1 2013 DOE Merit Review Presentation Alan A. Luo General Motors Global Research and Development May 16, 2013 Magnesium-Intensive Front End...

396

China energy issues : energy intensity, coal liquefaction, and carbon pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In my dissertation I explore three independent, but related, topics on China's energy issues. First, I examine the drivers for provincial energy-intensity trends in China, and finds that technology innovation is the key ...

Wu, Ning, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Intense Currents in the Deep Northeast Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of deep currents in the northeast Pacific Ocean are reported that indicate that although the eddy kinetic energy level is, as expected, generally low, the deep northeast Pacific is subject to occasional intensely energetic events. ...

Howard J. Freeland

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Capacity planning and admission control policies for intensive care units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poor management of the patient flow in intensive care units (ICUs) causes service rejections and presents significant challenges from the standpoint of capacity planning and management in ICUs. This thesis reports on the ...

Chaiwanon, Wongsakorn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Process and dataflow control in distributed data-intensive systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In dataflow architectures, each dataflow operation is typically executed on a single physical node. We are concerned with distributed data-intensive systems, in which each base (i.e., persistent) set of data has been declustered over many physical ...

W. Alexander; G. Copeland

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Segmentation and recovery of SHGCs from a real intensity image  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We address the problem of scene segmentation and shape recovery from a single real intensity image. Solving this problem is central to obtaining 3-D scene descriptions in realistic applications where perfect data...

Mourad Zerroug; Ramakant Nevatia

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Probabilistic PGA and Arias Intensity maps of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New probabilistic seismic hazard and Arias Intensity maps have beendeveloped for the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic and bordering regions.Data were mainly taken from the seismic catalogue of Kyrgyzstan and p...

K. Abdrakhmatov; H.-B. Havenith; D. Delvaux; D. Jongmans

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Intensity targets: implications for the economic uncertainties of emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intensity targets that adjust to economic growth are discussed as one option to control greenhouse gas emissions without strongly affecting economic growth and with less uncertain economic cost than absolute t...

Sonja Peterson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Department of Energy Project ER25739 Final Report ???¢????????QoS-Enabled, High-performance Storage Systems for Data-Intensive Scientific Computing???¢???????  

SciTech Connect

This project's work resulted in the following research projects: (1) BORG - Block-reORGanization for Self-optimizing Storage Systems; (2) ABLE - Active Block Layer Extensions; (3) EXCES - EXternal Caching in Energy-Saving Storage Systems; (4) GRIO - Guaranteed-Rate I/O Scheduler. These projects together help in substantially advancing the over-arching project goal of developing 'QoS-Enabled, High-Performance Storage Systems'.

Raju Rangaswami

2009-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Low-intensity beam diagnostics with particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

The measure of low intensity beams at low-medium energy is one of the major challenge in beam diagnostics. This subject is of great interest for the design of accelerator-based medical and radioactive beam facilities. In this paper we discuss new developments in image-based devices to measure low-intensity beams. All the investigated devices must guarantee measurement of the total beam current and its transverse distribution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Rovelli, A.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Raia, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 44/A Catania, 95125 (Italy); De Martinis, C.; Giove, D. [INFN-LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201 Segrate (Midway Islands), 20090 (Italy)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Vacuum self-focussing of very intense laser beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that long-range photon-photon attraction induced by the dipole interaction of two electron-positron loops can lead to "vacuum self-focussing" of very intense laser beams. The focussing angle theta(F) is found to increase with the beam intensity I as theta(F) I^(4/3); for the laser beams available at present or in the near future, theta(F) 10^(-10)--10^(-7).

Dmitri Kharzeev; Kirill Tuchin

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

407

EIA - AEO2010 - Energy intensity trends in AEO2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

intensity trends in AEO2010 intensity trends in AEO2010 Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Figure 17. Trends in U.S. oil prices, energy consumption, and economic output, 1950-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Energy intensity trends in AEO2010 Energy intensity—energy consumption per dollar of real GDP—indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate (Figure 17). During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8 percent per year from 1973 to 2008. In the AEO2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9 percent from 2008 to 2035.

408

Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy quality problem may be left to enterprise-level thermoeconomic optimization.

L. Proskuryakova; A. Kovalev

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

How do high tides and low tides occur? Is it possible to have an Earth-like planet orbiting a multiple-star system?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LED lights that make them more efficient and longer lasting than incandescent bulbs? Why is it that some people see rays of light emanate outward from certain light sources, such as streetlights

Redner, Sidney

410

Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors  

SciTech Connect

LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); La Quaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Theoretical and experimental study of space charge in intense ion beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The highly collimated beams of energetic neutral atoms used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research (CTR) require the virtual elimination of space-charge forces in the primary ion beam in order to minimize the angular divergence. A model is presented which describes the behavior of an intense ion beam passing through a gas cell. This theory is used to derive the space-charge field produced by such a beam and shows how its effect can be minimized. This model agrees well with experimental measurements and enables emittance-dominated beams of very high brightness to be obtained which could find applications in fields other than CTR.

A. J. T. Holmes

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case Study Title Smart Grid as a Driver for Energy-Intensive Industries: A Data Center Case Study Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6104E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ganti, Venkata, and Girish Ghatikar Conference Name Grid-Interop 2012 Date Published 12/2012 Conference Location Irving, TX Keywords data centers, market sectors, technologies Abstract The Smart Grid facilitates integration of supply- and demand-side services, allowing the end-use loads to be dynamic and respond to changes in electricity generation or meet localized grid needs. Expanding from previous work, this paper summarizes the results from field tests conducted to identify demand response opportunities in energy-intensive industrial facilities such as data centers. There is a significant opportunity for energy and peak-demand reduction in data centers as hardware and software technologies, sensing, and control methods can be closely integrated with the electric grid by means of demand response. The paper provides field test results by examining distributed and networked data center characteristics, end-use loads and control systems, and recommends opportunities and challenges for grid integration. The focus is on distributed data centers and how loads can be "migrated" geographically in response to changing grid supply (increase/decrease). In addition, it examines the enabling technologies and demand-response strategies of high performance computing data centers. The findings showed that the studied data centers provided average load shed of up to 10% with short response times and no operational impact. For commercial program participation, the load-shed strategies must be tightly integrated with data center automation tools to make them less resource-intensive.

414

Dissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} in intense femtosecond laser fields studied by coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging  

SciTech Connect

The dissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} in an intense laser field has been experimentally studied using femtosecond laser pulses at 790 nm in the intensity range of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Kinematically complete measurements of both the ionic H{sup +} and neutral H fragments dissociated from a vibrationally excited H{sub 2}{sup +} beam have been achieved by a coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging system. Angular-resolved kinetic energy release spectra for a series of different intensity ranges have been obtained using the intensity-difference spectrum method, thus disentangling the problem caused by the intensity volume effect. Our results indicate that the dissociation dynamics are drastically different for 'long' (135 fs) and 'short' (45 fs) laser pulses at similar high laser intensities. Specifically, bond softening is found to be the main feature in long pulses, while above threshold dissociation is dominant in short pulses whose durations are comparable with the vibrational period of the molecule. Bond softening in short pulses appears at low kinetic energy release with a narrow angular distribution. The experimental results are well interpreted by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer representation without nuclear rotation.

Wang, P. Q.; Sayler, A. M.; Carnes, K. D.; Xia, J. F.; Smith, M. A.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

A search for the sulphur hexafluoride cation with intense, few cycle laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

It is well established that upon ionization of sulphur hexafluoride, the SF{sub 6}{sup +} ion is never observed in mass spectra. Recent work with ultrashort intense laser pulses has offered indications that when strong optical field are used, the resulting bond hardening can induce changes in the potential energy surfaces of molecular cations such that molecular ions that are normally unstable may, indeed, become metastable enough to enable their detection by mass spectrometry. Do intense, ultrashort laser pulses permit formation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}? We have utilized intense pulses of 5 fs, 11 fs, and 22 fs to explore this possibility. Our results are negative: no evidence is discovered for SF{sub 6}{sup +}. However, multiply charged sulphur and fluorine ions from highly charged SF{sub 6}{sup q+} ions are observed that enable us to resolve the controversy regarding the kinetic energy release accompanying formation of F{sup +} fragment ions. Quantum chemical computations of field-distorted potential energy curves of SF{sub 6} and its molecular ion enable us to rationalize our non-observation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}. Our findings have implications for high harmonic generation from SF{sub 6} in the few-cycle regime.

Dota, Krithika; Mathur, Deepak, E-mail: atmol1@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India) [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Dharmadhikari, Aditya K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)] [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A. [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)] [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Patra, Kaustuv; Tiwari, Ashwani K. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 252 (India)] [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 252 (India)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

416

Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing  

SciTech Connect

As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

417

A diagnosis of intense ion beam by CR-39 detectors analyzing the back scattered particles  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnosis method has been developed utilizing back scattered particles for high energy intense ion beams. The CR-39 detector mounted on the uniform back-scatterer was irradiated with {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions with an energy 25 MeV/n, which is never recorded as etchable track in CR-39. We found that it is possible to diagnose by analyzing the etch pits on the rear surface of CR-39 that directly contacted on the back-scatterers. It turns out that most of etch pits in the rear surface are made by the backscattered particles by investigating the growth pattern of each etch pit with multi-step etching technique. This method allows simple diagnosis of the ion beam profile and intensity distribution in mixed radiation field such as laser-driven ion acceleration experiments.

Kanasaki, Masato; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Yuji; Sakaki, Hironao; Hori, Toshihiko; Tampo, Motonobu; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Oda, Keiji; Kondo, Kiminori [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022, Japan and Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

An Estimate of the Spectral Intensity Expected from the Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation in Extensive Air Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detection technique of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, complementary to the fluorescence technique, would be the use of the molecular Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by low-energy electrons left after the passage of the showers in the atmosphere. The emission mechanism is expected from quasi-elastic collisions of electrons produced in the shower by the ionisation of the molecules in the atmosphere. In this article, a detailed calculation of the spectral intensity of photons at ground level originating from the transitions between unquantised energy states of free ionisation electrons is presented. In the absence of absorption of the emitted photons in the plasma, the obtained spectral intensity is shown to be 5 10^{-26} W m^{-2}Hz^{-1} at 10 km from the shower core for a vertical shower induced by a proton of 10^{17.5} eV.

Samarai, I Al; Lebrun, D; Letessier-Selvon, A; Salamida, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

High Performance Computing Managing world-class supercomputing centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - High Performance Computing Managing world-class supercomputing centers Read caption Leader The High Performance Computing (HPC) Division supports the Laboratory mission by managing world high performance computing, storage, and emerging data-intensive information science production systems

420

Light emission from water irradiated with high energy electrons.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Luminescence has been observed from water Irradiated with an intense pulse of high energy electrons. The angular dependence, electron energy dependence, visible spectrum, lifetime and (more)

Shaede, Eric Albert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Time dependence of X-ray polarizability of a crystal induced by an intense femtosecond X-ray pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The time evolution of the electron density and the resulting time dependence of the X-ray polarizability of a crystal irradiated by highly intense XFEL femtosecond pulses is investigated theoretically. Rate equations for bound electrons and the Boltzmann equation for the unbound electron gas are used in calculations.

Leonov, A.

2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Overview > Tables Overview > Tables 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities Tables Energy Consumption by End Use, 1992 Figure on Energy Consumption By End Use, 1992 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1992 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line To View and/or Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties, visit our Technical Frequently Asked Questions. divider line Tables - (file size 31,655 bytes), pages 6. - requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Consumption of All Major Fuels by End Uses, 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities for All Major Fuels, 1992 Consumption of Electricity by End Uses, 1992 Energy End-Use Intensities for Electricity, 1992

423

Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS * W. M. Sharp # , A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, USA R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, PPPL, Princeton, NJ, USA I. Haber, R. A. Kishek, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA A. E. Koniges, NERSC, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial

424

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity B. Appendix: Scaling of Cost with Energy and Intensity With the two ongoing studies, one for the physics program, [1] and one for the accelerator and facilities [2] on the "Neutrino Factory Based on a Muon Storage Ring", a number of interesting suggestions and ideas came up. Almost immediately the question of scaling cost with the storage ring energy and with intensity came up. Nevertheless, it was impossible to explore all those questions in great detail, either in the report or in the preliminary cost estimate that is presented in Appendix A. During the study it became more and more clear, that one of the unique features of a neutrino source, namely the possibility to balance the cost of the accelerator with the cost of the detector, would urge the accelerator people to find an answer to this

425

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Spatial Intensity Profiles of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Heliosphere  

SciTech Connect

We study the spatial intensity profiles of galactic cosmic ray protons (H) and {alpha}-particles (He) during the solar minimum periods of 1987 (the so-called negative drift state) and 1977/1997 (both positive drift states) of the heliosphere. These intensities were measured with the Pioneer, Voyager and IMP spacecraft. The 1997 intensities were so low that one cannot readily explain them, even with the acceleration at the solar wind termination shock (SWTS) and modulation in the heliosheath included. Our heliospheric model is azimuthally symmetric with a spherical shock and heliopause, however, and we infer from its results that more realistic geometries may produce modulation effects that will explain the observations better.

Moraal, H. [School of Physics, Northwest University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Caballero-Lopez, R.A.; McDonald, F.B. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary 9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A through F of the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. divider line The demand for energy in U.S. stores, offices, schools, hospitals, and other commercial buildings has been increasing. This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and "other." The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand.

428

ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be composed from notes taken during briefing sessions lead by Don Cahoon and company each night at the Marland Mansion in Ponca City. IOP Status as of 8/4/98 Weather forecasts indicate that cloudy conditions will prevail for the next few days. The Helicopter is on standby for clear sky conditions. Model output indicates clear sky's may move in later this week.

429

Integration of High Efficiency Solar Cells on Carriers for Concentrating System Applications .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??High efficiency multi-junction (MJ) solar cells were packaged onto receiver systems. The efficiency change of concentrator cells under continuous high intensity illumination was done. Also, (more)

Chow, Simon Ka Ming

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Stress intensity factors for small fatigue cracks in tubular joints  

SciTech Connect

Some simple fracture mechanics models are presented for estimating stress intensity factors for small surface fatigue cracks in welded tubular joints. Model predictions are compared with large-scale experimental results for the cases of in-plane and out-of-plane bending in multi-brace tubular nodes. It is demonstrated that reasonably accurate predictions of the stress intensity factor are possible using a modified flat plate solution if the effects of weld geometry, load shedding and crack shape are adequately accounted for.

Monahan, C.C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland (Canada). Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering; Dover, W.D. [University College, London (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Data-intensive computing laying foundation for biological breakthroughs  

SciTech Connect

Finding a different way is the goal of the Data-Intensive Computing for Complex Biological Systems (Biopilot) projecta joint research effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory funded by the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research. The two national laboratories, both of whom are world leaders in computing and computational sciences, are teaming to support areas of biological research in urgent need of data-intensive computing capabilities.

Hachigian, David J.

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

432

Use of computers in hospitals: An analysis of intensive and nonintensive users  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Differences between Intensive and non-intensive users of computers among hospitals are analyzed using step wise discriminant analysis. Hospitals are classified into Intensive and Nonintensive users of co...

Satya N. Prattipati

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions (i.e., positive vs. negative) and intensity (i.e., intense vs. calm) in a group of under- graduates

Trainor, Laurel J.

434

Light Intensity-Dependent Modulation of Chlorophyll b Biosynthesis and Photosynthesis by Overexpression of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

limiting and saturating light intensities. Although the quantum yield of carbon dioxide fixation remained carbon dioxide assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation. Light intensity is a majorLight Intensity-Dependent Modulation of Chlorophyll b Biosynthesis and Photosynthesis

Govindjee

435

Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

projections of energy and intensity for the 12 th FYP werelevel projections of energy and intensity for the 12 th FYPth APPENDIX Table A-2 Energy Intensity Target Allocation

Ohshita, Stephanie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 5.3 Energy Use and Energy Intensity of Chlorine44314 Energy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. ChemicalEnergy Use and Energy Intensity of the U.S. Chemical

Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian; Einstein, Dan; Martin, Nathan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and theGJ/t crude steel Primary Energy Intensity* kgce/t GJ/t crudeChina U.S. Final Energy Intensity No. 5b Scenarios Country

Price, Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy optimization by photon proxy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Introducing intensity modulation into neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT) planning has the potential to mitigate some normal tissue complications seen in past neutron trials. While the hardware to deliver IMNRT plans has been in use for several years, until recently the IMNRT planning process has been cumbersome and of lower fidelity than conventional photon plans. Our in-house planning system used to calculate neutron therapy plans allows beam weight optimization of forward planned segments, but does not provide inverse optimization capabilities. Commercial treatment planning systems provide inverse optimization capabilities, but currently cannot model our neutron beam. Methods: We have developed a methodology and software suite to make use of the robust optimization in our commercial planning system while still using our in-house planning system to calculate final neutron dose distributions. Optimized multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions for segments designed in the commercial system using a 4 MV photon proxy beam are translated into static neutron ports that can be represented within our in-house treatment planning system. The true neutron dose distribution is calculated in the in-house system and then exported back through the MATLAB software into the commercial treatment planning system for evaluation. Results: The planning process produces optimized IMNRT plans that reduce dose to normal tissue structures as compared to 3D conformal plans using static MLC apertures. The process involves standard planning techniques using a commercially available treatment planning system, and is not significantly more complex than conventional IMRT planning. Using a photon proxy in a commercial optimization algorithm produces IMNRT plans that are more conformal than those previously designed at our center and take much less time to create. Conclusions: The planning process presented here allows for the optimization of IMNRT plans by a commercial treatment planning optimization algorithm, potentially allowing IMNRT to achieve similar conformality in treatment as photon IMRT. The only remaining requirements for the delivery of very highly modulated neutron treatments are incremental improvements upon already implemented hardware systems that should be readily achievable.

Snyder, Michael; Hammoud, Ahmad; Bossenberger, Todd; Spink, Robyn; Burmeister, Jay [Karmanos Cancer Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensityof Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China andof Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and

Price, Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - airglow intensities measured Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

where the airglow intensity is relatively low. Mendillo et al. (1997) reported a bubble structure... . The bubble structures (tree-like depletions of airglow intensity)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Relationship between heat transfer intensity and absolute vorticity flux intensity in flat tube bank fin channels with Vortex Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The heat transfer enhancement can be achieved through the secondary flow. It is found that absolute vorticity flux along the main flow can describe the secondary flow intensity and correspond to the heat transfer enhancement averaged in span wise direction. Investigations to verify this phenomenon are reported. The results show that there has a similar distribution for absolute vorticity flux in the main flow direction compared with that for span averaged Nusselt number. The conformance of Nusselt number and absolute vorticity flux shows that absolute vorticity flux can reflect the intensity of heat transfer produced by the secondary flow.

Ke-Wei Song; Liang-Bi Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Color intensity projections: A rapid approach for evaluating four-dimensional CT scans in treatment planning  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Four-dimensional computerized tomography scans (4DCT) enable intrafractional motion to be determined. Because more than 1500 images can be generated with each 4DCT study, tools for efficient data visualization and evaluation are needed. We describe the use of color intensity projections (CIP) for visualizing mobility. Methods: Four-dimensional computerized tomography images of each patient slice were combined into a CIP composite image. Pixels largely unchanged over the component images appear unchanged in the CIP image. However, pixels whose intensity changes over the phases of the 4DCT appear in the CIP image as colored pixels, and the hue encodes the percentage of time the tissue was in each location. CIPs of 18 patients were used to study tumor and surrogate markers, namely the diaphragm and an abdominal marker block. Results: Color intensity projections permitted mobility of high-contrast features to be quickly visualized and measured. In three selected expiratory phases ('gating phases') that were reviewed in the sagittal plane, gating would have reduced mean tumor mobility from 6.3 {+-} 2.0 mm to 1.4 {+-} 0.5 mm. Residual tumor mobility in gating phases better correlated with residual mobility of the marker block than that of the diaphragm. Conclusion: CIPs permit immediate visualization of mobility in 4DCT images and simplify the selection of appropriate surrogates for gated radiotherapy.

Cover, Keith S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.senan@vumc.nl

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Experimental measurements of multiphoton enhanced air breakdown by a subthreshold intensity excimer laser  

SciTech Connect

This work presents density, spectroscopic temperature, and shockwave measurements of laser induced breakdown plasma in atmospheric air by subthreshold intensity (5.5x10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}) 193 nm laser radiation. Using molecular spectroscopy and two-wavelength interferometry, it is shown that substantial ionization (>10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) occurs that is not predicted by collisional cascade (CC) breakdown theory. While the focused laser irradiance is three orders of magnitude below the theoretical collisional breakdown threshold, the substantial photon energy at 193 nm (6.42 eV/photon) compared with the ionization potential of air (15.6 eV) significantly increases the probability of multiphoton ionization effects. By spectroscopically monitoring the intensity of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative system (B {sup 2}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}-X {sup 2}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +}) vibrational bandhead (v{sup '}=0,v{sup ''}=0) at low pressure (20 Torr) where multiphoton effects are dominant, it is shown that two photon excitation, resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization is the primary mechanism for quantized ionization of N{sub 2} to the N{sub 2}{sup +}(B {sup 2}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}) state. This multiphoton effect then serves to amplify the collisional breakdown process at higher pressures by electron seeding, thereby reducing the threshold intensity from that required via CC processes for breakdown and producing high density laser formed plasmas.

Way, Jesse; Hummelt, Jason; Scharer, John [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Optimization of Power-Intensive Energy Systems with Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of Power-Intensive Energy Systems with Carbon Capture ... Three concepts for capturing CO2 from natural gas-fired combined gas/steam turbine power plants are evaluated and compared in this paper: (A) sepn. of CO2 from exhaust gas coming from a std. ...

Xuesong Zheng; Jin-Kuk Kim

2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

Electron-ion collisions in intensely illuminated plasmas G. Shvetsa)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron-ion collisions in intensely illuminated plasmas G. Shvetsa) and N. J. Fisch Princeton, the collisions of electrons with ions can be made more frequent or less frequent, depending on the polarization to the size of the electron oscillation in the hf field. The stimulated bremsstrahlung emission is calculated

446

China targets 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Though China has made great achievement in energy conservation in the last two decades, its energy consumption is increasing rapidly. In March 2006, China's government set a target for reducing its energy intensity by 20% by 2010 compared to the 2005 value. In this paper, we analyse China's current energy efficiency situations, and put forward some policy implications on energy saving.

Hua Liao; Ying Fan; Yi-Ming Wei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang [Henry; Daniel Chavarria

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang; Daniel Chavarria

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

Gamma Ray Bursts Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma Ray Bursts #12;The Case Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays come from nowhere and disappear with out a trace. Incredibly powerful: A single gamma ray burst is hundreds of times brighter a supernova #12;Who Vela (1960's) Looking for arms testing, found gamma ray bursts Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

451

Research Strategies for Increasing Productivity of Intensively Managed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fiber production from a smaller land base and provides market incentives to keep these lands under, plantation forestry, intensive silviculture, biomass T raditional and emerging markets for wood products and bioenergy are likely to increase pressure on forests and create incentives for enhancing their pro

452

PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

ICGrid: Enabling Intensive Care Medical Research on the EGEE Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, by utilizing the EGEE infrastructure. ICGrid is based on a hybrid architecture that combines i) a heterogeneous and data. In recent years, Grids have emerged as wide-scale distributed infrastructures that supportICGrid: Enabling Intensive Care Medical Research on the EGEE Grid Harald Gjermundrød a , Marios D

Pallis, George

454

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

Kareem, Ahsan

455

PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

Optimized Pre-Copy Live Migration for Memory Intensive Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimized Pre-Copy Live Migration for Memory Intensive Applications Khaled Z. Ibrahim, Steven Hofmeyr, Costin Iancu, Eric Roman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Email: {kzibrahim, shofmeyr and fault tolerance. KVM and Xen use iterative pre-copy approaches which work well in practice

457

PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

advantage of being able to convert sunlight into clean energy. After the glass is coated, we install clean electricity. Advantages · Building-integratable. · Contributes to EU targets towards energySolar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated

Langendoen, Koen

459

Temperatures Indicated by Intensity Distributions in Band Spectra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is generally supposed that the intensity of any particular line in a band spectrum may be calculated from the Maxwell-Boltzmann law, assuming the gas to be in temperature equilibrium. From the results of this experimental work, it appears that under some conditions of excitation other factors than the temperature of the gas govern the intensity distribution. Measurements on the negative bands of N2+ excited in low voltage arcs in the pure gas show that at 1100K and 2800K the distribution of intensities among the rotational lines is exactly the same, whilst the admixture of helium with nitrogen alters the distribution completely and gives a much lower indicated temperature. Similar results are found with the first negative bands of CO+. The differences are accounted for by the conversion of translational energy of the electrons into rotational energy of the molecules when the bands are excited by electron impacts in the pure gas. When the bands are excited by impacts of the second kind in gas mixtures, no change in rotational energy occurs and thus the indicated temperature is much lower. The distribution of intensity among the vibrational states of the molecules has been examined for the complete system of negative bands of N2+. While almost all of the energy is concentrated in the low vibration states when the bands are excited by electron impacts, the energy is spread out towards the higher vibration states when the excitation is by collisions of the second kind with metastable helium atoms.

O. S. Duffendack; R. W. Revans; A. S. Roy

1934-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Title of Document: LONGITUDINAL CONTROL OF INTENSE CHARGED PARTICLE BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Title of Document: LONGITUDINAL CONTROL OF INTENSE CHARGED PARTICLE BEAMS Brian Louis, accelerator facilities are demanding beams with higher quality. Applications such as Free Electron Lasers energy spread throughout the accelerator. Fluctuations in beam energy or density at the low-energy side

Anlage, Steven

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Energy Intensity of Federal Buildings Slashed 25% in Past Decade  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), which builds and manages federal buildings, recently announced that it cut federal energy spending by $65.5 million in fiscal year (FY) 2012 by reducing the energy use intensity levels in its buildings by nearly 25% since FY 2003.

462

Thesis Oral Energy-efficient Data-intensive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thesis Oral Energy-efficient Data-intensive Computing with a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes Vijay has raised datacenter energy demand and created an increasingly large financial burden and scaling challenge: Peak energy requirements today are a significant cost of provisioning

463

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

464

Note: Emittance measurements of intense pulsed proton beam for different pulse length and repetition rate  

SciTech Connect

The high intensity ion source (SILHI), in operation at CEA-Saclay, has been used to produce a 90 mA pulsed proton beam with pulse length and repetition rates suitable for the European Spallation Source (ESS) linac. Typical r-r{sup '} rms normalized emittance values smaller than 0.2{pi} mm mrad have been measured for operation in pulsed mode (0.01 < duty cycle < 0.15 and 1 ms < pulse duration < 10 ms) that are relevant for the design update of the Linac to be used at the ESS in Lund.

Miracoli, R. [ESS Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Mascali, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Castro, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gobin, R.; Delferriere, O.; Adroit, G.; Senee, F. [CEA-IRFU, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNAO, Str. Pr. Campeggi, Pavia (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile  

SciTech Connect

By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

Habibi, M. [Department of Physics, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Department of Physics, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-selected-World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedof the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

ECOS-LINCE: A HIGH INTENSITY MULTI-ION SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Nuclear astrophysics - Ion-ion collisions in plasma Applied research should be also foreseen in the fields

Boyer, Edmond

468

September 2, 2014 HighPower Targetry in Support of the Intensity Frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials and in particular on the lowering of material fracture toughness. The resistance to thermal, coefficient of thermal expansion, and Young's modulus. Knowledge of these parameters for materials which load in the target, and iii) an understanding of the physical limits of the target material

McDonald, Kirk

469

Laser enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound thrombolysis: An in vitro study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation, and ultrasound and laser parameters were optimized to achieve better thrombolysis efficiency. The results indicated that the thrombolysis efficiency increased when pulse length of HIFU wave, HIFU pressure, or laser fluence increases. Also...

Cui, Huizhong; Yang, Xinmai

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

470

Method for high precision reconstruction of air shower Xmax using two-dimensional radio intensity profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bonn, Germany 5 IKP, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany 6- surements of the cosmic-ray mass composition can resolve these questions [5]. In addition, a clean

Hörandel, Jörg R.

471

Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...diesel by electrical power for pumping irrigation...pump when electrical power is used, reducing...Compared with natural gas or diesel, the benefit...efficiency with electrical power more than offsets...electrical power generation, which relies heavily on coal-fired power plants. Water...

Patricio Grassini; Kenneth G. Cassman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from a previous life cycle assessment...pumping rather than diesel or natural gas, fine-tuning...actual baseline. General Discussion. Increasing...be natural gas, diesel, and electricity...energy per liter of diesel (43 MJL-1...Improvements in life-cycle energy efficiency...

Patricio Grassini; Kenneth G. Cassman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Area X-ray or UV camera system for high-intensity beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system in one embodiment includes a source for directing a beam of radiation at a sample; a multilayer mirror having a face oriented at an angle of less than 90 degrees from an axis of the beam from the source, the mirror reflecting at least a portion of the radiation after the beam encounters a sample; and a pixellated detector for detecting radiation reflected by the mirror. A method in a further embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample; not reflecting at least a majority of the radiation that is not diffracted by the sample; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation. A method in yet another embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample using a multilayer mirror; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Livermore, CA); Hau-Riege, Stefan (Fremont, CA), Marchesini, Stefano (Oakland, CA)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

475

E-Print Network 3.0 - angle dependent high-intensity Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering 2 Operated by Brookhaven Science Associates for the U.S. Department of Energy Optimized Parameters for a Mercury Jet Target Summary: 11973, USA A study of target...

476

A high frequency polarization intensity electrooptic modulator in BSTN ferroelectric crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the interaction length of the electrodes. The effective electrooptic coefficient is related to r]3 and r33 by the following equation: r =r33 ' r|3 (38) The electrooptic coefficients rii and r33 were measured at 0. 633 lim wavelength using a Mach...-Zehnder interferometer arrangement with one arm containing the bulk sample [5]. For a fully repoled sample under an applied 7 kV/cm electric field at room temperature, values of rii = 45. 5 pm/V and r33 200 + 5 pm/V were obtained. Using the measured r]3 and r33 values...

Wilson, Erik James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

477

Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for ultrasound accelerated thrombolysis. Circulation, 92(5):mechanisms in ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis at 1 mhz.in ultrasound- accelerated fibrinolysis. Ultrasound in

Weiss, Hope

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Design of overhead transmission lines subject to localized high intensity wind.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wind loading considered in the design of overhead transmission lines is based on extreme values of synoptic wind, i.e. boundary layer wind originating from largescale (more)

Langlois, Sbastien, 1981-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Mechanical Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3.3 Connection to Mechanical Damage . . . . . . 3.41.2.5 Assessing mechanical damage . . 1.3 Bubble

Weiss, Hope

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Design and Operation of the High Intensity Luminosity Monitors of the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LUMINOSITY MONITORS OF THE LHC* H.S. Matis, # S. Hedges, M.and IR5 (CMS) regions of the LHC. This chamber is designedby-bunch luminosity of the LHC from beam commissioning all

Matis, H.S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "incandescent high intensity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

High-intensity laser-driven proton acceleration: influence of pulse contrast  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...inset of figure 3. CR-39 nuclear track detector, which is...pump down cycle of the target vacuum chamber. The proton stopping...hadrontherapy with laser ion accelerators. Phys. Lett. A. 299...laser virtual-cathode plasma accelerator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX) with a High Intensity Ion Beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California 94550, USA. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory,AC02-76CH03073 with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tu la * nte pu m de ce ow din lid RAPID COMMUNICATIONS PHYSICAL REVIEW A, VOLUME 61, 021802~R!cutoff. A conceptual understanding of the origin of the har- monics with energies much in excess of the ionization po- tential Ip is provided by the three... that the multiphoton mechanism dominates this lower-energy re- gime: the probability of absorbing N photons is roughly pro- portional to IN and I is proportional to E2(t). As the har- monic order is increased and closes to the ionization threshold, the time profiles...

Chu, Shih-I; Tong, Xiao-Min

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

484

Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square Foot, Specific to Occupied and Vacant Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu) Electricity Intensities (thousand Btu) In Total Floor space In Occupied Floor space In Vacant Floor space Per Square Foot Per Occupied Square Foot Per Vacant Square Foot All Buildings 4,590 2,600 2,563 37 39 42 8 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,532 334 331 3 48 51 6 5,001 to 10,000 946 250 247 3 36 38 6 10,001 to 25,000

485

Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals March 2006 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requester. Energy Information Administration / Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

486

Table 6. Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010)" Energy intensity by state (2000 - 2010)" "thousand Btu per dollar of GDP" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",18.27258197,17.12573602,17.40982338,17.21199023,16.87274619,16.36600572,16.26201029,16.16667416,15.88996309,15.31511861,15.97051076,-0.1259849985,-2.302071213 "Alaska",21.74118991,20.61708506,19.78031734,20.18143227,20.28953911,21.09573287,18.72961653,17.79373817,15.85124571,14.13669694,14.24461661,-0.3448097058,-7.496573297 "Arizona",8.723022426,8.474435286,8.399371812,7.993493579,8.274516227,7.602521438,7.232690272,7.328159916,7.62679414,7.507000095,7.628169778,-0.1255129924,-1.094852647

487

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intensity Frontier Intensity Frontier MiniBooNE Researchers initiated the Booster Neutrino Experiment, BooNE, to verify definitively the results of the Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector experiment. In 1995, the Los Alamos experiment presented strong evidence for the oscillation of muon anti-neutrinos into electron anti-neutrinos. Jasmine Ma inspects one of the phototubes that detects light from neutrino interactions. (Courtesy: Peter Ginter) Jasmine Ma inspects one of the phototubes that detects light from neutrino interactions. (Courtesy: Peter Ginter) The 800-ton detector, called MiniBooNE, searches for neutrino oscillations. The detector is located 500 meters from Fermilab's second neutrino source, the Booster Neutrino Beam or BNB. The presence of neutrinos can only be inferred by detecting the charged

488

For Physicists | Fellowships & Awards | Intensity Frontier Fellows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application Info Application Info Applications must include a curriculum vitae, and a selected publication list. In addition we request a two-page proposal describing the major contribution that will be made to the Intensity Frontier during the Fellowship, current compensation, and requested dates of support. Applicants holding postdoctoral positions should supply two letters of reference. Applications for awards beginning in 2014 will be accepted until 22 November, 2013. It is anticipated that a second round of applications will be solicited in spring 2014. Applicants should be notified by 20 December 2013. Applications should be made via: Online Application Further queries should be sent to: send email Related Links Fermilab Intensity Frontier Department NOvA Experiment

489

The decline of the worlds energy intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy intensity of the total primary energy supply (TPES), total final energy consumption (TFC) and LOSSES in the conversion from TPES to TFC were analyzed for the World, OECD and Rest of the World (ROW) countries. LOSSES increased significantly for all groups of countries due to the increase of electricity production from coal in the period studied (19712008). Electricity share final consumption almost doubled, increasing from 8.8% to 17.2% in the period studied. However the energy intensity of LOSSES remained practically constant, which reflects the fact that the efficiency of electricity generation from coal (the main source of electricity) remained practically constant in that period. Despite the attractiveness of end-use devices running on electricity such as computers, which is typical of modern societies, the CO2 emissions are bound to increase unless coal is replaced by less carbon emitting sources such as natural gas, renewables and nuclear energy.

Jos Goldemberg; Luiz Tado Siqueira Prado

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Environmental Design for Patient Families in Intensive Care Unites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Open Access to this article benefits you. 2010 Multi-Science Publishing ISSN 1756-8250 Environmental Design for Patient Families in Intensive Care Units by Mahbub Rashid Reprinted from Journal of Healthcare Engineering Vol. 1 No. 3 2010 Journal... wayfinding systems can be extremely costly piecemeal. The ED of a well-integrated in terms of both patient and family wayfinding system should include satisfaction and hard dollars. external building cues, functional People tend to move along routes...

Rashid, Mahbub

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Reproductive response of gray and fox squirrels to intensive harvesting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the changes observed. Mast production indices indicated a poor acorn crop during the fall that experimental hunting pressure treatments began, implying that both species of squirrels responded more strongly to mast production than to intensive hunting... 15, 648 in 1957 to 7, 564 in 1958. Mosby ( 1969) compared life tables of 2 woodlot populations of gray squirrels in Virginia, only l of which was hunted. The average rate of exploitation in the hunted study area was 37. 4& of the fall population...

Davis, Charles Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

492

A microsecond-pulsewidth, intense, light-ion beam accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A relatively long-pulsewidth (0.1-1 {mu}s) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied-B{sub r}, magnetically-insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2-MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse-shaping.

Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Waganaar, W.J.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

CHALLENGES IN DATA INTENSIVE ANALYSIS AT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTAL USER FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis and visualiza-tion challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will further highlight initial solutions under development through community efforts and lay out perspectives for the future, such as the potential of more closely linked experimental and computational science approaches, methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory and varying techniques.

Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Miller, Stephen D.; Cobb, John W.; Green, Mark L.; Ruby, Catherine L.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

Systematic intensity errors caused by spectral truncation: origin and remedy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray absorption by the monochromator determines the wavelength dispersion in the monochromated X-ray beam and explains the values of 0.03, 0.14 and 0.16 for graphite(002)-monochromated Cu, Mo and Rh radiation. To eliminate the systematic intensity truncation errors, caused by the large wavelength dispersion, a correction is proposed based on the applied scan angle and the real beam spectrum.

Lenstra, A.T.H.

2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

496

UESC and High Tech Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Federal Energy Management Program UESC and High Tech Facilities Charles Williams, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 2 | FUPWG April 2012 High Tech Building UESC Partnership Leveraging Technical Potential, Market Opportunity, Program Resources * Energy-intensive facilities with high savings potential * PG&E service territory - high concentration of high-technology buildings * PG&E UESC program, new and growing * DOE FEMP programs for UESC and High-Tech Buildings * LBNL expertise in labs, data centers, clean rooms * LBNL support for UESC program * UESC potential for innovation * Presidential "We Can't Wait $2 Billion challenge to Federal agencies 3 | FUPWG April 2012 UESC project support at LBNLL Training /Education

497

Production of hybrid poplar under short-term, intensive culture in Western Colorado  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An irrigated study was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita for 6 years to evaluate eight hybrid poplar clones under short-term, intensive culture. The eight clones included in the study were Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii (NM6), P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (52225, OP367), and P. deltoides x P. nigra (Norway, Noreaster, Raverdaus, 14274, 14272). Data were collected for growth, aerial biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, carbon sequestration, and insect and disease infestation. OP367 and 52225 consistently had larger tree diameters than other hybrids for each of the 6 years. Averaged across clones, yield was 58.4Mgha?1. OP367 had the highest yield at 72.2Mgha?1 and 14274 had the lowest yield at 41.0Mgha?1. The yield of OP367 was 1.8 times greater than that of 14274. Carbon yield over the 6 years of testing was highest for OP367 at 33.4MgCha?1 and lowest for 14274 at 18.8MgCha?1. Of the eight clones tested, OP367 was the most adapted and productive clone in this short-term, intensive culture system in the arid environment of the Grand Valley of western Colorado as evidenced by its productive growth, yield, insect resistance, winterhardiness, and tree architecture. Several insect species infested the poplar clones over the course of the rotation. Best management practices for growers who produce hybrid poplar under short-term, intensive culture should include the following: (1) plant highly productive clones, (2) poplar clones with suitable tree architecture for production and market objectives should be used, (3) if carbon sequestration is an important production objective, plant a suitable clone, (4) some poplar clones develop chlorosis when planted in high pH soils and should be avoided, and (5) use poplar clones that have been shown to exhibit resistance to specific insect species.

C.H. Pearson; A.D. Halvorson; R.D. Moench; R.W. Hammon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Fermi-LAT gamma-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the gamma-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations.

Mattia Di Mauro; Alessandro Cuoco; Fiorenza Donato; Jennifer M. Siegal-Gaskins

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

499

Corpuscular theory of intensity noise with gain compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When light from a laser is fully absorbed by an ideal detector, the detected current exhibits a fluctuation called here photonic noise. The spectral density of Iintensity noiseR, defined as the difference of the photonic-noise spectral density and a term corresponding to the shot-noise level, is negative for sub-Poissonian statistics. The usefulness of the relative-intensity-noise concept is that it is independent of any linear attenuation. A simple circuit theory of intensity noise based only on energy conservation and the Nyquist formula (zero-point fluctuation) leads to expressions of the spectral densities that agree with quantum theory even for sub-Poissonian photon statistics. When the optical gain and loss are frequency independent, the circuit theory reduces to a corpuscular theory that keeps track of the time rates of change of electron and photon numbers treated as continuous variables. Consideration is given to laser diodes in which the rate of electron-photon conversion depends nonlinearly on both the carrier and photon densities. The cross-spectral density between electrical-voltage and relative photonic fluctuations is independent of internal or external optical losses. Standard rate equations are inaccurate in the case of gain compression. Very general yet simple formulas for intensity noise are applied to room-temperature GaAs laser diodes, using recently calculated optical parameters.

J. Arnaud

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Cosmology with a SKA HI intensity mapping survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HI intensity mapping (IM) is a novel technique capable of mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in three dimensions and delivering exquisite constraints on cosmology, by using HI as a biased tracer of the dark matter density field. This is achieved by measuring the intensity of the redshifted 21cm line over the sky in a range of redshifts without the requirement to resolve individual galaxies. In this chapter, we investigate the potential of SKA1 to deliver HI intensity maps over a broad range of frequencies and a substantial fraction of the sky. By pinning down the baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion features in the matter power spectrum -- thus determining the expansion and growth history of the Universe -- these surveys can provide powerful tests of dark energy models and modifications to General Relativity. They can also be used to probe physics on extremely large scales, where precise measurements of spatial curvature and primordial non-Gaussianity can be used to test in...

Santos, Mario G; Alonso, David; Camera, Stefano; Ferreira, Pedro G; Bernardi, Gianni; Maartens, Roy; Viel, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Abdalla, Filipe B; Jarvis, Matt; Metcalf, R Benton; Pourtsidou, A; Wolz, Laura

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z