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1

are on average largely unperturbed. We con-clude that the observed changes in relaxation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is substantially disordered (27), and NMR measurements in solution re- veal dynamic behavior (35). By contrast in dynamic flexibility could reflect an increased population of more extended structures in the ensemble determinants of the kinetics of the folding process (29, 30). Al- though the folding of small proteins is domi

Guttman, David S.

2

Recent highlights in antimalarial drug resistance and chemotherapy research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

postulated to be the target of several microbicides in- cluding triclosan and thiolactomycin [6]. Groups led

Symington, Lorraine S.

3

Charge Pumping in Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate charge pumping in semiconducting carbon nanotubes by a traveling potential wave. From the observation of pumping in the nanotube insulating state we deduce that transport occurs by packets of charge being carried along by the wave. By tuning the potential of a side gate, transport of either electron or hole packets can be realized. Prospects for the realization of nanotube based single-electron pumps are discussed.

P. J. Leek; M. R. Buitelaar; V. I. Talyanskii; C. G. Smith; D. Anderson; G. A. C. Jones; J. Wei; D. H. Cobden

2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

4

Dynamics of Photoinduced Charge Separation and Charge Recombination in Synthetic DNA Hairpins with Stilbenedicarboxamide Linkers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamics of Photoinduced Charge Separation and Charge Recombination in Synthetic DNA Hairpins with Stilbenedicarboxamide Linkers ... The dynamics of photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination in synthetic DNA hairpins have been investigated by means of femtosecond and nanosecond transient spectroscopy. ...

Frederick D. Lewis; Taifeng Wu; Xiaoyang Liu; Robert L. Letsinger; Scott R. Greenfield; Scott E. Miller; Michael R. Wasielewski

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

5

Electric Charge Quantization in Standard Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of Standard Model for the arbitrary values of Higgs and fermions fields hypercharges, taking into account parity invariance of electromagnetic interaction, expressions for the fermions charges, testifying the electric charge quantization are obtained. From the chiral anomalies cancellation condition within one family of leptons and quarks, numerical values of fermions charges, coinciding with standard values of charges have been obtained.

O. B. Abdinov; F. T. Khalil-zade; S. S. Rzaeva

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

6

Anomaly-induced charges in nucleons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show a novel charge structure of baryons in electromagnetic field due to the chiral anomaly. A key connection is to treat baryons as solitons of mesons. We use Skyrmions to calculate the charge distributions in a single nucleon and find an additional charge. We also perform calculations of charge distribution for classical multi-baryons with B=2, 3,...,8 and 17; they show amusing charge distributions.

Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Hideaki Iida; Takaaki Ishii; Yu Maezawa

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

7

Study of space charge compensation phenomena in charged particle beams  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of a charged particle beam is accompanied by the production of secondary particles created in the interaction of the beam itself with the background gas flowing in the accelerator tube. In the drift region, where the electric field of the electrodes is negligible, secondary particles may accumulate giving a plasma which shields the self-induced potential of the charged beam. This phenomenon, known as space charge compensation is a typical issue in accelerator physics, where it is usually addressed by means of 1D radial transport codes or Monte Carlo codes. The present paper describes some theoretical studies on this phenomenon, presenting a Particle in Cell-Monte Carlo (PIC-MC) Code developed ad hoc where both radial and axial confinements of secondary particles are calculated. The features of the model, offering a new insight on the problem, are described and some results discussed.

Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35100 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell'Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Vortex Structure in Charged Condensate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study magnetic fields in the charged condensate that we have previously argued should be present in helium-core white dwarf stars. We show that below a certain critical value the magnetic field is entirely expelled from the condensate, while for larger values it penetrates the condensate within flux-tubes that are similar to Abrikosov vortex lines; yet higher fields lead to the disruption of the condensate. We find the solution for the vortex lines in both relativistic and nonrelativistic theories that exhibit the charged condensation. We calculate the energy density of the vortex solution and the values of the critical magnetic fields. The minimum magnetic field required for vortices to penetrate the helium white dwarf cores ranges from roughly 10^7 to 10^9 Gauss. Fields of this strength have been observed in white dwarfs. We also calculate the London magnetic field due to the rotation of a dwarf star and show that its value is rather small.

Gabadadze, Gregory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vortex Structure in Charged Condensate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study magnetic fields in the charged condensate that we have previously argued should be present in helium-core white dwarf stars. We show that below a certain critical value the magnetic field is entirely expelled from the condensate, while for larger values it penetrates the condensate within flux-tubes that are similar to Abrikosov vortex lines; yet higher fields lead to the disruption of the condensate. We find the solution for the vortex lines in both relativistic and nonrelativistic theories that exhibit the charged condensation. We calculate the energy density of the vortex solution and the values of the critical magnetic fields. The minimum magnetic field required for vortices to penetrate the helium white dwarf cores ranges from roughly 10^7 to 10^9 Gauss. Fields of this strength have been observed in white dwarfs. We also calculate the London magnetic field due to the rotation of a dwarf star and show that its value is rather small.

Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A. Rosen

2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

10

Screening of a hypercritical charge in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Screening of a large external charge in graphene is studied. The charge is assumed to be displaced away or smeared over a finite region of the graphene plane. The initial decay of the screened potential with distance is shown to follow the 3?2 power. It gradually changes to the Coulomb law outside of a hypercritical core whose radius is proportional to the external charge.

M. M. Fogler; D. S. Novikov; B. I. Shklovskii

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

11

Charging of Dust Grains in a Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Charging of micron-sized dust grains in a plasma has been investigated experimentally. Dust grains were dispersed into a fully ionized, steady-state, magnetized plasma column consisting of electrons and K+ ions, both at a temperature of ?0.2 eV. Langmuir probe measurements were used to determine how the negative charge in the plasma is divided between free electrons and dust grains. By varying the ratio d?D between the intergrain spacing and the plasma Debye length, the predicted reduction in the grain charge for the case of "closely packed" grains d?D<1 has been demonstrated experimentally.

A. Barkan; N. D'Angelo; R. L. Merlino

1994-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

12

12 - Single-charge transport in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The single-charge tunneling behavior in graphene devices is reviewed and the Coulomb blockade phenomena observed in graphene constrictions, patterned single-electron transistors and graphene nanoribbons are compared with those observed in the conventional single-electron transistors with metallic islands. The phenomena that occur when compressible quantum dots are formed in graphene in the quantum Hall regime, including mesoscopic conductance fluctuations resulting from single-charge tunneling into/out of the quantum dots, are discussed.

D.S. Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Charged Vortices in High Temperature Superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is argued that in the mixed state of a type II superconductor, because of the difference of the chemical potential in a superconducting versus normal state, the vortex cores may become charged. The extra electron density is estimated. The extra charge contributes to the dynamics of the vortices; in particular, it can explain in certain cases the change of the sign of the Hall coefficient below Tc frequently observed in the high temperature superconductors.

D. I. Khomskii and A. Freimuth

1995-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

14

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or...

15

Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

17

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

18

Charged track multiplicity in B meson decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have used the CLEO II detector to study the multiplicity of charged particles in the decays of B mesons produced at the ?(4S) resonance. Using a sample of 1.5×106 B meson pairs, we find the mean inclusive charged particle multiplicity to be 10.71±0.02-0.15+0.21 for the decay of the pair. This corresponds to a mean multiplicity of 5.36±0.01-0.08+0.11 for a single B meson. Using the same data sample, we have also extracted the mean multiplicities in semileptonic and nonleptonic decays. We measure a mean of 7.82±0.05-0.19+0.21 charged particles per BB¯ decay when both mesons decay semileptonically. When neither B meson decays semileptonically, we measure a mean charged particle multiplicity of 11.62±0.04-0.18+0.24 per BB¯ pair.

G. Brandenburg et al. (CLEO Collaboration)

2000-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

19

Spontaneous emission in a silicon charge qubit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interaction between a qubit and its environment provides a channel for energy relaxation which has an energy-dependent timescale governed by the specific coupling mechanism. We measure the rate of inelastic decay in a Si MOS double quantum dot (DQD) charge qubit through sensing the charge state's response to non-adiabatic driving of its excited state population. The charge distribution is sensed remotely in the weak measurement regime. We extract emission rates down to kHz frequencies by measuring the variation of the non-equilibrium charge occupancy as a function of amplitude and dwell times between non-adiabatic pulses. Our measurement of the energy-dependent relaxation rate provides a fingerprint of the relaxation mechanism, indicating that relaxation rates for this Si MOS DQD are consistent with coupling to deformation acoustic phonons.

Khoi T. Nguyen; N. Tobias Jacobson; Michael P. Lilly; Nathaniel C. Bishop; Erik Nielsen; Joel R. Wendt; J. Dominguez; T. Pluym; Malcolm S. Carroll

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

001 001 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Infrastructure Review Report (AIR): Summary of Recommendations January 2001 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE/SC-ARM-0001 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Infrastructure Review Report (AIR): Summary of Recommendations The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Infrastructure Review committee feels that the organization of the ARM Infrastructure must change as the amount of required work grows and budgets remain fixed. The current structure may not lend itself to the more efficient operation that will be needed. The current ARM Infrastructure is site centric; that structure served ARM well in its early years of development but is one that has become limiting.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics for Global Climate Models First Quarter 2007 ARM Metric Report January 2007 Xiaohong Liu and Steven J. Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research X. Liu and S.J. Ghan, DOE/SC-ARM-0701 iii Summary Mixed-phase clouds are composed of a mixture of cloud droplets and ice crystals. The partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in clouds varies throughout the life cycle of clouds, with droplets forming initially but crystals dominating later as ice forms first by crystal nucleation and then by vapor deposition. This report documents an ice nucleation

22

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM-0501 ARM-0501 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Science Plan June 2005 M.A. Miller Brookhaven National Laboratory Earth System Science Division Upton, New York A. Bucholtz Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California B. Albrecht and P. Kollias Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Miami, Florida Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research M.A. Miller et al., June 2005, DOE/ER-ARM-0501 Abstract Marine stratus is one of the most prevalent and under sampled cloud types on earth and is an important component of the earth's climate system. Marine stratus is thought to be susceptible to infusions of anthropogenic aerosols that alter in-cloud microphysical processes and is known to

23

Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

Alois Würger

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

24

Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,§ Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Ma¨nnik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

Dekker, Cees

25

Conserved charges in 3D gravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

M. Blagojevi? and B. Cvetkovi?

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

26

Conserved charges in 3D gravity  

SciTech Connect

The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

CHARGED POINT DEFECT IN RUTILE TIO2:FROM DEFECT CHARGE DISTRIBUTION TO DEFECT PHONON FREE ENERGY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dominant charged point defects in transition metal oxides can change with temperature (T) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) to control the electrical properties of… (more)

Li, Xin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

John Smart; Don Scoffield

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?  

SciTech Connect

This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

John Smart; Don Scoffield

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Charge breaking bounds in the Zee model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the possibility that charge breaking minima occur in the Zee model. We reach very different conclusions from those attained in simpler, two Higgs doublet models, and the reason for this is traced back to the existence of cubic terms in the potential. A scan of the Zee model's parameter space shows that CB is restricted to a narrow region of values of the parameters.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

31

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

32

Anomaly-induced charges in baryons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that quantum chiral anomaly of QCD in magnetic backgrounds induces a novel structure of electric charge inside baryons. To illustrate the anomaly effect, we employ the Skyrme model for baryons, with the anomaly-induced gauged Wess-Zumino term (\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) E_i B_i. Due to this term, the Skyrmions giving a local pion condensation ((\\pi_0 + (multi-pion)) \

Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Hideaki Iida; Takaaki Ishii; Yu Maezawa

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Ultrafast charge separation in organic photovoltaics enhanced by charge delocalization and vibronically hot exciton dissociation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In organic photovoltaics, the mechanism by which free electrons and holes are generated overcoming the Coulomb attraction is a currently much debated topic. To elucidate this mechanism at a molecular level, we carried out a combined electronic structure and quantum dynamical analysis that captures the elementary events from the exciton dissociation to the free carrier generation at polymer/fullerene donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Our calculations show that experimentally observed efficient charge separations can be explained by a combination of two effects: First, the delocalization of charges which substantially reduces the Coulomb barrier, and second, the vibronically hot nature of the charge transfer state which promotes charge dissociation beyond the barrier. These effects facilitate an ultrafast charge separation even at low-band-offset heterojunctions.

Tamura, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

35

Promote Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Workplace Charging Infrastructure  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Drivers of conventional vehicles often learn about plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging infrastructure from PEV-driving employees and from employers who support workplace charging. Use the...

36

Charge-dipole acceleration of polar gas molecules towards charged nanoparticles: involvement in powerful charge-induced catalysis of heterophase chemical reactions and ball lightning phenomenon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In humid air, the substantial charge-dipole attraction and electrostatic acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles ...

Oleg Meshcheryakov

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

38

Diffuse-Charge Dynamics in Electrochemical Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The response of a model micro-electrochemical system to a time-dependent applied voltage is analyzed. The article begins with a fresh historical review including electrochemistry, colloidal science, and microfluidics. The model problem consists of a symmetric binary electrolyte between parallel-plate, blocking electrodes which suddenly apply a voltage. Compact Stern layers on the electrodes are also taken into account. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations are first linearized and solved by Laplace transforms for small voltages, and numerical solutions are obtained for large voltages. The ``weakly nonlinear'' limit of thin double layers is then analyzed by matched asymptotic expansions in the small parameter $\\epsilon = \\lambda_D/L$, where $\\lambda_D$ is the screening length and $L$ the electrode separation. At leading order, the system initially behaves like an RC circuit with a response time of $\\lambda_D L / D$ (not $\\lambda_D^2/D$), where $D$ is the ionic diffusivity, but nonlinearity violates this common picture and introduce multiple time scales. The charging process slows down, and neutral-salt adsorption by the diffuse part of the double layer couples to bulk diffusion at the time scale, $L^2/D$. In the ``strongly nonlinear'' regime (controlled by a dimensionless parameter resembling the Dukhin number), this effect produces bulk concentration gradients, and, at very large voltages, transient space charge. The article concludes with an overview of more general situations involving surface conduction, multi-component electrolytes, and Faradaic processes.

Martin Z. Bazant; Katsuyo Thornton; Armand Ajdari

2004-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

Surface charge in dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurements of the dielectric surface potential and its dynamics in asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators show that the charge builds up at the dielectric surface and extends far downstream of the plasma. The surface charge persists for a long time (tens of minutes) after the driving voltage has been turned off. For a sinusoidal voltage waveform, the dielectric surface charges positively. With the voltage waveform consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on a dc bias, the sign of the dielectric surface charge is the same as the sign (polarity) of the bias voltage. The surface charging significantly affects DBD plasma actuator performance.

Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Likhanskii, A. V. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Macheret, S. O. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Role of dipole charges in black hole thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Modern derivations of the first law of black holes appear to show that the only charges that arise are monopole charges that can be obtained by surface integrals at infinity. However, the recently discovered five dimensional black ring solutions empirically satisfy a first law in which dipole charges appear. We resolve this contradiction and derive a general form of the first law for black rings. Dipole charges do appear together with a corresponding potential. We also include theories with Chern-Simons terms and generalize the first law to other horizon topologies and more generic local charges.

Copsey, Keith; Horowitz, Gary T. [Department of Physics, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Definition: Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Station | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Station Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Station Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Station A device or station that provides power to charge the batteries of an electric vehicle. These chargers are classified according to output voltage and the rate at which they can charge a battery. Level 1 charging is the slowest, and can be done through most wall outlets at 120 volts and 15 amps AC. Level 2 charging is faster, and is done at less than or equal to 240 volts and 60 amps AC, with a power output of less than or equal to 14.4 kW. Level 3 charging is fastest, and can be done with power output of greater than 14.4 kW. Level 1 and 2 charging can be done at home with the proper equipment, and Level 2 and 3 charging can be done at fixed public charging

42

Space charge emission in cylindrical diode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a mathematical model to describe cylindrical electron current emissions through a physics approximation method is presented. The proposed mathematical approximation consists of analyzing and solving the nonlinear Poisson's equation, with some determined mathematical restrictions. Our findings tackle the problem when charge-space creates potential barrier that disable the steady-state of the beam propagation. In this problem, the potential barrier effects of electron's speed with zero velocity emitted through the virtual cathode happens. The interaction between particles and the virtual cathode have been to find the inter-atomic potentials as boundary conditions from a quantum mechanics perspective. Furthermore, a non-stationary spatial solution of the electrical potential between anode and cathode is presented. The proposed solution is a 2D differential equation that was linearized from the generalized Poisson equation. A single condition was used solely, throughout the radial boundary conditions of the current density formation.

Torres-Córdoba, Rafael; Martínez-García, Edgar [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)] [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Relation between charge carrier mobility and lifetime in organic photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relationship between charge carrier lifetime and mobility in a bulk heterojunction based organic solar cell utilizing diketopyrrolopyrole-naphthalene co-polymer and PC71BM in the photoactive blend layer is investigated using the photoinduced charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage technique. Light intensity delay time and temperature dependent experiments are used to quantify the charge carrier mobility and density as well as the temperature dependence of both. From the saturation of photoinduced current at high laser intensities it is shown that Langevin-type bimolecular recombination is present in the studied system. The charge carrier lifetime especially in Langevin systems is discussed to be an ambiguous and unreliable parameter to determine the performance of organic solar cells because of the dependence of charge carrier lifetime on charge carrier density mobility and type of recombination. It is revealed that the relation between charge mobility (?) and lifetime (?) is inversely proportional where the ?? product is independent of temperature. The results indicate that in photovoltaic systems with Langevin type bimolecular recombination the strategies to increase the charge lifetime might not be beneficial because of an accompanying reduction in charge carrier mobility. Instead the focus on non-Langevin mechanisms of recombination is crucial because this allows an increase in the charge extraction rate by improving the carrier lifetime density and mobility simultaneously.

Chellappan Vijila; Samarendra P. Singh; Prashant Sonar; Almantas Pivrikas; Bronson Philippa; Elumalai Naveen Kumar; S. Gomathy Sandhya; Sergey Gorelik; Jonathan Hobley; Akihiro Furube; Hiroyuki Matsuzaki; Ryuzi Katoh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Geodesics and Geodesic Deviation in static Charged Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radial motion along null geodesics in static charged black hole space-times, in particular, the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om and stringy charged black holes are studied. We analyzed the properties of the effective potential. The circular photon orbits in these space-times are investigated. We found that the radius of circular photon orbits in both charged black holes are different and differ from that given in Schwarzschild space-time. We studied the physical effects of the gravitational field between two test particles in stringy charged black hole and compared the results with that given in Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes.

Ragab M. Gad

2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

45

Particles and scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of noncommutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordstrom black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.

Bhar, Piyali; Biswas, Ritabrata; Mondal, U F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Wireless Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles. Vehicle to WPT base unit communications (radio) in regulation outer loop Lightest, most compact secondary coil,...

47

Static charged distributions in 2+1 gravity  

SciTech Connect

Circularly symmetric charged perfect-fluid distributions are studied in three-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. We derive the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of hydroelectrostatic equilibrium, and we discuss its applicability. A class of charged fluid distributions for p=-{rho} is considered. In this case, a particular model is obtained which represents a charged distribution whose mass is entirely of electromagnetic origin.

Cataldo, Mauricio; Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Bio-Bio, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C, Concepcion (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

To boost their programs and share their best practices with others, leading employers from across the country partner with the U.S. Department of Energy through the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge. The Challenge aims to achieve a dramatic increase in the number of employers offering workplace charging by 2018. As the Challenge approaches its second anniversary, Challenge partners and ambassadors convened at a Summit in Alexandria, Virginia, to celebrate progress and share new resources for expanding their workplace charging programs.

49

Temperature dependence of vortex charges in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using a model Hamiltonian with d-wave superconductivity and competing antiferromagnetic (AF) interactions, the temperature (T) dependence of the vortex charge in high-Tc superconductors is investigated by numerically solving the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations. The strength of the induced AF order inside the vortex core is T dependent. The vortex charge could be negative when the AF order with sufficient strength is present at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, the AF order may be completely suppressed and the vortex charge becomes positive. A first-order-like transition in the T-dependent vortex charge is seen near the critical temperature TAF. For an underdoped sample, the spatial profiles of the induced spin-density wave and the charge-density wave orders could have stripelike structures at TTs. As a result, a vortex charge discontinuity occurs at Ts.

Yan Chen; Z. D. Wang; C. S. Ting

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

50

Charge Transport in one Dimension:Dissipative and Non-Dissipative Space-Charge Limited Currents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider charge transport in nanopores where the dielectric constant inside the nanopore is much greater than in the surrounding material, so that the flux of the electric fields due to the charges is almost entirely confined to the nanopore. That means that we may model the electric fields due to charge densities in the nanopore in terms of average properties across the nanopore as solutions of one dimensional Poisson equations. We develop basic equations for an M component system using equations of continuity to relate concentrations to currents, and flux equations relating currents to concentration gradients and conductivities. We then derive simplified scaled versions of the equations. We develop exact solutions for the one component case in a variety of boundary conditions using a Hopf-Cole transformation, Fourier series, and periodic solutions of the Burgers equation. These are compared with a simpler model in which the scaled diffusivity is zero so that all charge motion is driven by the electric field. In this non-dissipative case, recourse to an admissibility condition is utilised to obtain the physically relevant weak solution of a Riemann problem concerning the electric field. It is shown that the admissibility condition is Poynting's theorem.

S. R. Holcombe; E. R. Smith

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

51

Title of Document: STUDY OF LONGITUDINAL SPACE CHARGE WAVES IN SPACE-CHARGE DOMINATED BEAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BEAMS Jayakar Charles Tobin Thangaraj, Doctor of Philosophy, 2009 Directed By: Prof. Patrick O'Shea Prof current electron beam with very low emittance and energy spread. Any density fluctuation in an intense beam can launch space charge waves that lead to energy modulation. The energy modulations may cause

Anlage, Steven

52

Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-efficiency as variables relating to price and profitability. The retail electricity market is a case in point, as highMergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges N° 2006-08 Mai 2006 Evens SALIES OFCE hal-00972962,version1-3Apr2014 #12;Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, and the ALS has succeeded in probing the dynamical properties of the charge carriers in graphene with an accuracy never before achieved. Their results have uncovered signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics.

54

Self-similar and charged spheres in the diffusion approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study spherical, charged and self--similar distributions of matter in the diffusion approximation. We propose a simple, dynamic but physically meaningful solution. For such a solution we obtain a model in which the distribution becomes static and changes to dust. The collapse is halted with damped mass oscillations about the absolute value of the total charge.

Barreto, W

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Argonne CNM News: Charge Separation in Silver Clusters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge Separation in Silver Clusters Charge Separation in Silver Clusters silver clusters Artist's rendering of silver clusters capped with organic ligand molecules. transient kinetics of silver clusters Transient kinetics showing charge recombination in ligand-stabilized silver clusters for different surrounding solvents (water-methanol mixture, acetone, and dichloromethane). Both charge separation and recombination events are faster in more polar solvents. Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) users from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland, working with the CNM Nanophotonics Group, have demonstrated the existence of long-lived charge-separated states in silver clusters. The clusters, synthesized chemically in solution, consist of exactly 44 silver atoms and are stabilized by exactly

56

Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

57

Motion of charged particles in ABC magnetic fields Alejandro Luque #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motion of charged particles in ABC magnetic fields Alejandro Luque # Departament de Matemâ?? atica consequences of our study are the existence of confinement regions of charges near some magnetic lines, magnetic field, Hamiltonian dynamical system, el­ liptic equilibrium point, quasi­periodic solution

58

Charge-Density Variation in a Model of Amorphous Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A population analysis of the one-electron eigenfunctions of random-network models of amorphous silicon shows fluctuations of the net atomic charge of about 0.2 electron units rms. The majority of the charge is calculable from a linear function of the deviations of first-neighbor distance and of the interbond angle from their values in the crystal.

Lester Guttman, W. Y. Ching, and Jagannath Rath

1980-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

Charge Density Effects in Salt-Free Polyelectrolyte Solution Rheology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 2-vinyl pyridine and N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium chloride random copolymers in ethylene glycol of 2-vinyl pyridine and N- methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium chloride (PMVP-Cl) of any charge density was studied over wide ranges of con- centration and effective charge. The fraction of quaternized monomers

Colby, Ralph H.

60

Electric-charge quantization in the standard model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The logic of the construction of the standard model (with the usual minimal set of chiral fermions) as a consistent renormalizable theory necessarily leads to the quantization of electric charge and the absence of massless charged fermions, as well as the automatic cancellation of an anomaly in the divergence of the weak hypercharge current that could arise should a coupling to gravity be contemplated.

Serge Rudaz

1990-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks  

SciTech Connect

We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.

Silveiro, Iván [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Javier García de Abajo, F., E-mail: javier.garciadeabajo@icfo.es [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Geodesic Motion in the (Charged) Doubly Spinning Black Ring Spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we analyze the geodesics of test particles and light in the five dimensional (charged) doubly spinning black ring spacetime. Apparently it is not possible to separate the Hamilton-Jacobi-equation for (charged) doubly spinning black rings in general, so we concentrate on special cases: null geodesics in the ergosphere and geodesics on the two rotational axes of the (charged) doubly spinning black ring. We present analytical solutions to the geodesic equations for these special cases. Using effective potential techniques we study the motion of test particles and light and discuss the corresponding orbits.

Saskia Grunau; Valeria Kagramanova; Jutta Kunz

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

63

The muon charge ratio in cosmic ray air showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The muon charge ratio of the lateral muon density distributions in single EAS is studied by simulations, in context of recent proposals to measure this observable in coincidence with EAS observations. While effects of the hadronic interaction do not lead to significant differences of the total muon plus and muon minus content, the differences of the azimuthal variation of the muon densities of opposite charges and the azimuthal variation of the muon charge ratio appear to be very much pronounced, dependent on the direction of EAS incidence. This is due to the influence of the geomagnetic field which induces related effects in radio emission from extended air showers.

H. Rebel; O. Sima; A. Haungs; C. Manailescu; B. Mitrica; C. Morariu

2008-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Control of the Adenylate Charge in Novikoff Ascites Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...liver tissue and 110 units in Novikoff ascites...dehydrogenase was 120 units in liver tissue and 11 units in Novikoff ascites...Novikoff ascites cells. Measurement of adenosine mono...reaction and the adenylate energy charge expression were...

Wayne E. Criss

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503 D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Ciencias Fisicas Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Extremal Charged Rotating Dilaton Black Holes in Odd Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Employing higher order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

Masoud Allahverdizadeh; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

2010-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

68

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, and the ALS has succeeded in probing the dynamical properties of the charge carriers in graphene with an accuracy never before achieved. Their results have uncovered signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics.

69

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from the University of California at San Diego, Columbia University, and the ALS has succeeded in probing the dynamical properties of the charge carriers in graphene with an accuracy never before achieved. Their results have uncovered signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics.

70

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

71

Massive stable charged particle signatures in simulations at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of heavy stable charged (HSCP) particles lies in the exploration of extensions to the standard model. Extensions of the standard model attempt to solve current problems in the standard model such as the ...

Silva, James B. (James Brian)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Charged impurity-induced scatterings in chemical vapor deposited graphene  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of defect scatterings on the electric transport properties of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene by measuring the carrier density dependence of the magneto-conductivity. To clarify the dominant scattering mechanism, we perform extensive measurements on large-area samples with different mobility to exclude the edge effect. We analyze our data with the major scattering mechanisms such as short-range static scatters, short-range screened Coulomb disorders, and weak-localization (WL). We establish that the charged impurities are the predominant scatters because there is a strong correlation between the mobility and the charge impurity density. Near the charge neutral point (CNP), the electron-hole puddles that are induced by the charged impurities enhance the inter-valley scattering, which is favorable for WL observations. Away from the CNP, the charged-impurity-induced scattering is weak because of the effective screening by the charge carriers. As a result, the local static structural defects govern the charge transport. Our findings provide compelling evidence for understanding the scattering mechanisms in graphene and pave the way for the improvement of fabrication techniques to achieve high-quality CVD graphene.

Li, Ming-Yang; Tang, Chiu-Chun [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei 25137, Taiwan (China); Li, L. J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

Strong Effect of Weak Charging in Suspensions of Anisotropic Colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Suspensions of hard colloidal particles frequently serve as model systems in studies on fundamental aspects of phase transitions. But often colloidal particles that are considered as ``hard'' are in fact weakly charged. If the colloids are spherical, weak charging has a only a weak effect on the structural properties of the suspension, which can be easily corrected for. However, this does not hold for anisotropic particles. We introduce a model for the interaction potential between charged ellipsoids of revolution (spheroids) based on the Derjaguin approximation of Debye--H\\"uckel Theory and present a computer simulation study on aspects of the system's structural properties and phase behaviour. In line with previous experimental observations, we find that even a weak surface charge has a strong impact on the correlation functions. A likewise strong impact is seen on the phase behaviour, in particular, we find stable cubatic order in suspensions of oblate ellipsoids.

Sven Dorosz; Nikhilesh Shegokar; Tanja Schilling; Martin Oettel

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

74

Charging Up in King County, Washington | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Charging Up in King County, Washington Charging Up in King County, Washington Charging Up in King County, Washington Addthis Description King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development. Speakers Dow Constantine, LeAnn Oliver, Jay Inslee, Sheda Sahandy Duration 2:38 Topic Alternative Fuel Vehicles Clean Cities Credit Energy Department Video It's not so much gears and oil anymore as computers and laptops. King County is working with our regional partners, governments, utilities to push electrical infrastructure out into the community so that we can provide the basis for a new market for electric cars in our region.

75

Dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconducto...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics December 5, 2014 at 3pmRLE Haus 36-428 Laurens D.A. Siebbeles Department of...

76

Identifying characteristics of charge transfer transitions in minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Criteria used to identify Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ intervalence charge transfer absorption bands in electronic spectra are reviewed and compared to the characteristics of unperturbed Fe2+ crystal field bands and t...

Stephanie M. Mattson; George R. Rossman

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Spin-Charge Separation in the Quantum Spin Hall State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quantum spin Hall state is a topologically nontrivial insulator state protected by the time-reversal symmetry. We show that such a state always leads to spin-charge separation in the presence of a ? flux. Our result is generally valid for any interacting system. We present a proposal to experimentally observe the phenomenon of spin-charge separation in the recently discovered quantum spin Hall system.

Xiao-Liang Qi and Shou-Cheng Zhang

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effect of topology on the critical charge in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the critical charge for the Dirac excitations in gapless graphene depends on the spatial topology of the sample. In particular, for graphene cones, the effective value of the critical charge can tend towards zero for a suitable angle of the conical sample. We discuss the nature of the scattering phase shifts, quasi-bound state energies and local density of states for a gapless graphene cone and determine the dependence of these physical quantities on the sample topology.

Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

D/sup -/ production by charge transfer in metal vapors  

SciTech Connect

Fast D/sup -/ ions can be produced from D/sup +/ by multiple charge-transfer collisions in a metal-vapor target. Experimental cross sections and thick-target D/sup -/ yields are presented and discussed. The high D/sup -/ yield experimentally observed from charge transfer in cesium vapor is consistent with recent low-energy cross-section calculations and measurements.

Schlachter, A.S.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally Crystallized Thin Films of Regio-Regular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Semicrystalline polymers, such as polythiophenes, hold much promise as active layers in printable electronic devices such as photovoltaic cells, sensors, and thin film transistors. As organic semiconductors approach commercialization, there is a need to better understand the relationship between charge transport and microstructure, in particular, to identify the inherent bottlenecks to charge transport. In semicrystalline and polycrystalline materials, charge transport is most likely dominated by grain-boundary effects, although the exact mechanism is not well understood. Unfortunately, grain boundaries in semicrystalline thin films are difficult to characterize: the grains are too small to allow for measurements across individual grain boundaries (as is often done for polycrystalline films of small molecules) and bulk measurements are complicated by the unknown orientation of polymer chains within the grain. To better understand the effect of chain orientation on grain boundaries, we use anisotropic thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) - one of the most well-studied polymeric semiconductors, as a tool to study charge transport.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

82

Charge independence, charge symmetry breaking in the S-wave nucleon-nucleon interaction, and renormalization  

SciTech Connect

We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.

Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Charge transfer effects in surface?enhanced Raman scatteringa)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface?enhanced Raman scattering(SERS) due to charge?transferinteractions between the adsorbed molecule and the metal surface is analyzed using the semiempirical Wolfsberg–Helmholz method to relate the molecule–surface interactions and the resulting charge?transfer states to the overlap integrals between the metal conduction?band orbitals and an acceptor or donor molecular orbital of the molecule. Calculations for the model system of ethylene adsorbed on silver with charge?transfer excitation of an electron from the metal to the antibonding etylene ? orbital show that charge?transfer Raman enhancements of the order of 10 to 1000 are possible if the charge?transfer band is partially resonant with the exciting radiation. Symmetric vibrations usually will be enhanced substantially more than nonsymmetric ones by this mechanism because the vibrational coupling is primarily Franck–Condon rather than Herzberg–Teller. The presence of overtone and combination bands in charge?transfer?enhanced Raman spectra is also possible.

Frank J. Adrian

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Nucleotide Pools and Adenylate Energy Charge in Balanced and Unbalanced Growth of Chromatium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Pools and Adenylate Energy Charge in Balanced...University, Ithaca, New York 14850 Adenine nucleotide pools and their energy charge were measured...University, Ithaca, New York 14850 Received for...nucleotide pools and their energy charge were measured...

Margaret L. Miovi?; Jane Gibson

1973-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Siv Schwink U. Illinois (217) 300-2201 Email "The emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems is a particular case of what physicists call fractionalization, or deconfinement of

86

Electromagnetic fluctuation-induced interactions in randomly charged slabs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Randomly charged net-neutral dielectric slabs are shown to interact across a featureless dielectric continuum with long-range electrostatic forces that scale with the statistical variance of their quenched random charge distribution and inversely with the distance between their bounding surfaces. By accounting for the whole spectrum of electromagnetic field fluctuations, we show that this long-range disorder-generated interaction extends well into the retarded regime where higher-order Matsubara frequencies contribute significantly. This occurs even for highly clean samples with only a trace amount of charge disorder and shows that disorder effects can be important down to the nano scale. As a result, the previously predicted non-monotonic behavior for the total force between dissimilar slabs as a function of their separation distance is substantially modified by higher-order contributions, and in almost all cases of interest, we find that the equilibrium inter-surface separation is shifted to substantially larger values compared to predictions based solely on the zero-frequency component. This suggests that the ensuing non-monotonic interaction is more easily amenable to experimental detection. The presence of charge disorder in the intervening dielectric medium between the two slabs is shown to lead to an additional force that can be repulsive or attractive depending on the system parameters and can, for instance, wash out the non-monotonic behavior of the total force when the intervening slab contains a sufficiently large amount of disorder charges.

Vahid Rezvani; Jalal Sarabadani; Ali Naji; Rudolf Podgornik

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

87

CHARGED TORI IN SPHERICAL GRAVITATIONAL AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.

Slany, P.; Kovar, J.; Stuchlik, Z. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Karas, V., E-mail: petr.slany@fpf.slu.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II, Prague CZ-141 31 (Czech Republic)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Polarization Correlations in Pair Production from Charged and Neutral Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarization correlations of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair productions from charged and neutral Nambu strings are investigated, via photon and graviton emissions, respectively and explicit expressions for their corresponding probabilities are derived and found to be \\textit{speed} dependent. The strings are taken to be circularly oscillating closed strings, as perhaps the simplest solution of the Nambu action. In the extreme relativistic case, these probabilities coincide, but, in general, are different, and such inquiries, in principle, indicate whether the string is charged or uncharged. It is remarkable that these dynamical relativistic quantum field theory calculations lead to a clear violation of Local Hidden Variables theories.

E. B. Manoukian; N. Yongram

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

89

Origin of the charge gap in LaMnPO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present high temperature inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility measurements of the antiferromagnetic insulator LaMnPO that are consistent with the presence of two-dimensional magnetic correlations up to a temperature Tmax?700K?TN=375 K, the Néel temperature. Optical transmission measurements show the T=300 K direct charge gap ?=1 eV has decreased only marginally by 500 K and suggest it decreases by only 10% at Tmax. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory calculations reproduce a direct charge gap in paramagnetic LaMnPO only when a strong Hund's coupling JH=0.9 eV is included, as well as on-site Hubbard U=8 eV. Our results show that LaMnPO is a Mott-Hund's insulator, in which the charge gap is rather insensitive to antiferromagnetic exchange coupling.

D. E. McNally; J. W. Simonson; K. W. Post; Z. P. Yin; M. Pezzoli; G. J. Smith; V. Leyva; C. Marques; L. DeBeer-Schmitt; A. I. Kolesnikov; Y. Zhao; J. W. Lynn; D. N. Basov; G. Kotliar; M. C. Aronson

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

Enhanced Charge Transport in Enzyme-Wired Organometallic Block Copolymers for Bioenergy and Biosensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhanced Charge Transport in Enzyme-Wired Organometallic Block Copolymers for Bioenergy and Biosensors ...

Joungphil Lee; Hyungmin Ahn; Ilyoung Choi; Markus Boese; Moon Jeong Park

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

91

Combination rules, charge symmetry, and Hall effect in cuprates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rule relating the observed Hall coefficient to the spin and charge responses of the uniform doped Mott insulator is derived. It is essential to include the contribution of holon and spinon three-current correlations to the effective action of the gauge field. In the vicinity of the Mott insulating point the Hall coefficient is holon dominated and weakly temperature dependent. In the vicinity of a point of charge conjugation symmetry, the holon contribution to the observed Hall coefficient is small: the Hall coefficient follows the temperature dependence of the diamagnetic susceptibility with a sign determined by the Fermi-surface shape.

A. J. Schofield and J. M. Wheatley

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

93

Charge and CP symmetry breaking in two Higgs doublet models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that, for the most generic model with two Higgs doublets possessing a minimum that preserves the $U(1)_{em}$ symmetry, charge breaking (CB) cannot occur. If CB does not occur, the potential could have two different minima, and there is in principle no general argument to show which one is the deepest. The depth of the potential at a stationary point that breaks CB or CP, relative to the $U(1)_{em}$ preserving minimum, is proportional to the squared mass of the charged or pseudoscalar Higgs, respectively.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; R. Santos

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

in Public to someone by E-mail in Public to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on AddThis.com... More in this section... Electricity Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Charging at Home Charging in Public

95

Charged Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of massive electrically charged scalars in a uniform background of charged fermions. We focus on the case when the scalar condensate screens the background charge, while the net charge of the system resides on its boundary surface. A distinctive signature of this substance is that the photon acquires a Lorentz-violating mass in the bulk of the condensate. Due to this mass, the transverse and longitudinal gauge modes propagate with different group velocities. We give qualitative arguments that at high enough densities and low temperatures a charged system of electrons and helium-4 nuclei, if held together by laboratory devices or by force of gravity, can form such a substance. We briefly discuss possible manifestations of the charged condensate in compact astrophysical objects.

Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A. Rosen

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

Published in Phys: Rev: D 44 3887 \\Gamma 3898 (1991) COULOMB FIELD OF AN ACCELERATED CHARGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Published in Phys: Rev: D 44 3887 \\Gamma 3898 (1991) COULOMB FIELD OF AN ACCELERATED CHARGE Columbus, Ohio 43210 ABSTRACT The Coulomb field of a charge static in an accelerated frame has properties the accelerated charge and the charge induced on the surface whose history is the event horizon. A spectral

Gerlach, Ulrich

97

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science? Nanoscience and other developing countries are also joining in this scientific effort. What does nanoscience of an intrinsic nanoscale science that existed before "nanoscience". So we can now reformulate our question: what

Qian, Ning

98

Transport in charged colloids driven by thermoelectricity Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general by showing how the Soret e¤ect of the mobile ions leads to a salinity gradient and a macro- scopic of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and ...nd that it is to a large extent determined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the effect of inhomogeneity on the charge regulation and dielectric properties, and how it depends on the conformational characteristics of the macromolecules is a long-standing problem. In order to address this problem, we have developed a field-theory to study charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes. The theory is used to study a polyacid brush, which is comprised of chains end-grafted at the solid-fluid interface, in equilibrium with a bulk solution containing monovalent salt ions, solvent molecules and pH controlling acid. In particular, we focus on the effects of the concentration of added salt and pH of the bulk in determining the local charge and dielectric function. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the dipole moment of the ion-pairs formed as a result of counterion adsorption on the chain backbones play a key role in affecting the local dielectric function. For polyelectrolytes made of monomers having dipole moments lower than the solvent molecules, dielectric decrement is predicted inside the brush region. However, the formation of ion-pairs (due to adsorption of counterions coming from the dissociation of added salt) more polar than the solvent molecules is shown to increase the magnitude of the dielectric function with respect to its bulk value. Furthermore, an increase in the bulk salt concentration is shown to increase the local charge inside the brush region.

Rajeev Kumar; Bobby G. Sumpter; S. Michael Kilbey II

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Charge, spin and pseudospin in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene, a one-atom-thick form of carbon, has emerged in the last few years as a fertile electron system, highly promising for both fundamental research and applications. In this thesis we consider several topics in ...

Abanin, Dmitry A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Anomalous dimuon charge asymmetry in proton-antiproton collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an overview of the measurements of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry by the DO Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton Collider. The results differ from the Standard Model prediction of CP violation in mixing and interference of B^0 and B^0_s by 3.6 standard deviations.

B. Hoeneisen

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

102

CP-Violation in Charged K3 Decays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......75, No.5, May 1986, Progress Letters CP-Violation in Charged K ~31r Decays Yukio...there are at least four places where the CP-viola- tion can manifest itself. These...spectively. Further a;(a/) is the CP-conserving (violating) ampulitude of......

Yukio Itô

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Self-consistent modeling of charge redistributions in Josephson junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-consistent modeling of charge redistributions in Josephson junctions J. K. Freericks, Josephson Junction talk, 2000 #12;Josephson Proximity-Effect Junctions · A Superconductor-Normal metal, Georgetown University, Josephson Junction talk, 2000 S N S I I V V Ic #12;Andreev Bound States · At an N

Freericks, Jim

104

Adenylate energy charge in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during starvation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Anaerobiosis Cell Count Energy Metabolism Ethanol metabolism Glucose...cells, and the energy charge fell to about 0.4. When ethanol was added to the...when starved for an energy source. In contrast, cells grown on ethanol and cells grown...

W J Ball Jr; D E Atkinson

1975-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

What determines the mobility of charge carriers in conjugated polymers?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...assume that, in principle, transport is fast...electroreflection method, Weiser Moller...doping. The latter method implies the introduction...able to recover the basic features of charge...relevant for organic photovoltaic devices, because...transport. The method of choice is radiation-induced...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Charge Transfer Reactions in Porous Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-gels have been shown to be good materials for solid state dye lasers and as sensors.17 Zeolites are naturally-occurring or synthetic microporous, microcrystalline miner- als used in catalysis. Zeolites are used most prolifically in the petroleum industry...

Mitchell-Koch, Katie Rose

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

CP violation in charged-kaon decay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CP-violating asymmetry [?(K+??+?+?-) -?(K-??-?-?+)]/[? (K+??+?+?-)+?(K- ??-?-?+)] is determined by CP violation in kaon decay amplitudes. We derive an expression for this asymmetry in the standard six-quark model including CP violation from both strong and electromagnetic penguin-type diagrams.

B. Grinstein; Soo-Jong Rey; Mark B. Wise

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Charge regulation in ionic solutions: thermal fluctuations and Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the behavior of two macroions with dissociable charge groups, regulated by local variables such as pH and electrostatic potential, immersed in a mono-valent salt solution, considering cases where the net charge can either change sign or remain of the same sign depending on these local parameters. The charge regulation, in both cases, is described with the proper free energy function for each of the macroions, while the coupling between the charges is evaluated on the approximate Debye-H\\"uckel level. The charge correlation functions and the ensuing charge fluctuation forces are calculated analytically and numerically. Strong attraction between like-charged macroions is found close to the point of zero charge, specifically due to asymmetric, anticorrelated charge fluctuations of the macroion charges. The general theory is then implemented for a system of two protein-like macroions, generalizing the form and magnitude of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.

Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

109

Influence of Induced Charges in the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scale potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge.

Rui-Feng Wang

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

110

Plasma effect in Silicon Charge Couple Devices (CCDs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasma effect is observed in CCDs exposed to heavy ionizing alpha-particles with energies in the range 0.5 - 5.5 MeV. The results obtained for the size of the charge clusters reconstructed on the CCD pixels agrees with previous measurements in the high energy region (>3.5 MeV). The measurements were extended to lower energies using alpha-particles produced by (n,alpha) reactions of neutrons in a Boron-10 target. The effective linear charge density for the plasma column is measured as a function of energy. The results demonstrate the potential for high position resolution in the reconstruction of alpha particles, which opens an interesting possibility for using these detectors in neutron imaging applications.

Estrada, Juan; Blostein, J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

112

Stress measurements in glass using shaped-charge jets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stresses were measured in glass targets in the vicinity of a penetrating shaped-charge jet. Stress levels of approximately 0.3 \\{GPa\\} were measured 12–20mm away from a jet formed by a 35mm copper liner. High speed framing camera photographs showed that the penetration velocity in the glass was 2.57 km/s and the glass fracture velocity was 2.10 km/s.

William Lawrence; Robert E. Franz

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery  

SciTech Connect

In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

Granados, Carlos G. [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Charged Majoron Emission in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine in detail the predictions of the charged majoron model, introduced recently by Burgess and Cline, for 0+ --> 0+ double beta decay transitions. The relevant nuclear matrix elements are evaluated, within the quasiparticle random phase approximation, for 76Ge, 82Se, 100Mo, 128Te and 150Nd nuclei. The calculated transition rates turn out to be much smaller than the experimental upper limits on possible majoron emission, except in a small region of the model's parameter space.

C. Barbero; J. M. Cline; F. Krmpotic; D. Tadic

1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

Instability of strongly charged sources in classical scalar electrodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We solve the equations of motion of classical scalar electrodynamics for a fixed source in electromagnetic interaction with a scalar field. We find that above some critical coupling strength there exist field configurations corresponding to a partial screening of the external source, which have a lower energy than the pure Coulomb (with zero scalar field) solution. Thus, in classical scalar electrodynamics, there is an upper limit on the charge of stable external sources.

M. Bawin and J. Cugnon

1983-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Search for Charged Lepton Violation in Narrow Upsilon Decays  

SciTech Connect

Charged lepton flavor violating processes are unobservable in the standard model, but they are predicted to be enhanced in several extensions to the standard model, including supersymmetry and models with leptoquarks or compositeness. We present a search for such processes in a sample of 99 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(2S) decays and 117 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(3S) decays collected with the BABAR detector. We place upper limits on the branching fractions {Beta}({Upsilon}(nS) {yields} e{sup {+-}}{tau}{sup {-+}}) and {Beta}({Upsilon}(nS) {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{tau}{sup {-+}}) (n = 2, 3) at the 10{sup -6} level and use these results to place lower limits of order 1 TeV on the mass scale of charged lepton flavor violating effective operators.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Hawkes, C.M.; /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Columbus Supercond., Genova /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Consorzio Milano Ricerche /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

117

Measurement of the Charge Asymmetry in Semileptonic Bs0 Decays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have performed the first direct measurement of the time-integrated flavor untagged charge asymmetry in semileptonic Bs0 decays ASLs,unt by comparing the decay rate of Bs0??+Ds-?X, where Ds-???- and ??K+K-, with the charge-conjugate B¯s0 decay rate. This sample was selected from 1.3??fb-1 of data collected by the D0 experiment in run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain ASLs,unt=[1.23±0.97(stat)±0.17(syst)]×10-2. Assuming that ?ms/?¯s?1, this result can be translated into a measurement of the CP-violating phase in Bs0 mixing: ??s/?mstan??s=[2.45±1.93(stat)±0.35(syst)]×10-2.

V. M. Abazov et al. (D0 Collaboration)

2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

118

Varying electric charge in multi-scale spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multi-scale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multi-fractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

Calcagni, Gianluca; Fernández, David Rodríguez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Charges and Generators of Symmetry Transformations in Quantum Field Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the Wightman approach to quantum field theory, we review and clarify the properties of formal charges, defined as space integrals for the fourth component of a local current. The conditions for a formal charge to determine an operator (generator) are discussed, in connection with the well-known theorems of Goldstone and of Coleman. The symmetry transformations generated by this operator—given its existence—are also studied in some detail. For generators in a scattering theory, we prove their additivity and thus provide a simple way to characterize them from their matrix elements between one-particle states. This characterization allows an immediate construction of the unitary operators implementing the symmetry transformations, and implies that all internal symmetry groups are necessarily compact. We also indicate how to construct interacting fields having definite internal quantum numbers. The present status of the proof of Noether's theorem and of its converse is discussed in the light of the rather delicate properties of formal charges.

CLAUDIO A. ORZALESI

1970-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Role of cooperative lattice distortion in the charge, orbital, and spin ordering in doped manganites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The role of lattice distortion in the charge, orbital, and spin ordering in half-doped manganites has been investigated. For fixed magnetic ordering, we show that the cooperative lattice distortion stabilize the experimentally observed ordering even when the strong onsite electronic correlation is taken into account. Furthermore, without invoking the magnetic interactions, the cooperative lattice distortion alone may lead to the correct charge and orbital ordering including the charge stacking effect, and the magnetic ordering can be the consequence of such a charge and orbital ordering. We propose that the cooperative nature of the lattice distortion is essential to understand the complicated charge, orbital, and spin ordering observed in doped manganites.

R. Y. Gu and C. S. Ting

2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

122

Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in photo-excited charge ordered nickelate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of topological defects in a photo-excited charge-orderedof topological defects in a photo-excited charge-orderedremains unchanged in the photo-excited transient state.

Lee, W.S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2 and CeO2. Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2 and CeO2. Abstract: Density functional...

124

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

at Home to someone by E-mail at Home to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on AddThis.com... More in this section... Electricity Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Charging at Home Charging in Public Vehicles

125

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Charging Requirements to someone by E-mail Charging Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

126

CP violation and strong pion-pion interactions in the weak B charged decays into three charged pions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis of charged B decay data in a quasi two-body decay into a charged pion plus a S, P,or D state of two charged pions is performed in the QCD factorization framework. The short distance amplitudes are calculated including next-to-leading order corrections in the strong coupling constant for vertex and penguin contributions. The long distance amplitudes due to the two charged pion final state interactions are described by the pion non-strange scalar and vector form factors for the two-pion S- and P-wave states, respectively and by a relativistic Breit-Wigner formula for the D-wave state. We achieve a good fit of the data with only three parameters for the S wave, one for the P wave and one for the D wave. Our model gives a unified unitary description of the three scalar resonances, f_0(600), f_0(980) and f_0(1400) in terms of the pion scalar form factor. We predict for the B to f_2(1270) transition form factor a value of 0.098+-0.007 at a momentum transfer square equal to the pion-mass square.

B. Loiseau; J. -P. Dedonder; A. Furman; R. Kaminski; L. Lesniak

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam  

SciTech Connect

Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub x} oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance ({nu}{sub {mu}}N {yields} {mu}{sup -} N{pi}{sup +}) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus ({nu}{sub {mu}}A {yields} {mu}{sup -} A{pi}{sup +}), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, {nu}{sub {mu}} {sup 12}C {yields} {mu}{sup -12}C{pi}{sup +}, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 10{sup 20} protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged current coherent pion production to the total charged current cross section at 0.67 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 1.1 GeV and 1.36 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 2.2 GeV. We reveal that the Rein-Sehgal model widely used in neutrino oscillation experiments breaks down at the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. This creates active controversies on the model of coherent pion production, and the understanding of coherent pion production is being progressed. In addition, future prospects of measurements of charged current single charged pion production in SciBooNE are discussed.

Hiraide, Katsuki; /Kyoto U.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Charged particles in higher dimensional homogeneous gravitational field: self-energy and self-force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A problem of self-energy and self-force for a charged point-like particle in a higher dimensional homogeneous gravitational field is considered. We study two cases, when a particle has the usual electric charg...

Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei Zelnikov

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Interaction for solitary waves in coasting charged particle beams  

SciTech Connect

By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, the collision of solitary waves in a coasting charged particle beams is studied. The results show that the system admits a solution with two solitary waves, which move in opposite directions and can be described by two Korteweg-deVries equation in small-amplitude limit. The collision of two solitary waves is elastic, and after the interaction they preserve their original properties. Then the weak phase shift in traveling direction of collision between two solitary waves is derived explicitly.

Liu, Shi-Wei; Hong, Xue-Ren; Shi, Yu-Ren; Duan, Wen-shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic an Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)] [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic an Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han, Jiu-Ning [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)] [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Confinement of Spin and Charge in High-Temperature Superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By exploiting the internal gauge-invariance intrinsic to a spin-charge separated electron, we show that such degrees of freedom must be confined in two-dimensional superconductors experiencing strong inter-electron repulsion. We also demonstrate that incipient confinement in the normal state can prevent chiral spin-fluctuations from destroying the cross-over between strange and psuedo-gap regimes in under-doped high-temperature superconductors. Last, we suggest that the negative Hall anomaly observed in these materials is connected with this confinement effect.

J. P. Rodriguez; Pascal Lederer

1996-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

Dynamics of Photoinduced Charge Transfer and Hole Transport in Synthetic DNA Hairpins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamics of Photoinduced Charge Transfer and Hole Transport in Synthetic DNA Hairpins ... The dynamics of photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination processes in synthetic DNA hairpins have been investigated by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. ... for a family of synthetic DNA hairpins in which a stilbene dicarboxamide forms a bridge connecting two oligonucleotide arms. ...

Frederick D. Lewis; Robert L. Letsinger; Michael R. Wasielewski

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

132

Charge-exchange collisions in interpenetrating laser-produced magnesium plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge-exchange collisions in interpenetrating laser-produced magnesium plasmas S.S. HARILAL,1 C charge-exchange collisions between highly charged Mg ions in colliding laser-produced magnesium plasmas magnesium plasmas. 1. INTRODUCTION Several applications of laser-produced plasmas involve an experimental

Harilal, S. S.

133

Workplace Charging Challenge  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping build our...

134

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Public Charging Public Charging Station Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits and Costs of Hosting a Charging Station . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Charging Station Locations and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ownership and Payment Models . . . . . . 14 Installing and Maintaining Charging Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Electrifying the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Clean Cities Helps Establish PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique knowledge and skills . If you need help, contact your local Clean Cities coordinator . Clean Cities is the U .S . Department of Energy's flagship alterna- tive-transportation deployment initiative . It is supported

135

Charge recombination in the muon collider cooling channel  

SciTech Connect

The final stage of the ionization cooling channel for the muon collider must transversely recombine the positively and negatively charged bunches into a single beam before the muons can be accelerated. It is particularly important to minimize any emittance growth in this system since no further cooling takes place before the bunches are collided. We have found that emittance growth could be minimized by using symmetric pairs of bent solenoids and careful matching. We show that a practical design can be found that has transmission {approx}99%, emittance growth less than 0.1%, and minimal dispersion in the recombined bunches.

Fernow, R. C.; Palmer, R. B. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

136

ARCHITECTURE FOR A SERVICE-ORIENTED AND CONVERGENT CHARGING IN 3G MOBILE NETWORKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARCHITECTURE FOR A SERVICE-ORIENTED AND CONVERGENT CHARGING IN 3G MOBILE NETWORKS AND BEYOND R Systems, Erlangen, Germany Keywords: Charging architecture, service-oriented, convergent, 3G mobile we present a service-oriented charging architecture. The key idea of the architecture

Carle, Georg

137

Functional capacities and the adenylate energy charge in Escherichia coli under conditions of nutritional stress.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...utilization of new substrates, and...with the adenylate energy charge of the culture...for adaptation to new substrates as long as the energy charge can be stabilized...Sons, Inc., New York. 18. Swedes...the aden- ylate energy charge in an adenine-requiring...

M Walker-Simmons; D E Atkinson

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Parallel Multiphysics Simulations of Charged Particles in Microfluidic Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The article describes parallel multiphysics simulations of charged particles in microfluidic flows with the waLBerla framework. To this end, three physical effects are coupled: rigid body dynamics, fluid flow modelled by a lattice Boltzmann algorithm, and electric potentials represented by a finite volume discretisation. For solving the finite volume discretisation for the electrostatic forces, a cell-centered multigrid algorithm is developed that conforms to the lattice Boltzmann meshes and the parallel communication structure of waLBerla. The new functionality is validated with suitable benchmark scenarios. Additionally, the parallel scaling and the numerical efficiency of the algorithms are analysed on an advanced supercomputer.

Bartuschat, Dominik

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

140

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-In Electric Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate - APS on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Charge states of Ca atoms in {beta}-dicalcium silicate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the crystal structure of {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out at temperatures between room temperature (RT) and 600 deg. C. Rietveld refinement at RT has shown that {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} is monoclinic based on P2{sub 1}/n symmetry and two different types of Ca sites, Ca(1) and Ca(2). All interatomic distances within 3A were calculated, with the valences of Ca(1) with seven Ca-O bonds and Ca(2) with eight were estimated to be 1.87+ and 2+ by the Zachariasen-Brown-Altermatt formula (bond valence sum). Applying charge neutrality the two charge states of Ca in {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} are [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and Ca(2){sup 2+}, respectively. Furthermore, the [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} unit has the shortest Ca-O distance, and its length kept constant at 2.23A at all temperatures. In the short-range structure analysis at RT, the shortest Ca-O bond was also observed in a radial distribution function. These results imply that the [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} unit has covalency on the shortest Ca-O in addition to Si-O.

Mori, Kazuhiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)]. E-mail: kmori@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kiyanagi, Ryoji [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Yonemura, Masao [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa-cho, Hitach, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Iwase, Kenji [Department of Materials Structure Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Itoh, Keiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Sugiyama, Masaaki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kamiyama, Takashi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Fukunaga, Toshiharu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-In Electric Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SMUD on AddThis.com...

143

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

in Electric in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on AddThis.com...

144

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

In Electric In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations on

145

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-In Electric Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - NV Energy on AddThis.com...

146

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-in Electric Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption on AddThis.com...

147

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-in Electric Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Incentive - Alabama Power on

148

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-In Electric Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Rate Incentive - Georgia Power on AddThis.com...

149

Physical limits for high ion charge states in pulsed discharges in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

Short-pulse, high-current discharges in vacuum were investigated with the goal to maximize the ion charge state number. In a direct extension of previous work [Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041502 (2008)], the role of pulse length, rate of current rise, and current amplitude was studied. For all experimental conditions, the usable (extractable) mean ion charge state could not be pushed beyond 7+. Instead, a maximum of the mean ion charge state (about 6+ to 7+ for most cathode materials) was found for a power of 2-3 MW dissipated in the discharge gap. The maximum is the result of two opposing processes that occur when the power is increased: (i) the formation of higher ion charge states, and (ii) a greater production of neutrals (both metal and non-metal), which reduces the charge state via charge exchange collisions.

Yushkov, Georgy; Anders, Andre

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Oregon Leads the Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Leads the Charge for Plug-In Vehicles and Infrastructure on AddThis.com...

151

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Developing Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on AddThis.com...

152

Surface States and the Charge of a Dust Particle in a Plasma  

SciTech Connect

We investigate electron and ion surface states of a negatively charged dust particle in a gas discharge and identify the charge of the particle with the electron surface density bound in the polarization-induced short-range part of the particle potential. On that scale, ions do not affect the charge. They are trapped in the shallow states of the Coulomb tail of the potential and act only as screening charges. Using orbital-motion limited electron charging fluxes and the particle temperature as an adjustable parameter, we obtain excellent agreement with experimental data.

Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.; Deutsch, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Kersten, H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

153

Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tribal Women in Power Tribal Women in Power Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power October 22, 2012 - 4:19pm Addthis Andrea Alexander, Makah Tribe in Neah Bay (Washington)/Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians Andrea Alexander, Makah Tribe in Neah Bay (Washington)/Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians Kathy Mayo, Eagle Village in Upper Yukon (Alaska)/Tanana Chiefs Conference Kathy Mayo, Eagle Village in Upper Yukon (Alaska)/Tanana Chiefs Conference Tara Hess-McGeown, Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California/Intertribal Council of Nevada Tara Hess-McGeown, Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California/Intertribal Council of Nevada Andrea Alexander, Makah Tribe in Neah Bay (Washington)/Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians Kathy Mayo, Eagle Village in Upper Yukon (Alaska)/Tanana Chiefs Conference

154

Photo-CELIV technique for the investigations of charge carriers transport and recombination in the organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this presentation is given the advantages and disadvantages of the Charge Extraction of photogenerated charge carriers by Linearly Increasing Voltage (photo-CELIV) technique for...

Juska, Gytis

155

Electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process in degenerate quantum plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process are investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard formalism with the effective interaction potential is employed to obtain the charge capture radius, capture probability, and capture cross section as functions of the impact parameter, projectile energy, electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, and plasmon energy. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect enhances the charge capture radius and the charge capture cross section in semiconductor quantum plasmas. It is also found that the charge capture radius and charge capture cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy and, however, decreases with increasing plasmon energy. Additionally, it is found that the peak position of the charge capture cross section is receded from the collision center with an increase of the electron-exchange parameter.

Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States) [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Crystallization and melting of a system of charges in a liquid helium cluster  

SciTech Connect

A system of like (positive or negative) charges forming 'snowballs' or 'bubbles' in a three-dimensional liquid helium cluster is investigated. The charges are confined inside the cluster by an 'image potential' produced by the polarization of liquid helium. The stability of a multiply charged helium cluster is considered. Computer simulations are used to investigate the crystallization and melting of the system of charges depending on the dimensionless parameter T* = k{sub B}T{epsilon}R/e{sup 2}, where k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature, {epsilon} is the dielectric constant of liquid helium, R is the cluster radius, and e is a unit charge. Various characteristics, including symmetry groups and moments, have been found for equilibrium configurations of charges in a cluster with N = 1-100 charges. At small N {approx} 10, Thomson's model of successive filling of 'belts' of charges can be used to describe the structure of equilibrium configurations of charges. At large N, the description of the structure formed by charges using the idea of a quasi-two-dimensional 'closed triangular lattice' with topological defects is more adequate. Formally, this description is valid starting from N = 4. The melting of a 'lattice' of charges is described. A number of our conclusions can be generalized to clusters of other noble gases.

Livshits, A. M., E-mail: livshits@isan.troitsk.ru; Lozovik, Yu. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Electric Charge and Electric Field Electrostatics: Charge at rest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 16 Electric Charge and Electric Field #12;Electrostatics: Charge at rest Electric Charges of conservation of Electric Charge: The net amount of electric charge produced in any process is zero. Model, neutral). #12;· All protons and electrons have same magnitude of electric charge but their masses

Yu, Jaehoon

158

Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Acoustic radiation by charged nuclear particles in liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analysis of the propagation of acoustic pulses produced by local heating of liquids due to ionization by charged particles is presented. It is shown that the wave equations with loss dominate the pulse shape after small distances and that due to the bipolar delta?function behavior of the individual pulses a net observed pulse is simply the time derivative of the received density of pulses from individual heating centers. Angular distributions signal to noise ratios and detectable volumes are discussed. One important result is that the effect of attenuation in the acoustic medium is to produce a power law rather than an exponential cutoff at large distances. For example in the thermal?noise?limited case the signal to noise ratio as defined herein only steepens by 1/2 power in fall off with distance due to attenuation.

John G. Learned

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Massive charged scalar field in the Kerr-Newman background II: Hawking radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform accurate calculations of the energy-, momentum-, and charge-emission rates of a charged scalar field in the background of the Kerr-Newman black hole at the range of parameters for which the effect is not negligibly small and, at the same time, the semiclassical regime is, at least marginally, valid. For black holes with charge below or not much higher than the charge accretion limit $Q \\sim \\mu M/e$ (where $e$ and $\\mu$ are the electron's mass and charge), the time between the consequent emitting of two charged particles is very large. For primordial black holes the transition between the increasing and decreasing of the ratio $Q/M$ occurs around the charge accretion limit. The rotation increases the intensity of radiation up to three orders, while the effect of the field's mass strongly suppresses the radiation.

R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Workplace Workplace Charging Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits of Workplace Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Evaluating and Planning for Workplace Charging . . . . . . . 9 Workplace Charging Management and Policy Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Workplace Charging Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Electrifying Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Clean Cities Helps Establish Charging Infrastructure The U .S . Department of Energy's Clean Cities program supports local actions to reduce petroleum use in transportation . Nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions across the country work

162

Quantitative Assessment of Range Fluctuations in Charged Particle Lung Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Water equivalent path length (WEL) variations due to respiration can change the range of a charged particle beam and result in beam overshoot to critical organs or beam undershoot to tumor. We have studied range fluctuations by analyzing four-dimensional computed tomography data and quantitatively assessing potential beam overshoot. Methods and Materials: The maximal intensity volume is calculated by combining the gross tumor volume contours at each respiratory phase in the four-dimensional computed tomography study. The first target volume calculates the maximal intensity volume for the entire respiratory cycle (internal target volume [ITV]-radiotherapy [RT]), and the second target volume is the maximal intensity volume corresponding to gated RT (gated-RT, {approx}30% phase window around exhalation). A compensator at each respiratory phase is calculated. Two 'composite' compensators for ITV-RT and gated-RT are then designed by selecting the minimal compensator depth at the respective respiratory phase. These compensators are then applied to the four-dimensional computed tomography data to estimate beam penetration. Analysis metrics include range fluctuation and overshoot volume, both as a function of gantry angle. We compared WEL fluctuations observed in treating the ITV-RT versus gated-RT in 11 lung patients. Results: The WEL fluctuations were <21.8 mm-WEL and 9.5 mm-WEL for ITV-RT and gated-RT, respectively for all patients. Gated-RT reduced the beam overshoot volume by approximately a factor of four compared with ITV-RT. Such range fluctuations can affect the efficacy of treatment and result in an excessive dose to a distal critical organ. Conclusion: Time varying range fluctuation analysis provides information useful for determining appropriate patient-specific treatment parameters in charged particle RT. This analysis can also be useful for optimizing planning and delivery.

Mori, Shinichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: shinshin@nirs.go.jp; Wolfgang, John; Lu, H.-M.; Schneider, Robert; Choi, Noah C.; Chen, George T.Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Measurement of charge exchange cross sections for highly charged xenon and thorium ions with molecular hydrogen in a Penning Ion Trap  

SciTech Connect

Highly charged xenon (35+ to 46+) and thorium (72+ to 79+) ions were produced in an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). The ions were extracted from EBIT in a short pulse. Ions of one charge state were selected using an electromagnet. The ions were recaptured at low energy in a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP). As the ions captured electrons from molecular hydrogen, populations of the various charge states were obtained by measuring the image currents induced by the ions on the electrodes of the trap. Data on the number of ions in each charge state vs. time were compared to theoretical rate equations in order to determine the average charge exchange rates. These rates were compared to charge exchange rates of an ion with a known charge exchange cross section (Ar{sup 11+}) measured in a similar manner in order to determine the average charge exchange cross sections for the highly charged ions. The energy of interaction between the highly charged ions and hydrogen was estimated to be 4 eV in the center of mass frame. The mean charge exchange cross sections were 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 2} for Xe{sup 43+} to Xe{sup 46+} and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2} for Th{sup 73+} to Th{sup 79+}. Double capture was approximately 20--25% of the total for both xenon and thorium. A fit indicated that the cross sections were approximately proportional to q. This is consistent with a linear dependence of cross section on q within the measurement uncertainties.

Weinberg, G.M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

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165

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-In Electric Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - Dakota Electric to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - Dakota Electric on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - Dakota Electric on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - Dakota Electric on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - Dakota Electric on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - Dakota Electric on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In

166

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

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167

Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers. We discuss this effect within Thomas-Fermi and Debye-Huckel theory and derive analytical results for cylindrical wires which can be used to estimate the sensitivity of nanowire surface-charge sensors. We study the interplay between the nanowire radius, the Thomas-Fermi and Debye screening lengths, and the length of the functionalization molecules. The analytical results are compared to finite-element calculations on a realistic geometry.

Martin H. Sorensen; Niels Asger Mortensen; Mads Brandbyge

2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

168

Simulation of the space charge effect in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Space charge forces, representing the weak-strong case, are simulated by kicks from a line charge having a 2D-Gaussian transverse charge distribution. A series of particles having initial coordinates consistent with the dimensions of the injected beam are tracked sequentially, and tunes are obtained from analysis of the coordinates, x, x{prime}, y, and y{prime}, at the end of each turn. Stability is tested using 30K turn tracking runs during which the momentum error {delta} varies as {delta} = {delta}sin(2{pi}Q{sub s}t).

Dell, G.F.; Peggs, S.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Associated charged Higgs boson and squark production in the NUHM model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Conventional searches for the charged Higgs boson using its production in association with Standard Model (SM) quarks is notoriously weak in the mid-tanB range.… (more)

Lund, Gustav

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

SCE to someone by E-mail SCE to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SCE on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SCE on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SCE on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SCE on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SCE on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - SCE on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

171

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

LADWP to someone by E-mail LADWP to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - LADWP on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - LADWP on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - LADWP on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - LADWP on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - LADWP on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction - LADWP on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

172

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Plug-In Electric Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction and Rebate - Consumers Energy to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction and Rebate - Consumers Energy on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction and Rebate - Consumers Energy on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction and Rebate - Consumers Energy on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction and Rebate - Consumers Energy on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Rate Reduction and Rebate - Consumers Energy on Digg

173

Finite-size effect on the charging free energy of protein in explicit solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Finite-size effect on the charging free energy of protein in explicit solvent ... The finite-size effect in periodic system is examined for the charging free energy of protein in explicit solvent over a variety of charged states. ... The key to the finite-size correction is the self-energy, which is defined as the interaction energy of the solute with its own periodic images and the neutralizing background. ...

Toru Ekimoto; Nobuyuki Matubayasi; Mitsunori Ikeguchi

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

174

Role of electric charge in shaping equilibrium configurations of fluid tori encircling black holes  

SciTech Connect

Astrophysical fluids may acquire nonzero electrical charge because of strong irradiation or charge separation in a magnetic field. In this case, electromagnetic and gravitational forces may act together and produce new equilibrium configurations, which are different from the uncharged ones. Following our previous studies of charged test particles and uncharged perfect fluid tori encircling compact objects, we introduce here a simple test model of a charged perfect fluid torus in strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields. In contrast to ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, we consider here the opposite limit of negligible conductivity, where the charges are tied completely to the moving matter. This is an extreme limiting case which can provide a useful reference against which to compare subsequent more complicated astrophysically motivated calculations. To clearly demonstrate the features of our model, we construct three-dimensional axisymmetric charged toroidal configurations around Reissner-Nordstroem black holes and compare them with equivalent configurations of electrically neutral tori.

Kovar, Jiri; Slany, Petr; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Karas, Vladimir; Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy and Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Statistical charge distribution over dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of statistical mechanics and charging kinetics, the charge distribution over uniform size spherical dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma is investigated. Two specific situations, viz., (i) the plasma in thermal equilibrium and (ii) non-equilibrium state where the plasma is dark (no emission) or irradiated by laser light (including photoemission) are taken into account. The formulation includes the population balance equation for the charged particles along with number and energy balance of the complex plasma constituents. The departure of the results for the Lorentzian plasma, from that in case of Maxwellian plasma, is graphically illustrated and discussed; it is shown that the charge distribution tends to results corresponding to Maxwellian plasma for large spectral index. The charge distribution predicts the opposite charging of the dust particles in certain cases.

Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Misra, Shikha, E-mail: shikhamish@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi-110016 (India)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Polarization Effects In The Charged Lepton Pair Production By A Neutrino (Antineutrino) In A Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The probability of the process of the charged lepton pair production by a neutrino (an antineutrino) with allowance for the longitudinal and transverse polarizations of the charged leptons in a magnetic field is presented. The dependence of the probability of the process on the spin variables of the charged leptons and on the azimuthal and polar angles of the initial and final neutrinos (antineutrinos) are investigated. It is shown that the probability of the process is sensitive to the spin variables of the charged leptons and to the direction of the neutrino (antineutrino) momentum. It is determined that the neutrino (antineutrino) energy and momentum loss through the production of a charged lepton pair happens asymmetrically.

Huseynov, Vali A. [Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Nakhchivan State University, AZ 7000, Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan); Laboratory of Physical Research, Nakhchivan Division of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, AZ 7000, Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan); Ahmad, Ali S. [Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Nakhchivan State University, AZ 7000, Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan)

2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

177

Charge recombination in organic small-molecule solar cells by Jiye Lee.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To enhance the power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells, charge recombination loss needs to be minimized. First, we perform transient absorption spectroscopy to study… (more)

Lee, Jiye

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

On the capillary vibration and stability of a charged bubble in a dielectric liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The capillary vibration and stability of a charged bubble against infinitesimal volume and shape perturbations when the bubble is immersed in a viscous incompressible dielectric ... noncentrosymmetric radial and ...

A. N. Zharov; A. I. Grigor’ev

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

On-line Decentralized Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are gaining increasing popularity in recent years, due to the growing societal awareness of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the dependence on foreign oil or petroleum. Large-scale implementation of PEVs in the power system currently faces many challenges. One particular concern is that the PEV charging can potentially cause significant impact on the existing power distribution system, due to the increase in peak load. As such, this work tries to mitigate the PEV charging impact by proposing a decentralized smart PEV charging algorithm to minimize the distribution system load variance, so that a 'flat' total load profile can be obtained. The charging algorithm is on-line, in that it controls the PEV charging processes in each time slot based entirely on the current power system state. Thus, compared to other forecast based smart charging approaches in the literature, the charging algorithm is robust against various uncertainties in the power system, such as random PE...

Li, Qiao; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Charged-species profiles in electronegative radio-frequency plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The negative ion density profile in a low pressure oxygen rf plasma has been measured by a photodetachment technique. At an rf power of 10 W and a neutral pressure of 10 mTorr, a parabolic negative ion density profile is obtained with a peak density of 8×1015 m-3 and a maximum ratio of negative ion to electron densities n-/ne?18. Under these conditions, the most abundant positive ion, determined by ion mass spectrometry, is O2+ with O+ being less than 10% of the positive ion density. The most abundant negative ion is O- with O2- and O3- being less than 20% of the total negative charge density. The maximum in the density profile of negative ions shifts closer to the powered rf electrode as the pressure is increased in the asymmetric system. Comparison of the results to theory indicates that the asymmetry follows from an enhancement of the ionization rate near the powered electrode sheath. The parabolic profile is also obtained in CCl2F2 at low pressure. Simulations and measurements show a rapid drop in ion density near the sheath that may be related to the recently discussed ‘‘stratification’’ phenomenon in electronegative plasmas.

D. Vender; W. W. Stoffels; E. Stoffels; G. M. W. Kroesen; F. J. de Hoog

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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181

Chaotic motion of charged particles in toroidal magnetic configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the motion of a charged particle in a tokamak magnetic field and discuss its chaotic nature. Contrary to most of recent studies, we do not make any assumption on any constant of the motion and solve numerically the cyclotron gyration using Hamiltonian formalism. We take advantage of a symplectic integrator allowing us to make long-time simulations. First considering an idealized magnetic configuration, we add a non generic perturbation corresponding to a magnetic ripple, breaking one of the invariant of the motion. Chaotic motion is then observed and opens questions about the link between chaos of magnetic field lines and chaos of particle trajectories. Second, we return to a axi-symmetric configuration and tune the safety factor (magnetic configuration) in order to recover chaotic motion. In this last setting with two constants of the motion, the presence of chaos implies that no third global constant exists, we highlight this fact by looking at variations of the first order of the magnetic moment in this chaotic setting. We are facing a mixed phase space with both regular and chaotic regions and point out the difficulties in performing a global reduction such as gyrokinetics.

Benjamin Cambon; Xavier Leoncini; Michel Vittot; Rémi Dumont; Xavier Garbet

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

182

Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

183

CHARGE STATE EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND. II. PLASMA CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION IN THE INNER CORONA AND ACCELERATING FAST SOLAR WIND  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution within the fast solar wind. We use the temperature, density, and velocity profiles predicted by Cranmer et al. to calculate the ionization history of the most important heavy elements in the solar corona and solar wind: C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. The evolution of each charge state is calculated from the source region in the lower chromosphere to the final freeze-in point. We show that the solar wind velocity causes the plasma to experience significant departures from equilibrium at very low heights, well inside the field of view (within 0.6 R{sub sun} from the solar limb) of nearly all the available remote-sensing instrumentation, significantly affecting observed spectral line intensities. We also study the evolution of charge state ratios with distance from the source region, and the temperature they indicate if ionization equilibrium is assumed. We find that virtually every charge state from every element freezes in at a different height, so that the definition of freeze-in height is ambiguous. We also find that calculated freeze-in temperatures indicated by charge state ratios from in situ measurements have little relation to the local coronal temperature of the wind source region, and stop evolving much earlier than their correspondent charge state ratio. We discuss the implication of our results on plasma diagnostics of coronal holes from spectroscopic measurements as well as on theoretical solar wind models relying on coronal temperatures.

Landi, E.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

184

The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow  

SciTech Connect

Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon “free decharging” conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between ?10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

Wörner, L. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France); Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Couëdel, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille-Université, Laboiratoire de Physique des Intéractions Ioniques et Moléculaires, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille cedex 20 (France)] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille-Université, Laboiratoire de Physique des Intéractions Ioniques et Moléculaires, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Schwabe, M. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L. [Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France)] [Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France); Skvortsov, A. [Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center, RU-141160 Star City (Russian Federation)] [Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center, RU-141160 Star City (Russian Federation); Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RU-125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RU-125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Rapidity Dependence of Charged Hadron Production in Central Au+Au Collisions at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­chemical potential in energy and rapidity. In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, final state hadrons are used (-0.1 y 3.5). In this paper, we report on some of our latest results on identified charged particle. Detector efficiency, multiple scattering and in­flight decay corrections #12;Charged Hadron Production

186

Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization and thermodynamic processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

643 Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization of oxygen defects in CoO using classical simulations. The charge localization in the oxygen vacancy has]. The defect concentration in the oxygen sublattice is several orders of magnitude smaller, but never- theless

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Electrostatic interactions in the presence of surface charge regulation: exact results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of charge regulation and its effects on electrostatic interactions between dissociable charge groups immersed in a univalent electrolyte, within a family of one dimensional exactly solvable models. We consider the case of both charge regulated plates, but also the interaction of pairs of finite size dielectric "particles". Using the transfer matrix formalism we are able to determine the disjoining pressure as well as the correlations between the charge and the dipole moments of the objects as a function of their separation and electrolyte concentration

A. C. Maggs; R. Podgornik

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Charge Transport in Solid and Liquid Ar, Kr, and Xe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports an investigation of the drift velocity of excess electrons in solid and liquid Ar, Kr, and Xe. After purification of the commercially available gas, thin crystal specimens (100-600 ?m) were grown from the liquid between parallel electrodes in a chamber attached to a miniature cryostat. Pulses of 40-keV electrons were used to generate the charge carriers in both liquids and solids. This technique overcomes the limitations inherent in previously applied methods and has made it possible to investigate the drift velocity over a range of applied fields from 10 V cm-1 to 100 kV cm-1. Near the triple point, the low-field mobility ?0 in solid Ar, Kr, and Xe was found to be 1000, 3700, and about 4500 cm2sec-1V-1, respectively. In the liquids the corresponding mobilities were 475, 1800, and 2200 cm2sec-1V-1. The temerature dependence of ?0 has been measured on Ar crystals, and the results indicate that ?0 is determined by acoustic scattering. The electron lifetime appears to be controlled predominantly by oxygen impurities. Pronounced hot-electron effects are observed in drift-velocity—versus—field curves for both liquids and solids, and their fit to the Shockley hot-electron theory has been investigated. In the high-field region all the curves show an almost complete saturation with field. The theory of Cohen and Lekner applied to liquid Ar fits the results over most of the field range, suggesting that the deviations from the Shockley theory at higher electron temperatures are associated with an increase in the value of the structure factor. In solid Ar or Kr, positive holes do not appear to be mobile, but in Xe crystals a hole mobility of about 2×10-2 cm2sec-1V-1 was found. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.

L. S. Miller; S. Howe; W. E. Spear

1968-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Dynamically generated electric charge distributions in Abelian projected SU(2) lattice gauge theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show in the maximal Abelian gauge the dynamical electric charge density generated by the coset fields, gauge fixing and ghosts shows antiscreening as in the case of the non-Abelian charge. We verify that with the completion of the ghost term all contributions to flux are accounted for in an exact lattice Ehrenfest relation.

A. Hart; R. W. Haymaker; Y. Sasai

1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

190

Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps G.M. Graf and G. Ortelli the charges transported in two systems, a spatially periodic and an open quantum pump, both depending physical situations become the same, i.e., that of a large open pump. 1 Introduction In this note we

191

Conserved Charges in Asymptotically (Locally) AdS Spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review issues related to conservation laws for gravity with a negative cosmological constant subject to asymptotically (locally) anti-de Sitter boundary conditions. Beginning with the empty AdS spacetime, we introduce asymptotically (locally) AdS (AlAdS) boundary conditions, important properties of the boundary metric, the notion of conformal frames, and the Fefferman-Graham expansion. These tools are used to construct variational principles for AlAdS gravity, to more properly define the notion of asymptotic symmetry, and to construct the associated boundary stress tensor. The resulting conserved charges are shown to agree (up to possible choices of zero-point) with those built using Hamiltonian methods. Brief comments are included on AdS positive energy theorems and the appearance of a central extension of the AdS$_3$ asymptotic symmetry algebra. We also describe the algebra of boundary observables and introduce the anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence using only tools from gravitational physics (and without other input from string theory). Our review focuses on motivations, current status, and open issues as opposed to calculational details. We emphasize the relativist (as opposed to particle physics) perspective and assume as background a standard graduate course in general relativity.

Sebastian Fischetti; William Kelly; Donald Marolf

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

192

Solvation thermodynamics and heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water  

SciTech Connect

The solvation thermodynamics and in particular the solvation heat capacity of polar and charged solutes in water is studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. As ionic solutes we consider a F{sup -} and a Na{sup +} ion, as an example for a polar molecule with vanishing net charge we take a SPC/E water molecule. The partial charges of all three solutes are varied in a wide range by a scaling factor. Using a recently introduced method for the accurate determination of the solvation free energy of polar solutes, we determine the free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the three different solutes as a function of temperature and partial solute charge. We find that the sum of the solvation heat capacities of the Na{sup +} and F{sup -} ions is negative, in agreement with experimental observations, but our results uncover a pronounced difference in the heat capacity between positively and negatively charged groups. While the solvation heat capacity {Delta}C{sub p} stays positive and even increases slightly upon charging the Na{sup +} ion, it decreases upon charging the F{sup -} ion and becomes negative beyond an ion charge of q=-0.3e. On the other hand, the heat capacity of the overall charge-neutral polar solute derived from a SPC/E water molecule is positive for all charge scaling factors considered by us. This means that the heat capacity of a wide class of polar solutes with vanishing net charge is positive. The common ascription of negative heat capacities to polar chemical groups might arise from the neglect of non-additive interaction effects between polar and apolar groups. The reason behind this non-additivity is suggested to be related to the second solvation shell that significantly affects the solvation thermodynamics and due to its large spatial extent induces quite long-ranged interactions between solvated molecular parts and groups.

Sedlmeier, Felix; Netz, Roland R. [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

193

In-Order Pulsed Charge Recycling in Off-Chip Data Buses Kimish Patel, Wonbok Lee, Massoud Pedram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-Order Pulsed Charge Recycling in Off-Chip Data Buses Kimish Patel, Wonbok Lee, Massoud Pedram,wonbokle,pedram}@usc.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents in-order pulsed charge recycling to reduce energy consumption in an off-chip data bus. The proposed technique performs charge recycling by employing three steps: i

Pedram, Massoud

194

Enhancement and Electric Charge-Assisted Tuning of Nonlinear Light Generation in Bipolar Plasmonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhancement and Electric Charge-Assisted Tuning of Nonlinear Light Generation in Bipolar Plasmonics) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only in many fields, such as commu- nications, sensors, imaging, medical treatments, displays, solar cells

195

Cross sections for electron capture by neutral and charged particles in collisions with He  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental and theoretical cross sections for electron capture by neutral and charged particles in collisions with He atoms are tabulated and displayed in graphical form as a function of the energy of the incident projectile and according to the projectile charge state and, to the extent possible, the final electronic state. Literature from 1955 to March 1986 has been covered.

W.K. Wu; B.A. Huber; K. Wiesemann

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Charge solitons and their dynamical mass in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect

We investigate charge transport in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions. In the interesting regime of ''small charge solitons'' (polarons), {Lambda}E{sub J}>E{sub C}>E{sub J}, where {Lambda} is the (electrostatic) screening length, the charge dynamics are strongly influenced by the polaronic effects (i.e., by dressing of a Cooper pair by charge dipoles). In particular, the soliton's mass in this regime scales approximately as E{sub J}{sup -2}. We employ two theoretical techniques: the many-body tight-binding approach and the mean-field approach, and the results of the two approaches agree in the regime of ''small charge solitons.'' Renormalization of the soliton's mass could be observed; for example, as enhancement of the persistent current in a ring-shaped array.

Homfeld, Jens [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Protopopov, Ivan [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RU-119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rachel, Stephan [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shnirman, Alexander [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Secondary ion coincidence in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy for process characterization  

SciTech Connect

Coincidence counting in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy has been applied to the characterization of selective tungsten deposition via disilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride on a patterned SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer. The high secondary ion yield and the secondary ion emission from a small area produced by highly charged ions make the coincidence technique very powerful.

Hamza, A.V.; Schenkel, T.; Barnes, A.V.; Schneider, D.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electric Vehicle Charging in Smart Grid: Optimality and Valley-filling Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

different settings. Index Terms--Optimal power flow, electric vehicle charging, valley-filling, onlineForReview Only 1 Electric Vehicle Charging in Smart Grid: Optimality and Valley-filling Algorithms, IEEE. Abstract--Electric vehicles (EVs) offer an attractive long-term solution to reduce the dependence

Tan, Chee Wei

199

IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat exchangers with round tubes, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer efficiency. But a reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions Q. R-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the solution behavior of charged carboxylic acid terminated- copy,16 small-angle X-ray scattering,17 and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),18-25 have been used

Dubin, Paul D.

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201

Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effective charges and isoscalar shifts in the linearized Hartree-Fock model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple method based on a linearized Hartree-Fock technique is proposed to calculate effective charges and isoscalar nuclear shifts. As an application, the change in rms radii near closed shell nuclei is calculated using a Skyrme interaction.NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Hartree-Fock calculation of effective charge, isoscalar nuclear shift, Skyrme interaction.

B. Castel and K. Goeke

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.

Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Charge Melting & Polaron Collapse in LA1.2SR1.8MN207  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge Melting & Polaron Collapse in LA1.2SR1.8MN207 Charge Melting & Polaron Collapse in LA1.2SR1.8MN207 Recent studies carried out on the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team's beamline I-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source provide new insights into charge melting and polaron collapse. X-ray and neutron scattering measurements directly demonstrate the existence of polarons in the paramagnetic phase of optimally doped colossal magnetoresistive oxides. The polarons exhibit short-range correlations that grow with decreasing temperature, but disappear abruptly at the ferromagnetic transition because of the sudden charge delocalization. The "melting" of the charge ordering as we cool through TC occurs with the collapse of the quasistatic polaron scattering, and provides important new

205

Orbital-free density functional theory of out-of-plane charge screening in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a density functional theory of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-von Weizs\\"acker type to describe the response of a single layer of graphene resting on a dielectric substrate to a point charge or a collection of point charges some distance away from the layer. We formulate a variational setting in which the proposed energy functional admits minimizers, both in the case of free graphene layers and under back-gating. We further provide conditions under which those minimizers are unique and correspond to configurations consisting of inhomogeneous density profiles of charge carrier of only one type. The associated Euler-Lagrange equation for the charge density is also obtained, and uniqueness, regularity and decay of the minimizers are proved under general conditions. In addition, a bifurcation from zero to non-zero response at a finite threshold value of the external charge is proved.

Jianfeng Lu; Vitaly Moroz; Cyrill B. Muratov

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Properties of the interface charge inhomogeneities in the thermally grown Si?SiO2 structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of the standard deviation ? s of the surface potential fluctuations in MOSstructures were performed by the conductance technique of Nicollian and Goetzberger for different temperatures and surface potentials. The values of ? s were compared with the three?dimensional mathematical model suggested by Brews and the quasiuniform model of the surface potential fluctuations generated by interface charge inhomogeneities. Good agreement was obtained with the model of Brews. We conclude that the interface charges are not agglomerated in the form of charge islands but are more or less evenly distributed. For the lower limit of the minimum wavelength of the interface charge inhomogeneities we obtain a value of 75 Å. The upper limit of 100 Å as assumed by Brews seems to be reasonable. Negative interface charges are either absent or at most present at a low level.

K. Ziegler; E. Klausmann

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

An investigation into the cutting forces generated for sharp and dull end milling tools used in Flexible Manufacturing Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Arsovski 1983, Tlusty and Andrews 1983). Tool wear sensing techniques fall into two general categories: direct methods and indirect methods. Direct methods measure the actual wear to the tool, in- cluding the tool geometry change and the workpiece size...

Jones, Alan Sam

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

209

D-branes, Wilson Bags, and Coherent Topological Charge Structure in QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monte Carlo studies of pure glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based topological charge operator have revealed a laminar structure in the QCD vacuum consisting of extended, thin, coherent, locally 3-dimensional sheets of topological charge embedded in 4D space, with opposite sign sheets interleaved. Studies of localization properties of Dirac eigenmodes have also shown evidence for the delocalization of low-lying modes on effectively 3-dimensional surfaces. In this talk, I review some theoretical ideas which suggest the possibility of 3-dimensionally coherent topological charge structure in 4-dimensional gauge theory and provide a possible interpretation of the observed structure. I begin with Luscher's ``Wilson bag'' integral over the 3-index Chern-Simons tensor. The analogy with a Wilson loop as a charged world line in 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma models suggests that the Wilson bag surface represents the world volume of a physical membrane. The large-N chiral Lagrangian arguments of Witten also indicate the existence of multiple ``k-vacuum'' states with discontinuous transitions between k-vacua at $\\theta=$ odd multiples of $\\pi$. The domain walls between these vacua have the properties of a Wilson bag surface. Finally, I review the AdS/CFT duality view of $\\theta$ dependence in QCD. The dual realtionship between topological charge in gauge theory and Ramond-Ramond charge in type IIA string theory suggests that the coherent topological charge sheets observed on the lattice are the holographic image of wrapped D6 branes.

H. B. Thacker

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

210

Measurement of single charged pion production in the charged-current interactions of neutrinos in a 1.3 GeV wide band beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single charged pion production in charged-current muon neutrino interactions with carbon is studied using data collected in the K2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. The mean energy of the incident muon neutrinos is 1.3 GeV. The data used in this analysis are mainly from a fully active scintillator detector, SciBar. The cross section for single $\\pi^{+}$ production in the resonance region ($W<2$ GeV/$c^2$) relative to the charged-current quasi-elastic cross section is found to be 0.734 $^{+0.140}_{-0.153}$. The energy-dependent cross section ratio is also measured. The results are consistent with a previous experiment and the prediction of our model.

Rodríguez, A; Whitehead, L; Alcaraz, J L; Andringa, S; Aoki, S; Argyriades, J; Asakura, K; Ashie, R; Berghaus, F; Berns, H; Bhang, H; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Bouchez, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Casper, D; Catala, J; Cavata, C; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Chen, S M; Cho, K O; Choi, J H; Dore, U; Espinal, X; Fechner, M; Fernández, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Gomez-Cadenas, J; Gran, R; Hara, T; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hiraide, K; Hosaka, J; Ichikawa, A K; Iinuma, M; Ikeda, A; Ishida, T; Ishihara, K; Ishii, T; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Iwashita, T; Jang, H I; Jeon, E J; Jeong, I S; Joo, K K; Jover, G; Jung, C K; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kato, I; Kearns, E; Kim, C O; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Konaka, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Yu; Kuno, Y; Kurimoto, Y; Kutter, T; Learned, J; Likhoded, S; Lim, I T; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maesaka, H; Mallet, J; Mariani, C; Matsuno, S; Matveev, V; McConnel, K; McGrew, C; Mikheyev, S; Minamino, A; Mine, S; Mineev, O; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriguchi, Y; Moriyama, S; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Namba, T; Nambu, R; Nawang, S; Nishikawa, K; Nitta, K; Nova, F; Novella, P; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Pierre, F; Saji, C; Sakuda, M; Sánchez, F; Scholberg, K; Schroeter, R; Sekiguchi, M; Shiozawa, M; Shiraishi, K; Sitjes, G; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stone, J; Sulak, L; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, Y; Tada, M; Takahashi, T; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Taki, K; Takubo, Y; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Terri, R; T'Jampens, S; Tornero-Lopez, A; Totsuka, Y; Vagins, M; Walter, C W; Wang, W; Wilkes, R J; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, S; Yanagisawa, C; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, H; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, M; Zalipska, J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

Subramani, Praveen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Telefonix, Inc. | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Telefonix, Inc. As an ISO 1400 certified manufacturer of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations, workplace charging is a part...

213

Car Charging Group Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Car Charging Group, Inc. Place: Miami Beach, Florida Product: Miami Beach, USA based installer of plug-in vehicle charge equipment. References: Car Charging Group, Inc.1 This...

214

Transverse space charge effect calculation in the Synergia accelerator modeling toolkit  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a transverse space charge effect calculation algorithm, developed in the context of accelerator modeling toolkit Synergia. The introduction to the space charge problem and the Synergia modeling toolkit short description are given. The developed algorithm is explained and the implementation is described in detail. As a result of this work a new space charge solver was developed and integrated into the Synergia toolkit. The solver showed correct results in comparison to existing Synergia solvers and delivered better performance in the regime where it is applicable.

Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; /Fermilab

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Anisotropic charge modulation in ladder planes of Sr14?xCaxCu24O41  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The charge response of the ladders in Sr14?xCaxCu24O41 is characterized by dc resistivity, low frequency dielectric, and optical spectroscopy in all three crystallographic directions. The collective charge-density wave screened mode is observed in the direction of the rungs for x=0, 3, and 6, in addition to the mode along the legs. For x=8 and 9, the charge-density-wave response along the rungs fully vanishes, while the one along the legs persists. The transport perpendicular to the planes is always dominated by hopping.

T. Vuleti?; T. Ivek; B. Korin-Hamzi?; S. Tomi?; B. Gorshunov; P. Haas; M. Dressel; J. Akimitsu; T. Sasaki; T. Nagata

2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

216

Direct observation of dynamic charge stripes in La2 xSrxNiO4  

SciTech Connect

The insulator-to-metal transition continues to be a challenging subject, especially when electronic correlations are strong. In layered compounds, such as La2 xSrxNiO4 and La2 xBaxCuO4, the doped charge carriers can segregate into periodically spaced charge stripes separating narrow domains of antiferromagnetic order. Although there have been theoretical proposals of dynamically fluctuating stripes, direct spectroscopic evidence of charge-stripe fluctuations has been lacking. Here we report the detection of critical lattice fluctuations, driven by charge-stripe correlations, in La2 xSrxNiO4 using inelastic neutron scattering. This scattering is detected at large momentum transfers where the magnetic form factor suppresses the spin fluctuation signal. The lattice fluctuations associated with the dynamic charge stripes are narrow in q and broad in energy. They are strongest near the charge-stripe melting temperature. Our results open the way towards the quantitative theory of dynamic stripes and for directly detecting dynamical charge stripes in other strongly correlated systems, including high-temperature superconductors such as La2 xSrxCuO4.

Anissimova, S. [University of Colorado, Boulder] [University of Colorado, Boulder; Parshall, D [University of Colorado, Boulder] [University of Colorado, Boulder; Gu, Genda [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Marty, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL] [ORNL; Chi, Songxue [ORNL] [ORNL; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abernathy, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lamago, D. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, France] [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, France; Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Reznik, Dmitry [University of Colorado, Boulder] [University of Colorado, Boulder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Quantum dynamics in condensed phases : charge carrier mobility, decoherence, and excitation energy transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we develop analytical models for quantum systems and perform theoretical investigations on several dynamical processes in condensed phases. First, we study charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular ...

Cheng, Yuan-Chung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Ionic Cloud Distribution close to a Charged Surface in the Presence of Salt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite its importance, the understanding of ionic cloud distribution close to a charged macroion under physiological salt conditions has remained very limited especially for strongly coupled systems with, for instance, multivalent counterions. Here we present a formalism that predicts both counterion and coion distributions in the vicinity of a charged macroion for an arbitrary amount of added salt and in both limits of mean field and strong coupling. The distribution functions are calculated explicitly for ions next to an infinite planar charged wall. We present a schematic phase diagram identifying different physical regimes in terms of electrostatic coupling parameter and bulk salt concentration.

Olli Punkkinen; Ali Naji; Rudolf Podgornik; Ilpo Vattulainen; Per-Lyngs Hansen

2007-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

219

Ferroelectric charge order stabilized by antiferromagnetism in multiferroic LuFe2O4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron diffraction measurements on multiferroic LuFe2O4 show changes in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure characterized by wave vector q=(131312) as a function of electric field cooling procedures. The increase of intensity from all magnetic domains and the decrease in the two-dimensional (2D) magnetic order observed below the Néel temperature are indicative of increased ferroelectric charge order (CO). The AFM order changes the dynamics of the CO state, and stabilizes it. It is determined that the increase in electric polarization observed at the magnetic ordering temperature is due to a transition from paramagnetic 2D charge order to AFM three-dimensional charge order.

A. M. Mulders; M. Bartkowiak; J. R. Hester; E. Pomjakushina; K. Conder

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

220

General Nonextremal Rotating Charged Goedel Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity  

SciTech Connect

I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Goedel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Goedel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Goedel black hole backgrounds.

Wu Shuangqing [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Branching fractions and charge asymmetries in charmless hadronic decays at BABAR  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of branching fraction, polarization and charge asymmetry in charmless hadronic B decays with {eta}, {eta}{prime}, {omega}, and b{sub 1} in the final state. All the results use the final BABAR dataset.

Biassoni, Pietro; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

First Measurement of the Charge Asymmetry in Beauty-Quark Pair Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The difference in the angular distributions between beauty quarks and antiquarks, referred to as the charge asymmetry, is measured for the first time in b[bar over b] pair production at a hadron collider. The data used ...

Counts, Ian Thomas Hunt

223

Stability of the equilibrium states of a charged bubble in a dielectric liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stability of equilibrium states of a charged spherical bubble in dielectric fluid with respect to centrally ... a nonlinear equation describing radial oscillations of the bubble in the neighborhoods of its si...

A. I. Grigor’ev; A. N. Zharov

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Classical radiation by free-falling charges in de Sitter spacetime  

SciTech Connect

We study the classical radiation emitted by free-falling charges in de Sitter spacetime coupled to different kinds of fields. Specifically we consider the cases of the electromagnetic field, linearized gravity, and scalar fields with arbitrary mass and curvature coupling. Given an arbitrary set of such charges, there is a generic result for sufficiently late times which corresponds to each charge being surrounded by a field zone with negligible influence from the other charges. Furthermore, we explicitly find a static solution in the static patch adapted to a charge (implying no energy loss by the charge) which can be regularly extended beyond the horizon to the full de Sitter spacetime, and show that any other solution decays at late times to this one. On the other hand, for nonconformal scalar fields the inertial observers naturally associated with spatially flat coordinates will see a nonvanishing flux far from the horizon, which will fall off more slowly than the inverse square of the distance for sufficiently light fields (m{sup 2}+{xi}R<5H{sup 2}/4) and give rise to a total integrated flux that grows unboundedly with the radius. This can be qualitatively interpreted as a consequence of a classical parametric amplification of the field generated by the charge due to the time-dependent background spacetime. Most of these results do not hold for massless minimally coupled scalar fields, whose special behavior is analyzed separately.

Akhmedov, E. T.; Sadofyev, A. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Roura, Albert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare the charges transported in two systems, a spatially periodic and an open quantum pump, both depending periodically and adiabatically on time. The charge transported in a cycle was computed by Thouless, respectively by Buttiker et al. in the two cases. We show that the results agree in the limit where the two physical situations become the same, i.e., that of a large open pump.

Gian Michele Graf; Gregorio Ortelli

2007-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

226

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits and Costs of Hosting a Charging Station . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Charging Station Locations and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ownership and Payment Models . . . . . . 14 Installing and Maintaining Charging Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Electrifying the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Clean Cities Helps Establish PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique knowledge and skills . If you need help, contact your local Clean Cities coordinator . Clean Cities is the U .S . Department of Energy's flagship alterna- tive-transportation

227

Charged Particle Multiplicities in Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and Cu+Cu Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5 to 179.5 deg. corresponding to |eta|<5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

B. B. Back

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

228

Generalized charge simulation method for the calculation of the electric field in high voltage substations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the calculation of the electric field strength in high voltage (HV) substations comprising complex geometrical structures. Generalized charge simulation ... is to examine the influence of to...

Aleksandar Rankovi?; Milan S. Savi?

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Study of high transverse momentum charged particle suppression in heavy ion collisions at LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The charged particle spectrum at large transverse momentum (PT), dominated by hadrons originating from parton fragmentation, is an important observable for studying the properties of the hot, dense medium produced in ...

Yoon, Andre Sungho

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Ways to calculate electric fields in traction electric motor insulation by equivalent charge method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure permitting one to calculate the electric fields in multilayer insulation based on the equivalent charge method is presented. Consideration of the new algorithm shows its fast response and proper ac...

A. V. Kireev; A. Yu. Bakhvalov; S. Yu. Knyazev…

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Superconductor-insulator transition induced by electrostatic charging in high temperature superconductors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ultrathin YBa2Cu3O7?x films were grown on SrTiO3 substrates in a high pressure oxygen sputtering system to study the superconductor-insulator transition by electrostatic charging. While backside… (more)

Leng, Xiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

233

Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions: Temperature dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4- 1-azetidinyl benzonitrile P4C in ethyl acetate EA , acetonitrile ACN , and ethanol at several concentrations of lithium perchlorate LiClO4 has been investigated

Biswas, Ranjit

234

Stability of a charged bubble in a dielectric liquid against radial perturbations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the critical conditions for instability of a charged vapor-gas bubble in a dielectric liquid against virtual radially symmetric volume perturbations are substantially less stringent than the c...

A. I. Grigor’ev

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Shift in the longitudinal sound velocity due to sliding charge-density waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nonlinear conductivity observed for moderate electric fields in NbSe3, TaS3, (TaS4)2I, and K0.3MoO3 below the charge-density-wave-transition is believed to be due to the sliding of the charge-density waves. The sliding motion leads to a Doppler shift of the x-ray diffraction peaks, but this effect has not yet been resolved. We show here that besides the Doppler shift, a sliding incommensurate charge-density wave causes a change in the longitudinal sound velocity of the crystal that is linear in the charge-density-wave velocity. The resulting anisotropic shift is estimated in a mean-field approximation and found to be experimentally observable.

S. N. Coppersmith and C. M. Varma

1984-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

DETERMINATION OF LOW-Z ELEMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY CHARGED-PARTICLE-INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the nuclear reaction N14 (p,a)c 11 with low-energy protonsLOW-Z ELEMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY CHARGED-PARTICLE-INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS Mark Steven Clemenson Energy

Clemenson, Mark Steven

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Energy collection and charge transfer processes in thin film photocells and photoelectrochemical cells: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following paragraphs describe accomplishments and significant results for the two lines of research: (1) studies of energy collection and charge transfer processes in thin film systems and (2) solar energy utilization by photosensitized electrode processes at semiconductor electrodes.

Tachikawa, Hiroyasu

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermodynamics and fluctuations of conserved charges in Hadron Resonance Gas model in finite volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermodynamics of hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collision experiments are usually studied as a system of infinite volume. Here we report on possible effects for considering a finite system size for such matter in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. The bulk thermodynamic variables as well as the fluctuations of conserved charges are considered. We find that the finite size effects are insignificant once the observables are scaled with the respective volumes. The only substantial effect is found in the fluctuations of electric charge which may therefore be used to extract information about the volume of fireball created in heavy-ion collision experiments.

Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Samanta, Subhasis; Sur, Subrata

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Charging Effects in the Inductively Shunted Josephson Junction Jens Koch, V. Manucharyan, M. H. Devoret, and L. I. Glazman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charging Effects in the Inductively Shunted Josephson Junction Jens Koch, V. Manucharyan, M. H to shunt a Josephson junction determines if the charge transferred through the circuit is quantized by charge noise. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.217004 PACS numbers: 85.25.Cp, 74.50.+r The Josephson junction

Devoret, Michel H.

240

Charge Particle Multiplicity and Transverse Energy Measurements in Au-Au collisions in PHENIX at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results on charged particle and transverse energy densities measured at mid-rapidity in Au-Au collisions at sqrt(s_{NN})=200 GeV. The mean transverse energy per charged particle is derived. The results are presented as a function of centrality, which is defined by the number of participating nucleons, and compared to results obtained in Au-Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN})=130 GeV. A comparison with calculations from various theoretical models is performed.

A. Bazilevsky; for the PHENIX Collaboration

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

242

Pion Condensation in a two-flavor NJL model: the role of charge neutrality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study pion condensation and the phase structure in a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the presence of baryon chemical potential $\\mu$ and isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$at zero and finite temperature. There is a competition between the chiral condensate and a Bose-Einstein condensate of charged pions. In the chiral limit, the chiral condensate vanishes for any finite value of the isospin chemical potential, while there is a charged pion condensate that depends on the chemical potentials and the temperature. At the physical point, the chiral condensate is always nonzero, while the charged pion condensate depends on $\\mu_I$ and $T$. For $T=\\mu=0$, the critical isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I^c$ for the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation is always equal to the pion mass. For $\\mu=0$, we compare our results with chiral perturbation theory, sigma-model calculations, and lattice simulations. We examine the effects of imposing electric charge neutrality and weak equilibrium on the phase structure of the model. In the chiral limit, there is a window of baryon chemical potential and temperature where the charged pions condense. At the physical point, the charged pions do not condense.

Jens O. Andersen; Lars Kyllingstad

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

243

A procedure for derating a substation transformer in the presence of widespread electric vehicle battery charging  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the effect of electric vehicle (EV) battery charging on a substation transformer that supplies commercial, residential, industrial, and EV load on a peak summer day. The analysis begins on modeling non-EV load with typical utility load shapes. EV load is modeled using the results from an analytical solution technique that predicts the net power and harmonic currents generated by a group of EV battery chargers. The authors evaluate the amount of transformer derating by maintaining constant daily transformer loss-of-life, with and without EV charging. This analysis shows that the time of day and the length of time during which the EVs begin charging are critical in determining the amount of transformer derating required. The results show that with proper control, EV charging may have very little effect on power system components at the substation level.

Staats, P.T.; Grady, W.M.; Arapostathis, A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Thallam, R.S. [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States)] [Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor F_W(q), the weak charge radius R_W, and the point neutron radius R_n, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer q=0.475 fm$^{-1}$. We find F_W(q) =0.204 \\pm 0.028 (exp) \\pm 0.001 (model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from F_W(q). We find R_W= 5.826 \\pm 0.181 (exp) \\pm 0.027 (model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in R_W from uncertainties in the surface thickness \\sigma of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a "weak charge skin" where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius R_n=5.751 \\pm 0.175 (exp) \\pm 0.026 (model) \\pm 0.005 (strange) fm$, from R_W. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find R_n to be slightly smaller than R_W because of the nucleon's size. Finally, we find a neutron skin thickness of R_n-R_p=0.302\\pm 0.175 (exp) \\pm 0.026 (model) \\pm 0.005 (strange) fm, where R_p is the point proton radius.

C. J. Horowitz; Z. Ahmed; C. -M. Jen; A. Rakhman; P. A. Souder; M. M. Dalton; N. Liyanage; K. D. Paschke; K. Saenboonruang; R. Silwal; G. B. Franklin; M. Friend; B. Quinn; K. S. Kumar; J. M. Mammei; D. McNulty; L. Mercado; S. Riordan; J. Wexler; R. W. Michaels; G. M. Urciuoli

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

245

Extrinsic and intrinsic nonlinear current-voltage characteristics in charge ordered oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a systematic study to clarify the origin of nonlinear I-Vcharacteristics widely observed in charge ordered oxides. The experiments performed on the charge ordered YbFe2O4single crystals demonstrate that the I-V behavior strongly depends on the measurement parameters such as the width and strength of applied voltage/current pulse the time interval between two subsequent pulses and the time delay before reading a data. Correspondingly three regimes are identified: (i) steep nonlinear I-V behavior induced by self-heating when the pulse width is big and/or the time interval is short; (ii) smooth nonlinear I-Vcharacteristic in the low field range when the electric pulse width is small and the time interval is long enough owing to sliding of charge density wave; (iii) abrupt collapse of charge order/charge density wave at high electric fields. A proper measurement scheme must be employed in order to distinguish the intrinsic effects associated with electric field modulation of charge order from the extrinsic self-heating effect.

F. Wang; T. Zou; Y. Liu; L.-Q. Yan; Y. Sun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

247

Exclusion of exotic top-like quarks with -4/3 electric charge using jet-charge tagging in single-lepton ttbar events at CDF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a measurement of the top-quark electric charge in ttbar events in which one W boson originating from the top-quark pair decays into leptons and the other into hadrons. The event sample was collected by the CDF II detector in sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions and corresponds to 5.6 fb^(-1). We find the data to be consistent with the standard model and exclude the existence of an exotic quark with -4/3 electric charge and mass of the conventional top quark at the 99% confidence level.

CDF Collaboration; T. Aaltonen; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; A. Annovi; J. Antos; G. Apollinari; J. A. Appel; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; J. Asaadi; W. Ashmanskas; B. Auerbach; A. Aurisano; F. Azfar; W. Badgett; T. Bae; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; P. Barria; P. Bartos; M. Bauce; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; A. Bhatti; K. R. Bland; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brucken; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; P. Butti; A. Buzatu; A. Calamba; S. Camarda; M. Campanelli; F. Canelli; B. Carls; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carrillo; B. Casal; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; V. Cavaliere; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; C. Clarke; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; M. Corbo; M. Cordelli; C. A. Cox; D. J. Cox; M. Cremonesi; D. Cruz; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; N. d'Ascenzo; M. Datta; P. De Barbaro; L. Demortier; M. Deninno; M. d'Errico; F. Devoto; A. Di Canto; B. Di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; M. D'Onofrio; S. Donati; M. Dorigo; A. Driutti; K. Ebina; R. Edgar; A. Elagin; R. Erbacher; S. Errede; B. Esham; R. Eusebi; S. Farrington; J. P. Fernández Ramos; R. Field; G. Flanagan; R. Forrest; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; H. Frisch; Y. Funakoshi; A. F. Garfinkel; P. Garosi; H. Gerberich; E. Gerchtein; S. Giagu; V. Giakoumopoulou; K. Gibson; C. M. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; D. Goldin; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. González López; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; E. Gramellini; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; R. C. Group; J. Guimaraes da Costa; S. R. Hahn; J. Y. Han; F. Happacher; K. Hara; M. Hare; R. F. Harr; T. Harrington-Taber; K. Hatakeyama; C. Hays; J. Heinrich; M. Herndon; A. Hocker; Z. Hong; W. Hopkins; S. Hou; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; M. Hussein; J. Huston; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; A. Ivanov; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; T. R. Junk; M. Kambeitz; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; A. Kasmi; Y. Kato; W. Ketchum; J. Keung; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. J. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; M. Kirby; K. Knoepfel; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. V. Kotwal; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; T. Kuhr; M. Kurata; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; K. Lannon; G. Latino; H. S. Lee; J. S. Lee; S. Leo; S. Leone; J. D. Lewis; A. Limosani; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; H. Liu; Q. Liu; T. Liu; S. Lockwitz; A. Loginov; A. Lucà; D. Lucchesi; J. Lueck; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; J. Lys; R. Lysak; R. Madrak; P. Maestro; S. Malik; G. Manca; A. Manousakis-Katsikakis; F. Margaroli; P. Marino; M. Martínez; K. Matera; M. E. Mattson; A. Mazzacane; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; C. Mesropian; T. Miao; D. Mietlicki; A. Mitra; H. Miyake; S. Moed; N. Moggi; C. S. Moon; R. Moore; M. J. Morello; A. Mukherjee; Th. Muller; P. Murat; M. Mussini; J. Nachtman; Y. Nagai; J. Naganoma; I. Nakano; A. Napier; J. Nett; C. Neu; T. Nigmanov; L. Nodulman; S. Y. Noh; O. Norniella; L. Oakes; S. H. Oh; Y. D. Oh; I. Oksuzian; T. Okusawa; R. Orava; L. Ortolan; C. Pagliarone; E. Palencia; P. Palni; V. Papadimitriou; W. Parker; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; C. Paus; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; E. Pianori; J. Pilot; K. Pitts; C. Plager; L. Pondrom; S. Poprocki; K. Potamianos; A. Pranko; F. Prokoshin; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; N. Ranjan; I. Redondo Fernández; P. Renton; M. Rescigno; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; A. Robson; T. Rodriguez; S. Rolli; M. Ronzani; R. Roser; J. L. Rosner; F. Ruffini; A. Ruiz; J. Russ; V. Rusu; W. K. Sakumoto; Y. Sakurai; L. Santi; K. Sato; V. Saveliev; A. Savoy-Navarro; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; T. Schwarz; L. Scodellaro; F. Scuri; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; A. Semenov; F. Sforza; S. Z. Shalhout; T. Shears; P. F. Shepard; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; I. Shreyber-Tecker; A. Simonenko; P. Sinervo; K. Sliwa; J. R. Smith; F. D. Snider; H. Song; V. Sorin; M. Stancari; R. St. Denis; B. Stelzer; O. Stelzer-Chilton; D. Stentz; J. Strologas; Y. Sudo; A. Sukhanov; I. Suslov; K. Takemasa; Y. Takeuchi; J. Tang; M. Tecchio; P. K. Teng; J. Thom; E. Thomson; V. Thukral; D. Toback; S. Tokar; K. Tollefson; T. Tomura; D. Tonelli; S. Torre; D. Torretta; P. Totaro; M. Trovato; F. Ukegawa; S. Uozumi; F. Vázquez; G. Velev; C. Vellidis; C. Vernieri; M. Vidal; R. Vilar; J. Vizán; M. Vogel; G. Volpi; P. Wagner; R. Wallny; S. M. Wang; A. Warburton; D. Waters; W. C. Wester III; D. Whiteson; A. B. Wicklund; S. Wilbur; H. H. Williams; J. S. Wilson; P. Wilson; B. L. Winer; P. Wittich; S. Wolbers; H. Wolfe; T. Wright; X. Wu; Z. Wu; K. Yamamoto; D. Yamato; T. Yang

2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

248

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

Zhu, Xiaoyang

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

249

Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

System Benefits Charge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New York's system benefits charge (SBC), established in 1996 by the New York Public Service Commission (PSC), supports energy efficiency, education and outreach, research and development, and low...

251

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions January 27, 2011 - 4:07pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The closest most people get to a vehicle before it is offered to the general public is seeing it on TV or at an auto show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius, which is expected to be released in 2012. Clean Cities is an initiative in the Department's Vehicle Technologies Program that is focused on reducing petroleum use in transportation - which makes this demonstration a perfect fit. A PHEV Prius can run for up to 13 miles on all-electric power before

252

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions January 27, 2011 - 4:07pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The closest most people get to a vehicle before it is offered to the general public is seeing it on TV or at an auto show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius, which is expected to be released in 2012. Clean Cities is an initiative in the Department's Vehicle Technologies Program that is focused on reducing petroleum use in transportation - which makes this demonstration a perfect fit. A PHEV Prius can run for up to 13 miles on all-electric power before

253

'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior November 4, 2011 - 3:48pm Addthis The Lawrence Community team, leadership pictured above, saved the highest total amount of any community. They hold a basketball signed by Kansas Governor Brownback. The basketball signifies both the sport's history in Kansas, as well as the fact that the average Kansas home has enough energy leaks in their home to equal a basketball-sized hole in their roof. The Lawrence Community team, leadership pictured above, saved the highest total amount of any community. They hold a basketball signed by Kansas Governor Brownback. The basketball signifies both the sport's history in

254

Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home May 13, 2013 - 3:45pm Addthis Consider the convenient options for plugging in an electric vehicle at home. | Photo courtesy of Tony Markel , NREL 18488. Consider the convenient options for plugging in an electric vehicle at home. | Photo courtesy of Tony Markel , NREL 18488. Chart showing EV Level 2 electricity compared with other home appliances. | Image courtesy of Pecan Street Research Institute. Chart showing EV Level 2 electricity compared with other home appliances. | Image courtesy of Pecan Street Research Institute. Consider the convenient options for plugging in an electric vehicle at home. | Photo courtesy of Tony Markel , NREL 18488. Chart showing EV Level 2 electricity compared with other home appliances. | Image courtesy of Pecan Street Research Institute.

255

Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home May 13, 2013 - 3:45pm Addthis Consider the convenient options for plugging in an electric vehicle at home. | Photo courtesy of Tony Markel , NREL 18488. Consider the convenient options for plugging in an electric vehicle at home. | Photo courtesy of Tony Markel , NREL 18488. Chart showing EV Level 2 electricity compared with other home appliances. | Image courtesy of Pecan Street Research Institute. Chart showing EV Level 2 electricity compared with other home appliances. | Image courtesy of Pecan Street Research Institute. Consider the convenient options for plugging in an electric vehicle at home. | Photo courtesy of Tony Markel , NREL 18488. Chart showing EV Level 2 electricity compared with other home appliances. | Image courtesy of Pecan Street Research Institute.

256

Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles May 9, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis Workers put the finishing touches on installing a plug-in electric vehicle charger that is part of the West Coast Electric Highway. | Photo courtesy of Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition. Workers put the finishing touches on installing a plug-in electric vehicle charger that is part of the West Coast Electric Highway. | Photo courtesy of Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? Clean Cities coalitions all across the country are using local knowledge to help their communities get ready for plug-in electric vehicles

257

Simulation of Electric Double Layers around Charged Colloids in Aqueous Solution of Variable Permittivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ion distribution around charged colloids in solution has been investigated intensely during the last decade. However, few theoretical approaches have included the influence of variation in the dielectric permittivity within the system, let alone in the surrounding solvent. In this article, we introduce two relatively new methods that can solve the Poisson equation for systems with varying permittivity. The harmonic interpolation method (HIM) approximately solves the Green's function in terms of a spherical harmonics series, and thus provides analytical ion-ion potentials for the Hamiltonian of charged systems. The Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics (MEMD) algorithm features a local approach to electrostatics, allowing for arbitrary local changes of the dielectric constant. We show that the results of both methods are in very good agreement. We also found that the renormalized charge of the colloid, and with it the effective far field interaction, significantly changes if the dielectric properties within the vicinity of the colloid are changed.

Florian Fahrenberger; Zhenli Xu; Christian Holm

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles May 9, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis Workers put the finishing touches on installing a plug-in electric vehicle charger that is part of the West Coast Electric Highway. | Photo courtesy of Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition. Workers put the finishing touches on installing a plug-in electric vehicle charger that is part of the West Coast Electric Highway. | Photo courtesy of Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? Clean Cities coalitions all across the country are using local knowledge to help their communities get ready for plug-in electric vehicles

259

Energy Wrap-Up: Charging Students To Take the Lead in Energy Innovation |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wrap-Up: Charging Students To Take the Lead in Energy Wrap-Up: Charging Students To Take the Lead in Energy Innovation Energy Wrap-Up: Charging Students To Take the Lead in Energy Innovation May 3, 2013 - 2:05pm Addthis Panelists discuss the role of colleges and universities in helping to further clean-energy research and entrepreneurship during a forum at Stanford University. | Photo courtesy of Stanford Energy Club. Panelists discuss the role of colleges and universities in helping to further clean-energy research and entrepreneurship during a forum at Stanford University. | Photo courtesy of Stanford Energy Club. Heidi VanGenderen Director of the Office of Public Engagement What are the key facts? The event was part of Stanford's Energy Week, which explored ways to help create a new energy economy. Energy entrepreneurs talked about the risks and rewards of building

260

Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V. [Radiophysics Department of St. Petersburg University, 1 Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Electric Field-Induced Skyrmion Crystals via Charged Monopoles in Insulating Helimagets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrons propagating in a magnetically ordered medium experience an additional gauge field associated with the Berry phase of their spin following the local magnetic texture. In contrast to the usual electromagnetic field, this gauge field admits monopole excitations, corresponding to hedgehog defects of the magnetic order. In an insulator, these hedgehogs carry a well-defined electric charge allowing for them to be controlled by electric fields. One particularly robust mechanism that contributes to the charge is the orbital magnetoelectric effect, captured by a $\\theta$ angle, which leads to a charge of $e\\theta/2\\pi$ on hedgehogs. This is a direct consequence of the Witten effect for magnetic monopoles in a $\\theta$ medium. A physical consequence is that external electric fields can induce skyrmion crystal phases in insulating helimagnets.

Watanabe, Haruki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electric Field-Induced Skyrmion Crystals via Charged Monopoles in Insulating Helimagets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrons propagating in a magnetically ordered medium experience an additional gauge field associated with the Berry phase of their spin following the local magnetic texture. In contrast to the usual electromagnetic field, this gauge field admits monopole excitations, corresponding to hedgehog defects of the magnetic order. In an insulator, these hedgehogs carry a well-defined electric charge allowing for them to be controlled by electric fields. One particularly robust mechanism that contributes to the charge is the orbital magnetoelectric effect, captured by a $\\theta$ angle, which leads to a charge of $e\\theta/2\\pi$ on hedgehogs. This is a direct consequence of the Witten effect for magnetic monopoles in a $\\theta$ medium. A physical consequence is that external electric fields can induce skyrmion crystal phases in insulating helimagnets.

Haruki Watanabe; Ashvin Vishwanath

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electric Charge Quantization in SU(3)_C X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basing on the general photon eigenstate and the anomaly cancelation, we have naturally explained the electric charge quantization in two models based on the SU(3)_C X SU(3)_L X U(1)_X gauge group, namely in the minimal model and in the model with right-handed neutrinos. In addition, we have shown that the electric charges of the proton and of the electron are opposite; and the same happens with the neutron and the neutrino. We argue that the electric charge quantization is not dependent on the classical constraints on generating mass to the fermions, but it is related closely with the generation number problem. In fact, both problems are properly solved as the direct consequences of the fermion content under the anomaly free conditions.

Phung Van Dong; Hoang Ngoc Long

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

264

Advances in Fe(VI) charge storage: Part I. Primary alkaline super-iron batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent advances in super-iron batteries, based on an unusual Fe(VI) cathodic charge storage, are presented. Fe(VI) cathodes that have been demonstrated in super-iron batteries include the synthesized Fe(VI) compound with three-electron cathodic charge capacity Na2FeO4, K2FeO4, Rb2FeO4, Cs2FeO4 (alkali Fe(VI) salts), alkali earth Fe(VI) salts BaFeO4, SrFeO4, and also a transition Fe(VI) salt Ag2FeO4 which exhibits a five-electron cathodic charge storage. This paper focus on the primary alkaline Fe(VI) charge storage in aqueous electrolyte systems. Primary alkaline super-iron batteries exhibit a higher capacity than conventional alkaline batteries. Configuration optimization, enhancement and mediation of Fe(VI) cathode charge transfer of primary Fe(VI) alkaline batteries are summarized. Composite Fe(VI)/Mn(IV or VII), Fe(VI)/Ag(II) and zirconia coating stabilized Fe(VI)/Ag(II) cathode alkaline batteries are also illustrated.

Xingwen Yu; Stuart Licht

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Penrose inequalities and a positive mass theorem for charged black holes in higher dimension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the inverse mean curvature flow to establish Penrose-type inequalities for time-symmetric Einstein-Maxwell initial data sets which can be suitably embedded as a hypersurface in Euclidean space $\\mathbb R^{n+1}$, $n\\geq 3$. In particular, we prove a positive mass theorem for this class of charged black holes. As an application we show that the conjectured upper bound for the area in terms of the mass and the charge, which in dimension $n=3$ is relevant in connection with the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture, always holds under the natural assumption that the horizon is stable as a minimal hypersurface.

Levi Lopes de Lima; Frederico Girão; Weslley Lozório; Juscelino Silva

2014-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

266

Double the Charge from One Photon in Organic Photovoltaics | U.S. DOE  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Double the Charge from One Photon in Organic Photovoltaics Double the Charge from One Photon in Organic Photovoltaics Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » February 2013 Double the Charge from One Photon in Organic Photovoltaics First observation of key intermediate state in the conversion of one photon to two electrons. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of XY Zhu, Columbia University Electron energy distribution as a function of time for pentacene (lower)

267

Background Rejection in the DMTPC Dark Matter Search Using Charge Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration is developing low-pressure gas TPC detectors for measuring WIMP-nucleon interactions. Optical readout with CCD cameras allows for the detection for the daily modulation in the direction of the dark matter wind, while several charge readout channels allow for the measurement of additional recoil properties. In this article, we show that the addition of the charge readout analysis to the CCD allows us too obtain a statistics-limited 90% C.L. upper limit on the $e^-$ rejection factor of $5.6\\times10^{-6}$ for recoils with energies between 40 and 200 keV$_{\\mathrm{ee}}$. In addition, requiring coincidence between charge signals and light in the CCD reduces CCD-specific backgrounds by more than two orders of magnitude.

J. P. Lopez; S. Ahlen; J. Battat; T. Caldwell; M. Chernicoff; C. Deaconu; D. Dujmic; A. Dushkin; W. Fedus; P. Fisher; F. Golub; S. Henderson; A. Inglis; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; L. Kirsch; R. Lanza; A. Lee; J. Monroe; H. Ouyang; T. Sahin; G. Sciolla; N. Skvorodnev; H. Tomita; H. Wellenstein; I. Wolfe; R. Yamamoto; H. Yegoryan

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Theoretical and experimental study of space charge in intense ion beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The highly collimated beams of energetic neutral atoms used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research (CTR) require the virtual elimination of space-charge forces in the primary ion beam in order to minimize the angular divergence. A model is presented which describes the behavior of an intense ion beam passing through a gas cell. This theory is used to derive the space-charge field produced by such a beam and shows how its effect can be minimized. This model agrees well with experimental measurements and enables emittance-dominated beams of very high brightness to be obtained which could find applications in fields other than CTR.

A. J. T. Holmes

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

Kálmán, Péter

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

First principles calculation of polarization induced interfacial charges in GaN/AlN heterostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new method to calculate polarization induced interfacial charges in semiconductor heterostructures using classical electrostatics applied to real-space band diagrams from first principles calculations and apply it to GaN/AlN heterostructures with ultrathin AlN layers (4-6 monolayers). We show that the calculated electric fields and interfacial charges are independent of the exchange-correlation functionals used (local-density approximation and hybrid functionals). We also find the calculated interfacial charge of (6.8 +/- 0.4) x 10^13 cm-2 to be in excellent agreement with experiments and the value of 6.58 x 10^13 cm-2 calculated from bulk polarization constants, validating the use of bulk constants even for very thin films.

Rohan Mishra; Oscar D. Restrepo; Siddharth Rajan; Wolfgang Windl

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

271

Charge screening and magnetic anisotropy in metallic rare-earth systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The calculation of magnetic anisotropy constants is performed beyond the point-charge model for a continuous charge-density distribution of screening conduction electrons. An important role of the nonuniform electron density, in particular, of the Friedel oscillations, in the formation of crystal field is demonstrated. Such effects can modify strongly the effective ion (impurity) charge and even change its sign. This enables one to justify the anion model, which is often used for discussing experimental data on hydrogen-containing systems. Possible applications to the pure rare-earth metals and RCo5 (R=rare earth) compounds are discussed. The deformation of magnetic structure near the interstitial positive muon owing to the strong local anisotropy, and the corresponding contribution to the dipole field at the muon are considered.

V. Yu. Irkhin and Yu. P. Irkhin

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Orbital Degeneracy Removed by Charge Order in Triangular Antiferromagnet AgNiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

We report a high-resolution neutron diffraction study on the orbitally degenerate spin-1/2 hexagonal metallic antiferromagnet AgNiO{sub 2}. A structural transition to a tripled unit cell with expanded and contracted NiO{sub 6} octahedra indicates {radical}(3)x{radical}(3) charge order on the Ni triangular lattice. This suggests charge order as a possible mechanism of lifting the orbital degeneracy in the presence of charge fluctuations, as an alternative to the more usual Jahn-Teller distortions. A novel magnetic ground state is observed at low temperatures with the electron-rich S=1 Ni sites arranged in alternating ferromagnetic rows on a triangular lattice, surrounded by a honeycomb network of nonmagnetic and metallic Ni ions. We also report first-principles band-structure calculations that explain microscopically the origin of these phenomena.

Wawrzynska, E.; Coldea, R. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wheeler, E. M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Institute Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mazin, I. I.; Johannes, M. D. [Code 6393, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Soergel, T.; Jansen, M. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ibberson, R. M.; Radaelli, P. G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

273

Demonstration of Cathode Emittance Dominated High Bunch Charge Beams in a DC gun-based Photoinjector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (greater than or equal to 100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittance measured at 9-9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Free Electron Lasers (FELs).

Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Measurement of the elliptic anisotropy of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at ?sNN=2.76 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The anisotropy of the azimuthal distributions of charged particles produced in [? over s[subscript NN

Bauer, Gerry P.

275

In situ electric fields causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......evolution of in situ electric fields in anatomically...the resultant in situ electric fields from a charged...Then, computed in situ electric fields were compared...magnitude of a capacitive discharge is much milder if the...object rather than an arc to the finger tip. Thus......

Toshihiro Nagai; Akimasa Hirata

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Reduction of the trapping of positrons in dislocated single crystals of iron when charged with hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The positron annihilation measurement was carried out with the pure iron single crystals deformed in various ways before and after hydrogen permeation. The positron trapping intensity was reduced more in the screw dislocation than in the edge dislocation by hydrogen charging. The trap occupancy by hydrogen was very close to the fraction of the reduction in positron trapping intensity.

Park, Y.K.; Waber, J.T.; Snead, C.L. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Impact of quantized vibrations on the efficiency of interfacial charge separation in photovoltaic devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that charge separation at donor-acceptor interfaces is a complex process that is controlled by the combined action of Coulomb binding for electron-hole pairs and partial relaxation due to quantized phonons. A joint electron-vibration quantum dynamical study reveals that high energy vibrations sensitively tune the charge transfer probability as a function of time and injection energy, due to polaron formation. These results have bearings for the optimization of energy transfer both in organic and quantum dot photovoltaics, as well as in biological light harvesting complexes.

Soumya Bera; Nicolas Gheeraert; Simone Fratini; Sergio Ciuchi; Serge Florens

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Stability of Negatively Charged Platelets in Calcium-Rich Anionic Copolymer Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this context, the use of anionic comb copolymers dispersants, consisting of negatively charged backbones (e.g., polyacrylic acid) with grafted neutral hydrophilic side chains (most often polyalkene oxides), has allowed the emergence of highly pumpable and self-compacting concrete with high mechanical performance, essential for construction of incredible skyscrapers. ... Flatt, R. J.; Schober, I.; Raphael, E.; Plassard, C.; Lesniewska, E.Conformation of Adsorbed Comb Copolymer Dispersants Langmuir 2009, 25, 845– 855 ... cement suspensions in the absence and presence of comb polymers comprised of a polyacrylic acid (PAA) backbone and charge-neutral, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) teeth. ...

Martin Turesson; André Nonat; Christophe Labbez

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

279

Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a beam-directed chemical technique for controlling the charge states of near-surface luminescence centers in semiconductors. Specifically, we fluorinate the surface of H-terminated diamond by electron beam irradiation in the presence of NF3 vapor. The fluorination treatment acts as a local chemical switch that alters the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers from the neutral to the negative state. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to control the emission spectrum of individual nanodiamonds and surface regions scanned by the electron beam

Shanley, Toby W; Aharonovich, Igor; Toth, Milos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Time-Resolved Charge Carrier Generation from Higher Lying Excited States in Conjugated Polymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sub-ps three-pulse transient differential transmission spectroscopy using two excitation pulses is used to directly investigate the generation of charge carriers in ladder-type poly(para)phenyl in bulk film. The role of higher excited singlet states of both even and odd symmetry is examined and the dynamics of the major processes involved is described quantitatively. The charge generation efficiency is found to depend strongly on the delay between the two excitation pulses. This is explained by the interplay between internal conversion, excitation energy migration, and on-site vibronic relaxation.

C. Gadermaier; G. Cerullo; G. Sansone; G. Leising; U. Scherf; G. Lanzani

2002-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Dust loading on electrostatitically charged filters in a standard test and a real HVAC system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency and pressure drop of filters made from synthetic fibres carrying electrostatic charges and filters made from uncharged glass fibres were measured repeatedly for more than 19 weeks in operating HVAC systems. Results showed efficiency reductions as large as 40% for the filters made from charged fibres whereas the efficiency of filters made from uncharged fibres changed little. Clean filters were sent to a testing laboratory for efficiency measurements according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999. When the filters experienced accelerated dust loading according to the ASHRAE procedure, the efficiency of both the glass and synthetic fibre filters increased. Efficiency reductions like those observed for the charged filters during actual use were not replicated by this standard test.

Peter C. Raynor; Soo Jae Chae

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Optical investigation of the charge-density-wave phase transitions in NbSe3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have measured the optical reflectivity R(?) of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor NbSe3 from the far infrared up to the ultraviolet between 10 and 300 K using light polarized along and normal to the chain axis. We find a depletion of the optical conductivity with decreasing temperature for both polarizations in the mid- to far-infrared region. This leads to a redistribution of spectral weight from low to high energies due to partial gapping of the Fermi surface below the charge-density-wave transitions at 145 K and 59 K. We deduce the bulk magnitudes of the charge-density wave gaps and discuss the scattering of ungapped free charge carriers and the role of fluctuation effects.

A. Perucchi; L. Degiorgi; R. E. Thorne

2004-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

283

Magnetic charge and the charge quantization condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two viewpoints concerning magnetic charge are distinguished: that of Dirac, which is unsymmetrical, and the symmetrical one, which embodies invariance under charge rotation. It is pointed out that the latter is not in conflict with the empirical asymmetry between electric and magnetic charge. The discussion is based on an action principle that uses field strengths and the vector potential A as independent variables; a second vector potential B is defined nonlocally in terms of the field strengths. This nonlocality is described by an arbitrary vector function f?(y), subject only to the restriction ??f?(y)=?(y) and the additional requirement of oddness, in the symmetrical formulation. The charge quantization conditions for a pair of idealized charges, a and b, are inferred by examining the dependence of the action W on the choice of the arbitrary mathematical function f, and requiring the uniqueness of exp [iW]. For the unsymmetrical viewpoint the half-integer condition of Dirac is obtained, eagb4?=12n, while the symmetrical formulation requires the integer condition (eagb-ebga)4?=n. The Dirac injunction, "a string must never pass through a charged particle," is criticized as unnecessarily restrictive, owing to its origin in a classical action context. As simplified by a restriction to small momentum transfers, permitting the neglect of form-factor and vacuum-polarization effects, the dynamics of a realistic system of two spin- ½ dyons is shown to involve the same interaction structure used in the idealized discussion.

Julian Schwinger

1975-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

THERMAL STABILITY OF AN ADSORBED ARRAY OF CHARGES IN THE EINSTEIN APPROXIMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THERMAL STABILITY OF AN ADSORBED ARRAY OF CHARGES IN THE EINSTEIN APPROXIMATION J. Ross ABSTRACT For an infinite hexagonal array of ions adsorbed on a conducting plane of infinite extent. The ions are imaged in the uniform, conducting adsorbent and are assumed to move freely in the plane

Macdonald, James Ross

285

Improving Charging Efficiency with Workload Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University Syracuse, New York, 13244, USA {yzhan158, yage, qiqiu}@syr.edu ABSTRACT In energy harvestingImproving Charging Efficiency with Workload Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems Yukan in the electrical energy storage (EES) bank. How much energy can be stored is affected by many factors including

Qiu, Qinru

286

Charge Collection Measurements in single-type column 3D Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge Collection Measurements in single-type column 3D Sensors M. Scaringella*, A. Polyakov, and H sensors. In particular, 3D detectors with columns of both n-and p-doping are considered to be especially-substrate [5]. The principle of the single-type column 3D sensors is shown in Fig. 1. Their advantages over

California at Santa Cruz, University of

287

SEU critical charge and sensitive area in a submicron CMOS technology  

SciTech Connect

This work presents SEU phenomena in advanced SRAM memory cells. Using mixed-mode simulation, the effects of scaling on the notions of sensitive area and critical charge is shown. Specifically, the authors quantify the influence of parasitic bipolar action in cells fabricated in a submicron technology.

Detcheverry, C.; Dachs, C.; Lorfevre, E.; Sudre, C.; Bruguier, G.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)] [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Ecoffet, R. [CNES, Toulouse (France)] [CNES, Toulouse (France)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Point of zero charge determination in soils and minerals via traditional methods and detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-specific ion adsorption as a function of pH and I (point of zero net charge), and (3) electroacoustic mobility Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Point of zero charge; Point of zero net charge; Point, or positive, or no charge. The pH where the net total particle charge is zero is called the point of zero

Ma, Lena

289

The Resonance Scattering Phenomenon of Fast Negatively Charged Particles in a Single Crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy spectrum of the extended attractive potential of a crystallographic row for negatively charged particles has quasi-bound states. It follows that a negatively charged particle with small transversal momentum component ($p_{\\bot} R <<1$) may undergo resonance scattering. Thus the resonance scattering phenomenon can be observed in a single crystal, when fast electrons move with a small glancing angle ($\\theta_0 << 1/pR$) to a crystallographic axis. The calculated results for the electrons and angular widths of resonance peaks are consistent with experimental data.

Kovalev, Gennady V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Structure of negatively charged muonium in n-type GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Muon level-crossing resonance and muon-spin-rotation measurements on heavily doped n-type GaAs:Si and GaAs:Te show that the majority of positive muons implanted at room temperature form an isolated diamagnetic muonium center located at a high-symmetry site with Ga neighbors along the ?111? direction(s). These experiments, together with theoretical considerations, imply that negatively charged muonium is at or near the tetrahedral interstitial site with four Ga nearest-neighbor atoms. Except for zero-point energy differences, these results should model negatively charged isolated hydrogen in GaAs.

K.H. Chow; R.F. Kiefl; W.A. MacFarlane; J.W. Schneider; D.W. Cooke; M. Leon; M. Paciotti; T.L. Estle; B. Hitti; R.L. Lichti; S.F.J. Cox; C. Schwab; E.A. Davis; A. Morrobel-Sosa; L. Zavieh

1995-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Siting public electric vehicle charging stations in Beijing using big-data informed travel patterns of the taxi fleet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Charging infrastructure is critical to the development of electric vehicle (EV) system. While many countries have implemented great policy efforts to promote EVs, how to build charging infrastructure to maximize overall travel electrification given how people travel has not been well studied. Mismatch of demand and infrastructure can lead to under-utilized charging stations, wasting public resources. Estimating charging demand has been challenging due to lack of realistic vehicle travel data. Public charging is different from refueling from two aspects: required time and home-charging possibility. As a result, traditional approaches for refueling demand estimation (e.g. traffic flow and vehicle ownership density) do not necessarily represent public charging demand. This research uses large-scale trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing as a case study to evaluate how travel patterns mined from big-data can inform public charging infrastructure development. Although this study assumes charging stations to be dedicated to a fleet of PHEV taxis which may not fully represent the real-world situation, the methodological framework can be used to analyze private vehicle trajectory data as well to improve our understanding of charging demand for electrified private fleet. Our results show that (1) collective vehicle parking “hotspots” are good indicators for charging demand; (2) charging stations sited using travel patterns can improve electrification rate and reduce gasoline consumption; (3) with current grid mix, emissions of CO2, PM, SO2, and \\{NOx\\} will increase with taxi electrification; and (4) power demand for public taxi charging has peak load around noon, overlapping with Beijing’s summer peak power.

Hua Cai; Xiaoping Jia; Anthony S.F. Chiu; Xiaojun Hu; Ming Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Spacecraft charging and ion wake formation in the near-Sun environment R. E. Ergun,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrons. Electric field measurements are somewhat more difficult in the solar wind since a negativeSpacecraft charging and ion wake formation in the near-Sun environment R. E. Ergun,1 D. M be amplified by an ion wake. The negative potential of the ion wake prevents secondary electrons from escaping

California at Berkeley, University of

293

Research at the Universit de Sherbrooke Faculty of Engineering NSERC Industrial Research Chairs Professor in charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research at the Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Engineering NSERC Industrial Research Chairs Professor in charge NSERC Industrial Research Chair in Concrete Structure Analysis (Civil Engineering Materials for Infrastructure (Civil Engineering) Brahim Benmokrane NSERC Industrial Research Chair on High

Spino, Claude

294

Charges, Costs and Market Power in the Deregulated UK Electricity Retail Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by competitive forces in unregulated residential energy markets. We assess the competitiveness of the market: Energy: Pricing, Market Power Acknowledgements: We are grateful for financial support from the EconomicCharges, Costs and Market Power in the Deregulated UK Electricity Retail Market by Evens Salies

Feigon, Brooke

295

Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock R and strength in NIF implosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock R and strength in NIF implosions A. B. Zylstra shock R and strength in NIF implosionsa) A. B. Zylstra,1,b) J. A. Frenje,1 F. H. Séguin,1 M. J to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum

296

High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc  

SciTech Connect

Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ~;; 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 ?s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states.

Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

297

Image Charge Differential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Image Charge Differential Amplifier FT 0 Crude Oil Time (s) 543210 Frequency (kHz) m/z m q B f Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) uses the frequency of cyclotron motion of the ions in a static magnetic field to determine the mass-to-charge ratio, which is then used

Weston, Ken

298

Utility Grid EV charging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Main Utility Grid EV charging PCC Batteries DC Load EV charging Flywheel Interlinking converter PV or large distance interconnected grids, to energy efficient applications in distribution system, energy storage systems and local loads as a local grid, is gaining more interests due to its potential

Chaudhary, Sanjay

299

Advance Detonation in a Tubular Charge of Explosive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... sleeves of 'Cellophane' J in. and 1J in. in diameter, the velocity of detonation in the tube wall is greater than the velocity in a solid cylinder by 47 ... Fig. 1 may be given (film writing-speed 352 m./sec.). Three detonation waves, indicated as A, B and C in the diagram, can be distinguished ...

D. W. WOODHEAD

1959-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

300

Characterization and correction of charge-induced pixel shifts in DECam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interaction of charges in CCDs with the already accumulated charge distribution causes both a flux dependence of the point-spread function (an increase of observed size with flux, also known as the brighter/fatter effect) and pixel-to-pixel correlations of the noise in flat fields. We describe these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) with charge dependent shifts of effective pixel borders, i.e. the Antilogus et al. (2014) model, which we fit to measurements of flat-field noise correlations. The latter fall off approximately as a power-law r^-2.5 with pixel separation r, are isotropic except for an asymmetry in the direct neighbors along rows and columns, are stable in time, and are weakly dependent on wavelength. They show variations from chip to chip at the 20% level that correlate with the silicon resistivity. The charge shifts predicted by the model cause biased shape measurements, primarily due to their effect on bright stars, at levels exceeding weak lensing science requirements. We measure the fl...

Gruen, Daniel; Jarvis, Mike; Rowe, Barnaby; Vikram, Vinu; Plazas, Andrés A; Seitz, Stella

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Charge Transfer in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transfer in Titania. Abstract: The derivation of atomistic potential parameters, based on electronic structure calculations, for modeling electron and hole polarons in titania...

302

Charged-Particle Decay from Giant Monopole Resonance in Si-28  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 41, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1990 Charged particle decay from giant monopole resonance in Si Y. Toba, Y.-W. Lui, and D. H. Youngblood Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 U. Garg Physics...

Toba, Y.; Lui, YW; Youngblood, David H.; Garg, U.; Grabmayr, P.; Knopfle, K. T.; Riedesel, H.; Wagner, G. J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Study of CP Asymmetry in the Neutral B Meson Decays to Two Charged Pions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of CP Asymmetry in the Neutral B Meson Decays to Two Charged Pions Nakadaira Takeshi 1 December 2002 1 nakadair@hep.phys.s.u­tokyo.ac.jp #12; Abstract We present the measurement of CP ­violating as a B 0 # # + # - CP eigenstate and identify the flavor of the accompanying B meson from its decay

Aihara, Hiroaki

304

Study of CP Asymmetry in the Neutral B Meson Decays to Two Charged Pions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of CP Asymmetry in the Neutral B Meson Decays to Two Charged Pions Nakadaira Takeshi1 December 2002 1 nakadair@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp #12;Abstract We present the measurement of CP + - CP eigenstate and identify the flavor of the accompanying B meson from its decay products. From

Aihara, Hiroaki

305

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets beyond ground electrode as charge overflow in a dielectric barrier discharge setup  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets beyond ground electrode as charge overflow in a dielectric barrier voltage and the width of ground electrode, atmospheric pressure plasma jets extending beyond the ground American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3466993 I. INTRODUCTION The cold atmospheric pressure plasma

Zexian, Cao

306

Low dimensional long range topological charge structure in the QCD vacuum  

SciTech Connect

While sign-coherent 4-dimensional structures cannot dominate topological charge fluctuations in the QCD vacuum at all scales due to reflection positivity, it is possible that enhanced coherence exists over extended space-time regions of lower dimension. Using the overlap Dirac operator to calculate topological charge density, we present evidence for such structure in pure-glue SU(3) lattice gauge theory. It is found that a typical equilibrium configuration is dominated by two oppositely-charged sign-coherent connected structures (``sheets'') covering about 80% of space-time. Each sheet is built from elementary 3-d cubes connected through 2-d faces, and approximates a low-dimensional curved manifold (or possibly a fractal structure) embedded in the 4-d space. At the heart of the sheet is a ``skeleton'' formed by about 18% of the most intense space-time points organized into a global long-range structure, involving connected parts spreading over maximal possible distances. We find that the skeleton is locally 1-dimensional and propose that its geometrical properties might be relevant for understanding the possible role of topological charge fluctuations in the physics of chiral symmetry breaking.

I. Horvath; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; F.X. Lee; K.F. Liu; N. Mathur; H.B. Thacker; J.B. Zhang

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Polymer Preprints 2004, 45(2), CHARGE DENSITY EFFECTS IN SALT -FREE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium chloride (PMVP-Cl) with various charge density and uncharged neutral parent poly of the random copolymers of 2-vinyl pyridine and N- methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium chloride. First, the parent dry P2 by serial dilution. Polymer concentration is reported in moles of monomers (vinyl pyridine or vinyl

Colby, Ralph H.

308

SmartCharge: Cutting the Electricity Bill in Smart Homes with Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SmartCharge: Cutting the Electricity Bill in Smart Homes with Energy Storage Aditya Mishra, David,irwin,shenoy,kurose}@cs.umass.edu Ting Zhu Binghamton University tzhu@binghamton.edu ABSTRACT Market-based electricity pricing provides consumers an op- portunity to lower their electric bill by shifting consump- tion to low price periods

Shenoy, Prashant

309

Real-Time PEV Charging/Discharging Coordination in Smart Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

motivated by the recent growth of renewable energy sources and the almost universal availability of electric--Distribution systems, energy management, elec- tric vehicle, smart parking lot, M/G/ queue. I. INTRODUCTION ECONOMIC are operating in many countries around the world. It has been shown that the PEV charging process

Zhuang, Weihua

310

Magnetic and Charge Fluctuations in High-T(Sub c) Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Neutron scattering has been used to study the spin fluctuations in the YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO materials. Evidence is found for both incommensurate fluctuations and a commensurate resonance excitation. Measurements on the lattice dynamics for YBaCuO show incommensurate structure that appears to stem from charge fluctuations that are associated with the spin fluctuations.

Chakoumakos, B.C.; Dogan, F.; Mook, H.A.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

311

Charge transport through split photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Charge transport and recombination are relatively ignored parameters while upscaling dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Enhanced photovoltaic parameters are anticipated by merely widening the devices physical dimensions, viz., thickness and area as evident from the device design adopted in reported large area DSCs. These strip designs lead to ?50% loss in photocurrent compared to the high efficiency lab scale devices. Herein, we report that the key to achieving higher current density (J{sub SC}) is optimized diffusion volume rather than the increased photoelectrode area because kinetics of the devices is strongly influenced by the varied choices of diffusion pathways upon increasing the electrode area. For a given electrode area and thickness, we altered the photoelectrode design by splitting the electrode into multiple fractions to restrict the electron diffusion pathways. We observed a correlation between the device physical dimensions and its charge collection efficiency via current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The modified electrode designs showed >50% increased J{sub SC} due to shorter transport time, higher recombination resistance and enhanced charge collection efficiency compared to the conventional ones despite their similar active volume (?3.36?×?10{sup ?4}?cm{sup 3}). A detailed charge transport characteristic of the split devices and their comparison with single electrode configuration is described in this article.

Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Nanostructured Renewable Energy Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26300 (Malaysia); Khalidin, Zulkeflee [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26600 (Malaysia)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

Prospects for using flows of charged particles in surface engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ion and electron kinds of treatment are promising processes for surface engineering, in particular, for treating high-temperature ... Some of them are already employed in aircraft engineering. Others can be intro...

Yu. D. Yagodkin; K. M. Pastukhov; S. A. Muboyadzhyan…

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Charge neutrality in heavily doped emitters Jesus A. del Alamo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a typical solar-cell emitter, being particularly excellent in the heavily doped regions beneath the surface

del Alamo, Jesús A.

314

Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

315

Charge transport in purple membrane monolayers: A sequential tunneling approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current voltage (I-V) characteristics in proteins can be sensitive to conformational change induced by an external stimulus (photon, odour, etc.). This sensitivity can be used in medical and industrial applications besides shedding new light in the microscopic structure of biological materials. Here, we show that a sequential tunneling model of carrier transfer between neighbouring amino-acids in a single protein can be the basic mechanism responsible of the electrical properties measured in a wide range of applied potentials. We also show that such a strict correlation between the protein structure and the electrical response can lead to a new generation of nanobiosensors that mimic the sensorial activity of living species. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of protein electrical properties, we provide a microscopic interpretation of recent I-V experiments carried out in bacteriorhodopsin at a nanoscale length.

Eleonora Alfinito; Jean-Francois Millithaler; Lino Reggiani

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

316

Charge-carrier transport in amorphous organic semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the first reports of efficient luminescence and absorption in organic semiconductors, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted increasing interest. Organic semiconductors have ...

Limketkai, Benjie, 1982-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distribution in Thin-Film Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.of Lithium Polymer Batteries. J. Power Sources 2002, 110,for Rechargeable Li Batteries. Chem. Mater. 2010, 15. Padhi,

Liu, Jun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Space Charge Compensation in Laser Particle Accelerators L.C...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compensation in Laser Particle Accelerators L.C. Steinhauer and W.D. Kimura STI Optronics, 2755 Northup Way, Bellevue, WA 98004-1495 Abstract. Laser particle acceleration...

319

John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in use of ultrafast laser spectroscopies to study the fundamental energy and electron transfer processes that underpin solar energy conversion. Click here for directions. *video...

320

Numerical study on charged particle accelerations in the plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Collective features of accelerated ions in the plasma focus are investigated theoretically by using a computer simulation. It is shown that an effective heating of ions by the acceleration of ions occurs without collisions in the collapse phase. A hybrid plasma diode model is used for the particle accelerations after disruption of the focused plasma by the m=0 mode instability. It is shown that ions are efficiently accelerated in the disrupted region toward the downstream direction with respect to the discharge current and that the energy of the accelerated ions is spread rather widely over the scale of 100 keV as was observed in experiments.

Yoshiomi Kondoh; Minoru Mamada

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: From RHIC to LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, RHIC to LHC energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behaviour when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, $\\frac{dE_{\\rm{T}}/d\\eta}{dN_{\\rm{ch}}/d\\eta} ~\\equiv \\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$) at mid-rapidity for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}=5.5$ TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of $\\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$.

Raghunath Sahoo; Aditya Nath Mishra

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Titanium  Oxide  as  an  Electronically  Active  Support  for  Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  carbon  monoxide  oxidation  on  platinum  nanoparticles  supported  on  stoichiometric  titanium Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active  Support for Platinum in  the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon  Monoxide   

Hervier, Antoine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

MEI~ORAXKJM POR k'HE OFFICER IN CHARGE:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Pitch. 'In other worlds the basic ingredients for the production of graphite are petroleum coke,and,pltch. ,, Hence the KC graphite Is produced from Kendell.Petroleum Coke and...

324

Squall in Chesapeake: Marine Institute Rammed by Junk Charge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Squall in Chesapeake: Marine Institute Rammed by Junk...the nation's prominent marine scientists, William J...Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences (VIMS) and...fraudulently" disposed of a diesel engine which belonged to the...

DEBORAH SHAPLEY

1976-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

325

Inverse problems in elliptic charged-particle beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advantages of elliptic (or sheet) beams have been known for many years, but their inherent three-dimensional nature presents significant theoretical, design, and experimental challenges in the development of elliptic ...

Bhatt, Ronak Jayant

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

In Charge of the World: Electrochemical Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a Perspective in this issue, Ding et al. provide a survey of the current understanding of vanadium RFBs from materials to stacks (Ding, C.; Zhang, H.; Li, X.; Liu, T.; Xing, F. Vanadium Flow Battery for Energy Storage: Prospects and Challenges. ... Rychcik, M.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.Characteristics of a New All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery J. Power Sources 1988, 22, 59– 67 ... Characteristics of a new all-vanadium redox flow battery ...

Arumugam Manthiram; Yongzhu Fu; Yu-Sheng Su

2013-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

327

Charging and Heating Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Nonthermal Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this award was to understand the interactions of nanometer-sized particles with ionized gases, also called plasmas. Plasmas are widely used in the fabrication of electronic circuits such as microprocessors and memory devices, in plasma display panels, as well as in medical applications. Recently, these ionized gases are finding applications in the synthesis of advanced nanomaterials with novel properties, which are based on nanometer-sized particulate (nanoparticles) building blocks. As these nanoparticles grow in the plasma environment, they interact with the plasmas species such as electrons and ions which critically determines the nanoparticle properties. The University of Minnesota researchers conducting this project performed numerical simulations and developed analytical models that described the interaction of plasma-bound nanoparticles with the plasma ions. The plasma ions bombard the nanoparticle surface with substantial energy, which can result in the rearrangement of the nanoparticles’ atoms, giving them often desirable structures at the atomic scale. Being able to tune the ion energies allows to control the properties of nanoparticles produced in order to tailor their attributes for certain applications. For instance, when used in high efficiency light emitting devices, nanoparticles produced under high fluxes of highly energetic ions may show superior light emission to particles produced under low fluxes of less energetic ions. The analytical models developed by the University of Minnesota researchers enable the research community to easily determine the energy of ions bombarding the nanoparticles. The researchers extensively tested the validity of the analytical models by comparing them to sophisticated computer simulations based on stochastic particle modeling, also called Monte Carlo modeling, which simulated the motion of hundreds of thousands of ions and their interaction with the nanoparticle surfaces. Beyond the scientific intellectual merits, this award had significant broader impacts. Two graduate students received their doctoral degrees and both have joined a U.S. manufacturer of plasma-based semiconductor processing equipment. Four undergraduate students participated in research conducted under this grant and gained valuable hands-on laboratory experience. A middle school science teacher observed research conducted under this grant and developed three new course modules that introduce middle school students to the concepts of nanometer scale, the atomic structure of matter, and the composition of matter of different chemical elements.

Kortshagen, Uwe R.

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Forward charge asymmetry in 20-GeV gammap reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast forward particles photoproduced in 20-GeV interactions on a hydrogen target are shown to be preferentially positive, the asymmetry increasing with transverse momentum and Feynman x. Evidence is given that this effect is not due to forward-going target fragments. A model in which production from the photon of a forward-going spectator u is preferred over a ?, due to a higher probability for interactions of antiquarks with the proton constituents, is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the data.

V. R. O’Dell et al.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Charge transfer in liquid semiconductors: The K-Te system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The neutron diffraction patterns of molten KxTe1-x alloys for x=0.12 and x-0.50 demonstrate the persistence of covalently bonded tellurium in the liquid. In the case of liquid K0.12Te0.88, the measured structure is domianted by the Te-Te contribution, and is remarkably similar to that of pure liquid tellurium. The equiatomic alloy K0.50Te0.50 is shown to contain mostly Te pairs which are identified with Zintl ions, Te22-. The presence of these ions explains the semiconducting behavior of these alloys deduced from recent electrical transport measurements.

J. Fortner, Marie-Louise Saboungi, and J. E. Enderby

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Tunable soft structure in charged fluids confined by dielectric interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...56), or the non-equilibrium...and quantify the thermal forces in fluids...such as the atmospheric chemistry, colloid...one-component plasma up to {gamma...statistical mechanics of non-uniform, classical...Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat...The interplay of thermal motion, short-range...

Jos W. Zwanikken; Monica Olvera de la Cruz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Microstructure and charge carrier transport in phthalocyanine based semiconductor blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the field of organic photovoltaics: Yu et al. reported a polymeric solar cell with an interpenetrating donor. The application of distributed interfaces in organic solar cells has the advantage that excitons can efficiently comprises ambipolar field-effect transistors as well as organic photovoltaic cells. Structural, optical

Schreiber, Frank

332

ORIGINAL ARTICLES Behavior of Charged Particles in a Biological Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. 2 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Received: February 8, 2010 Accepted in revised of AC-DC electromagnetic fields, by combining the Ion Forced- Vibration theory with the Ion Cyclotron

Halgamuge, Malka N.

333

Charge Requirements of Lipid II Flippase Activity in Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for interaction with lipid II and/or energy coupling during transport. INTRODUCTION...first 12 transmembrane domains of YtgP (green) and MurJ (gray) structure models showing...including R312, are present within allowed energy fields in the structural model (see Fig...

Emily K. Butler; Wee Boon Tan; Hildy Joseph; Natividad Ruiz

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

335

Charge Response Function and a Novel Plasmon Mode in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polarizability of noninteracting 2D Dirac electrons has a 1/qv-? singularity at the boundary of electron-hole excitations. The screening of this singularity by long-range electron-electron interactions is usually treated within the random phase approximation. The latter is exact only in the limit of N??, where N is the “color” degeneracy. We find that the ladder-type vertex corrections become crucial close to the threshold as the ratio of the nth order ladder term to the same order random phase approximation contribution is ln?n|qv-?|/Nn. We perform an analytical summation of the infinite series of ladder diagrams which describe the excitonic effect. Beyond the threshold, qv>?, the real part of the polarization operator is found to be positive leading to the appearance of a strong and narrow plasmon resonance.

S. Gangadharaiah; A. M. Farid; E. G. Mishchenko

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

336

Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of \\{PHEVs\\} needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes \\{PHEVs\\} is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and \\{PHEVs\\} in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and several PHEV penetration levels are examined. The results show that charging load self-management can effectively balance the extra risk introduced by integration of \\{PHEVs\\} during the charging horizon.

Zhe Liu; Dan Wang; Hongjie Jia; Ned Djilali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Tau longitudinal polarization in B -> D tau nu and its role in the search for charged Higgs boson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the longitudinal polarization of the tau lepton in B -> D tau nu decay. After discussing possible sensitivities of tau decay modes to the tau polarization, we examine the effect of charged Higgs boson on the tau polarization in B -> D tau nu. We find a relation between the decay rate and the tau polarization, and clarify the role of the tau polarization measurement in the search for the charged Higgs boson.

Minoru Tanaka; Ryoutaro Watanabe

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

338

Measurement of the Inclusive Leptonic Asymmetry in Top-Quark Pairs that Decay to Two Charged Leptons at CDF  

SciTech Connect

We measure the inclusive forward-backward asymmetry of the charged-lepton pseudorapidities from top-quark pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions, and decaying to final states that contain two charged leptons (electrons or muons), using data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab.

Aaltonen, Timo Antero; et al.,

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

339

Low energy charge and high adenosine content in smooth muscle of human bladder in comparison with striated muscle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study determined the energy charge, adenosine and inosine content of human bladder smooth muscle in comparison ... stress incontinence. We found that the ATP content of bladder smooth muscle was only about ....

K. Wedenberg; G. Ronquist; A. Waldenström…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Charge asymmetry in the differential cross section of high-energy bremsstrahlung in the field of a heavy atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distinction between the charged particle and antiparticle differential cross sections of high-energy bremsstrahlung in the electric field of a heavy atom is investigated. The consideration is based on the quasiclassical approximation to the wave functions in the external field. The charge asymmetry (the ratio of the antisymmetric and symmetric parts of the differential cross section) arises due to the account for the first quasiclassical correction to the differential cross section. All evaluations are performed with the exact account of the atomic field. We consider in detail the charge asymmetry for electrons and muons. For electrons, the nuclear size effect is not important while for muons this effect should be taken into account. For the longitudinal polarization of the initial charged particle, the account for the first quasiclassical correction to the differential cross section leads to the asymmetry in the cross section with respect to the replacement $\\varphi\\rightarrow-\\varphi$, where $\\varphi$ i...

Krachkov, P A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Holography, charge and baryon asymmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reason for baryon asymmetry in our universe has been a pertinent question for many years. The holographic principle suggests a charged preon model underlies the Standard Model of particle physics and any such charged preon model requires baryon asymmetry. This note estimates the baryon asymmetry predicted by charged preon models in closed inflationary Friedmann universes.

T. R. Mongan

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

342

Combined gravitational and electromagnetic self-force on charged particles in electrovac spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the self-force on a charged particle moving in a curved spacetime with a background electromagnetic field, extending previous studies to situations in which gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations are comparable. The formal expression $f^{ret}_\\alpha$ for the self-force on a particle, written in terms of the retarded perturbed fields, is divergent, and a renormalization is needed to find the particle's acceleration at linear order in its mass $m$ and charge $e$. We assume that, as in previous work in a Lorenz gauge, the renormalization for accelerated motion comprises an angle average and mass renormalization. Using the short distance expansion of the perturbed electromagnetic and gravitational fields, we show that the renormalization is equivalent to that obtained from a mode sum regularization in which one subtracts from the expression for the self-force in terms of the retarded fields a singular part field comprising only the leading and subleading terms in the mode sum. The most striking part of our result, arising from a remarkable cancellation, is that the renormalization involves no mixing of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In particular, the renormalized mass is obtained by subtracting (1) the purely electromagnetic contribution from a point charge moving along an accelerated trajectory and (2) the purely gravitational contribution from a point mass moving along the same trajectory. In a mode-sum regularization, the same cancellation implies that the required regularization parameters are sums of their purely electromagnetic and gravitational values.

Thomas M. Linz; John L. Friedman; Alan G. Wiseman

2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

343

Battery and charge controller evaluations in small stand-alone PV systems  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of to separate long-term tests of batteries and charge controllers in small stand-alone PV systems. In these experiments, seven complete systems were tested for two years at each of two locations: Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque and the Florida Solar Energy Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Each system contained a PV array, flooded-lead-acid battery, a charge controller and a resistive load. Performance of the systems was strongly influenced by the difference in solar irradiance at the two sites, with some batteries at Sandia exceeding manufacturer`s predictions for cycle life. System performance was strongly correlated with regulation reconnect voltage (R{sup 2} correlation coefficient = 0.95) but only weakly correlated with regulation voltage. We will also discuss details of system performance, battery lifetime and battery water consumption.

Woodworth, J.R.; Thomas, M.G.; Stevens, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunlop, J.L.; Swamy, M.R.; Demetrius, L. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Harrington, S.R. [K-Tech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Efficient readout of a single spin state in diamond via spin-to-charge conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient readout of individual electronic spins associated with atom-like impurities in the solid state is essential for applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We demonstrate a new method for efficient spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The method is based on conversion of the electronic spin state of the NV to a charge state distribution, followed by single-shot readout of the charge state. Conversion is achieved through a spin-dependent photoionization process in diamond at room temperature. Using NVs in nanofabricated diamond beams, we demonstrate that the resulting spin readout noise is within a factor of three of the spin projection noise level. Applications of this technique for nanoscale magnetic sensing are discussed.

B. J. Shields; Q. P. Unterreithmeier; N. P. de Leon; H. Park; M. D. Lukin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Non-relativistic Geodesic Behaviors for a Massive Charged Particle Falling in de Sitter Spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article, continuing the work done in the previous paper (M. Fathi 2012), we apply a Lagrangian formalism to demonstrate the shape of the geodesic motion for a massive charged particle which is falling freely in a de Sitter spacetime. We will show that a spiral shape of the trajectory is available, due to the logarithmic behavior of time, with respect to the proper time.

Farrin Payandeh; Mohsen Fathi

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

346

Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonlinear Electrostatic Perturbations in Intense Charged Particle Beams  

SciTech Connect

This paper places a lowest upper bound on the field energy in electrostatic perturbations in single-species charged particle beams with initial temperature anisotropy (TllT? < 1). The result applies to all electrostatic perturbations driven by the natural anisotropies that develop in accelerated particle beams, including Harris-type electrostatic instabilities, known to limit the luminosity and minimum spot size attainable in experiments. The thermodynamic bound on the field perturbation energy of the instabilities is obtained from the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations for an arbitrary initial distribution function, including the effects of intense self-fields, finite geometry and nonlinear processes. This paper also includes analytical estimates of the nonlinear bounds for space-charge-dominated and emittance-dominated anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distributions.

Nikolas C. Logan and Ronald C. Davidson

2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ion Charge States in the Fast Solar Wind: New Data Analysis and Theoretical Refinements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a further investigation into the increased ionization observed in element charge states in the fast solar wind compared to its coronal hole source regions. Once ions begin to be perpendicularly heated by ion cyclotron waves and execute large gyro-orbits, density gradients in the flow can excite lower hybrid waves that then damp by heating electrons in the parallel direction. We give further analysis of charge state data from polar coronal holes at solar minimum and maximum, and also from equatorial coronal holes. We also consider further the damping of lower hybrid waves by ions and the effect of non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions on the degree of increased ionization, both of which appear to be negligible for the solar wind case considered here. We also suggest that the density gradients required to heat electrons sufficiently to further ionize the solar wind can plausibly result from the turbulent cascade of MHD waves.

J. Martin Laming; Susan T. Lepri

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

348

Ion Charge States in the Fast Solar Wind: New Data Analysis and Theoretical Refinements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a further investigation into the increased ionization observed in element charge states in the fast solar wind compared to its coronal hole source regions. Once ions begin to be perpendicularly heated by ion cyclotron waves and execute large gyro-orbits, density gradients in the flow can excite lower hybrid waves that then damp by heating electrons in the parallel direction. We give further analysis of charge state data from polar coronal holes at solar minimum and maximum, and also from equatorial coronal holes. We also consider further the damping of lower hybrid waves by ions and the effect of non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions on the degree of increased ionization, both of which appear to be negligible for the solar wind case considered here. We also suggest that the density gradients required to heat electrons sufficiently to further ionize the solar wind can plausibly result from the turbulent cascade of MHD waves.

Laming, J Martin; 10.1086/513505

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Inner-Shell Charge-Transfer in Asymmetric Ion-Atom Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Demonstration of convergence in the num ber of basis states;6-MeV/amu o, particles on titanium. Charge capture cross sections for specific target initial states {in units of 10 cm ). Basis ls 2po Vs, Vp 9s, 9p lls, llP 0.1335 0.0989 0.0970 1.148 1... demonstrated. In the s-p space we used basis sets of 7, 9, and 13. states for each m value, e.g. , 7s, 7p m= 0, and 7p m= 1 states. An example of convergence is given for 5-MeV/amu a particles incident on ti- tanium in Table II. This is for charge transfer...

Reading, John F.; Ford, A. Lewis; Swafford, G. L.; Fitchard, A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Snapshots of the retarded interaction of charge carriers with ultrafast fluctuations in cuprates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the pivotal questions in the physics of high-temperature superconductors is whether the low-energy dynamics of the charge carriers is mediated by bosons with a characteristic timescale. This issue has remained elusive since electronic correlations are expected to dramatically speed up the electron-boson scattering processes, confining them to the very femtosecond timescale that is hard to access even with state-of-the-art ultrafast techniques. Here we simultaneously push the time resolution and the frequency range of transient reflectivity measurements up to an unprecedented level that enables us to directly observe the 16 fs build-up of the effective electron-boson interaction in hole-doped copper oxides. This extremely fast timescale is in agreement with numerical calculations based on the t-J model and the repulsive Hubbard model, in which the relaxation of the photo-excited charges is achieved via inelastic scattering with short-range antiferromagnetic excitations.

Conte, S Dal; Golež, D; Mierzejewski, M; Soavi, G; Peli, S; Banfi, F; Ferrini, G; Comin, R; Ludbrook, B M; Chauviere, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Eisaki, H; Greven, M; Lupi, S; Damascelli, A; Brida, D; Capone, M; Bon?a, J; Cerullo, G; Giannetti, C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nuclear Effects in Deep Inelastic Scattering of Charged-Current Neutrino off Nuclear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear effect in the neutrino-nucleus charged-Current inelastic scattering process is studied by analyzing the CCFR and NuTeV data. Structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $xF_3(x,Q^2)$ as well as differential cross sections are calculated by using CTEQ parton distribution functions and EKRS and HKN nuclear parton distribution functions, and compared with the CCFR and NuTeV data. It is found that the corrections of nuclear effect to the differential cross section for the charged-current anti-neutrino scattering on nucleus are negligible, the EMC effect exists in the neutrino structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ in the large $x$ region, the shadowing and anti-shadowing effect occurs in the distribution functions of valence quarks in the small and medium $x$ region,respectively. It is also found that shadowing effects on $F_2(x,Q^2)$ in the small $x$ region in the neutrino-nucleus and the charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering processes are different. It is clear that the neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering data should further be employed in restricting nuclear parton distributions.

Duan ChunGui; Li GuangLie; Shen PengNian

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

352

Nearest-neighbor distributions of free radicals produced within charged-particle tracks in liquid water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for 20-MeV alpha particles compared to maximum double strand break distance INTRODUCTION All forms of ionizing radiation eventually produce charged particles which are responsible for depositing all of the energy to the medium being irradiated. We... quantify this energy deposition in terms of absorbed dose. The definition of absorbed dose is the energy absorbed per unit mass from any kind of ionizing radiation in any type of matter (2). It has long been recognized that different types of radiation...

Smith, Miles Clay

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

Three- to two-dimensional transition in electrostatic screening of point charges at semiconductor surfaces studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrostatic screening of localized electric charges on semiconductor surfaces is investigated quantitatively by statistically analyzing the spatial distribution of thermally formed positively charged anion surface vacancies on GaAs and InP(110) surfaces. Two screening regimes are found: at low vacancy concentrations the vacancy charges are found to be three-dimensionally screened by bulk charge carriers. The corresponding screening length, which increases strongly with decreasing carrier concentration, is best described by the classical bulk screening length evaluated with a surface dielectric constant. With increasing vacancy concentration at given bulk carrier concentration, a three- to two-dimensional screening transition occurs. At high vacancy concentrations, the screening is found to be governed by charge carriers located in a two-dimensional surface vacancy defect band, which is partially filled due to the vacancy-induced surface band bending.

A. Laubsch, K. Urban, and Ph. Ebert

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Backbone-induced effects in the charge transport efficiency of synthetic DNA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a theoretical study pointing out the fundamental role of the backbone energetics in the charge transfer efficiency of polyG–polyC and polyA–polyT chains. The double-strand DNA (ds-DNA) molecules are modelled in terms of a single channel effective Hamiltonian. By introducing a two-step renormalization scheme analytical results for the energy spectrum and transmission coefficient are derived, and current–voltage characteristics are numerically investigated. Significant modulations of the main I–V features (voltage threshold, current amplitude) are reported and their physical origin is traced back to backbone-induced electronic effects. These results open new perspectives for experimental work aimed at controlling the charge transfer efficiency in nanodevices based on synthetic DNA.

Enrique Maciá; Stephan Roche

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Measurement of the Electric Charge of the Top Quark in $\\boldsymbol{t\\bar{t}}$ Events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the electric charge of top quarks using $t\\bar{t}$ events produced in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at the Tevatron. The analysis is based on fully reconstructed $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in lepton+jets final states. Using data corresponding to 5.3 $\\rm fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, we exclude the hypothesis that the top quark has a charge of $Q=-4/3\\,e$ at a significance greater than 5 standard deviations. We also place an upper limit of 0.46 on the fraction of such quarks that can be present in an admixture with the standard model top quarks ($Q=+2/3\\,e$) at a 95\\% confidence level.

D0 Collaboration

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Quantized Hamiltonian dynamics captures the low-temperature regime of charge transport in molecular crystals  

SciTech Connect

The quantized Hamiltonian dynamics (QHD) theory provides a hierarchy of approximations to quantum dynamics in the Heisenberg representation. We apply the first-order QHD to study charge transport in molecular crystals and find that the obtained equations of motion coincide with the Ehrenfest theory, which is the most widely used mixed quantum-classical approach. Quantum initial conditions required for the QHD variables make the dynamics surpass Ehrenfest. Most importantly, the first-order QHD already captures the low-temperature regime of charge transport, as observed experimentally. We expect that simple extensions to higher-order QHDs can efficiently represent other quantum effects, such as phonon zero-point energy and loss of coherence in the electronic subsystem caused by phonons.

Wang, Linjun, E-mail: linjun.wang@rochester.edu, E-mail: oleg.prezhdo@rochester.edu; Chen, Liping; Prezhdo, Oleg V., E-mail: linjun.wang@rochester.edu, E-mail: oleg.prezhdo@rochester.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Akimov, Alexey V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy Loss and Charge Transfer of Argon in a Laser-Generated Carbon Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This Letter reports on the measurement of the energy loss and the projectile charge states of argon ions at an energy of 4??MeV/u penetrating a fully ionized carbon plasma. The plasma of ne?1020??cm-3 and Te?180??eV is created by two laser beams at ?Las=532??nm incident from opposite sides on a thin carbon foil. The resulting plasma is spatially homogenous and allows us to record precise experimental data. The data show an increase of a factor of 2 in the stopping power which is in very good agreement with a specifically developed Monte Carlo code, that allows the calculation of the heavy ion beam’s charge state distribution and its energy loss in the plasma.

A. Frank, A. Blaževi?, V. Bagnoud, M. M. Basko, M. Börner, W. Cayzac, D. Kraus, T. Heßling, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Ortner, A. Otten, A. Pelka, D. Pepler, D. Schumacher, An. Tauschwitz, and M. Roth

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

358

A New Mechanism of Charge Density Wave Discovered in Transition Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 A New Mechanism of Charge Density Wave Discovered in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Charge density waves (CDW) are a type of coupled electronic-lattice instability found in quasi-low dimensional materials. The driving force behind the instability is the reduction in energy of electrons in the material as a consequence of establishing a spontaneous periodic modulation of the crystalline lattice with an appropriate wave vector. The symmetry of the CDW state is very sensitive to the electronic structure of the host material. Charge density wave has been observed in quasi-one dimensional compounds, high temperature superconductors, manganites and many others.1-4 Conventionally, Fermi surface nesting is the dominant and textbook mechanism for CDW. However, it fails to explain the CDW in the 2H-structured transition metal dichalcogenides (2H-TMD's), which is actually the first two-dimensional CDW materials discovered in 1975.5 Even after three decades of intensive research on this subject, the CDW mechanism of 2H-TMD's remain mysterious and controversial.

359

On compensating tune spread induced by space charge in bunched beams  

SciTech Connect

Space charge effects play significant role in modern-day accelerators. These effects frequently constrain attainable beam parameters in an accelerator, or, in an accelerator chain. They also could limit the luminosity of hadron colliders operating either at low energies or with a sub-TeV high brightness hadron beams. The latter is applied for strongly cooled proton and ion beams in eRHIC – the proposed future electron-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A number of schemes for compensating space charge effects in a coasting (e.g. continuous) hadron beam were proposed and some of them had been tested. Using a proper transverse profile of the electron beam (or plasma column) for a coasting beam would compensate both the tune shift and the tune spread in the hadron beam. But all of these methods do not address the issue of tune spread compensation of a bunched hadron beam, e.g. the tune shift dependence on the longitudinal position inside the bunch. In this paper we propose and evaluate a novel idea of using a co-propagating electron bunch with miss-matched longitudinal velocity to compensate the space charge induced tune-shift and tune spread. We present a number of practical examples of such system.

Litvinenko, V. N.; Wang, G.

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

360

Generation of high charge state ions in vacuum arc ion sources by a ``current jump'' method  

SciTech Connect

In the investigation of ion charge state distributions (CSD) in vacuum arc plasmas, good correlation between increase in arc operating voltage and mean ion charge state has been established. Therefore, to increase the mean charge state of a vacuum arc plasma, it is necessary to find ways to increase the arc operating voltage. The voltage can be increased via transients associated with the arc current by means of which a rather high operation voltage can be established across the discharge gap. Experiments were performed both in Tomsk and Berkeley with the discharge system of a vacuum arc ion source. To effect a step current rise an additional power supply was connected to the usual vacuum arc supply. This power supply made it possible to increase the vacuum arc current up to 1 kA for several {micro}s. As a rule the current jump was produced after 100--200 {micro}s into the main discharge pulse when all principal parameters of the vacuum arc were already established. To measure the CSD a time-of-flight method was used. As followed from experiments, superposition of a short, high current pulse to the vacuum arc current pulse is accompanied by a jump in arc operation voltage. Subsequently during the current step the voltage falls exponentially to one hundred volts after the completion of the current jump, and the arc voltage takes its conventional value (20--40V). Because of this increase in arc operation voltage, an enhancement of high charge station ion fractions was observed. For example, with a Ti-cathode with conventional arc parameters there is only very small value to Ti{sup 4+} ion fraction in the vacuum arc plasma. Applying strong magnetic field increases the fraction of these ions up to 20% of the total beam current. The current jump enhanced this value up to 40%.

Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Yushkov, G.Y.; Brown, I.G.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Phonon-Assisted Ultrafast Charge Separation in a Realistic PCBM Aggregate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic solar cells must separate strongly bound electron-hole pairs into free charges. This is achieved at interfaces between electron donor and acceptor organic semiconductors. The most popular electron acceptor is the fullerene derivative PCBM. Electron-hole separation has been observed on femtosecond timescales, which is incompatible with conventional Marcus theories of organic transport. In this work we show that ultrafast charge transport in PCBM arises from its broad range of electronic eigenstates, provided by the presence of three closely spaced delocalised bands near the LUMO level. Vibrational fluctuations enable rapid transitions between these bands, which drives an electron transport of $\\sim$3 nm within 100 fs. All this is demonstrated within a realistic tight binding Hamiltonian containing transfer integrals no larger than 8 meV.

Samuel L. Smith; Alex W. Chin

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Measuring the charged pion polarizability in the gamma gamma -> pi+pi- reaction  

SciTech Connect

Development has begun of a new experiment to measure the charged pion polarizability $\\alpha_{\\pi}-\\beta_{\\pi}$. The charged pion polarizability ranks among the most important tests of low-energy QCD presently unresolved by experiment. Analogous to precision measurements of $\\pi^{\\circ}\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ that test the intrinsic odd-parity (anomalous) sector of QCD, the pion polarizability tests the intrinsic even-parity sector of QCD. The measurement will be performed using the $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\pi^{+{}}\\pi^{-{}}$ cross section accessed via the Primakoff mechanism on nuclear targets using the GlueX detector in Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The linearly polarized photon source in Hall-D will be utilized to separate the Primakoff cross-section from coherent $\\rho^{\\circ}$ production.

Lawrence, David W. [JLAB; Miskimen, Rory A. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mushkarenkov, Alexander Nikolaevich [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Smith, Elton S. [JLAB

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted reactions. The electron assisted neutron exchange processes in pure $Ni$ and $Li-Ni$ composite systems (in the Rossi-type E-Cat) are analyzed and it is concluded that these reactions may be responsible for recent experimental observations.

Péter Kálmán; Tamás Keszthelyi

2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

366

Crystal Fields and the Effective-Point-Charge Model in the Rare-Earth Pnictides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering and specific-heat studies of the crystal fields in the rare-earth monophosphides are reported. It is found that the fourth-order crystal-field parameters for the phosphides and for other rare-earth pnictides fall on a universal curve which is close to that predicted by an effective-point-charge model for the light rare earths but deviates markedly for the heavy rare earths.

R. J. Birgeneau; E. Bucher; J. P. Maita; L. Passell; K. C. Turberfield

1973-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ion Induced Lamellar-Lamellar Phase Transition in Charged Surfactant Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a model for the liquid-liquid phase transition observed in osmotic pressure measurements of certain charged lamellae-forming amphiphiles. The model free energy combines mean-field electrostatic and phenomenological non-electrostatic interactions, while the number of dissociated counterions is treated as a variable degree of freedom that is determined self-consistently. The model, therefore, joins two well-known theories: the Poisson-Boltzmann theory for ionic solutions between charged lamellae, and Langmuir-Frumkin-Davies adsorption isotherm modified to account for charged adsorbing species. Minimizing the appropriate free energy for each interlamellar spacing, we find the ionic density profiles and the resulting osmotic pressure. While in the simple Poisson-Boltzmann theory the osmotic pressure isotherms are always smooth, we observe a discontinuous liquid-liquid phase transition when Poisson-Boltzmann theory is self-consistently augmented by Langmuir-Frumkin-Davies adsorption. This phase transition depends on the area per amphiphilic headgroup, as well as on non-electrostatic interactions of the counterions with the lamellae, and interactions between counterion-bound and counterion-dissociated surfactants. Coupling lateral phase transition in the bilayer plane with electrostatic interactions in the bulk, our results offer a qualitative explanation for the existence of the phase-transition of DDABr (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide), but its apparent absence for the chloride and the iodide homologues. More quantitative comparisons with experiment require better understanding of the microscopic basis of the phenomenological model parameters.

Daniel Harries; Rudi Podgornik; V. Adrian Parsegian; Etay Mar-Or; David Andelman

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

368

Confinement in a cryogenic penning trap of highest charge state ions from EBIT  

SciTech Connect

The retrapping of highly charged Xe[sup 44+] and Th[sup 68+,72+] ions extracted from an electron-beam ion trap'' (EBIT) is demonstrated after injection of the ions into RETRAP, a cryogenic Penning trap (up to 6 T magnetic field) currently with an open cylinder design. Ion extraction in a short pulse (5--20 [mu]s) from EBIT, essential for efficient retrapping, is employed. The ions are slowed down upon entering a deceleration tube mounted above the trap within the magnetic field. The potential is then rapidly (100 ns) decreased, enabling low-energy ions to enter the trap. Capture efficiencies up to 25% are observed via detection of the delayed ion release pulse with a detector below the trap. Signal voltages induced in a tuned circuit due to single and multiple ions have been observed by tuning the ion resonant axial oscillation frequencies for different ions. Results from transporting and retrapping of the ions, as well as their detection, are described and the trapping efficiency is discussed. The motivation for these studies is to cool the trapped very highly charged ions to low temperatures ([lt]4 K) in order to perform ultrahigh-resolution precision spectroscopy, collision studies at ultralow energies, and to observe phase transitions in Coulomb clusters of highly charged ions.

Schneider, D.; Church, D.A.; Weinberg, G.; Steiger, J.; Beck, B.; McDonald, J.; Magee, E.; Knapp, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Some observations concerning the Tafel equation and its relevance to charge transfer in corrosion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Following some biographic notes about Tafel, his famous equation is discussed. Particular attention is given to the limitations of applicability of this equation, the distinction between the symmetry factor and the transfer coefficient, and the theoretical basis for the former. The possible dependence of the symmetry factor on potential and temperature are discussed, and some highly accurate experimental examples are shown. The mechanism of charge transfer in metal dissolution, which can be one of the elementary steps in corrosion, is discussed. It is argued that in this case, as well as in metal deposition, charge is transferred across the interface by ions rather than by electrons. This could have significant ramifications concerning the mechanism. It is proposed that the often observed difference between anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes could result from values of the symmetry factor that are far from 0.5, rather than from a stepwise mechanism that is commonly assumed. Assuming that charge is carried across the interface by ions rather than by electrons eliminates the need to postulate the formation of unstable intermediates.

E. Gileadi; E. Kirowa-Eisner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0.5 seconds 0.5 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 83.2 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 100.6 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 10.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 82.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 101.9 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 145.1 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6,10 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 10 118.5 2.85 10 53.0 1.80 20 116.8 5.49 20 56.6 3.37 40 116.0 10.50 40 58.0 6.38 60 90.7 11.34 60 55.3 9.48 80 76.6 11.34 80 51.4 11.11 100 68.0 11.34 100 47.2 11.13 200 50.9 11.34 200 38.7 11.13 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 119.7 MPG AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.282 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

371

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Southern California Edison...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of determining the need for PEV charging at the workplace and the prospect for demand response application. Grey plug-in electric vehicle at charging station. Additional...

372

EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge: Resources | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Best Practices for Workplace Charging report. Expanding Commuter Options and Reducing GHG Emissions with Workplace Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging - This webcast, hosted by...

373

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: WESCO International, Inc...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Charging Challenge Partner: WESCO International, Inc. As a leading distributor of electrical products, WESCO provides plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations to...

374

Monte Carlo simulation of the electrical properties of electrolytes adsorbed in charged slit-systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the adsorption of primitive model electrolytes into a layered slit system using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The slit system contains a series of charged membranes. The ions are forbidden from the membranes, while they are allowed to be adsorbed into the slits between the membranes. We focus on the electrical properties of the slit system. We show concentration, charge, electric field, and electrical potential profiles. We show that the potential difference between the slit system and the bulk phase is mainly due to the double layers formed at the boundaries of the slit system, but polarization of external slits also contributes to the potential drop. We demonstrate that the electrical work necessary to bring an ion into the slit system can be studied only if we simulate the slit together with the bulk phases in one single simulation cell.

R. Kovács; M. Valiskó; D. Boda

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

375

Synthesis of maximally entangled mixed states and disentanglement in coupled Josephson charge qubits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze a controllable generation of maximally entangled mixed states of a circuit containing two-coupled superconducting charge qubits. Each qubit is based on a Cooper pair box connected to a reservoir electrode through a Josephson junction. Illustrative variational calculations were performed to demonstrate the effect on the two-qubits entanglement. At sufficiently deviation between the Josephson energies of the qubits and/or strong coupling regime, maximally entangled mixed states at certain instances of time is synthesized. We show that entanglement has an interesting subsequent time evolution, including the sudden death effect. This enables us to completely characterize the phenomenon of entanglement sharing in the coupling of two superconducting charge qubits, a system of both theoretical and experimental interest.

Mahmoud Abdel-Aty

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

Investigation of the Presence of Charge Order in Magnetite by Measurement of the Sprin Wave Spectrum  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic neutron scattering results on magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) show a large splitting in the acoustic spin wave branch, producing a 7 meV gap midway to the Brillouin zone boundary at q = (0,0,1/2) and {h_bar}{omega} = 43 meV. The splitting occurs below the Verwey transition temperature, where a metal-insulator transition occurs simultaneously with a structural transformation, supposedly caused by the charge ordering on the iron sublattice. The wavevector (0,0,1/2) corresponds to the superlattice peak in the low symmetry structure. The dependence of the magnetic superexchange on changes in the crystal structure and ionic configurations that occur below the Verwey transition affect the spin wave dispersion. To better understand the origin of the observed splitting, several Heisenberg models intended to reproduce the pair-wise variation of the magnetic superexchange arising from both small crystalline distortions and charge ordering were studied. None of the models studied predicts the observed splitting, whose origin may arise from charge-density wave formation or magnetoelastic coupling.

McQueeny, R. J. [Ames Laboratory; Yethiraj, Mohana [ORNL; Montfrooij, W. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Garner, J. S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Metcalf, P. [Purdue University; Honig, J. M. [University of Purdue

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge  

SciTech Connect

The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

Morris, Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Fraser, Andrew Mcleod (Los Alamos, NM); Schultz, Larry Joe (Los Alamos, NM); Borozdin, Konstantin N. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich (Maynard, MA); Sossong, Michael James (Los Alamos, NM); Blanpied, Gary (Lexington, SC)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

379

Experimental investigation of direct injection charge cooling in optical GDI engine using tracer-based PLIF technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Investigation of direct injection charge cooling effects is indispensable in design and development of new combustion systems for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. The charge cooling can be utilized to increase engine volumetric efficiency or compression ratio. It can be employed to suppress pre-ignition of highly boosted downsized engines or knocking combustion of naturally aspirated engines. The main purpose of this work was to develop an experimental setup for quantitative measurements of charge cooling during fuel injection process inside the combustion chamber of a GDI engine with optical access. For this purpose a tracer-based two-line Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique was implemented for the measurements. A specially designed Constant Volume Chamber (CVC) was utilized for quasi in situ calibration measurement so in-cylinder charge temperature measurements can be achieved independent of the photophysical model of dopant tracer. The thermometry technique was evaluated by measurements of average in-cylinder charge temperature during compression stroke for both motoring and firing cycles and comparing the results with temperature values calculated from in-cylinder pressure data assuming a polytropic compression. The PLIF technique was successfully utilized to quantify the extend of global temperature decrease as a result of direct injection charge cooling of two injection timings of 90 and 250 °CA ATDC and two injection quantities of 10 and 30 mg/cycle. Test results demonstrated the capability of the two-line PLIF thermometry technique in quantitative study of direct injection charge cooling effects.

Mohammadreza Anbari Attar; Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh; Hua Zhao; Alasdair Cairns

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4?-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Fact #717: March 5, 2012 Availability of Electric Charging Stations Has Increased Dramatically in Recent Years  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

At the end of September 2009, there were just 465 electric vehicle charging stations nationwide. By the end of January 2012, the number of charging stations had grown to 6,033. California has...

382

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 seconds 3 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.3 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 103.4 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 13.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.4 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

383

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 seconds 0 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.1 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.9 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.8 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.0 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 105.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 126.8 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

384

High-resolution studies of charge exchange in supernova remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. ...

Heine, Sarah Nicole Trowbridge

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Examination of charge transfer in Au/YSZ for high-temperature optical gas sensing  

SciTech Connect

Au-nanoparticle incorporated oxide thin film materials demonstrate significant promise as functionalsensor materials for high temperature optical gas sensing in severe environments relevant for fossil andnuclear based power generation. The Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) system has been extensivelystudied in the literature and serves as a model system for fundamental investigations that seek to betterunderstand the mechanistic origin of the plasmonic gas sensing response. In this work, X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy techniques are applied to Au/YSZ films in an attempt to provide further experimentalevidence for a proposed sensing mechanism involving a change in free carrier density of Au nanoparticles due to charge transfer.

Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE; Ohodnicki, Paul R. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Zero field line in the magnetic spectra of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of the luminescence of diamonds with negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV-) vs. applied magnetic field (magnetic spectrum) was studied. A narrow line in zero magnetic field was discovered. The properties of this line are considerably different from those of other narrow magnetic spectrum lines. Its magnitude is weakly dependent of the orientation of the single-crystal sample to the external magnetic field. This line is also observed in a powdered sample. The shape of the line changes greatly when excitation light polarization is varied. The magnitude of the line has a non-linear relation to excitation light intensity. For low intensities this dependence is close to a square law. To explain the mechanism giving rise to this line in the magnetic spectrum, we suggest a model based on the dipole-dipole interaction between different NV- centers.

S. V. Anishchik; V. G. Vins; A. P. Yelisseyev; N. N. Lukzen; N. L. Lavrik; V. A. Bagryansky

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

387

Charged elliptic flow at zero charge asymmetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between the flow ellipticities of oppositely charged pions ?v2?v2[??]?v2[?+], measured recently by the STAR Collaboration at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) shows a linear dependence on the event charge asymmetry A±?(N+?N?)/(N++N?):?v2(A±)=?v2(0)+rA± with a slope r>0 and a nonzero intercept ?v2(0)>0 on the order of 10?4. We discuss two novel mechanisms, which could explain the nonzero value of the charged elliptic flow ?v2 at zero charge asymmetry A±=0, i.e., the nonzero positive intercept ?v2(0). Both effects are due to the electric fields created by the colliding ions. These fields have quadrupole asymmetry of the magnitude and the sign needed to account for the nonzero intercept ?v2(0)>0 in the RHIC data. One of the mechanisms also involves the chiral magnetic effect. This mechanism, although negligible at RHIC energies, may become important at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energies.

Mikhail Stephanov and Ho-Ung Yee

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

388

Excess lithium storage and charge compensation in nanoscale Li4+xTi5O12  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lithium titanate spinel (Li4Ti5O12; LTO) is a promising candidate for anodes in lithium-ion batteries due to its excellent cyclability and safety performance, and has been known as a 'zero-strain' material that allows reversible lithium insertion–deinsertion with little change in the lattice parameters. For a better understanding of lithium reaction mechanisms in this material, it has been of great interest to identify where lithium is inserted and how it migrates during charge and discharge, which is often difficult with x-ray and electron scattering techniques due to the low scattering power of lithium. In this study, we employed atomic-resolution annular bright-field imaging to directly image the lithium on interstitial sites in nanoscale LTO, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy to measure local lithium occupancy and electronic structure at different states of charge. During lithiation, charge compensation occurs primarily at O sites, rather than at Ti sites, and no significant change was found in the projected density of states (Ti 3d) until the voltage was lowered to ~50 mV or below. The Li K-edge spectra were simulated via ab initio calculations, providing a direct correlation between the near-edge fine structure and the local lithium coordination. During the initial states of discharge, lithium ions on 8a sites migrate to 16c sites (above 740 mV). Further lithiation causes the partial re-occupation of 8a sites, initially in the near-surface region at ~600 mV, and then in the bulk at lower voltages (~50 mV). We attribute the enhanced capacity in nanostructured LTO to extra storage of lithium in the near-surface region, primarily at {111} facets.

Feng Wang; Lijun Wu; Chao Ma; Dong Su; Yimei Zhu; Jason Graetz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Within-day recharge of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: Energy impact of public charging infrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers’ within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Jing Dong; Zhenhong Lin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

A unified phase transition picture of the charged topological black hole in Horava-Lifshitz gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aiming at a unified phase transition picture of the charged topological black hole in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity, we investigate this issue not only in canonical ensemble with the fixed charge case but also in grand-canonical ensemble with the fixed potential case. We firstly perform the standard analysis of the specific heat, the free energy and the Gibbs potential, and then study its geometrothermodynamics. It is shown that the local phase transition points not only witness the divergence of the specific heat, but also witness the minimum temperature and the maximum free energy or Gibbs potential. They also witness the divergence of the corresponding thermodynamic scalar curvature. No matter which ensemble is chosen, the metric constructed can successfully produce the behavior of the thermodynamic interaction and phase transition structure while other metrics failed to predict the phase transition point of the charged topological black hole in former literature. In grand-canonical ensemble, we have discovered the phase transition which has not been reported before. It is similar to the canonical ensemble in which the phase transition only takes place when $k=-1$. But it also has its unique characteristics that the location of the phase transition point depends on the value of potential, which is different from the canonical ensemble where the phase transition point is independent of the parameters. After an analytical check of Ehrenfest scheme, we find that the new phase transition is a second order one. It is also found that the thermodynamics of the black hole in Horava-Lifshitz gravity is quite different from that in Einstein gravity.

Jie-Xiong Mo; Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Gu-Qiang Li; Xin Jiang; Wen-Biao Liu

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

392

Use of Stabilizing Mutations To Engineer a Charged Group within a Ligand-Binding Hydrophobic Cavity in T4 Lysozyme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Use of Stabilizing Mutations To Engineer a Charged Group within a Ligand-Binding Hydrophobic Cavity in T4 Lysozyme ... This disrupts the hydrogen-bond network and causes the Glu102 side chain to move away from the ligand by up to 0.8 Å where it remains buried in a completely nonpolar environment. ... Brenk et al. (36) have explored the use of an engineered cavity of comparable volume in cytochrome c peroxidase that also includes a negative charge (Asp23). ...

Lijun Liu; Walter A. Baase; Miya M. Michael; Brian W. Matthews

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

393

ADA Requirements for Workplace Charging Installation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Best Practices for installing PEV charging stations in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.

394

Direct observation of charge transfer region at interfaces in graphene devices  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale spectromicroscopic characterizing technique is indispensable for realization of future high-speed graphene transistors. Highly spatially resolved soft X-ray photoelectron microscopy measurements have been performed using our '3D nano-ESCA' (three-dimensional nanoscale electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) equipment in order to investigate the local electronic states at interfaces in a graphene device structure. We have succeeded in detecting a charge transfer region at the graphene/metal-electrode interface, which extends over {approx}500 nm with the energy difference of 60 meV. Moreover, a nondestructive depth profiling reveals the chemical properties of the graphene/SiO{sub 2}-substrate interface.

Nagamura, Naoka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan) [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Horiba, Koji; Oshima, Masaharu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan) [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5-7, Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0076 (Japan); Toyoda, Satoshi [Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan) [Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5-7, Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0076 (Japan); Kurosumi, Shodai; Shinohara, Toshihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Fukidome, Hirokazu; Suemitsu, Maki [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

395

Exciton harvesting, charge transfer, and charge-carrier transport in amorphous-silicon nanopillar/polymer hybrid solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

report on the device physics of nanostructured amorphous-silicon a-Si:H /polymer hybrid solar cells and nanostructured a-Si:H/polymer systems. We find that strong energy transfer occurs in the a-Si:H/MEH-PPV system. However, inefficient hole transfer from the a-Si:H to the polymers renders negligible photocurrent

McGehee, Michael

396

Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility and adjacent car charging stations. IN THIS REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and adjacent car charging stations. #12;IN THIS REPORT 2 Message From the Director 3 PNNL Overview 5 and greenhouse gas emissions Reducing material purchases and waste Minimizing use of water Keeping employees

397

Development of analytical and numerical models predicting the deposition rate of electrically charged particles in turbulent channel flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical model is established to predict an electrostatically charged particle deposition as a function of particle size in fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. The convectivediffusion flux equation is solved for the particle concentration as a...

Ko, Hanseo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

398

First-principles determination of charge and orbital interactions in Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript]4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interactions between charge and orbitally ordered d electrons are important in many transition-metal oxides. We propose an effective energy model for such interactions, parameterized with density-functional theory ...

Zhou, Fei

399

Electronic structure, stacking energy, partial charge, and hydrogen bonding in four periodic B-DNA models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study of the electronic structure of four periodic B-DNA models labeled (AT)10, (GC)10, (AT)5(GC)5, and (AT?GC)5 where A denotes adenine, T denotes thymine, G denotes guanine, and C denotes cytosine. Each model has ten base pairs with Na counterions to neutralize the negative phosphate group in the backbone. The (AT)5(GC)5 and (AT?GC)5 models contain two and five AT-GC bilayers, respectively. When compared against the average of the two pure models, we estimate the AT-GC bilayer interaction energy to be 19.015 Kcal/mol, which is comparable to the hydrogen bonding energy between base pairs obtained from the literature. Our investigation shows that the stacking of base pairs plays a vital role in the electronic structure, relative stability, bonding, and distribution of partial charges in the DNA models. All four models show a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap ranging from 2.14 to 3.12 eV with HOMO states residing on the PO4 + Na functional group and LUMO states originating from the bases. Our calculation implies that the electrical conductance of a DNA molecule should increase with increased base-pair mixing. Interatomic bonding effects in these models are investigated in detail by analyzing the distributions of the calculated bond order values for every pair of atoms in the four models including hydrogen bonding. The counterions significantly affect the gap width, the conductivity, and the distribution of partial charge on the DNA backbone. We also evaluate quantitatively the surface partial charge density on each functional group of the DNA models.

Lokendra Poudel; Paul Rulis; Lei Liang; W. Y. Ching

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

Effect of treated-sewage contamination upon bacterial energy charge, adenine nucleotides, and DNA content in a sandy aquifer on Cape Cod.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contaminants. Adeny- late energy charge (ECA...S. Geological Survey. Detailed de- scriptions...and stored in the dark at 4 C. Samples...measurement of adenylate energy charge ratios in...concentrations and adenylate energy charge across Pseudomonas...S. Geological Survey Water Sup- ply Paper...

D W Metge; M H Brooks; R L Smith; R W Harvey

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

Metcalfe, J; Murphy, J; Quevedo, M; Smith, L; Alvarado, J; Gnade, B; Takai, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Nuclear effects in charged-current quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After a short review of the recent developments in studies of neutrino-nucleus interactions, the predictions for double-differential and integrated charged current-induced quasielastic cross sections are presented within two different relativistic approaches: one is the so-called SuSA method, based on the superscaling behavior exhibited by electron scattering data; the other is a microscopic model based on relativistic mean field theory, and incorporating final-state interactions. The role played by the meson-exchange currents in the two-particle two-hole sector is explored and the results are compared with the recent MiniBooNE data.

M. B. Barbaro

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

Space-charged-induced emittance growth in the transport of high-brightness electron beams  

SciTech Connect

The emittance induced by space charge in a drifting beam of finite length has been investigated, and a scaling law has been obtained from simple considerations of the different rates of expansion of different portions of the beam. The scaling law predicts the initial rate of emittance growth, before the beam shape has distorted significantly, and thus represents an upper bound on the rate of emittance increase. This scaling law has been substantiated by particle-in-cell simulation and the dependence on geometric factors evaluated for specific choices of the beam profile. For long, axially nonuniform beams, the geometric factors have been evaluated explicitly for Gaussian profiles, and other shapes.

Jones, M.E.; Carlsten, B.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Relativistic calculations of the isotope shifts in highly charged Li-like ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relativistic calculations of the isotope shifts of energy levels in highly charged Li-like ions are performed. The nuclear recoil (mass shift) contributions are calculated by merging the perturbative and large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm (CI-DFS) methods. The nuclear size (field shift) contributions are evaluated by the CI-DFS method including the electron-correlation, Breit, and QED corrections. The nuclear deformation and nuclear polarization corrections to the isotope shifts in Li-like neodymium, thorium, and uranium are also considered. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods.

Zubova, N A; Shabaev, V M; Tupitsyn, I I; Volotka, A V; Plunien, G; Brandau, C; Stöhlker, Th

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Two-loop corrections to the potential of a pointlike charge in a superstrong magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The potential of the pointlike charge in a superstrong homogeneous magnetic field B Much-Greater-Than m{sub e}{sup 2}/e{sup 3} Almost-Equal-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} G is considered. It is well known that Coulomb potential is significantly modified by taking into account vacuum polarization (calculated in one loop approximation). We consider electron selfenergy and correction to the vertex function at one loop, and show that these diagrams are not enhanced by magnetic field like eB.We calculate two-loop corrections to the vacuum polarization and find that these contributions are small.

Godunov, S. I., E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (RRIA) (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Fast time resolution charge-exchange measurements during the fishbone instability in the poloidal divertor experiment  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of fast ion losses due to the fishbone instability during high ..beta../sub T/q neutral beam heated discharges in the Poloidal Divertor Experiment have been made using two new vertical-viewing charge-exchange analyzers. The measurements show that the instability has an n=1 toroidal mode number, and that it ejects beam ions in a toroidally rotating beacon directed outward along a major radius. Observations of ejected ions with energies up to twice the beam injection energy at R approx. = R/sub 0/ + a indicate the presence of a non-..mu..-conserving acceleration mechanism.

Beiersdorfer, P.; Kaita, R.; Goldston, R.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

J. Metcalfe; I. Mejia; J. Murphy; M. Quevedo; L. Smith; J. Alvarado; B. Gnade; H. Takai

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

408

PARALLEL 3-D SPACE CHARGE CALCULATIONS IN THE UNIFIED ACCELERATOR LIBRARY.  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the integration of the SIMBAD space charge module in the UAL framework. SIMBAD is a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. Its 3-D Parallel approach features an optimized load balancing scheme based on a genetic algorithm. The UAL framework enhances the SIMBAD standalone version with the interactive ROOT-based analysis environment and an open catalog of accelerator algorithms. The composite package addresses complex high intensity beam dynamics and has been developed as part of the FAIR SIS 100 project.

D'IMPERIO, N.L.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MALITSKY, N.

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

409

Charged pion production in C+C and Ar+KCl collisions measured with HADES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results of a study of charged pion production in 12C+12C collisions at incident beam energies of 1A GeV and 2A GeV, and 40Ar+natKCl at 1.76AGeV, using the spectrometer HADES at GSI, are presented. We have performed a measurement of the transverse momentum distributions of pi+- mesons covering a fairly large rapidity interval, in case of the C+C collision system for the first time. The yields, transverse mass and angular distributions are compared with a transport model as well as with existing data from other experiments.

The HADES Collaboration; P. Tlusty; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; G. Bellia; D. Belver; A. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Boehmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; M. Destefanis; J. Diaz; F. Dohrmann; A. Dybczak; L. Fabbietti; O. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Froehlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzon; R. Gernhaeuser; A. Gil; C. Gilardi; M. Golubeva; D. Gonzalez-Diaz; E. Grosse; F. Guber; M. Heilmann; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kaempfer; K. Kanaki; T. Karavicheva; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; R. Kotte; A. Kozuch; A. Krasa; F. Krizek; R. Kruecken; W. Kuehn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; J. Lamas-Valverde; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Marin; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; D. Mishra; E. Moriniere; J. Mousa; C. Muentz; L. Naumann; R. Novotny; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; T. Perez Cavalcanti; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; R. Simon; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Stroebele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; I. Veretenkin; V. Wagner; M. Weber; M. Wisniowski; J. Wuestenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. Zanevsky; P. Zhou; P. Zumbruch

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

410

Charged pion production in C+C and Ar+KCl collisions measured with HADES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results of a study of charged pion production in 12C+12C collisions at incident beam energies of 1A GeV and 2A GeV, and 40Ar+natKCl at 1.76AGeV, using the spectrometer HADES at GSI, are presented. We have performed a measurement of the transverse momentum distributions of pi+- mesons covering a fairly large rapidity interval, in case of the C+C collision system for the first time. The yields, transverse mass and angular distributions are compared with a transport model as well as with existing data from other experiments.

Tlustý, P; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Boehmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marin, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Cavalcanti, T Perez; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Simon, R; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zhou, P; Zumbruch, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Baryon Number and Electric Charge Fluctuations in Pb+Pb Collisions at SPS energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Event-by-event fluctuations of the net baryon number and electric charge in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in Pb+Pb at SPS energies within the HSD transport model. We reveal an important role of the fluctuations in the number of target nucleon participants. They strongly influence all measured fluctuations even in the samples of events with rather rigid centrality trigger. This fact can be used to check different scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality in fixed kinematical regions of the projectile and target hemispheres. The HSD results for the event-by-event fluctuations of electric charge in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 A GeV are in a good agreement with the NA49 experimental data and considerably larger than expected in a quark-gluon plasma. This demonstrate that the distortions of the initial fluctuations by the hadronization phase and, in particular, by the final resonance decays dominate the observable fluctuations.

V. P. Konchakovski; M. I. Gorenstein; E. L. Bratkovskaya; H. Stocker

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

412

Charged Higgs and Neutral Higgs pair production of weak gauge bosons fusion process in e+ e- collision  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the pair production and their decays of the Higges in the neutrinophilic Higgs two doublet model. The pair production occurs through W and Z gauge bosons fusion process. In the neutrinophilic model, the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the second Higgs doublet is small and is proportional to the neutrino mass. The smallness of VEV is associated with the approximate global U(1) symmetry which is slightly broken. Therefore, there is a suppression factor for the U(1) charge breaking process. The second Higgs doublet has U(1) charge and its single production from the gauge boson fusion violates the U(1) charge conservation and is suppressed strongly to occur. In contrast to the single production, the pair production of the Higgses conserves U(1) charge and the approximate symmetry does not forbid it. To search for the pair productions in collider experiment,we study the production cross section of a pair of the charged Higgs and neutral Higgs bosons in e+ e- collision with center of energy from 600 (GeV) to 2000 (GeV). The total cross section varies from 10^{-4}(fb) to 10^{-3}(fb) for degenerate (200 GeV) charged and neutral Higgses mass case. The background process to the signal is gauge bosons pair W + Z production and their decays. We show the signal over background ratio is about 2% ~ 3% by combining the cross section ratio with ratios of branching fractions.

Takuya Morozumi; Kotaro Tamai

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Charge transport in silver chalcogenides in the region of phase transition  

SciTech Connect

Data on the {sigma}(T), R(T), and U(T) dependences in Ag{sub 2}Te, Ag{sub 2}Se, and Ag{sub 2}S in the region of the phase transition are analyzed. It is found that the phase transition in Ag{sub 2}Te is accompanied by a decrease in the electron concentration and this transition in Ag{sub 2}Se is accompanied by an increase in this concentration. The concentration of intrinsic charge carriers in Ag{sub 2}Te decreases by a factor of 4 as a result of the phase transition and increases by a factor of 2 in Ag{sub 2}Se. The effect of variation in the energy-band parameters in the region of phase transition on the electron mobility is considered. It is established that, in Ag{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}S, electrons are scattered by optical phonons in the region of the phase transition, while electrons are scattered by acoustic phonons in the {alpha} and {beta} phases. It is assumed that the anomalously large increase in {sigma} and U in Ag{sub 2}S as a result of the phase transition is caused by an increase in the concentration n and a simultaneous decrease in {sigma}{sub g} and m{sub n}{sup *} by a factor of about 2.

Aliev, S. A.; Agaev, Z. F., E-mail: agayevz@rambler.ru; Zul'figarov, E. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

On the nature of charge carrier scattering in Ag{sub 2}Se at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The electric and thermoelectric properties of silver selenide in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K have been studied. The data obtained are interpreted within the theory of one-type carriers and Kane dispersion relation, with allowance for the character of electron-electron interaction. It is established that, for the concentrations n {<=} 7.8 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, charge carriers are scattered by impurity ions at T {<=} 30 K and by acoustic and optical phonons and point defects at T {>=} 30 K. Electron-electron interactions are found to be elastic at T < 30 K.

Jafarov, M. B., E-mail: cmentiq@box.az [Azerbaijan State Agrarian University (Azerbaijan)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Charged and neutral pion production in the S-matrix approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The S-matrix approach is used to calculate charged as well as neutral pion production reactions from NN scattering, with the same set of underlying processes and interactions. The chiral perturbation theory piN scattering amplitude is used. For the nucleon-nucleon distortions a newly developed realistic potential within the Bonn family of potentials, valid well above the pion production threshold, is considered. In the pi+ production case, the NN potential, the piN relative p-waves and the treatment of the exchanged pion energy build up the observed cross-section strength.

Malafaia, V; Jr, Ch. Elster andJ. Adam

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

High-energy average charged multiplicities from nuclei in a Regge-calculus model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lehman and Winbow have used a Gribov Reggeon-calculus approach to derive expressions for average charge multiplicities in high-energy scattering off nuclei. They find the multiplicity to be n=bY+f(A), where b is independent of A. We show that a reasonable modification of their model yields n=b?A13Y+g(A), where b? is known. We find that this expression agrees with experimental data on dndY (where Y=lns) better than that of Lehman and Winbow, and agrees as well as the energy flux model of Gottfried.

R. T. Cutler and Dale R. Snider

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in the Randall-Sundrum model  

SciTech Connect

We confirm that in order to account for the recent D0 result of large like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry, a considerable large new physics effect in {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s} is required in addition to a large CP violating phase in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing. In the Randall-Sundrum model of warped geometry, where the fermion fields reside in the bulk, new sources of flavor and CP violation are obtained. We analyze the like-sign dimuon asymmetry in this class of model as an example of the desired new physics. We show that the wrong-charge asymmetry, a{sub sl}{sup s}, which is related to the dimuon asymmetry, is significantly altered compared to the standard model value. However, experimental limits from {Delta}M{sub s}, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} as well as K mixing and electroweak corrections constrain it to be greater than a {sigma} away from its experimental average value. This model cannot fully account for the D0 anomaly due to its inability to generate a sufficient new contribution to the width difference {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s}, even though the model can generate large contribution to the mass difference M{sub 12}{sup s}.

Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 108 Lewis Hall, University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi 38677-1848 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics at the British University in Egypt, Sherouk City, Cairo 11837 (Egypt) and Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo, 11566 (Egypt)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H., E-mail: chensh@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)] [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Ang, L. K. [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)] [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Charge transport properties in CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique  

SciTech Connect

Presently, a great amount of effort is being devoted to the development of CdTe and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for a large variety of applications such as medical, industrial, and space research. We present the spectroscopic properties of some CZT crystals grown by the standard vertical Bridgman method and by the boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman method, which has been recently implemented at IMEM-CNR (Parma, Italy). In this technique, the crystal is grown in an open quartz crucible fully encapsulated by a thin layer of liquid boron oxide. This method prevents contact between the crystal and the crucible, thereby allowing larger single grains with a lower dislocation density to be obtained. Several mono-electrode detectors were realized, with each having two planar gold contacts. The samples are characterized by an active area of about 7 mm x 7 mm and thicknesses ranging from 1 to 2 mm. The charge transport properties of the detectors have been studied by mobility-lifetime ({mu} x {tau}) product measurements, carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France) in the planar transverse field configuration, where the impinging beam direction is orthogonal to the collecting electric field. We have performed several fine scans between the electrodes with a beam spot of 10 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m at various energies from 60 to 400 keV. In this work, we present the test results in terms of the ({mu} x {tau}) product of both charge carriers.

Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Bologna, 40129 (Italy); Marchini, L.; Zappettini, A. [IMEM-CNR, Parma, 43100 (Italy); Abbene, L. [DIFI, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90128 (Italy); Honkimaki, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, 38000 (France)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model: Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space and BRST charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct Hamiltonian dynamics of the generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model in extended phase space. We start from the Faddeev - Popov effective action with gauge-fixing and ghost terms, making use of gauge conditions in differential form. It enables us to introduce missing velocities into the Lagrangian and then construct a Hamiltonian function according a usual rule which is applied for systems without constraints. The main feature of Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space is that it can be proved to be completely equivalent to Lagrangian dynamics derived from the effective action. We find a BRST invariant form of the effective action by adding terms not affecting Lagrangian equations. After all, we construct the BRST charge according to the Noether theorem. Our algorithm differs from that by Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, but the resulting BRST charge generates correct transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom including gauge ones. Generalized spherically symmetric model imitates the full gravitational theory much better then models with finite number of degrees of freedom, so that one can expect appropriate results in the case of the full theory.

T. P. Shestakova

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ch 16 Electric Charge &Ch 16. Electric Charge & Electric Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ch 16 Electric Charge &Ch 16. Electric Charge & Electric Field Liu UCD Phy1B 2012 #12;I Basic ConceptsI. Basic Concepts Static electricity: charges at rest Electric charge Like charges repel Unlike charges attract Liu UCD Phy1B 2012 #12;Electric ChargeElectric Charge Electron charge: -eElectron charge

Yoo, S. J. Ben

422

EV Charging Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charging Infrastructure Charging Infrastructure JOHN DAVIS: Virtually anywhere in the U.S. you can bring light to a room with the flick of a finger. We take it for granted, but creating the national electric grid to make that possible took decades to accomplish. Now, in just a few years, we've seen the birth of a new infrastructure that allows electric vehicles to quickly recharge their batteries at home, work, or wherever they may roam. But this rapid growth has come with a few growing pains. Starting with less than 500 in 2009, there are now over 19,000 public-access charging outlets available to electric vehicles owners at commuter lots, parking garages, airports, retail areas and thousands of

423

HIGH CHARGE EFFECTS IN SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS WITH LATERAL CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRONS.  

SciTech Connect

A new drift detector prototype which provides suppression of the lateral diffusion of electrons has been tested as a function of the signal charge up to high charge levels, when electrostatic repulsion is not negligible. The lateral diffusion of the electron cloud has been measured for injected charges up to 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} electrons. The maximum number of electrons for which the suppression of the lateral spread is effective is obtained.

CASTOLDI,A.; REHAK,P.

1995-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

424

Space charge memory effect in a-Si:H at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Space charges build up near one or both electrodes of a photoconductor unless the thermoionic current balances the photocurrent. Space charges built up also when a voltage U is applied at low T to a semiconductor containing a nonequilibrium distribution of carriers. The presence of a space charge is observed as a relaxation-current transient when the sample is illuminated at zero bias. If one type of carrier is immobile the steady state photocurrent becomes zero.

Heck, S.; Stradins, P.; Fritzsche, H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The Influence of Morphology on the Charge Transport in Two-Phase Disordered Organic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we use a three-dimensional Pauli master equation to investigate the charge carrier mobility of a two-phase system, which can mimic donor-acceptor and amorphous- crystalline bulk heterojunctions. Our approach can be separated into two parts: the morphology generation and the charge transport modeling in the generated blend. The morphology part is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of binary mixtures (donor/acceptor). The second part is carried out by numerically solving the steady-state Pauli master equation. By taking the energetic disorder of each phase, their energy offset and domain morphology into consideration, we show that the carrier mobility can have a significant different behavior when compared to a one-phase system. When the energy offset is non-zero, we show that the mobility electric field dependence switches from negative to positive at a threshold field proportional to the energy offset. Additionally, the influence of morphology, through the domain size and the interfacial roughness parameters, on the transport was also investigated.

Cristiano F. Woellner; Leonardo D. Machado; Pedro A. S. Autreto; Jose A. Freire; Douglas S. Galvao

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

Workplace Charging Challenge Summit 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Challenge partners and ambassadors from across the country convened at the Workplace Charging Challenge Summit 2014 to network with their peers, participate in interactive breakout sessions, and...

427

Adaptive Estimation of Thermal Dynamics and Charge Imbalance in Battery Strings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Effective battery management relies on accurate monitoring of battery states, including temperature, state of charge, and voltage among others. The large number of cells used… (more)

Lin, Xinfan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

The Meissner effect in the ground state of free charged Bosons in a constant magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The model of free charged Bosons in an external constant magnetic field inside a cylinder, one of the few locally gauge covariant systems amenable to analytic treatment, is rigorously investigated in the semiclassical approximation. The model was first studied by Schafroth and is suitable for the description of quasi-bound electron pairs localized in physical space, so-called Schafroth pairs, which occur in certain compounds, but he used perturbation theory on the magnetic field, which is not applicable to the homogeneous fields for which the thermodynamical results may be derived. A simple nonperturbative spectral argument shows that, for sufficiently low values of the magnetic field, the ground state expectation value of the current $$ is of the London form $ = -\\lambda(\\vec{x}) \\vec{A}(\\vec{x})$, with $\\lambda$ a positive function of $\\vec{x}$, $\\vec{A}$ denoting the magnetic vector potential. As a consequence, the magnetic induction inside the sample is given by a non-uniform field, monotonically decreasing from the surface. Under a plausible assumption on the ground state wave function, the Meissner effect is derived, and the results fit the thermodynamics calculated by Schafroth as a finite size correction. We also briefly review the link with relativistic quantum field theory, in particular with London-Schwinger screening.

Walter F. Wreszinski

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Charge transport mechanisms in Schottky diodes based on low-resistance CdTe:Mn  

SciTech Connect

CdTe:Mn crystals with a resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm at 300 K and Schottky diodes based on them are investigated. The electrical conductivity of the material and its temperature variations are explained in terms of the statistics of electrons and holes in semiconductors with allowance for the compensation processes. The ionization energy and the degree of compensation of the donors responsible for the conductivity are determined. It is shown that, in the case of forward connection and low reverse biases, the currents in Au/CdTe:Mn Schottky diode are determined by generation-recombination processes in the space-charge region. At higher reverse biases (above 1.5-2 V) the excess current is caused by electron tunneling from the metal to the semiconductor, and at even higher voltages (>6-7 V) an additional increase in the reverse current due to avalanche processes is observed.

Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Yurtsenyuk, N. S.; Rarenko, I. M.; Sklyarchuk, V. M.; Sklyarchuk, O. F.; Zakharuk, Z. I.; Grushko, E. V. [Chernivtsi National University (Ukraine)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Charge and Electric Field Fluctuations in Aqueous NaCl Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom concerning crystallization assumes that when NaCl crystallizes from a supersaturated solution, the solvated ions retain their ionic character and simply relocate from their hydration spheres to their most stable positions in the crystal lattice. However, this conventional picture is at odds with observations over 200 years ago reporting the emission of long-lived light resulting from the crystallization of certain salts – appropriately referred to as crystalloluminescence. This suggests that electronic structure plays an essential role in crystallization. Strong electric field fluctuations in the gas or condensed phases can drive changes in electronic structure. We have calculated the fluctuation of charge, scalar electric potentials, and vector electric fields for concentrated aqueous NaCl electrolytes. The H2O molecules in the 1st solvation shell of the ions serve as a sink for electron density originating on Cl-. Our analysis reveals that the electric fields inside aqueous electrolytes are extremely large (up to several V/Å) and thus may alter the ground and excited electronic states in the condensed phase. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the potential and field distributions are largely independent of concentration. We find that the field component distributions to be Gaussian for the ions and non-Gaussian for the O and H sites (computed in the lab frame of reference), however, these non-Gaussian distributions are readily modeled via an orientationally averaged non-zero mean Gaussian plus a zero mean Gaussian. These calculations and analyses provide the first steps toward understanding the magnitude and fluctuations of charge, electric potentials and fields in aqueous electrolytes and what role these fields may play in driving charge redistribution/transfer during crystalloluminescence. We would like to gratefully acknowledge helpful discussions with Gregory K. Schenter. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences program and used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Sellner, Bernhard; Valiev, Marat; Kathmann, Shawn M.

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

431

Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.

Bagheri, Mehran, E-mail: mh-bagheri@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdikian, Alireza, E-mail: abdykian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Malayer University, Malayer 65719-95863 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Malayer University, Malayer 65719-95863 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Models of Environment and T1 Relaxation in Josephson Charge Qubits Lara Faoro,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

08540, USA 4 Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway 5 A. F with Josephson energy EJ pierced by an external magnetic field. Provided that Ec EJ T (where Ec, EJ, and T are correspondingly the charging energy, Josephson energy, and temperature, kB @ 1), only two charge states j0i

Johansen, Tom Henning

433

DNA search efficiency is modulated by charge composition and distribution in the intrinsically disordered tail  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the charges on the tail, ?r?, calculated as {sigma}ri...along the tail. Values of ?r? range from 0–1, where a value of zero indicates that...3 – 14 . 13 Tran HT Mao A Pappu RV ( 2008 ) Role of backbone-solvent...Crick SL Vitalis A Chicoine CL Pappu RV ( 2010 ) Net charge per residue modulates...

Dana Vuzman; Yaakov Levy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The Observation of Up-going Charged Particles Produced by High Energy Muons in Underground Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study of the production of up-going charged particles in inelastic interactions of down-going underground muons is reported, using data obtained from the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. In a sample of 12.2 10^6 single muons, corresponding to a detector livetime of 1.55 y, 243 events are observed having an up-going particle associated with a down-going muon. These events are analysed to determine the range and emission angle distributions of the up-going particle, corrected for detection and reconstruction efficiency. Measurements of the muon neutrino flux by underground detectors are often based on the observation of through-going and stopping muons produced in $\

The MACRO Collaboration; M. Ambrosio et al

1998-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Two-loop renormalization of the electric charge in the standard model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the renormalization of the electric charge at the two-loop level in the standard model of the electroweak interactions. We explicitly calculate the expression of the complete on-shell two-loop counterterm using the background field method and discuss the advantages of this computational approach. We consider the related quantity e2(?), defined in the MS¯ renormalization scheme and present numerical results for different values of the scale ?. We find that the full two-loop electroweak corrections contribute more than ten parts in units 10-5 to the ??^(mz2) parameter, obtaining ?^-1(mz)=128.12±0.05 for ??had(5)(mz2)=0.027 572±0.000 359.

Giuseppe Degrassi and Alessandro Vicini

2004-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

436

Suspending Effect on Low-Frequency Charge Noise in Graphene Quantum Dot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge noise is critical in the performance of gate-controlled quantum dots (QDs). Here we show the 1/f noise for a microscopic graphene QD is substantially larger than that for a macroscopic graphene field-effect transistor (FET), increasing linearly with temperature. To understand its origin, we suspended the graphene QD above the substrate. In contrast to large area graphene FETs, we find that a suspended graphene QD has an almost-identical noise level as an unsuspended one. Tracking noise levels around the Coulomb blockade peak as a function of gate voltage yields potential fluctuations of order 1 "{\\mu}eV", almost one order larger than in GaAs/GaAlAs QDs. Edge states rather than substrate-induced disorders, appear to dominate the 1/f noise, thus affecting the coherency of graphene nano-devices.

Xiang-Xiang Song; Hai-Ou Li; Jie You; Tian-Yi Han; Gang Cao; Tao Tu; Ming Xiao; Guang-Can Guo; Hong-Wen Jiang; Guo-Ping Guo

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

437

Thermodynamics of charged rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke theory with quadratic scalar field potential  

SciTech Connect

We construct a class of charged rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Maxwell-Brans-Dicke theory with flat horizon in the presence of a quadratic potential and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the finite Euclidean action through the use of counterterm method, and obtain the conserved and thermodynamic quantities by using the relation between the action and free energy in grand-canonical ensemble. We find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.

Dehghani, M. H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pakravan, J.; Hendi, S. H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Measurement of small photodestruction rates of cold, charged biomolecules in an ion trap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, we demonstrate quantitative measurements of photodestruction rates of translationally cold, charged biomolecules. The long-term stable storage of the molecular ions in an ion trap under ultra-high vacuum conditions allows measurement of small rates and verification that rates are linear in photodestruction laser intensity. Measurements were performed on singly protonated molecules of the organic compound glycyrrhetinic acid (C30H46O4), dissociated by a continuous-wave UV laser (266 nm) using different intensities. The molecules were sympathetically cooled by simultaneously trapped laser-cooled barium ions to translational temperatures of below 150 mK. Destruction rates of less than 0.05 s?1 and a cross section of (1.1 ± 0.1) ? 10?17 cm2 have been determined. An extension to tunable UV laser sources would permit high-resolution dissociation spectroscopic studies on a wide variety of cold complex molecules.

D Offenberg; Ch Wellers; C B Zhang; B Roth; S Schiller

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films  

SciTech Connect

We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO{sub 3}-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron) and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K) for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti{sup 3+}-V(O) charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

Artemenko, A.; Payan, S.; Rousseau, A.; Arveux, E.; Maglione, M. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Levasseur, D. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); STMicroelectronics, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie 37071 Tours France (France); Guegan, G. [STMicroelectronics, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie 37071 Tours France (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Space charge limited current conduction in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect

Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is known for its large thermoelectric coefficients and is widely used as a material for Peltier devices. Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films with thicknesses in the range 125-300 A have been prepared by Flash Evaporation at a pressure of 10{sup -5} m bar on clean glass substrates at room temperature. An Al-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-Al sandwich structure has been used for electrical conduction properties in the temperature range 303 to 483 K. I-V characteristics showed Ohmic conduction in the low voltage region. In the higher voltage region, a Space Charge Limited Conduction (SCLC) takes place due to the presence of the trapping level. The transition voltage (V{sub t}), between the Ohmic and the SCLC condition was proportional to the square of thickness. Further evidence for this conduction process was provided by the linear dependence of V {sub t} on t {sup 2} and log J on log t. The hole concentration in the films were found to be n {sub 0} = 1.65 * 10{sup 10} m{sup -3}. The carrier mobility increases with increasing temperature whereas the density of trapped charges decreases with increasing temperature. The barrier height decreases with an increase in temperature. The increase in the trapping concentration V {sub t} is correlated with ascending the degree of preferred orientation of the highest atomic density plane. The activation energy was estimated and the values found to decrease with increasing applied voltage. The zero field value of the activation energy is found to be 0.4 eV.

Sathyamoorthy, R. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore-029, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: rsathya_59@yahoo.com; Dheepa, J. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore-029, Tamil Nadu (India); Velumani, S. [Department of Physics, ITESM-Campus, Monterrey, N.L (Mexico)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The role of BRST charge as a generator of gauge transformations in quantization of gauge theories and Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the Batalin - Fradkin - Vilkovisky approach to quantization of gauge theories a principal role is given to the BRST charge which can be constructed as a series in Grassmannian (ghost) variables with coefficients given by generalized structure functions of constraints algebra. Alternatively, the BRST charge can be derived making use of the Noether theorem and global BRST invariance of the effective action. In the case of Yang - Mills fields the both methods lead to the same expression for the BRST charge, but it is not valid in the case of General Relativity. It is illustrated by examples of an isotropic cosmological model as well as by spherically-symmetric gravitational model which imitates the full theory of gravity much better. The consideration is based on Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity in extended phase space. At the quantum level the structure of the BRST charge is of great importance since BRST invariant quantum states are believed to be physical states. Thus, the definition of the BRST charge at the classical level is inseparably related to our attempts to find a true way to quantize Gravity.

T. P. Shestakova

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

442

Propagation Distance Required to Reach Steady-State Detonation Velocity in Finite-Sized Charges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The decay of a detonation wave from its initial CJ velocity to its final, steady state velocity upon encountering a finite thickness or diameter charge is investigated numerically and theoretically. The numerical simulations use an ideal gas equation of state and pressure dependent reaction rate in order to ensure a stable wave structure. The confinement is also treated as an ideal gas with variable impedance. The velocity decay along the centerline is extracted from the simulations and compared to predictions base on a front evolution equation that uses the steady state detonation velocity-front curvature relation ($D_n-\\kappa$). This model fails to capture the finite signaling speed of the leading rarefaction resulting from the interaction with the yielding confinement. This signaling speed is verified to be the maximum signal velocity occurring in the ideal ZND wave structure of the initial CJ velocity. A simple heuristic model based on the rarefaction generated by a one-dimensional interaction between the...

Li, Jianling; Higgins, Andrew J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Factorization of Short- and Long-range Interactions in Charged Meson Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meson production data play an important role in our understanding of nucleon structure. The combination of reaction channels is sensitive to gluon and charge and flavor non-singlet quark densities and has the potential to provide detailed images of the QCD quark structure of the nucleon. Quark imaging requires a good understanding of the reaction mechanism, and in particular rigorous tests of factorization of long- and short-distance physics. The higher energies after the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade provide ideal conditions for such studies, which are an essential prerequisite for studies of valence quark distributions. An electron-ion collider would allow to extend these studies to detailed imaging of sea quarks and gluons.

T. Horn

2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

444

Field-induced gap and quantized charge pumping in a nanoscale helical wire  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose several physical phenomena based on nanoscale helical wires. Applying a static electric field transverse to the helical wire induces a metal to insulator transition, with the band gap determined by the applied voltage. A similar idea can be applied to “geometrically” construct one-dimensional systems with arbitrary external potential. With a quadrupolar electrode configuration, the electric field could rotate in the transverse plane, leading to a quantized dc charge current proportional to the frequency of the rotation. Such a device could be used as a standard for the high-precession measurement of the electric current. The inverse effect implies that passing an electric current through a helical wire in the presence of a transverse static electric field can lead to a mechanical rotation of the helix. This effect can be used to construct nanoscale electromechanical motors. Finally, our methodology also enables ways of controlling and measuring the electronic properties of helical biological molecules such as the DNA.

Xiao-Liang Qi and Shou-Cheng Zhang

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Charge transfer in graphene oxide-dye system for photonic applications  

SciTech Connect

The fluorescence of a standard dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in solution decreases on addition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The absorption spectra and lifetime measurements confirm that no excited-state but a ground-state complex formation is responsible for this effect. For silver decorated rGO (Ag-rGO), the quenching efficiency and ground state complex formation process is small. Z-scan measurements have been done to study the optical nonlinearity at 532 nm under ps time scale. Remarkable reduction in the saturable absorption (SA) effect of R6G indicates no nonlinear contribution from the ground state complex. The results have been explained with varying charge transfer rates and non-fluorescence nature of the complex.

Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy, E-mail: bisht@iitm.ac.in; Bisht, Prem B., E-mail: bisht@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036 (India); Thu, Tran V.; Sandhu, Adarsh [EIIRIS, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe  

SciTech Connect

We report results of low-temperature thermodynamic and transport measurements of Pb{sub 1-x}Tl{sub x}Te single crystals for Tl concentrations up to the solubility limit of approximately x = 1.5%. For all doped samples, we observe a low-temperature resistivity upturn that scales in magnitude with the Tl concentration. The temperature and field dependence of this upturn are consistent with a charge Kondo effect involving degenerate Tl valence states differing by two electrons, with a characteristic Kondo temperature T{sub K} {approx} 6 K. The observation of such an effect supports an electronic pairing mechanism for superconductivity in this material and may account for the anomalously high T{sub c} values.

Fisher, I

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

447

Charged Particle and Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the charged particle and photon multiplicity, and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like...

Sahoo, Raghunath; Behera, Nirbhay K; Nandi, Basanta K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Efficient terahertz-wave generation and its ultrafast optical modulation in charge ordered organic ferroelectrics  

SciTech Connect

Efficient terahertz (THz) wave generation in strongly correlated organic compounds ?-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3} and ??-(ET){sub 2}IBr{sub 2} (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene) was demonstrated. The spontaneous polarization induced by charge ordering or electronic ferroelectricity was revealed to trigger the THz-wave generation via optical rectification; the estimated 2nd-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for ?-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3} is over 70 times larger than that for prototypical THz-source ZnTe. Ultrafast (<1 ps) and sensitive (?40%) photoresponse of the THz wave was observed for ?-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3}, which is attributable to photoinduced quenching of the polarization accompanied by insulator(ferroelectric)-to-metal transition. Modulation of the THz wave was observed for ??-(ET){sub 2}IBr{sub 2} upon the poling procedure, indicating the alignment of polar domains.

Itoh, Hirotake, E-mail: hiroitoh@m.tohoku.ac.jp; Iwai, Shinichiro, E-mail: s-iwai@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); JST, CREST, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Itoh, Keisuke; Goto, Kazuki [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kaoru [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Yakushi, Kyuya [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Nagakute 480-1192 (Japan)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

Two-dimensional charge fluctuation in ?-Na0.33V2O5  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the critical phenomena of the metal-to-insulator (MI) transition of ?-Na0.33V2O5. The critical exponent ? of 0.226(3) and anisotropic diffuse scattering suggest that the MI transition of ?-Na0.33V2O5 is two dimensional in nature and that the dimension of the order parameter is not Ising. The non-Ising-like order parameter indicates that the MI transition is not a simple order-disorder type such as that of ??-NaV2O5 but charge-density-wave like, where the valence at each V site is continuous and the arrangement is modulated. This closely corresponds to the situation predicted by neutron diffraction measurements [Nagai et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74, 1297 (2005)] and NMR measurements [Itoh et al., Phys. Rev. B 74, 054434 (2006)].

Kenji Ohwada, Touru Yamauchi, Yasuhiko Fujii, and Yutaka Ueda

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

Charge transfer in Fe-doped GaN: The role of the donor  

SciTech Connect

Several nitride-based device structures would benefit from the availability of high quality, large-area, freestanding semi-insulating GaN substrates. Due to the intrinsic n-type nature of GaN, however, the incorporation of compensating centers such as Fe is necessary to achieve the high resistivity required. We are using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to explore charge transfer in 450 um thick GaN:Fe plates to understand the basic mechanisms related to compensation so that the material may be optimized for device applications. The results suggest that the simple model based on one shallow donor and a single Fe level is insufficient to describe compensation. Rather, the observation of the neutral donor and Fe3+ indicates that either the two species are spatially segregated or additional compensating and donor defects must be present.

Sunay, Ustun; Dashdorj, J.; Zvanut, M. E.; Harrison, J. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1300 University Blvd., CH 310, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-1170 (United States); Leach, J. H.; Udwary, K. [Kyma Technologies, 8829 Midway West Rd., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV  

SciTech Connect

Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is obtained by counting the number of reconstructed hits, hit-pairs, and fully reconstructed charged-particle tracks. The combination of the three methods gives a charged-particle multiplicity per unit of pseudorapidity dN{sub ch}/d{eta}|{eta}|<0.5 = 5.78 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.23 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive events, higher than predicted by commonly used models. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from {radical}s = 0.9 to 7 TeV is 66.1% {+-} 1.0% (stat.) {+-} 4.2% (syst.). The mean transverse momentum is measured to be 0.545 {+-} 0.005 (stat.) {+-} 0.015 (syst.) GeV/c. The results are compared with similar measurements at lower energies.

Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /CERN /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /CHEP, Taegu /Chonnam Natl. U. /Korea U. /UCLA /CERN /UC, Riverside /Budapest, RMKI /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Caltech /Carnegie Mellon U. /Colorado U. /Cornell U. /Fairfield U.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Complex Core Level Spectra of CeO2: An Analysis in Terms of Atomic and Charge Transfer Effects  

SciTech Connect

We present a rigorous parameter-free theoretical treatment of the Ce 4s and 5s photoelectron spectra of CeO2. In the currently accepted model the satellite structure in the photoelectron spectra is explained in terms of a mixed valence (Ce 4f0 O 2p6, Ce 4f1 O 2p5, and Ce 4f2 O 2p4) con?guration. We show that charge transfer (CT) into Ce 5d as well as con?gurations involving intra-atomic movement of charge must be considered in addition and compute their contributions to the spectra.

Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Constance J.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Baron, Martin; Abbott, Heather; Primorac, Elena; Kuhlenbeck, Helmut; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

453

Workplace Charging Challenge  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

the New York Power Authority (NYPA) installed three employee charging stations at its White Plains, New York, facility, as part of its workplace charging pilot program. (Photo...

454

Isotopic dependence of the nuclear charge radii and binding energies in the relativistic Hartree-Fock formalism  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic nonlinear models based on the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations, including the {sigma}, {omega}, {pi}, and {rho} mesons, are worked out to explore the behavior of the nuclear charge radii and the binding energies of several isotopic chains. We find a correlation between the magnitude of the anomalous kink effect (KE) in the Pb isotopic family and the compressibility modulus (K) of nuclear matter. The KE appears to be sensitive, in particular, to the mechanisms which control the K value. The influence of the symmetry energy on the Ca isotopic chain is also studied. The behavior of the charge radii of single-particle states for some special cases and its repercussion on the nuclear charge radius is analyzed. The effect of pairing correlations on the models improves considerably the quality of the results in both binding energy and KE.

Niembro, R., E-mail: niembror@unican.es; Marcos, S.; Lopez-Quelle, M. [Universidad de Cantabria (Spain); Savushkin, L. N. [St. Petersburg University for Telecommunications (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Finding the charge of the top quark in the dilepton channel  

SciTech Connect

There is a question about the identity of the top quark. Is it the top quark of the Standard Model (SM) with electric charge 2/3 or is it an exotic quark with charge -4/3? An exotic quark has been proposed by D. Chang et al. [1]. This analysis will use the standard CDF run II dilepton sample. The key ingredients of this analysis are the correct pairing of the lepton and b-jet, the determination of the charge of the b-jet. The analysis proceeds by using a binomial distribution and is formulated so that rejecting one hypothesis means support for the other hypothesis.

Beretvas, A.; Antos, J.; Chen, Y.C.; Gunay, Z.; Sorin, V.; Tollefson, K.; Bednar, P.; Tokar, S.; Boisvert, V.; Hopkins, W.; McFarland, K.; /Fermilab /Kosice, IEF /Taiwan,

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Classical Tests of General Relativity: Probing Topologically Charged Black Holes on Brane Worlds in f(R) Bulk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The perihelion precession, the deflection of light, and the radar echo delay are classical tests of General Relativity here used to probe brane world topologically charged black holes in a f(R) bulk and to constrain the parameter that arises from the Shiromizu-Maeda-Sasaki procedure applied to a f(R) bulk as well. The existing Solar system observational data constrain the possible values of the tidal charge parameter and the effective cosmological constant including f(R) brane world effects. We show that the observational/experimental data for both perihelion precession and radar echo delay make the black hole space of parameters to be more strict than the ones for the Dadhich, Maartens, Papadopoulos and Rezania (DMPR) black hole geometry. Furthermore, the deflection of light constrains the tidal charge parameter similarly as the DMPR black holes due to a peculiarity in the equation of motion.

Roldao da Rocha; A. M. Kuerten

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

457

Policy Implications from: -Charging Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? · Do customers have a garage? · Can users install charging? Vehicle Purchase · When, where, and how infrastructure needs 2-4 times Free charging decreases electric miles for BEVs Modeling shows that with larger project in San Diego (Ecotality) State rebate program (CCSE) Data collected February-March 2012 New

California at Davis, University of

458

R-charge Kills Monopoles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large charge density, unlike high temperature, may lead to nonrestoration of global and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetric GUTs with the appealing scenario of unification scale being generated dynamically naturally contain global continuous $R$ symmetries. We point out that the presence of a large $R$ charge in the early Universe can lead to GUT symmetry nonrestoration. This provides a simple way out of the monopole problem.

Borut Bajc; Antonio Riotto; Goran Senjanovic

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

459

Measurement of the Total Cross Section for Symmetric Charge Exchange in Helium from 400-2000 eV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy dependence of the total cross section for symmetric charge exchange in helium is measured in the range from 400-2000 eV. Beam-attenuation techniques are used, and all measurements are made on the forward-scattered ions and the high-energy neutrals resulting from the charge exchange. Cross-section values are given at 100-eV intervals, and the results show a cross section decreasing as the energy increases, with a value at 1000 eV of 1.04 × 10-15 cm2. The absolute cross sections are accurate to ± 12%. Relative cross-section values accurate to ± 6% are reported.

Stephen W. Nagy, William J. Savola, Jr., and Edward Pollack

1969-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

460

Energy loss rate of a charged particle in HgTe/(HgTe, CdTe) quantum wells  

SciTech Connect

The energy loss rate (ELR) of a charged particle in a HgTe/(HgTe, CdTe) quantum well is investigated. We consider scattering of a charged particle by the bulk insulating states in this type of topological insulator. It is found that the ELR characteristics due to the intraband excitation have a linear energy dependence while those due to interband excitation depend on the energy exponentially. An interesting quantitative result is that for a large range of the incident energy, the mean inelastic scattering rate is around a few terahertz.

Chen, Qinjun; Sin Ang, Yee [School of Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Wang, Xiaolin [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)] [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Lewis, R. A.; Zhang, Chao [School of Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) [School of Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "in cludes charges" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The key role of charge carriers scattering on polar optical phonons in semiconductors for thermoelectric energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Boltzmann equation for charge carriers in n-type InSb is solved by numerical procedure. Temperature and donor atoms concentration dependences of kinetic coefficients are studied with respect to the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. It is found that the mechanism of the charge carriers scattering on polar optical phonons is of crucial importance for thermoelectric figure of merit of semiconductors. High thermoelectric efficiency of compounds and alloys comprising such heavy atoms as Pb or Bi is explained by weakening of the above mentioned scattering mechanism due to gigantic values of dielectric constants of substances caused by high polarizability of heavy atoms.

V.G. Orlov; G.S. Sergeev

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Electric dipole moments of charged leptons in the split fermion scenario in the two Higgs doublet model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We predict the charged lepton electric dipole moments in the split fermion scenario in the framework