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Sample records for in cludes charges

  1. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Donofrio Ford Motor Company Trends in Workplace Charging Est EV NA NA approx 21 70-100 Miles: What Types of Chargers are Being Used? Considerations for Campus Installations *...

  2. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  3. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  4. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    *Based on Energy Charges Only using an average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. residential utility customer of 11,496 kWh (EIA http:www.eia.gov). (WASHINGTON, ...

  5. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  7. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  8. Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact November 18, 2014 - 3:54pm Addthis Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact Sarah Olexsak Workplace Charging

  9. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The STXM capabilities at ALS Beamline 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 allow researchers to not only map the particles' charges in freeze frame, but also enable in situ tracking during the...

  10. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Wednesday, 08 June 2016 00:00 Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction

  11. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  16. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm/36-428 Carlos Silva University of Montreal CSilva abstract: Understanding charge generation by light absorption in polymeric semiconductors is of profound scientific importance due to the vigorous drive to develop organic solar cells. Confusion prevails with respect

  17. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory You are accessing a ...

  18. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors ...

  19. Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas: Research Opportunities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas: Research Opportunities and Diagnostic Necessities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion ...

  20. Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity linear accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental evidence of space charge ...

  1. Charge flow model for atomic ordering in nonisovalent alloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charge flow model for atomic ordering in nonisovalent alloys Title: Charge flow model for atomic ordering in nonisovalent alloys Authors: Wang, Shuzhi ; Wang, Lin-Wang Publication ...

  2. Self-Regulation Mechanism for Charged Point Defects in Hybrid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Self-Regulation Mechanism for Charged Point Defects in Hybrid Halide Perovskites Title: Self-Regulation Mechanism for Charged Point Defects in Hybrid Halide ...

  3. Intrinsic charge and spin conductivities of doped graphene in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intrinsic charge and spin conductivities of doped graphene in the Fermi-liquid regime Prev Next Title: Intrinsic charge and spin conductivities of doped graphene in the ...

  4. A New Mechanism of Charge Density Wave Discovered in Transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 A New Mechanism of Charge Density Wave Discovered in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Charge density waves (CDW) are a type of coupled electronic-lattice instability found in...

  5. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  6. Ion charge state fluctuations in vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yushkov, Georgy Yu

    2004-12-14

    Ion charge state distributions of cathodic vacuum arcs have been investigated using a modified time-of-flight method. Experiments have been done in double gate and burst gate mode, allowing us to study both systematic and stochastic changes of ion charge state distributions with a time resolution down to 100 ns. In the double gate method, two ion charge spectra are recorded with a well-defined time between measurements. The elements Mg, Bi, and Cu were selected for tests, representing metals of very different properties. For all elements it was found that large stochastic changes occur even at the limit of resolution. This is in agreement with fast changing arc properties observed elsewhere. Correlation of results for short times between measurements was found but it is argued that this is due to velocity mixing rather than due to cathode processes. The burst mode of time-of-flight measurements revealed the systematic time evolution of ion charge states within a single arc discharge, as opposed to previous measurements that relied on data averaged over many pulses. The technique shows the decay of the mean ion charge state as well as the level of material-dependent fluctuations.

  7. Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, Alexander Schmidt, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed.

  8. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  9. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  10. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  11. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  12. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  13. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  14. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  15. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  16. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  17. Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L.; Choo, K. Y.

    2011-03-30

    Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.

  18. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  19. Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T. Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Li, X. G.

    2014-09-15

    Perovskite manganites exhibit a wide range of functional properties, such as colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric effect, multiferroic property, and some interesting physical phenomena including spin, charge, and orbital ordering. Recent advances in science and technology associated with perovskite oxides have resulted in the feature sizes of microelectronic devices down-scaling into nanoscale dimensions. The nanoscale perovskite manganites display novel magnetic and electronic properties that are different from their bulk and film counterparts. Understanding the size effects of perovskite manganites at the nanoscale is of importance not only for the fundamental scientific research but also for developing next generation of electronic and magnetic nanodevices. In this paper, the current understanding and the fundamental issues related to the size effects on the magnetic properties and charge ordering in manganites are reviewed, which covers lattice structure, magnetic and electronic properties in both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic based manganites. In addition to review the literatures, this article identifies the promising avenues for the future research in this area.

  20. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency

  1. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  2. Collision integrals for charged-charged interaction in two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A. K.

    2013-09-15

    Choice of an appropriate form of shielding distance in the estimation of collision integrals under screened coulomb potential for two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma is addressed. Simple expressions for collision integrals for charged-charged interactions are derived. It is shown that while some of the formalisms used earlier completely ignore the presence of ions, the others incorporating it may result in negative collision integrals for the interactions involving particles at higher charged states. The parametric regimes of concern and impact of different formalisms on the computed transport properties are investigated with specific reference to nitrogen plasma. A revised definition of the shielding distance is proposed, which incorporates both electrons and ions, avoids the problem of negative collision integrals in all practical regimes of interest and results in calculated property values in close agreement with experimentally observed results.

  3. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in Pu 239 ( n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in Pu 239 ( n , f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  4. Muon neutrino charged current inclusive charged pion (CC?{sup }) production in MINER?A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, B.

    2015-05-15

    The production of charged pions by neutrinos interacting on nuclei is of great interest in nuclear physics and neutrino oscillation experiments. The MINER?A experiment is working towards releasing the worlds first high statistics neutrino pion production measurements in a few-GeV neutrino beam. We describe MINER?As CC?{sup } analysis event selection in both the neutrino and antineutrino beams, noting reconstruction resolutions and kinematic limits. We also show area-normalized data-simulation comparisons of the reconstructed muon and charged pion kinetic energy distributions.

  5. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  6. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  7. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David

    2011-01-01

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  8. Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas: Research Opportunities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly Charged Ions in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas: Research Opportunities and Diagnostic ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  9. Near equilibrium distributions for beams with space charge in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Near equilibrium distributions for beams with space charge in linear and nonlinear periodic focusing systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near equilibrium ...

  10. Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams The process of channeling of charged particle beams in bent crystals is described, including the effects of angular acceptance, spatial acceptance, normal dechanneling, bending dechanneling, and surface acceptance. Some bending applications that have been tried and future

  11. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future

  12. Ultrafast charge localization in a stripe-phase nickelate (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    e.g. fluctuating charge stripes whose role in high-Tc superconductivity is under debate. ... Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS ...

  13. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we...

  14. Interested in joining the Workplace Charging Challenge? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Interested in joining the Workplace Charging Challenge? Interested in joining the Workplace Charging Challenge? Thinking of joining the Workplace Charging Challenge? Tell us a little more about your organization, industry, and sustainability goals. After receiving your inquiry, one of our account managers will get back to you to discuss your eligibility and provide more information on the Challenge. Thank you for your interest! Your Email * Message Here CAPTCHA This question is for

  15. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  16. Longitudinal Bunch Lengthening Compensation in High Charge RF Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, S.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2008-10-03

    In high charge RF photoinjectors for wakefield two beam acceleration studies, due to the strong longitudinal space charge, bunch lengthening between the photocathode and photoinjector exit is a critical issue. We present beam dynamics studies of bunch lengthening in an RF photoinjector for a high charge electron beam and describe methods to compensate the bunch lengthening to various degrees. In particular, the beam dynamics for bunch charge from 1nC to 30nC are studied for an S-band 2856 MHz photoinjector.

  17. Charge separation in photoredox reactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevan, L.

    1993-07-15

    The structural aspects controlling charge separation in molecular photoionization reactions in organized molecular assemblies involving micelles, reverse micelles and vesicles are being studied by optical and electron magnetic resonance techniques including the time domain technique of deuterium electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and matrix proton electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) to measure weak electron-nuclear dipolar interactions. ESEM and matrix ENDOR are particularly well adapted to the study of disordered systems as exemplified by micelles and vesicles. The photoionization yields of alkylphenothiazines in micelles and vesicles have been shown to depend on the alkyl chain length and to correlate with relative distances from the surfactant assembly interface measured by deuterium ESEM and matrix proton ENDOR. The photoionization of alkylmethylviologens versus alkyl chain length has also been studied in vesicles, micelles and reverse micelles. Nitroxide spin probes have been used to study the degree of water penetration into mixed ionic/nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) and cationic/anionic micelles by using ESEM methods and selectively deuterated surfactants. The effect of urea interaction at micellar interfaces on the interface hydration has also been evaluated by studying nitroxide probes with ESEM.

  18. Charge exchange cooling in the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, B. Grant

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus for cooling a plasma of warm charged species confined in the center mirror cell of the tandem mirror apparatus by injecting cold neutral species of the plasma into at least one mirroring region of the center mirror cell, the cooling due to the loss of warm charged species through charge exchange with the cold neutral species with resulting diffusion of the warm neutral species out of the plasma.

  19. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  20. Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charge Forward in Oregon | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... EV Everywhere Charges Up the Workplace Project Overview Positive Impact More plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles in Oregon. Oregon is planning for the large-scale deployment ...

  1. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2010-07-02

    We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

  2. Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About a Third of All Plug-in Vehicle Charging Sessions in the INL EV Project Study- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Workplace Charging Accounts for About a Third of All Plug-in Vehicle Charging Sessions in the INL EV Project Study

  3. Greybody factors and charges in Kerr/CFT

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Larsen, Finn

    2009-09-01

    We compute greybody factors for near extreme Kerr black holes in D = 4 and D = 5. In D = 4 we include four charges so that our solutions can be continuously deformed to the BPS limit. In D = 5 we include two independent angular momenta so Left-Right symmetry is incorporated. We discuss the CFT interpretation of our emission amplitudes, including the overall frequency dependence and the dependence on all black hole parameters. We find that all additional parameters can be incorporated Kerr/CFT, with central charge independent of U(1) charges.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace 2 Almost three years ago, we kicked off the Workplace Charging Challenge with the goal of having 500 U.S. employers commit to installing workplace plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and joining the Challenge by 2018. I am pleased to share that with more than 250 participants in the Challenge, we are more than halfway there, and the adoption of workplace charging as a sustainable business practice is

  5. Charging characteritiscs of ultrananocrystalline diamond in RF MEMS capacitive switches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Goldsmith, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J.; Zheng, H.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Palego, C.; Wang, W.; Carpick, R.; Adiga, V.; Datta, A.; Gudeman, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.

    2010-05-01

    Modifications to a standard capacitive MEMS switch process have been made to allow the incorporation of ultra-nano-crystalline diamond as the switch dielectric. The impact on electromechanical performance is minimal. However, these devices exhibit uniquely different charging characteristics, with charging and discharging time constants 5-6 orders of magnitude quicker than conventional materials. This operation opens the possibility of devices which have no adverse effects of dielectric charging and can be operated near-continuously in the actuated state without significant degradation in reliability.

  6. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

  7. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can...

  8. Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe We report ... Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-13857 Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; ...

  9. Determination of surface electric charge profile in pyroelectric crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaderi, R.; Davani, F. Abbasi

    2014-12-08

    Pyroelectric crystals are used to produce high energy self-focused electron beams. Here, an experimental analysis in combination with simulation studies will be reported to investigate possible sources of this effect. In the experiments, the surface of crystal was divided into six separated parts and the rate of surface electric charge production was measured accordingly. A non-steady and spatially non-uniform distribution of the surface charge generation was observed, in which it tends to a uniform distribution in the course of experiment. The obtained surface electric charges from the experiments were used to simulate the electric field and potential around the crystal by COMSOL Multiphysics. It was observed that emitted electrons from the crystal surface were focused, and the non-uniformity in spatial charge is responsible for this phenomenon.

  10. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  11. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  12. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  13. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  14. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  15. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  16. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned by applying a gate voltage. The charge carriers in graphene can travel ballistically over great distances (~1 micron) without scattering. These unusual electronic properties make graphene a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics. Using infrared spectromicroscopy at ALS Beamline 1.4, a group of researchers from

  17. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-06-21

    We present a model of dynamics to account for the possible impact of space charge on the equilibrium emittances in storage rings and apply the model to study the current design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings.

  18. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OPEN: Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors H. T. Yi1, Y. N. Gartstein2 & V. Podzorov1-3 Received: 21 January 2016 Accepted: 29 February 2016 ...

  19. Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions Authors: Beiersdorfer, P. ; Scofield, J. H. ; Brown, G. V. ; Chen, M. H. ; Hell, N. ; Osterheld, A. L. ; Vogel, D. A. ; ...

  20. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  1. Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics

  2. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy | Center for Energy Efficient Materials John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy Apr 17, 2014 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM John Papanikolas Professor of Chemistry & Deputy Director, EFRC on Solar Fuels University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy April 17, 2014 | 4:00pm | ESB 1001 Faculty host: Dan Morse

  3. Charge independence, charge symmetry breaking in the S-wave nucleon-nucleon interaction, and renormalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    2012-02-01

    We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.

  4. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  5. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  6. Hyperon axial charges in two-flavor chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Fujiun; Tiburzi, Brian C.

    2009-10-01

    We use two-flavor heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory to investigate the isovector axial charges of the spin one-half hyperons. Expressions for these hyperon axial charges are derived at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. We utilize phenomenological and lattice QCD inputs to assess the convergence of the two-flavor theory, which appears to be best for cascades.

  7. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2008-08-15

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in Public to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public on

  9. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation Preprint Robert Prohaska, ... Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation Robert Prohaska, Kenneth ...

  10. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, and considerations for station owners, property owners, and station hosts.

  11. How to find fees, taxes, and other charges built into rate in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and other charges built into rate in different locations Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I am looking to find the rate charges beyond demand, generation, and transmission that...

  12. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, and considerations for station owners, property owners, and station hosts.

  13. Mobility of charge carriers in porous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsh, P. A. Martyshov, M. N.; Latysheva, A. P.; Vorontsov, A. S.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2008-12-15

    The (conduction) mobility of majority charge carriers in porous silicon layers of the n and p types is estimated by joint measurements of electrical conductivity and free charge carrier concentration, which is determined from IR absorption spectra. Adsorption of donor and acceptor molecules leading to a change in local electric fields in the structure is used to identify the processes controlling the mobility in porous silicon. It is found that adsorption of acceptor and donor molecules at porous silicon of the p and n types, respectively, leads to a strong increase in electrical conductivity, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of free carrier as well as in their mobility. The increase in the mobility of charge carriers as a result of adsorption indicates the key role of potential barriers at the boundaries of silicon nanocrystals and may be due to a decrease in the barrier height as a result of adsorption.

  14. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  15. Compensating tune spread induced by space charge in bunched beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.; Wang, G.

    2015-05-03

    The effects of space charge play a significant role in modern-day accelerators, frequently constraining the beam parameters attainable in an accelerator or in an accelerator chain. They also can limit the luminosity of hadron colliders operating either at low energies or with sub-TeV high-brightness hadron beams. The latter is applied for strongly cooled proton and ion beams in eRHIC – the proposed future electron-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Using an appropriate electron beam would compensate both the tune shift and the tune spread in the hadron beam in a coasting beam. But these methods cannot compensate space charge tune spread in a bunched hadron beam. In this paper we propose and evaluate a novel idea of using a co-propagating electron bunch with mismatched longitudinal velocity to compensate the space charge induced tune-shift and tune spread.

  16. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  17. Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shotorban, B.

    2011-06-15

    Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.

  18. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  19. Motion of charged test particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-05-15

    We investigate the circular motion of charged test particles in the gravitational field of a charged mass described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We study in detail all the spatial regions where circular motion is allowed around either black holes or naked singularities. The effects of repulsive gravity are discussed by finding all the circles at which a particle can have vanishing angular momentum. We show that the geometric structure of stable accretion disks, made of only test particles moving along circular orbits around the central body, allows us to clearly distinguish between black holes and naked singularities.

  20. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  1. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  2. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  3. Space-charge and emittance blowup in linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Recent work leading to better understanding of beam emittance under space-charge conditions in linear transport and accelerating channels is reviewed. Some practical considerations are outlined for minimizing emittance growth by properly matching the input beam, including equipartitioning the energy balance, and by avoiding certain areas of tune-shift.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Plug-In Electric Vehicle Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Workplace Charging Challenge Partner Map lists worksites across the country where employers have installed charging stations for employee use. Reach out to your Workplace ...

  5. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Workplace Charging Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits of Workplace Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Evaluating and Planning for

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  7. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  8. Ambipolar charge transport in microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knipp, Dietmar; Marinkovic, M.; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Gordijn, Aad; Stiebig, Helmut

    2011-01-15

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) is a promising candidate for thin-film transistors (TFTs) in large-area electronics due to high electron and hole charge carrier mobilities. We report on ambipolar TFTs based on {mu}c-Si:H prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperatures compatible with flexible substrates. Electrons and holes are directly injected into the {mu}c-Si:H channel via chromium drain and source contacts. The TFTs exhibit electron and hole charge carrier mobilities of 30-50 cm{sup 2}/V s and 10-15 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In this work, the electrical characteristics of the ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs are described by a simple analytical model that takes the ambipolar charge transport into account. The analytical expressions are used to model the transfer curves, the potential and the net surface charge along the channel of the TFTs. The electrical model provides insights into the electronic transport of ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs.

  9. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Map: Projected Growth of the Wind Industry From Now Until 2050 Map: Projected Growth of the Wind Industry From Now Until 2050 Wind Vision See the projected growth of the wind industry over the next 35 years. Select a Year 2000 2010 2013 2020 2030 2050 All units are in gigawatts (GW). Only states with total capacity over 0.1 GW are included per year. Find out more about the data by reading the Wind Vision Report. You can download the data used for this graphic directly here.

  10. Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Women in Power Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power October 22, 2012 - 4:19pm Addthis Andrea Alexander, Makah Tribe in Neah Bay (Washington)/Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians Andrea Alexander, Makah Tribe in Neah Bay (Washington)/Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians Kathy Mayo, Eagle Village in Upper Yukon (Alaska)/Tanana Chiefs Conference Kathy Mayo, Eagle Village in Upper Yukon (Alaska)/Tanana Chiefs Conference Tara Hess-McGeown, Washoe Tribe of Nevada and

  11. Ion Transport Dynamics in Acid Variable Charge Subsoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Sumner, Malcolm E.; Toma, Mitsuru

    2005-06-06

    This is a mini-review of the research work conducted by the authors with the objective of studying ion transport in variable charge subsoils collected from different areas around the world. An attempt is made in these studies to relate the unique behavior manifested during ionic transport in these subsoils with their mineralogical, physical and chemical properties, which are markedly different from those in soils from temperate regions. The variable charge subsoils have a relatively high salt sorption capacity and anion exchange capacity (AEC) that retards anions downward movement. The AEC correlates closely with the anion retardation coefficients. Ca2+ applied with gypsum in topsoil may be transported to the subsoil and may improve the subsoil chemical properties. These results may help in developing appropriate management strategies under a range of mineralogical, physical, and chemical conditions.

  12. Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.; Elmessary, M. A.

    2011-11-15

    The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

  13. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  14. Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  15. Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystallized Thin Films of Regio-Regular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally Crystallized Thin Films of Regio-Regular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Semicrystalline polymers, such as polythiophenes, hold much promise as active layers in printable electronic devices such as photovoltaic cells, sensors, and thin film transistors. As organic semiconductors approach commercialization, there is a need to better understand the relationship between

  16. Neutral and positively charged excitons in narrow quantum ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porras Monroy, L. C.; Rodrguez-Prada, F. A.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-15

    We study theoretically quantized states of a neutral and a positively charged exciton (trion X{sup +}) confined in a heterostructure with the ring-like geometry. In order to assess the experimentally relevant domain of parameters, we adopt a simple model of a narrow ring when 3D wave equations for the neutral and positively charged excitons can be separated. By using the Fourier series method, we have calculated the energy spectra of excitons complexes in a quantum ring as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio, the ring radius, and the magnetic field strength. The quantum-size effect and the size-dependent magnetic oscillations of energy levels of excitons' complexes spectra have been revealed.

  17. Search for Charged Lepton Violation in Narrow Upsilon Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Hawkes, C.M.; /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Columbus Supercond., Genova /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Consorzio Milano Ricerche /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-19

    Charged lepton flavor violating processes are unobservable in the standard model, but they are predicted to be enhanced in several extensions to the standard model, including supersymmetry and models with leptoquarks or compositeness. We present a search for such processes in a sample of 99 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(2S) decays and 117 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(3S) decays collected with the BABAR detector. We place upper limits on the branching fractions {Beta}({Upsilon}(nS) {yields} e{sup {+-}}{tau}{sup {-+}}) and {Beta}({Upsilon}(nS) {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{tau}{sup {-+}}) (n = 2, 3) at the 10{sup -6} level and use these results to place lower limits of order 1 TeV on the mass scale of charged lepton flavor violating effective operators.

  18. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  19. Measurement of $$K^{+}$$ production in charged-current $$\

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, C. M.

    2016-07-14

    Production of K+ mesons in charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is measured using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI beam at Fermilab. Timing information is used to isolate a sample of 885 charged-current events containing a stopping K+ which decays at rest. The differential cross section in K+ kinetic energy, dσ/dTK, is observed to be relatively flat between 0 and 500 MeV. As a result, its shape is in good agreement with the prediction by the genie neutrino event generator when final-state interactions are included, however the data rate is lower than the prediction by 15%.

  20. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R; Kremer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  1. Ion extraction and charge exchange in laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostein, D.; Doneddu, F.

    1996-02-01

    In the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process, a vapor is ionized by pulsed laser beams, and the ions are extracted by negatively biased collectors. The authors compute the unsteady dynamics of the photoplasma using a two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Collisions between ions and neutral species are simulated by a Monte Carlo technique. The plasma dynamics is visualized by snapshots of particle positions showing the directions of their velocities. The three kinds of particles (electrons, photo-ions, and ions created by charge exchange) are marked by different colors. The graphic outputs illustrate the motion of the electrons toward the anodes, the vertical drift of the plasma, its erosion by the transient ion sheath, and nonselective ionization by charge exchange.

  2. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging S. Lommele, National Renewable Energy Laboratory W. Dafoe, National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2016 DRAFT REPORT Workplace ii NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for

  3. Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Printable fact sheet (552 KB) Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Technology Marketing SummaryA nanoscale version of the Paul ion trap was developed by

  4. The nucleon axial charge in full lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Edwards; George Fleming; P Hagler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers

    2005-10-13

    The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm)3. We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 5% statistical errors.

  5. Nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in Chiral EFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girlanda, Luca; Marcucci, Laura Elisa; Pastore, Saori; Piarulli, Maria; Schiavilla, Rocco; Viviani, Michele

    2013-08-01

    We describe our method for deriving the nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in chiral perturbation theory, based on time-ordered perturbation theory. We then discuss possible strategies for fixing the relevant low-energy constants, from the magnetic moments of the deuteron and of the trinucleons, and from the radiative np capture cross sections, and identify a scheme which, partly relying on {Delta} resonance saturation, leads to a reasonable pattern of convergence of the chiral expansion.

  6. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeemanmore » energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.« less

  7. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  8. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  9. Dual role of Fe dopants in enhancing stability and charge transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dual role of Fe dopants in enhancing stability and charge transfer in ( Li 0.8 Fe 0.2 ) ... Title: Dual role of Fe dopants in enhancing stability and charge transfer in ( Li 0.8 Fe ...

  10. Electron-ion plasma dynamics in the presence of highly charged dust-clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djebli, Mourad Benkhelifa, El-Amine

    2015-05-15

    Electron-ion plasma expansion is studied in the presence of positively (negatively) highly charged uniformly distributed dust particles, considered as impurities. For that purpose, a multi-fluid model is used, where the charged impurities characteristics are included in Poisson's equation. We found that ion acceleration is enhanced by the presence of positively charged dust. The latter leads to spiky structures in the ion front which have a higher amplitude as the charge increases. The charged impurities have a significant effect when the combination of their charge and density is greater than a critical value which depends on ion to electron temperature ratio.

  11. Intrinsic slow charge response in the perovskite solar cells: Electron and ion transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Huiyin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-10-19

    The intrinsic charge response and hysteresis characteristic in the perovskite solar cell has been investigated by an electrically modulated transient photocurrent technology. An ultraslow charge response process in the timescale of seconds is observed, which can be well explained by the ion migration in the perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film driven by multiple electric fields derived from the heterojunction depletion charge, the external modulation, and the accumulated ion charge. Furthermore, theoretical calculation of charge transport reveals that the hysteresis behavior is also significantly influenced by the interfacial charge extraction velocity and the carrier transport properties inside the cell.

  12. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtanen, J. J.; Sosnick, T. R.; Freed, K. F.

    2014-12-14

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other.

  13. Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in...

  14. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The evolution of ion charge states in ...

  15. Coexistence of charge-density wave and ferromagnetism in Ni2MnGa...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coexistence of charge-density wave and ferromagnetism in Ni2MnGa Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coexistence of charge-density wave and ferromagnetism in Ni2MnGa ...

  16. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraide, Katsuki; /Kyoto U.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub x} oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance ({nu}{sub {mu}}N {yields} {mu}{sup -} N{pi}{sup +}) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus ({nu}{sub {mu}}A {yields} {mu}{sup -} A{pi}{sup +}), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, {nu}{sub {mu}} {sup 12}C {yields} {mu}{sup -12}C{pi}{sup +}, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 10{sup 20} protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged current

  17. Utilities and Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for workplace charging Aid in forecasting similar workplace charging needs with ... of plug-in vehicle technology, costs, and benefits? 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 ...

  18. Dynamic Wireless Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-13

    ORNL successfully demonstrated in-motion wireless charging in the laboratory using a small GEM vehicle and a series of six charging coils.

  19. Wireless Electric Charging: The Future of Plug-In Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wireless Electric Charging: The Future of Plug-In Electric Vehicles is Going Cordless Wireless Electric Charging: The Future of Plug-In Electric Vehicles is Going Cordless March 7, ...

  20. Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and ...

  1. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  2. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  3. Workplace Charging Challenge: Signage Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Signage for plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations is an important consideration at workplaces that offer access to charging. Appropriate charging station signage can:

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge 2014 Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Track A (Plaza Ballroom I): Promoting your workplace charging program A robust workplace charging program doesn't conclude once the charging stations are in the ground. Many ...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electric Vehicles Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing Infrastructure to Charge Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Developing

  6. Universal Charge Order in the High-Tc Superconductors | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Universal Charge Order in the High-Tc Superconductors Wednesday, May 4, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Eduardo H. da Silva Neto - UBC Eduardo H. da Silva Neto was born in Recife, Brazil. He obtained his B.A. in Physics and Mathematics (2008) from Amherst College, and his Ph. D. (2013) in Physics from Princeton University. Since 2013 he has been a Max-Planck-UBC postdoctoral research fellow at the Quantum Matter Institute at

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping...

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

  9. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after "Pressure ...

  10. Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2009-07-23

    This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

  11. Charge recombination in the muon collider cooling channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernow, R. C.; Palmer, R. B.

    2012-12-21

    The final stage of the ionization cooling channel for the muon collider must transversely recombine the positively and negatively charged bunches into a single beam before the muons can be accelerated. It is particularly important to minimize any emittance growth in this system since no further cooling takes place before the bunches are collided. We have found that emittance growth could be minimized by using symmetric pairs of bent solenoids and careful matching. We show that a practical design can be found that has transmission {approx}99%, emittance growth less than 0.1%, and minimal dispersion in the recombined bunches.

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014 - Employers Take Charge Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014 - Employers Take Charge In ...

  14. EV Everywhere: Workplace Charging | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Charging EV Everywhere: Workplace Charging EV Everywhere: Workplace Charging Most plug-in electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles primarily at home, but ...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Locations with Charging Workplace Charging Challenge 6 Installing & Planned Charging Stations Almost Doubled in the Last 2 Years Workplace Charging Challenge 7 Partner plans ...

  16. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Public Charging Station Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits and Costs of Hosting a Charging Station . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Charging Station Locations and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ownership and Payment Models . . . . . . 14

  17. Intrinsic space charge layers and field enhancement in ferroelectric nanojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Ye; Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Chen, Long-Qing; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro

    2015-07-13

    The conducting characteristics of topological defects in the ferroelectric materials, such as charged domain walls in ferroelectric materials, engendered broad interest and extensive study on their scientific merit and the possibility of novel applications utilizing domain engineering. At the same time, the problem of electron transport in ferroelectrics themselves still remains full of unanswered questions, and becomes still more relevant over the impending revival of interest in ferroelectric semiconductors and new improper ferroelectric materials. We have employed self-consistent phase-field modeling to investigate the physical properties of a local metal-ferroelectric (Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3) junction in applied electric field. We revealed an up tomore » 10-fold local field enhancement realized by large polarization gradient and over-polarization effects once the inherent non-linear dielectric properties of PZT are considered. The effect is independent of bias polarity and maintains its strength prior, during and after ferroelectric switching. The local field enhancement can be considered equivalent to increase of doping level, which will give rise to reduction of the switching bias and significantly smaller voltages to charge injection and electronic injection, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical processes.« less

  18. Charge states of Ca atoms in {beta}-dicalcium silicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori, Kazuhiro . E-mail: kmori@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kiyanagi, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Iwase, Kenji; Sato, Takashi; Itoh, Keiji; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Fukunaga, Toshiharu

    2006-11-15

    In order to study the crystal structure of {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction experiments were carried out at temperatures between room temperature (RT) and 600 deg. C. Rietveld refinement at RT has shown that {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} is monoclinic based on P2{sub 1}/n symmetry and two different types of Ca sites, Ca(1) and Ca(2). All interatomic distances within 3A were calculated, with the valences of Ca(1) with seven Ca-O bonds and Ca(2) with eight were estimated to be 1.87+ and 2+ by the Zachariasen-Brown-Altermatt formula (bond valence sum). Applying charge neutrality the two charge states of Ca in {beta}-bar Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} are [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and Ca(2){sup 2+}, respectively. Furthermore, the [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} unit has the shortest Ca-O distance, and its length kept constant at 2.23A at all temperatures. In the short-range structure analysis at RT, the shortest Ca-O bond was also observed in a radial distribution function. These results imply that the [Ca(1)SiO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} unit has covalency on the shortest Ca-O in addition to Si-O.

  19. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequentmore » effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.« less

  20. EERE Success Story-Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charge Forward in Oregon |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charge Forward in Oregon EERE Success Story-Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charge Forward in Oregon March 10, 2015 - 12:00am Addthis EERE Success Story—Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charge Forward in Oregon Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are charging forward in Oregon, with the help of EERE's Vehicle Technologies Office. A Clean Cities community readiness award provided a major step forward, helping the state develop a comprehensive market

  1. Finite axisymmetric charged dust disks in conformastatic spacetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Gutierrez-Pineres, Antonio C.; Ospina, Paolo A.

    2008-09-15

    An infinite family of axisymmetric charged dust disks of finite extension is presented. The disks are obtained by solving the vacuum Einstein-Maxwell equations for conformastatic spacetimes, which are characterized by only one metric function. In order to obtain the solutions, a functional relationship between the metric function and the electric potential is assumed. It is also assumed that the metric function is functionally dependent on another auxiliary function, which is taken as a solution of the Laplace equation. The solutions for the auxiliary function are then taken as given by the infinite family of generalized Kalnajs disks recently obtained by Gonzalez and Reina [G. A. Gonzalez and J. I. Reina, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 1873 (2006).], expressed in terms of the oblate spheroidal coordinates and corresponding to a family of well-behaved Newtonian axisymmetric thin disks of finite radius. The obtained relativistic thin disks have a charge density that is equal, except maybe by a sign, to their mass density, in such a way that the electric and gravitational forces are in exact balance. The energy density of the disks is everywhere positive and well behaved, vanishing at the edge. Accordingly, as the disks are made of dust, their energy-momentum tensor agrees with all the energy conditions.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    at Home to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home on Digg Find

  3. System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeLuca, William H.; Hornstra, Jr, Fred; Gelb, George H.; Berman, Baruch; Moede, Larry W.

    1980-01-01

    A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

  4. Optimum Electron Distributions for Space Charge Dominated Beams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Bolton, P.R.; /SLAC

    2006-06-15

    The optimum photo-electron distribution from the cathode of an RF photoinjector producing a space charge dominated beam is a uniform distribution contained in an ellipsoid. For such a bunch distribution, the space charge forces are linear and the emittance growth induced by those forces is totally reversible and consequently can be compensated. With the appropriate tuning of the emittance compensation optics, the emittance, at the end of photoinjector beamline, for an ellipsoidal laser pulse, would only have two contributions, the cathode emittance and the RF emittance. For the peak currents of 50A and 100 A required from the SBand and L-Band RF gun photoinjectors discussed here, the RF emittance contribution is negligible. If such an ellipsoidal photo-electron distribution were available, the emittance at the end of the beamline could be reduced to the cathode emittance. Its value would be reduced by more than 40% from that obtained using cylindrical shape laser pulses. This potentially dramatic improvement warrants review of the challenges associated with the production of ellipsoidal photo-electrons. We assume the photo-electrons emission time to be short enough that the ellipsoidal electron pulse shape will come directly from the laser pulse. We shift the challenge to ellipsoidal laser pulse shaping. To expose limiting technical issues, we consider the generation of ellipsoidal laser pulse shape in terms of three different concepts.

  5. Quark Flavors and Conserved Charges at Finite Density in the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition from the Quark-Gluon Plasma to a gas of hadrons during the evolution of the universe. Credit: Sandor Katz, Eotvos University Quark Flavors and Conserved Charges ...

  6. The Charge Conjugation Quantum Number in Multiquark Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancu, Fl.

    2008-08-29

    We discuss the charge conjugation quantum number for tetraquarks or meson-meson molecules, seen as possible interpretations of the newly found XYZ charmonium-like resonances.

  7. A Simple Index for Characterizing Charge Transport in Molecular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar (fuels), photosynthesis (natural and artificial), bio-inspired, hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, defects, charge transport, spin dynamics, membrane, materials...

  8. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. ...

  9. Charge Correlations in the Cuprates and their Relation to Superconduct...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Vivek Thampy, Brookhaven National Laboratory Program Description Charges doped into the copper oxide planes...

  10. Implementation and analysis of an innovative digital charge amplifier for hysteresis reduction in piezoelectric stack actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazghaleh, Mohsen Grainger, Steven; Cazzolato, Ben; Lu, Tien-Fu; Oskouei, Reza

    2014-04-15

    Smart actuators are the key components in a variety of nanopositioning applications, such as scanning probe microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common smart actuators due to their high resolution, low power consumption, and wide operating frequency but they suffer hysteresis which affects linearity. In this paper, an innovative digital charge amplifier is presented to reduce hysteresis in piezoelectric stack actuators. Compared to traditional analog charge drives, experimental results show that the piezoelectric stack actuator driven by the digital charge amplifier has less hysteresis. It is also shown that the voltage drop of the digital charge amplifier is significantly less than the voltage drop of conventional analog charge amplifiers.

  11. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Snchez, Paula

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  12. Melting of Pb Charge Glass and Simultaneous Pb-Cr Charge Transfer in PbCrO3 as the Origin of Volume Collapse

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Runze; Hojo, Hajime; Watanuki, Tetsu; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Mizokawa, Takashi; Okada, Kengo; Kim, Hyunjeong; Machida, Akihiko; Sakaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Yumiko; et al

    2015-09-15

    A metal to insulator transition in integer or half integer charge systems can be regarded as crystallization of charges. The insulating state tends to have a glassy nature when randomness or geometrical frustration exists. In this paper, we report that the charge glass state is realized in a perovskite compound PbCrO3, which has been known for almost 50 years, without any obvious inhomogeneity or triangular arrangement in the charge system. PbCrO3 has a valence state of Pb2+0.5Pb4+0.5Cr3+O3 with Pb2+–Pb4+ correlation length of three lattice-spacings at ambient condition. A pressure induced melting of charge glass and simultaneous Pb–Cr charge transfer causesmore » an insulator to metal transition and ~10% volume collapse.« less

  13. Workplace Charging: Safety and Management Policy For Level 1 Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receptacles | Department of Energy Charging: Safety and Management Policy For Level 1 Charging Receptacles Workplace Charging: Safety and Management Policy For Level 1 Charging Receptacles Organizations offering plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging at Level 1 charging receptacles, or wall outlets, can ensure a safe and successful workplace charging experience by considering the following safety and management policies below. More helpful tips on workplace charging administration,

  14. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic ThomasFermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar

  15. Electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process in degenerate quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 ; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum

    2014-03-15

    The electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process are investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard formalism with the effective interaction potential is employed to obtain the charge capture radius, capture probability, and capture cross section as functions of the impact parameter, projectile energy, electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, and plasmon energy. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect enhances the charge capture radius and the charge capture cross section in semiconductor quantum plasmas. It is also found that the charge capture radius and charge capture cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy and, however, decreases with increasing plasmon energy. Additionally, it is found that the peak position of the charge capture cross section is receded from the collision center with an increase of the electron-exchange parameter.

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Employees with access to workplace charging are six times more likely to drive a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) than the average worker. Promoting PEV charging at workplaces is one great way that...

  17. Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaiccells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

    2002-06-21

    Charge transport in composites of inorganic nanorods and aconjugated polymer is investigated using a photovoltaic device structure.We show that the current-voltage (I-V) curves in the dark can be modelledusing the Shockley equation modified to include series and shuntresistance at low current levels, and using an improved model thatincorporates both the Shockley equation and the presence of a spacecharge limited region at high currents. Under illumination, theefficiency of photocurrent generation is found to be dependent on appliedbias. Furthermore, the photocurrent-light intensity dependence was foundto be sublinear. An analysis of the shunt resistance as a function oflight intensity suggests that the photocurrent as well as the fill factoris diminished as a result of increased photoconductivity of the activelayer at high light intensity. By studying the intensity dependence ofthe open circuit voltage for nanocrystals with different diameters andthus ! band gaps, it was inferred that Fermi-level pinning occurs at theinterface between the aluminum electrode and the nanocrystal.

  18. Pion double charge exchange in a composite-meson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kezerashvili, R. Ya.; Boyko, V. S.

    2007-01-15

    The pion double charge exchange amplitude is evaluated in a composite-meson model based on the four-quark interaction. The model assumes that the mesons are two-quark systems and can interact with each other only through quark loops. To evaluate the meson exchange current contribution, the form factors of the two-pion decay modes of the {rho},{sigma}, and f{sub 0} mesons have been used in the calculations. The contribution of the four-quark box diagram has been taken into account as well as a contact diagram. The contributions of the {rho},{sigma}, and f{sub 0} mesons increase the forward scattering cross section, which depends weakly on the energy.

  19. How usage is charged

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    usage is charged How usage is charged MPP Charging (Computational Systems) When a job runs on a NERSC MPP system, such as Hopper, charges accrue against one of the user's repository allocations. The unit of accounting for these charges is the "MPP Hour". A parallel job is charged for exclusive use of each multi-core node allocated to the job. The MPP charge for such a job is calculated as the product of: the job's elapsed wall-clock time in hours the number of nodes allocated to the

  20. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai; Liang, Linagbo

    2016-05-10

    Here, the success of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides, and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that vdW heterostructues can exhibit ultra-fast charge transfer despite the weak binding of the heterostructure. Using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, we identify a strong dynamic coupling between the vdW layers associated with charge transfer. This dynamic coupling results in rapid nonlinear coherentmore » charge oscillations which constitute a purely electronic phenomenon and are shown to be a general feature of vdW heterostructures provided they have a critical minimum dipole coupling. Application to MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiment, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the

  1. Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particles | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Persistent State-of-Charge Heterogeneity in Fully Relaxed Battery Electrode Particles Friday, July 29, 2016 Figure. A transmission x-ray micrograph of an individual secondary particle charged to 30% global SOC at a 100 h rate, showing overcharged (green) domains even at this slow charging rate. Lithium ion batteries are used ubiquitously for portable energy storage in today's modern electronic devices and have served in that capacity for

  2. Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Times Vary Considerably - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably - Dataset Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably fotw#919_web.xlsx (372.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Codes and Standards Support Vehicle Electrification Overview of Vehicle and

  3. Three Arrested and Charged in a Scheme to Defraud Federal Research Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Three Arrested and Charged in a Scheme to Defraud Federal Research Funding Three Arrested and Charged in a Scheme to Defraud Federal Research Funding Three Arrested and Charged in a Scheme to Defraud Federal Research Funding (131.84 KB) More Documents & Publications Proceedings of the Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Workshop, April 19-20, 2011 Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power Funding for Energy

  4. Statistical charge distribution over dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Misra, Shikha, E-mail: shikhamish@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2014-07-15

    On the basis of statistical mechanics and charging kinetics, the charge distribution over uniform size spherical dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma is investigated. Two specific situations, viz., (i) the plasma in thermal equilibrium and (ii) non-equilibrium state where the plasma is dark (no emission) or irradiated by laser light (including photoemission) are taken into account. The formulation includes the population balance equation for the charged particles along with number and energy balance of the complex plasma constituents. The departure of the results for the Lorentzian plasma, from that in case of Maxwellian plasma, is graphically illustrated and discussed; it is shown that the charge distribution tends to results corresponding to Maxwellian plasma for large spectral index. The charge distribution predicts the opposite charging of the dust particles in certain cases.

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Promote Charging at Work Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work Employees with access to workplace charging are six times more likely to drive a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) than the average worker. Promoting PEV charging at workplaces is one great way that states, cities and other organizations can encourage PEV adoption in their communities. Use the material below to engage and educate employers about the

  6. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  7. Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-10-01

    Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

  8. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering.more » The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.« less

  9. Charge density wave transition in single-layer titanium diselenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y. -H.; Fang, X. -Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chou, M. Y.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A. -V.; Chiang, T. -C.

    2015-11-16

    A single molecular layer of titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a promising material for advanced electronics beyond graphene--a strong focus of current research. Such molecular layers are at the quantum limit of device miniaturization and can show enhanced electronic effects not realizable in thick films. We show that single-layer TiSe2 exhibits a charge density wave (CDW) transition at critical temperature TC=232±5 K, which is higher than the bulk TC=200±5 K. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a small absolute bandgap at room temperature, which grows wider with decreasing temperature T below TC in conjunction with the emergence of (2 × 2) ordering. The results are rationalized in terms of first-principles calculations, symmetry breaking and phonon entropy effects. The behavior of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap implies a mean-field CDW order in the single layer and an anisotropic CDW order in the bulk.

  10. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bozovic, Ivan; Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-04

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ≈ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ≈ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,more » Δx ≈ 0.00008. Furthermore, we observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.« less

  11. Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Times Vary Considerably | Department of Energy 9: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably Fact #919: April 4, 2016 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Options and Times Vary Considerably SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week There are currently four basic power levels for charging plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Level 1 charging is the slowest, adding just two to five miles of range per hour but requiring only a standard 120 volt household outlet.

  12. How Loan Guarantees Can Put a Charge in Electric Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy How Loan Guarantees Can Put a Charge in Electric Vehicles How Loan Guarantees Can Put a Charge in Electric Vehicles July 20, 2016 - 2:55pm Addthis How Loan Guarantees Can Put a Charge in Electric Vehicles Mark A. McCall Mark A. McCall Executive Director of the Loan Programs Office What are the key facts? EV charging infrastructure, including associated hardware and software, may be a qualifying technology under the Title XVII Renewable Energy and Efficient Energy (REEE) Projects loan

  13. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Braslia, 70919-970, Braslia-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Braslia, 70919-970, Braslia-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  14. Measuring charge carrier mobility in photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashraf, A.; Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2015-03-16

    We present a charge-extraction technique, micron-scale charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, which enables simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of charge carrier mobility and photocurrent in thin-film photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution. An intensity-modulated laser with beam diameter near the optical diffraction limit is scanned over the device, while a linear voltage ramp in reverse bias is applied at each position of illumination. We calculate the majority carrier mobility, photocurrent, and number of photogenerated charge carriers from the resulting current transient. We demonstrate this technique on an organic photovoltaic device, but it is applicable to a wide range of photovoltaic materials.

  15. CHARGE STATE EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND. II. PLASMA CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION IN THE INNER CORONA AND ACCELERATING FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    In the present work, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution within the fast solar wind. We use the temperature, density, and velocity profiles predicted by Cranmer et al. to calculate the ionization history of the most important heavy elements in the solar corona and solar wind: C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. The evolution of each charge state is calculated from the source region in the lower chromosphere to the final freeze-in point. We show that the solar wind velocity causes the plasma to experience significant departures from equilibrium at very low heights, well inside the field of view (within 0.6 R{sub sun} from the solar limb) of nearly all the available remote-sensing instrumentation, significantly affecting observed spectral line intensities. We also study the evolution of charge state ratios with distance from the source region, and the temperature they indicate if ionization equilibrium is assumed. We find that virtually every charge state from every element freezes in at a different height, so that the definition of freeze-in height is ambiguous. We also find that calculated freeze-in temperatures indicated by charge state ratios from in situ measurements have little relation to the local coronal temperature of the wind source region, and stop evolving much earlier than their correspondent charge state ratio. We discuss the implication of our results on plasma diagnostics of coronal holes from spectroscopic measurements as well as on theoretical solar wind models relying on coronal temperatures.

  16. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wrner, L.; Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energtique des Milieux Ioniss, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orlans, F-45067 Orlans ; Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Coudel, L.; Schwabe, M.; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Skvortsov, A.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2013-12-15

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon free decharging conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between ?10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  17. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  18. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, Brandon M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  19. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  20. Charge density stabilised local electron spin pair states in insulating polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra, S.; Dissado, L. A.

    2014-12-14

    A model is presented that addresses the energy stability of localized electron states in insulating polymers with respect to delocalized free electron-like states at variable charge densities. The model was derived using an effective Hamiltonian for the total energy of electrons trapped in large polarons and spin-paired bipolarons, which includes the electrostatic interaction between charges that occurs when the charge density exceeds the infinite dilution limit. The phase diagram of the various electronic states with respect to the charge density is derived using parameters determined from experimental data for polyethylene, and it is found that a phase transition from excess charge in the form of stable polarons to a stable state of bipolarons with charge = 2 and spin number S = 0 is predicted for a charge density between 0.2 C/m{sup 3} and ∼2 C/m{sup 3}. This transition is consistent with a change from low mobility charge transport to charge transport in the form of pulses with a mobility orders of magnitude higher that has been observed in several insulating polymers.

  1. Workplace Charging Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Educate employers about plug-in electric vehicles and workplace charging using this sample presentation. The presentation covers the basics of PEVs and workplace charging as well as the benefit of...

  2. Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382 428 (India)

    2011-06-15

    The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

  3. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  4. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  5. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  6. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  7. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  8. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Wintenberg, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  9. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Liechty, Michael P.; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Hergart, Carl-Anders

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  10. Charging/discharging behavior and mechanism of silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous silicon carbide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xixing; Zeng, Xiangbin Zheng, Wenjun; Liao, Wugang; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-14

    The charging/discharging behavior of Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC{sub x}) was investigated based on the Al/insulating layer/Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (metal-insulator-quantum dots-oxide-silicon) multilayer structure by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements reveal the microstructure and distribution of Si QDs. The occurrence and shift of conductance peaks indicate the carrier transfer and the charging/discharging behavior of Si QDs. The multilayer structure shows a large memory window of 5.2 eV at ±8 V sweeping voltage. Analysis of the C-V and G-V results allows a quantification of the Coulomb charging energy and the trapped charge density associated with the charging/discharging behavior. It is found that the memory window is related to the size effect, and Si QDs with large size or low Coulomb charging energy can trap two or more electrons by changing the charging voltage. Meanwhile, the estimated lower potential barrier height between Si QD and a-SiC{sub x}, and the lower Coulomb charging energy of Si QDs could enhance the charging and discharging effect of Si QDs and lead to an enlarged memory window. Further studies of the charging/discharging mechanism of Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x} can promote the application of Si QDs in low-power consumption semiconductor memory devices.

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  12. Charge exchange system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  13. Fact #911: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles in the EV Project - Dataset | Department of Energy 1: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project - Dataset Fact #911: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project fotw#911_web_revised.xlsx (16.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electric

  14. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Under OE's Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program, six utilities evaluated operations and customer charging behaviors for in-home and public electric vehicle charging stations. ...

  15. Fact #911: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles in the EV Project | Department of Energy 1: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project Fact #911: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The EV Project conducted by Idaho National Laboratory showed that plug-in vehicle owners with access to workplace charging (WPC) had higher vehicle miles of travel (VMT) than those without. The Chevrolet Volts and Nissan

  16. Carbon charge exchange analysis in the ITER-like wall environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menmuir, S.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Coffey, I. H.; Delabie, E.; Sertoli, M.

    2014-11-15

    Charge exchange spectroscopy has long been a key diagnostic tool for fusion plasmas and is well developed in devices with Carbon Plasma-Facing Components. Operation with the ITER-like wall at JET has resulted in changes to the spectrum in the region of the Carbon charge exchange line at 529.06 nm and demonstrates the need to revise the core charge exchange analysis for this line. An investigation has been made of this spectral region in different plasma conditions and the revised description of the spectral lines to be included in the analysis is presented.

  17. Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alpha Theory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster

  18. Car Charging Group Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Car Charging Group, Inc. Place: Miami Beach, Florida Product: Miami Beach, USA based installer of plug-in vehicle charge equipment. References: Car Charging Group,...

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: OSRAM SYLVANIA | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ChargePoint and SYLVANIA Lighting Services Announce Reseller Agreement for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in United States Campbell, CA and Danvers, MA - ChargePoint, the ...

  20. Inherent Driving Force for Charge Separation in Curved Stacks of Oligothiophenes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Qin

    2015-01-30

    Coexistence of high local charge mobility and an energy gradient can lead to efficient free charge carrier generation from geminate charge transfer states at the donor–acceptor interface in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics. It is, however, not clear what polymer microstructures can support such coexistence. Using recent methods from density functional theory, we propose that a stack of similarly curved oligothiophene chains can deliver the requirements for efficient charge separation. Curved stacks are stable because of the polymer’s strong π-stacking ability and because backbone torsions are flexible in neutral chains. However, energy of a charge in a polymer chain has remarkablymore » stronger dependence on torsions. The trend of increasing planarity in curved stacks effectively creates an energy gradient that drives charge in one direction. The curvature of these partially ordered stacks is found to beneficially interact with fullerenes for charge separation. The curved stacks, therefore, are identified as possible building blocks for interfacial structures that lead to efficient free carrier generation in high-performing organic photovoltaic systems.« less

  1. Inherent Driving Force for Charge Separation in Curved Stacks of Oligothiophenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Qin

    2015-01-30

    Coexistence of high local charge mobility and an energy gradient can lead to efficient free charge carrier generation from geminate charge transfer states at the donor–acceptor interface in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics. It is, however, not clear what polymer microstructures can support such coexistence. Using recent methods from density functional theory, we propose that a stack of similarly curved oligothiophene chains can deliver the requirements for efficient charge separation. Curved stacks are stable because of the polymer’s strong π-stacking ability and because backbone torsions are flexible in neutral chains. However, energy of a charge in a polymer chain has remarkably stronger dependence on torsions. The trend of increasing planarity in curved stacks effectively creates an energy gradient that drives charge in one direction. The curvature of these partially ordered stacks is found to beneficially interact with fullerenes for charge separation. The curved stacks, therefore, are identified as possible building blocks for interfacial structures that lead to efficient free carrier generation in high-performing organic photovoltaic systems.

  2. Mixing and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, E.; Endler, A.; Rizzato, F. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2013-12-15

    The present work revisits the subjects of mixing, saturation, and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers. Use is made of the compressibility factor, which proves to be a helpful tool in the related systems of charged beams confined by static magnetic fields. The compressibility allows to perform analytical estimates of the elapsed time until the onset of mixing, which in turn allows to estimate the saturated amplitude of the radiation field. In addition, the compressibility helps to pinpoint space-charge effects and the corresponding transition from Compton to Raman regimes.

  3. Space charge effects for multipactor in coaxial lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorolla, E.

    2015-03-15

    Multipactor is a hazardous vacuum discharge produced by secondary electron emission within microwave devices of particle accelerators and telecommunication satellites. This work analyzes the dynamics of the multipactor discharge within a coaxial line for the mono-energetic electron emission model taking into account the space charge effects. The steady-state is predicted by the proposed model and an analytical expression for the maximum number of electrons released by the discharge presented. This could help to link simulations to experiments and define a multipactor onset criterion.

  4. Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Varying Alpha Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory In this paper we ...

  5. Charge ordering in stoichiometric FeTe: Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Wei; Yin, Wei -Guo; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi -Kun; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-04

    In this study, we use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to reveal a unique stripy charge order in a parent phase of iron-based superconductors in stoichiometric FeTe epitaxy films. The charge order has unusually the same—usually half—period as the spin order. We also found highly anisotropic electron band dispersions being large and little along the ferromagnetic (crystallographic b) and antiferromagnetic (a) directions, respectively. Our data suggest that the microscopic mechanism is likely of the Stoner type driven by interatomic Coulomb repulsion Vij, and that Vij and charge fluctuations, so far much neglected, are important to the understanding of iron-based superconductors.

  6. [Photoinduced charge separation in solid state and molecular systems]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A critical theme has been to understand the role of intrinsic cyanometalate overlayers in modulating interfacial photoinduced charge transfer processes occurring at the Cd chalconide/aqueous ferri-ferrocyanide interface. Structural and charge transfer studies of [CdFe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 2-/1-} overlayers have been undertaken. It is reiterated that the focus of attention on the Cd ferrocyanide overlayer as a critical element in II-VI semiconductor based photoelectrochemical cells, is correct. A new project on metallization of solid supports, using photodeposition of Pt, has been initiated. A project has also been started in the area of visible light, molecular, charge transfer photochemistry.

  7. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.

    2010-08-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 {mu}m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  8. Charging Your Plug-in Electric Vehicle at Home | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... which compares the power and energy used to charge a PEV with a Level 2 charger (in red) compared to the total power and energy consumed by other household appliances (in gray). ...

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Policy Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their ...

  10. Self-regulation mechanism for charged point defects in hybrid halide perovskites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Walsh, Aron; Scanlon, David O.; Chen, Shiyou; Gong, X. G.; Wei, Su -Huai

    2014-12-11

    Hybrid halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) exhibit unusually low free-carrier concentrations despite being processed at low-temperatures from solution. We demonstrate, through quantum mechanical calculations, that an origin of this phenomenon is a prevalence of ionic over electronic disorder in stoichiometric materials. Schottky defect formation provides a mechanism to self-regulate the concentration of charge carriers through ionic compensation of charged point defects. The equilibrium charged vacancy concentration is predicted to exceed 0.4 % at room temperature. Furthermore, this behavior, which goes against established defect conventions for inorganic semiconductors, has implications for photovoltaic performance.

  11. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-10-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam.

  12. Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the optical properties of CeTesub 3, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the mid-infrared spectral...

  13. Charge-transfer excitations in low-gap systems under the influence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charge transfer excitations play a prominent role in the fields of molecular electronics and light harvesting. At the same time they have developed a reputation for being hard to ...

  14. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  15. Grid-Integrated Fleet & Workplace Charging for Plug-in Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Education * 2 San Diego Regional EV Growth * 11,278 EVs (56% BEV) * 677 public charging stations (199 locations) * 28 DC fast-chargers (10 in progress) * 380 All-electric Car2Go ...

  16. Intrinsic fluctuations of dust grain charge in multi-component plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shotorban, B.

    2014-03-15

    A master equation is formulated to model the states of the grain charge in a general multi-component plasma, where there are electrons and various kinds of positive or negative ions that are singly or multiply charged. A Fokker-Planck equation is developed from the master equation through the system-size expansion method. The Fokker-Planck equation has a Gaussian solution with a mean and variance governed by two initial-value differential equations involving the rates of the attachment of ions and electrons to the dust grain. Also, a Langevin equation and a discrete stochastic method are developed to model the time variation of the grain charge. Grain charging in a plasma containing electrons, protons, and alpha particles with Maxwellian distributions is considered as an example problem. The Gaussian solution is in very good agreement with the master equation solution numerically obtained for this problem.

  17. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Would you be willing to pay a fee for charging? Workplace Charging Challenge How many charging stations does my worksite need? 3 Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging ...

  18. The influence of inlet port design on the in-cylinder charge mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi-Befrui, B.; Brandstatter, W.; Kratochwill, H.; Troger, C.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the influence of intake port design on the in-cylinder flow structure during the intake and compression strokes, the mixing of the residual gas and a non-premixed intake charge, and the extent and pattern of charge inhomogenity near the time of combustion is described. The engine geometry is typical of the current lean-burn design and the study includes comparison of a helical (swirl) port and an idealized direct (no swirl) port designs. The results show marked dependence of the in-cylinder charge mixing characteristics on the intake port design. It is found that combinations of intake port design and manifold fuel injection timing produce favourable-stratified or irregularly-mixed charged distributions at the time of spark ignition. The consequences with respect to combustion characteristics are pointed out.

  19. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  20. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2012-10-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  1. Collisionless damping of dust-acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    The charge variation induced nonlinear dust-acoustic wave damping in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions is considered. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation to be described by a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK-dV) equation the coefficients of which depend sensitively on the nonextensive parameter q. The damping term, solely due to the dust charge variation, is affected by the ion nonextensivity. For the sake of completeness, the possible effects of nonextensivity and collisionless damping on weakly nonlinear wave packets described by the dK-dV equation are succinctly outlined by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger-like equation with a complex nonlinear coefficient.

  2. Researchers Demonstrate Microstructure and Charge Yield in Semiconducting Polymers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Microstructure determines the yield of free charge in neat semiconducting polymers. Understanding the fundamental photophysics of poly(3-hyxylthiophene) films, and that of conjugated polymers in general, is essential if we are to realize their full potential as low-cost active layers for coal-competitive solar power generation. Yet, the value of one of the most basic photophysical parameters of these materials - the yield of free charges upon photoexcitation of neat films - has remained controversial because of a wide variation between previous measurements. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have resolved this controversy by showing that the yield of free charges depends sensitively on the solid-state microstructure of the film. The microstructure was varied systematically through control of the polymers molecular weight and processing conditions, while the charge carrier yield was measured using time-resolved microwave conductivity - a unique technique to which only a few groups in the world have access. The researchers found that the yield of long-lived free charges depends on the co-existence of amorphous and crystalline domains in the polymer, and this behavior was attributed to charge separation at the interface between these two domains of order.

  3. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Ahmed, Z.; Jen, C. -M.; Rakhman, A.; Souder, P. A.; Dalton, M. M.; Liyanage, N.; Paschke, K. D.; Saenboonruang, K.; Silwal, R.; et al

    2012-03-26

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(more » $$\\bar{q}$$), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer $$\\bar{q}$$ = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW($$\\bar{q}$$) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW($$\\bar{q}$$). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness σ of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. As a result, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.« less

  4. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  5. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  6. Atomistic and molecular effects in electric double layers at high surface charges

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan; Mani, Ali

    2015-06-16

    Here, the Poisson–Boltzmann theory for electrolytes near a charged surface is known to be invalid due to unaccounted physics associated with high ion concentration regimes. In order to investigate this regime, fluids density functional theory (f-DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to determine electric surface potential as a function of surface charge. Based on these detailed computations, for electrolytes with nonpolar solvent, the surface potential is shown to depend quadratically on the surface charge in the high charge limit. We demonstrate that modified Poisson–Boltzmann theories can model this limit if they are augmented with atomic packing densities providedmore » by MD. However, when the solvent is a highly polar molecule water an intermediate regime is identified in which a constant capacitance is realized. Simulation results demonstrate the mechanism underlying this regime, and for the salt water system studied here, it persists throughout the range of physically realistic surface charge densities so the potential’s quadratic surface charge dependence is not obtained.« less

  7. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scoffield, Don R; Smart, John; Salisbury, Shawn

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  8. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  9. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of

  10. U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

  11. In-situ imaging of charge carriers in an electrochemical cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald, R. E. II

    1998-01-30

    A toroid cavity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detector capable of quantitatively recording radial concentration profiles, diffusion constants, displacements of charge carriers, and radial profiles of spin-lattice relaxation time constants was employed to investigate the charge/discharge cycle of a solid-state electrochemical cell. One-dimensional radial concentration profiles (1D-images) of ions solvated in a polyethylene oxide matrix were recorded by {sup 19}F and {sup 7}Li NMR for several cells. A sequence of {sup 19}F NMR images, recorded at different stages of cell polarization, revealed the evolution of a region of the polymer depleted of charge carriers. From these images it is possible to extract the transference number for the Li{sup +} ion. Spatially localized diffusion coefficients and spin-lattice relaxation time constants can be measured simultaneously for the ions in the polymer electrolyte by a spin-labeling method that employs the radial B{sub 1}-field gradient of the toroid cavity. A spatial resolution of 7 {micro}m near the working electrode was achieved with a gradient strength of 800 gauss/cm. With this apparatus, it is also possible to investigate novel intercalation anode materials for lithium ion storage. These materials are coated onto the working electrode in a thin film. The penetration depth of lithium cations in these films can be imaged at different times in the charge/discharge cycle of the battery.

  12. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  13. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S.; Schiff, E.A.

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  14. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.

    2015-07-06

    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163.

  15. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (CHARGE CUPS)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.W.

    1959-04-21

    The problems of confining a charge material in a calutron and uniformly distributing heat to the charge is described. The charge is held in a cup of thermally conductive material removably disposed within the charge chamber of the ion source block. A central thermally conducting stem is incorporated within the cup for conducting heat to the central portion of the charge contained within the cup.

  16. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and type IIB supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2009-12-15

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the supersymmetry algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations are compatible with the construction of an SL(2,R) covariant kinetic term in the 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole worldvolume action.

  17. Characterization and correction of charge-induced pixel shifts in DECam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Jarvis, M.; Rowe, B.; Vikram, V.; Plazas, A. A.; Seitz, S.

    2015-05-28

    Interaction of charges in CCDs with the already accumulated charge distribution causes both a flux dependence of the point-spread function (an increase of observed size with flux, also known as the brighter/fatter effect) and pixel-to-pixel correlations of the Poissonian noise in flat fields. We describe these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) with charge dependent shifts of effective pixel borders, i.e. the Antilogus et al. (2014) model, which we fit to measurements of flat-field Poissonian noise correlations. The latter fall off approximately as a power-law r-2.5 with pixel separation r, are isotropic except for an asymmetry in the directmore » neighbors along rows and columns, are stable in time, and are weakly dependent on wavelength. They show variations from chip to chip at the 20% level that correlate with the silicon resistivity. The charge shifts predicted by the model cause biased shape measurements, primarily due to their effect on bright stars, at levels exceeding weak lensing science requirements. We measure the flux dependence of star images and show that the effect can be mitigated by applying the reverse charge shifts at the pixel level during image processing. Differences in stellar size, however, remain significant due to residuals at larger distance from the centroid.« less

  18. Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

  19. Fractional charge and spin errors in self-consistent Greens function theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jordan J. Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika

    2015-05-21

    We examine fractional charge and spin errors in self-consistent Greens function theory within a second-order approximation (GF2). For GF2, it is known that the summation of diagrams resulting from the self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation removes the divergences pathological to second-order Mller-Plesset (MP2) theory for strong correlations. In the language often used in density functional theory contexts, this means GF2 has a greatly reduced fractional spin error relative to MP2. The natural question then is what effect, if any, does the Dyson summation have on the fractional charge error in GF2? To this end, we generalize our previous implementation of GF2 to open-shell systems and analyze its fractional spin and charge errors. We find that like MP2, GF2 possesses only a very small fractional charge error, and consequently minimal many electron self-interaction error. This shows that GF2 improves on the critical failings of MP2, but without altering the positive features that make it desirable. Furthermore, we find that GF2 has both less fractional charge and fractional spin errors than typical hybrid density functionals as well as random phase approximation with exchange.

  20. Imaging space charge regions in Sm-doped ceria using electrochemical strain microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Adler, Stuart B.

    2014-11-17

    Nanocrystalline ceria exhibits a total conductivity several orders of magnitude higher than microcrystalline ceria in air at high temperature. The most widely accepted theory for this enhancement (based on fitting of conductivity data to various transport and kinetic models) is that relatively immobile positively charged defects and/or impurities accumulate at the grain boundary core, leading to a counterbalancing increase in the number of mobile electrons (small polarons) within a diffuse space charge region adjacent to each grain boundary. In an effort to validate this model, we have applied electrochemical strain microscopy to image the location and relative population of mobile electrons near grain boundaries in polycrystalline Sm-doped ceria in air at 20200?C. Our results show the first direct (spatially resolved) evidence that such a diffuse space charge region does exist in ceria, and is localized to both grain boundaries and the gas-exposed surface.

  1. Energy Saver Tax Tips: Get Money Back for Buying, Charging Plug-in Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles | Department of Energy Tax Tips: Get Money Back for Buying, Charging Plug-in Electric Vehicles Energy Saver Tax Tips: Get Money Back for Buying, Charging Plug-in Electric Vehicles March 21, 2016 - 4:58pm Addthis All-electric and plug-in hybrid cars purchased in 2015 may be eligible for federal and state income tax credits. Photo by Dennis Schroeder/NREL All-electric and plug-in hybrid cars purchased in 2015 may be eligible for federal and state income tax credits. Photo by Dennis

  2. Evaluating charge noise acting on semiconductor quantum dots in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.

    2014-08-11

    We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.510{sup ?5}?e/?(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.610{sup ?6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1?Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.

  3. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V.

    2011-06-15

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV ...

  5. Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe We report results of low-temperature thermodynamic and transport measurements of Pb{sub 1-x}Tl{sub x}Te single crystals for Tl concentrations up to the solubility limit of approximately x = 1.5%. For all doped samples, we observe a low-temperature resistivity upturn that scales in magnitude

  6. Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles Clean Cities Coalitions Charge Up Plug-In Electric Vehicles May 9, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis Workers put the finishing touches on installing a plug-in electric vehicle charger that is part of the West Coast Electric Highway. | Photo courtesy of Columbia-Willamette Clean Cities Coalition. Workers put the finishing touches on installing a plug-in electric vehicle charger that is part of the West Coast Electric Highway. | Photo courtesy of

  7. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving thismore » purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.« less

  8. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving this purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  9. Slowly moving test charge in two-electron component non-Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.; Eliasson, B.

    2015-08-15

    Potential distributions around a slowly moving test charge are calculated by taking into account the electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma. Considering a neutralizing background of static positive ions, the supra-thermal hot and cold electrons are described by the Vlasov equations to account for the Kappa (power-law in velocity space) and Maxwell equilibrium distributions. Fourier analysis further leads to the derivation of electrostatic potential showing the impact of supra-thermal hot electrons. The test charge moves slowly in comparison with the hot and cold electron thermal speeds and is therefore shielded by the electrons. This gives rise to a short-range Debye-Hückel potential decaying exponentially with distance and to a far field potential decaying as inverse third power of the distance from the test charge. The results are relevant for both laboratory and space plasmas, where supra-thermal hot electrons with power-law distributions have been observed.

  10. Scattering in graphene associated with charged out-of-plane impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yue Goswami, Aditi; Liu, Feilong; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2014-12-21

    A charged impurity outside the plane of a graphene layer contributes to scattering of electrons (and holes) in the graphene. The interaction occurs through two distinct mechanisms associated with the charge: (1) the (screened) Coulomb potential, and (2) the electric field perpendicular to the graphene plane that causes a spatially varying Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Both types of scattering are examined, with the screened potential self-consistently calculated in nonlinear Thomas-Fermi approximation. Different selection rules for the two mechanisms lead to qualitative differences in the differential scattering cross-sections. Using accepted parameters for the Rashba interaction, the latter is found to make only a very small contribution to the scattering associated with a remote charge.

  11. Process and apparatus for changing the energy of charged particles contained in a gaseous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenn, J. B.; Whitehouse, C.; Yamashita, M.

    1985-09-17

    A method of changing the energy of charged particles contained in a gas comprises allowing the gas to flow into a region of reduced pressure through a tube like member so that viscous forces exerted on the charged particles by the flowing gas molecules determine the kinetic energy of the charged particles. A potential gradient is maintained along the length of the tube so that the potential energy of the charged particles is changed as they pass through the tube. At the end of the tube a free jet expansion occurs so that the kinetic energy of the charged particles is no longer determined by the flowing gas, so that they can be accelerated to any desired kinetic energy by means of another potential gradient. The invention can be used to interface any high pressure ion source to a magnetic sector mass spectrometer, or to permit the operation of an electrospray ion source with an earthed inlet capillary with either a quadrupole or a magnetic sector mass spectrometer.

  12. Charge transport and memristive properties of graphene quantum dots embedded in poly(3-hexylthiophene) matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cosmin Obreja, Alexandru; Cristea, Dana; Radoi, Antonio; Gavrila, Raluca; Comanescu, Florin; Kusko, Cristian; Mihalache, Iuliana

    2014-08-25

    We show that graphene quantum dots (GQD) embedded in a semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymeric matrix act as charge trapping nanomaterials. In plane current-voltage (I-V) measurements of thin films realized from this nanocomposite deposited on gold interdigitated electrodes revealed that the GQD enhanced dramatically the hole transport. I-V characteristics exhibited a strong nonlinear behavior and a pinched hysteresis loop, a signature of a memristive response. The transport properties of this nanocomposite were explained in terms of a trap controlled space charge limited current mechanism.

  13. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulliford, Colwyn Bartnik, Adam Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-03-02

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9–9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  14. PHOTOELECTRIC CHARGING OF DUST GRAINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, Andreas; Gomez de Castro, Ana I.

    2011-10-20

    The evolution of disks around young stellar objects (YSOs) is deeply affected by the YSOs' ultraviolet (UV) radiation field especially in the 500-1100 A spectral range. The two dominant processes are: the photodissociation of H{sub 2} molecules in the Werner and Lyman bands, and the emission of photoelectrons from dust grains when high energy photons are absorbed. Photoelectrons are an important source of gas heating. In this paper, dust grain charging when exposed to various possible UV fields in the YSOs' environment is investigated. Numerical simulations of the evolution of photoelectrons in the electric field created by the charged dust grains are carried out to obtain the charging profile of dust grains. From the simulations it appears that the different spectra produce significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the charging processes. Both the UV background and the Ae-Herbig star radiation field produce a relatively slow charging of dust grains due to the low fraction of sufficiently energetic photons. The radiation field of T Tauri stars (TTSs) is harder due to the release of magnetic energy in the dense magnetospheric environment. These numerical results have been used to propose a new simple analytical model for grain charging in the atmosphere of protostellar disks around TTSs susceptible to be used in any disk modeling. It has been found that the yield decreases exponentially with the dust charge and that two populations of photoelectrons are produced: a low energy population with mean kinetic energy E = 2.5 eV and a high energy population with E = 5.5-6 eV; the energy dispersion within the populations is {approx}1.3 eV (T {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 4} K). The high energy population is susceptible of dissociating the H{sub 2} and ionizing some low ionization potential species, such as the Mg. These results add an additional role to dust on the chemistry of the layers just below the H{sub 2} photoionization front. This photoelectic yield has been

  15. Dust-acoustic shock waves in a charge varying electronegative magnetized dusty plasma with suprathermal electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Bacha, Mustapha

    2012-12-15

    The combined effects of an oblique magnetic field and electron suprathermality on weak dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a charge varying electronegative dusty plasmas with application to the Halley Comet are investigated. The correct suprathermal electron charging current is derived based on the orbit-motion limited approach. A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to derive a Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation. The electron suprathermality, the obliqueness, and magnitude of the magnetic field are found to modify the dispersive properties of the DA shock structure. Our results may aid to explain and interpret the nonlinear oscillations that may occur in the Halley Comet plasma.

  16. EV Everywhere: America's Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market Charges Forward

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy America's Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market Charges Forward EV Everywhere: America's Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market Charges Forward January 22, 2014 - 6:35pm Addthis Hyundai Fuel Cell 1 of 14 Hyundai Fuel Cell Pictured here is Secretary Moniz looking at the fuel cell and motor used to power Hyundai's Tucson fuel cell vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles use hydrogen to produce electricity, which powers an electric motor to make the vehicle and its accessories work. Image: Sarah

  17. Wireless Electric Charging: The Future of Plug-In Electric Vehicles is

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Going Cordless | Department of Energy Wireless Electric Charging: The Future of Plug-In Electric Vehicles is Going Cordless Wireless Electric Charging: The Future of Plug-In Electric Vehicles is Going Cordless March 7, 2016 - 3:50pm Addthis Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory test a wireless charger on the fully-electric Toyota Scion iQ at a demonstration site. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory test a wireless charger

  18. Observation of high iron charge states at low energies in solar energetic particle events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Z.; Mbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Connell, J. J.; Popecki, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Mason, G. M.

    2014-04-10

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states (Q {sub Fe}) ? 10-14 at low energies E ? 0.1 MeV nuc{sup 1}, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of (Q {sub Fe}) up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc{sup 1} in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q {sub Fe} > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14 for low energy SEPs. Here we report results from a survey of all 89 SEP events observed with Advanced Composition Explorer Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA) in 1998-2000 for iron charge states augmented at low energy with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory CELIAS suprathermal time-of-flight (STOF). Nine SEP events with (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures ?2 MK up to ?4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.

  19. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, ystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  20. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  1. Control Of Screening Of A Charged Particle In Electrolytic Aqueous Paul Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag S.

    2011-06-01

    Individual charged particles could be trapped and confined by the combined radio-frequency and DC quadrupole electric field of an aqueous Paul trap. Viscosity of water improves confinement and extends the range of the trap parameters which characterize the stability of the trap. Electrolyte, if present in aqueous solution, may screen the charged particle and thus partially or fully suppress electrophoretic interaction with the applied filed, possibly reducing it to a generally much weaker dielectrophoretic interaction with an induced dipole. Applying molecular dynamics simulation we show that the quadrupole field has a different effect at the electrolyte ions and at much heavier charged particle, effectively eliminating the screening by electrolyte ions and reinstating the electrophoretic confinement.

  2. Charge carrier transport and separation in pristine and nitrogen-doped graphene nanowiggle heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lherbier, Aurélien; Liang, Liangbo; Charlier, Jean -Christophe; Meunier, Vincent

    2015-09-03

    Electronic structure methods are combined into a multiscale framework to investigate the electronic transport properties of recently synthesized pristine and nitrogen-doped graphene nanowiggles and their heterojunctions deposited on a substrate. The real-space Kubo-Greenwood transport calculations reveal that charge carrier mobilities reach values up to 1,000 cm2 V–1 s–1 as long as the amount of substrate impurities is sufficiently low. Owing to their type-II band alignment, atomically precise heterostructures between pristine and N-doped graphene nanowiggles are predicted to be excellent candidates for charge carrier separation devices with potential in photoelectric and photocatalytic water splitting applications.

  3. Long-lived charge carrier generation in ordered films of a covalent perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnett, Patrick E.; Dyar, Scott M.; Margulies, Eric A.; Shoer, Leah E.; Cook, Andrew W.; Eaton, Samuel W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2015-07-31

    The photophysics of a covalently linked perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide acceptor–donor–acceptor molecule (PDI–DPP–PDI, 1) were investigated and found to be markedly different in solution versus in unannealed and solvent annealed films. Photoexcitation of 1 in toluene results in quantitative charge separation in τ = 3.1 ± 0.2 ps, with charge recombination in τ = 340 ± 10 ps, while in unannealed/disordered films of 1, charge separation occurs in τ < 250 fs, while charge recombination displays a multiexponential decay in ~6 ns. The absence of long-lived, charge separation in the disordered film suggests that few free charge carriers are generated. In contrast, upon CH₂Cl₂ vapor annealing films of 1, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that the molecules form a more ordered structure. Photoexcitation of the ordered films results in initial formation of a spin-correlated radical ion pair (electron–hole pair) as indicated by magnetic field effects on the formation of free charge carriers which live for ~4 μs. This result has significant implications for the design of organic solar cells based on covalent donor–acceptor systems and shows that long-lived, charge-separated states can be achieved by controlling intramolecular charge separation dynamics in well-ordered systems.

  4. Long-lived charge carrier generation in ordered films of a covalent perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide molecule

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartnett, Patrick E.; Dyar, Scott M.; Margulies, Eric A.; Shoer, Leah E.; Cook, Andrew W.; Eaton, Samuel W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2015-07-31

    The photophysics of a covalently linked perylenediimide–diketopyrrolopyrrole–perylenediimide acceptor–donor–acceptor molecule (PDI–DPP–PDI, 1) were investigated and found to be markedly different in solution versus in unannealed and solvent annealed films. Photoexcitation of 1 in toluene results in quantitative charge separation in τ = 3.1 ± 0.2 ps, with charge recombination in τ = 340 ± 10 ps, while in unannealed/disordered films of 1, charge separation occurs in τ < 250 fs, while charge recombination displays a multiexponential decay in ~6 ns. The absence of long-lived, charge separation in the disordered film suggests that few free charge carriers are generated. In contrast, uponmore » CH₂Cl₂ vapor annealing films of 1, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that the molecules form a more ordered structure. Photoexcitation of the ordered films results in initial formation of a spin-correlated radical ion pair (electron–hole pair) as indicated by magnetic field effects on the formation of free charge carriers which live for ~4 μs. This result has significant implications for the design of organic solar cells based on covalent donor–acceptor systems and shows that long-lived, charge-separated states can be achieved by controlling intramolecular charge separation dynamics in well-ordered systems.« less

  5. Effect of hydrogen passivation on charge storage in silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Chang-Hee; Kim, Baek-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Seong-Ju; Park, Nae-Man; Sung, Gun-Yong

    2005-04-04

    The effect of hydrogen passivation on the charge storage characteristics of two types of silicon nitride films containing silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) grown by SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma was investigated. The transmission electron microscope analysis and the capacitance-voltage measurement showed that the silicon nitride film grown by SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma has a lower interface trap density and a higher density of Si QDs compared to that grown by SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} plasma. It was also found that the charge retention characteristics in the Si QDs were greatly enhanced in the samples grown by means of SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma, due to the hydrogen passivation of the defects in the silicon nitride films by NH{sub 3} during the growth of the Si QDs.

  6. Communication: Modeling of concentration dependent water diffusivity in ionic solutions: Role of intermolecular charge transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Yi; Berkowitz, Max L. E-mail: ykanai@unc.edu; Kanai, Yosuke E-mail: ykanai@unc.edu

    2015-12-28

    The translational diffusivity of water in solutions of alkali halide salts depends on the identity of ions, exhibiting dramatically different behavior even in solutions of similar salts of NaCl and KCl. The water diffusion coefficient decreases as the salt concentration increases in NaCl. Yet, in KCl solution, it slightly increases and remains above bulk value as salt concentration increases. Previous classical molecular dynamics simulations have failed to describe this important behavior even when polarizable models were used. Here, we show that inclusion of dynamical charge transfer among water molecules produces results in a quantitative agreement with experiments. Our results indicate that the concentration-dependent diffusivity reflects the importance of many-body effects among the water molecules in aqueous ionic solutions. Comparison with quantum mechanical calculations shows that a heterogeneous and extended distribution of charges on water molecules around the ions due to ion-water and also water-water charge transfer plays a very important role in controlling water diffusivity. Explicit inclusion of the charge transfer allows us to model accurately the difference in the concentration-dependent water diffusivity between Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions in simulations, and it is likely to impact modeling of a wide range of systems for medical and technological applications.

  7. Formation of H/sup -/ by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Morgan, T.J.

    1983-10-01

    Progress on the study of H/sup -/ formation by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors is reported. The H/sup -/ equilibrium yield in strontium vapor reaches a maximum of 50% at an energy of 250 eV/amu, which is the highest H/sup -/ yield reported to date.

  8. 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How did the Climate and Energy Project (CEP), a small environmental organization that has received Recovery Act funding, achieve $2.3 million in savings annually for Kansans? Learn more about the Take Charge Challenge, a 9-month competition in which residents across 16 communities competed against each other to save the most energy and money.

  9. Heavy ion beam induced charge transfer in Ar-Cs mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murnick, D.E.; Gernhauser, R.; Ulrich, A.; Krotz, W.; Wieser, J.

    1993-12-01

    In situ production of target ions in cold, dense matter by heavy ion collisions and subsequent selective charge transfer may provide an effective pumping scheme for heavy ion beam pumped lasers. Charge transfer from cesium atoms to doubly charged argon ions was used for selective population of 4d-levels in Ar II. The argon ions were produced in an argon-cesium gas target by a pulsed beam of 100 MeV {sup 32}S{sup 8+} ions from the Munich Tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The ion beam of 12 {times} 10{sup 6} ions/pulse had a pulse width of 2 ns and a repetition rate of 32 kHz. The argon pressure was typically 250 mbar. The cesium partial pressure was adjusted by heating the gas target, including a cesium reservoir, to temperatures between 250 and 500{degrees}C. Time resolved wavelength spectra showed large intensity increases corresponding to 4d {sup 4}D and 4d {sup 4}F to 4p transitions in Ar II in the ultraviolet wavelength region between 300 and 400 nm. This is interpreted as a resonant charge transfer of outer electrons of cesium to 4d levels in Ar II in Cs{sup 0} + Ar{sup 2+} collisions.

  10. Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These measurements were performed independently both in Ume University, Sweden, and in Groningen University, Netherlands, and gave very similar values of mobility, with values as ...

  11. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    signatures of many-body interactions in graphene and have demonstrated the potential of graphene for novel applications in optoelectronics. Infrared View of Graphene Graphene's...

  12. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of electronic devices. However, the experimental study of graphene is still in its infancy. Little is known about the dynamical properties of the quasiparticles in graphene,...

  13. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high...

  14. Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean Cities Coordinators across the country highlight the benefits of plug-in hybrids and help collect valuable usage data as part of a demonstration project for the upcoming plug-in hybrid model of the Toyota Prius.

  15. Competing charge, spin, and superconducting orders in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOI: 10.1103PhysRevB.90.054514 Select the DOI to obtain a copy of this journal article from the publisher. Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat Search ...

  16. Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  17. Charge Fluctuations and the Valence Transition in Yb under Pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transition in Yb under Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2009-04-21 OSTI Identifier: 964066 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-412441 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  18. Intrinsic space charge layers and field enhancement in ferroelectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conducting characteristics of topological defects in ferroelectric materials, such as ... and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania ...

  19. Space charge field in a FEL with axially symmetric electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, I.A.; Belyavskiy, E.D.

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear two-dimensional theory of the space charge of an axially symmetric electron beam propagating in combined right-hand polarized wiggler and uniform axial guide fields in a presence of high-frequency electromagnetic wave is presented. The well-known TE{sub 01} mode in a cylindrical waveguide for the model of radiation fields and paraxial approximation for the wiggler field are used. Space charge field components are written in the Lagrange coordinates by the twice averaged Green`s functions of two equally charged infinitely thin discs. For that {open_quotes}compensating charges{close_quotes} method is applied in which an electron ring model is substituted by one with two different radii and signs discs. On this approach the initial Green`s functions peculiarities are eliminated and all calculations are considerably simplified. Coefficients of a twice averaged Green`s function expansion into a Fourier series are obtained by use of corresponding expansion coefficients of longitudinal Green`s functions of equal radii discs and identical rings known from the one-dimensional theory of super HF devices taking into account electron bunches periodicity. This approach permit the space charge field components for an arbitrary stratified stream to be expressed in a simple and strict enough form. The expressions obtained can be employed in a nonlinear two-dimensional FEL theory in order to investigate beam dynamical defocusing and electrons failing on the waveguide walls in the high gain regime. This is especially important for FEL operation in mm and submm.

  20. Mass and charge overlaps in beamline implantation into compound semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Current, M. I.; Eddy, R.; Hudak, C.; Serfass, J.; Mount, G.

    2012-11-06

    Mass overlaps occurring as a result of extraction of ions from an arc discharge and gas collisions, producing molecular break up and charge exchange in the accelerator beamline, are examined for ion implantation into compound semiconductors. The effects of the choice of plasma gas elements for Be{sup +} implants are examined as an example.

  1. Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, J.S. ); Wangler, T.P.; Mills, R.S. ); Crandall, K.R. )

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and an outer halo. The halo is very prominent in mismatched beams, and the potential for accelerator activation is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied for intense neutron generators to process nuclear materials. We present new results about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams from multiparticle simulation of initial laminar beams in a uniform linear focusing channel, and from a model consisting of single particle interactions with a uniform-density beam core. We study the energy gain from particle interactions with the space-charge field of the core, and we identify the resonant characteristic of this interaction as the basic cause of the separation of the beam into the two components. We identify three different particle-trajectory types, and we suggest that one of these types may lead to continuous halo growth, even after the halo is removed by collimators.

  2. Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connell, J.S.; Wangler, T.P.; Mills, R.S.; Crandall, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and an outer halo. The halo is very prominent in mismatched beams, and the potential for accelerator activation is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied for intense neutron generators to process nuclear materials. We present new results about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams from multiparticle simulation of initial laminar beams in a uniform linear focusing channel, and from a model consisting of single particle interactions with a uniform-density beam core. We study the energy gain from particle interactions with the space-charge field of the core, and we identify the resonant characteristic of this interaction as the basic cause of the separation of the beam into the two components. We identify three different particle-trajectory types, and we suggest that one of these types may lead to continuous halo growth, even after the halo is removed by collimators.

  3. Evaluation of coal liquids in a single cylinder direct-injection, stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, R.J.; Freeman, L.E.; Harrington, J.A.; Chui, G.K.; Tallent, W.D.

    1981-10-01

    Indicated specific energy consumption and exhaust emissions were measured for three coal-derived liquids in a direct injection, stratified-charge (PROCO) engine. The three fuels were obtained from different coal refining processes. One of the fuels met current gasoline specifications while the other two had volatilities somewhat below the specification and were more typical of some current gasoline blending components. 6 refs.

  4. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 510{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  5. Interacting-boson-approximation study on the nuclear structural factor in double-charge-exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H.; Wang, R.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, E. , P.O. Box 8730, Beijing Physics Department, Suzhou University, Suzhou Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing )

    1992-04-01

    The double-charge-exchange (DCX) reaction with Ca isotopes as targets is studied by employing the interacting-boson approximation (IBA). A comparison between the IBA and the shell-model results shows that IBA is a good approximation of the shell model in describing the DCX reactions.

  6. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  7. Intrinsic space charge layers and field enhancement in ferroelectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The conducting characteristics of topological defects in the ferroelectric materials, such ... Inst. of Physics (ISP) Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. ...

  8. Universal Charge Order in the High-Tc Superconductors | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    such as heavy-fermion materials and copper-oxide based superconductors, by the use ... (BCS) theory of superconductivity are obtained in some copper-oxide (cuprate) materials. ...

  9. Spatially separated charge densities of electrons and holes in organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dan; Liang, Chunjun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huimin; You, Fangtian; He, Zhiqun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Chunxiu

    2015-02-21

    Solution-processable methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites exhibit remarkable high-absorption and low-loss properties for solar energy conversion. Calculation from density functional theory indicates the presence of non-equivalent halogen atoms in the unit cell because of the specific orientation of the organic cation. Considering the ?100? orientation as an example, I{sub 1}, one of the halogen atoms, differs from the other iodine atoms (I{sub 2} and I{sub 3}) in terms of its interaction with the organic cation. The valance-band-maximum (VBM) and conduction-band-minimum (CBM) states are derived mainly from 5p orbital of I{sub 1} atom and 6p orbital of Pb atom, respectively. The spatially separated charge densities of the electrons and holes justify the low recombination rate of the pure iodide perovskite. Chlorine substitution further strengthens the unique position of the I{sub 1} atom, leading to more localized charge density around the I{sub 1} atom and less charge density around the other atoms at the VBM state. The less overlap of charge densities between the VBM and CBM states explains the relatively lower carrier recombination rate of the iodine-chlorine mixed perovskite. Chlorine substitution significantly reduces the effective mass at a direction perpendicular to the Pb-Cl bond and organic axis, enhancing the carrier transport property of the mixed perovskite in this direction.

  10. Electrode configuration and signal subtraction technique for single polarity charge carrier sensing in ionization detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, P.

    1996-06-25

    An ionization detector electrode and signal subtraction apparatus and method provide at least one first conductive trace formed onto the first surface of an ionization detector. The first surface opposes a second surface of the ionization detector. At least one second conductive trace is also formed on the first surface of the ionization detector in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern with the at least one first conductive trace. Both of the traces are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. By forming the traces in a substantially interlaced and symmetric pattern, signals generated by a charge carrier are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the traces. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carrier moves to within close proximity of the traces and is received at the collecting trace. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge and to determine the position at which the charge carrier originated within the ionization detector. 9 figs.

  11. NUT-charged black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2005-12-15

    We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Taub-bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and obtain the general form of these solutions in d dimensions. We find that for all nonextremal NUT solutions of Einstein gravity having no curvature singularity at r=N, there exist NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that contain these solutions in the limit that the Gauss-Bonnet parameter {alpha} goes to zero. Furthermore there are no NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that yield nonextremal NUT solutions to Einstein gravity having a curvature singularity at r=N in the limit {alpha}{yields}0. Indeed, we have nonextreme NUT solutions in 2+2k dimensions with nontrivial fibration only when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. We also find that the Gauss-Bonnet gravity has extremal NUT solutions whenever the base space is a product of 2-torii with at most a two-dimensional factor space of positive curvature. Indeed, when the base space has at most one positively curved two-dimensional space as one of its factor spaces, then Gauss-Bonnet gravity admits extreme NUT solutions, even though there a curvature singularity exists at r=N. We also find that one can have bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with any base space with factor spaces of zero or positive constant curvature. The only case for which one does not have bolt solutions is in the absence of a cosmological term with zero curvature base space.

  12. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... But in a system of two-dimensional Dirac quasiparticles, the Fermi energy varies as the square root of the carrier density. Indeed, the researchers observed the latter intriguing ...

  13. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The SSPP method has been used to directly observe carrier diffusion in Si nanowires and ... Since 2009 he has served as Deputy Director of the UNC Energy Frontier Research Center. ...

  14. Dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconducto...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For 4 nm thick nanosheets nearly all excess energy above the threshold is converted into additional electron-hole pairs.6 First results on carrier multiplication in two-dimensional ...

  15. Longitudinal Resistive Charge Division in Multi-Channel Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silicon Strip Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2012-05-03 OSTI Identifier: 1039534 Report Number(s): SLAC-REPRINT-2012-075 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  16. Relativistic calculations of isotope shifts in highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupitsyn, I.I.; Shabaev, V.M.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Soria Orts, R.; Ullrich, J.; Draganic, I.

    2003-08-01

    The isotope shifts of forbidden transitions in Be- and B-like argon ions are calculated. It is shown that only using the relativistic recoil operator can provide a proper evaluation of the mass isotope shift, which strongly dominates over the field isotope shift for the ions under consideration. Comparing the isotope shifts calculated with the current experimental uncertainties indicates very good perspectives for a first test of the relativistic theory of the recoil effect in middle-Z ions.

  17. Charge Transport in Thin Film Ionomers | Argonne Leadership Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characters Characters Meet the characters of the game! Meet the characters of the game! Dr Raoul Fernandez's profile Helena Edison's profile Jerome Zabel's profile Nancy Sanders' profile Roc Bridges' profile Facility

    Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membrane/catalyst interface Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membrane/catalyst interface that forms interfaces with both the electrode and air (bottom

  18. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  19. Charging and Heating Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Nonthermal Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2014-08-15

    The focus of this award was to understand the interactions of nanometer-sized particles with ionized gases, also called plasmas. Plasmas are widely used in the fabrication of electronic circuits such as microprocessors and memory devices, in plasma display panels, as well as in medical applications. Recently, these ionized gases are finding applications in the synthesis of advanced nanomaterials with novel properties, which are based on nanometer-sized particulate (nanoparticles) building blocks. As these nanoparticles grow in the plasma environment, they interact with the plasmas species such as electrons and ions which critically determines the nanoparticle properties. The University of Minnesota researchers conducting this project performed numerical simulations and developed analytical models that described the interaction of plasma-bound nanoparticles with the plasma ions. The plasma ions bombard the nanoparticle surface with substantial energy, which can result in the rearrangement of the nanoparticles’ atoms, giving them often desirable structures at the atomic scale. Being able to tune the ion energies allows to control the properties of nanoparticles produced in order to tailor their attributes for certain applications. For instance, when used in high efficiency light emitting devices, nanoparticles produced under high fluxes of highly energetic ions may show superior light emission to particles produced under low fluxes of less energetic ions. The analytical models developed by the University of Minnesota researchers enable the research community to easily determine the energy of ions bombarding the nanoparticles. The researchers extensively tested the validity of the analytical models by comparing them to sophisticated computer simulations based on stochastic particle modeling, also called Monte Carlo modeling, which simulated the motion of hundreds of thousands of ions and their interaction with the nanoparticle surfaces. Beyond the scientific

  20. Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-OPEC oil production set to decline for the first time since 2008 Total oil production from countries outside of OPEC, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, is expected to decline next year for the first time since 2008. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects non- OPEC oil production to grow by 1.1 million barrels per day this year....and then decline by 300,000 barrels per day next year. As a result, the rate of growth in

  1. Study of the impurity composition and effective plasma charge in the GOL-3 facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokina, N. V. Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Shoshin, A. A.

    2015-07-15

    Heating and confinement of plasma in a multimirror magnetic configuration have been studied at the GOL-3 facility (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk). The experiments are aimed at estimating the densities and charge states of the main impurities in the GOL-3 plasma and determining their contribution to the effective plasma charge. Plasma with a density of ∼10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} was heated by a relativistic electron beam (1 MeV, 8 μs, ⩽200 kJ). At the end of electron beam injection, the plasma temperature reached 1 keV. The densities of impurities were determined using VUV and visible spectroscopy, as well as mass spectrometry of the residual vacuum. To determine the effective plasma charge, the experimental data were compared with the results of numerical simulations of the ionization balance of impurities. It is shown that the effective plasma charge calculated with allowance for the contributions from the main impurities does not exceed Z{sub eff} = 1.8, which cannot explain the experimentally observed improved confinement of low-density plasma.

  2. An analytic expression for the sheath criterion in magnetized plasmas with multi-charged ion species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, M. M.

    2015-04-15

    The generalized Bohm criterion in magnetized multi-component plasmas consisting of multi-charged positive and negative ion species and electrons is analytically investigated by using the hydrodynamic model. It is assumed that the electrons and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with different temperatures and the positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely. Our results show that the positive and negative ion temperatures, the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the charge number of positive and negative ions strongly affect the Bohm criterion in these multi-component plasmas. To determine the validity of our derived generalized Bohm criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition and it is shown that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when entrance velocity of ion into the sheath satisfies the obtained Bohm criterion. Also, as a practical application of the obtained Bohm criterion, effects of the ionic temperature and concentration as well as magnetic field on the behavior of the charged particle density distributions and so the sheath thickness of a magnetized plasma consisting of electrons and singly charged positive and negative ion species are studied numerically.

  3. Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

    2014-08-26

    A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

  4. Measurement of Nuclear Dependence in Inclusive Charged Current Neutrino Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tice, Brian George

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino experiments use heavy nuclei (C, Fe, Pb) to achieve necessary statistics. However, the use of heavy nuclei exposes these experiments to the nuclear dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, which are poorly known and difficult to model. This dissertation presents an analysis of the nuclear dependence of inclusive chargedcurrent neutrino scattering using events in carbon, iron, lead, and scintillator targets of the MINERvA detector. MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment for -A) is a few-GeV neutrinonucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab.

  5. Dust acoustic solitons in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzekka, Moufida; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2013-08-15

    Dust acoustic (DA) solitons are addressed in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity. A physically meaningful nonthermal nonextensive ion distribution is outlined. The correct non-Maxwellian ion charging current is derived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Under grain-current balance, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function. It is found that nonthermality and its nonextensive nature may act concurrently and influence the restoring force and hence the soliton profile. Due to the flexibility provided by the nonextensive parameter, we think that our model should provide a better fit of the space observations.

  6. Charge-transfer dynamics in multilayered PbS and PbSe quantum dot architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, F.; Ma, X.; Haughn, C. R.; Doty, M. F.; Cloutier, S. G.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate control of the charge transfer process in PbS and PbSe quantum dot assemblies. We first demonstrate efficient charge transfer from donor quantum dots to acceptor quantum dots in a multi-layer PbSe cascade structure. Then, we assemble type-I and type-II heterostructures using both PbS and PbSe quantum dots via careful control of the band alignment. In type-I structures, photo-generated carriers are transferred and localized in the smaller bandgap (acceptor) quantum dots, resulting in a significant luminescence enhancement. In contrast, a significant luminescence quenching and shorter emission lifetime confirms an efficient separation of photo-generated carriers in the type-II architecture.

  7. Working with DOE to Promote your Workplace Charging Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    plugging in, unplugging, leaving) 5 Workplace Charging Challenge Sample shot Charging stationsPEVs in front of building with partner namelogo 6 Workplace Charging Challenge ...

  8. EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge: Benefits of Joining

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Workplace charging plays a critical role in America's plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. Installing workplace charging is a sign of corporate leadership, showing a willingness...

  9. Effect of dust charging and trapped electrons on nonlinear solitary structures in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Malik, Hitendra K.; Singh, Khushvant

    2012-01-15

    Main concerns of the present article are to investigate the effects of dust charging and trapped electrons on the solitary structures evolved in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Such a plasma is found to support two types of waves, namely, fast wave and slow wave. Slow wave propagates in the plasma only when the wave propagation angle {theta} satisfies the condition {theta}{>=}tan{sup -1}{l_brace}({radical}((1+2{sigma})-[(n{sub dlh}({gamma}{sub 1}-1))/(1+n{sub dlh}{gamma}{sub 1})])-v{sub 0}/u{sub 0}){r_brace}, where v{sub 0}(u{sub 0}) is the z- (x-) component of ion drift velocity, {sigma} = T{sub i}/T{sub eff}, n{sub dlh} = n{sub d0}/(n{sub el0} + n{sub eh0}), and {gamma}{sub 1}=-(1/{Phi}{sub i0})[(1-{Phi}{sub i0}/1+{sigma}(1-{Phi}{sub i0}))] together with T{sub i} as ion temperature, n{sub el0}(n{sub eh0}) as the density of trapped (isothermal) electrons, {Phi}{sub i0} as the dust grain (density n{sub d0}) surface potential relative to zero plasma potential, and T{sub eff}=(n{sub elo}+n{sub eho})T{sub el}T{sub eh}/(n{sub elo}T{sub eh}+n{sub eho}T{sub el}), where T{sub el}(T{sub eh}) is the temperature of trapped (isothermal) electrons. Both the waves evolve in the form of density hill type structures in the plasma, confirming that these solitary structures are compressive in nature. These structures are found to attain higher amplitude when the charge on the dust grains is fluctuated (in comparison with the case of fixed charge) and also when the dust grains and trapped electrons are more in number; the same is the case with higher temperature of ions and electrons. Slow solitary structures show weak dependence on the dust concentration. Both types of structures are found to become narrower under the application of stronger magnetic field. With regard to the charging of dust grains, it is observed that the charge gets reduced for the higher trapped electron density and temperature of ions and electrons, and dust charging shows weak dependence on the ion

  10. Generation of charge imbalance in a superconductor by a temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entin-Wohlman, O.; Orbach, R.

    1980-11-01

    The charge-imbalance voltage in a superconductor carrying a current in the presence of a temperature gradient is calculated from the Boltzmann equation in the clean limit. We demonstrate why the Green's-function approach in the dirty limit, first performed by Schmid and Schoem, generates the same Boltzmann-like equation for the distribution function. In addition, the charge-imbalance voltage in the absence of an impressed current is calculated. It is shown to depend on del/sup 2/T+(delT)/sup 2//T, and not solely on (delT)/sup 2/. The calculations are limited to the temperature regime near T/sub c/, such that ..delta..<

  11. Charging Your Time - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health & Safety Exposition Charging Your Time About Us Hanford Cultural Resources Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria How to Get to TRAC Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Charging Your Time Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size How Do I Charge My Time Spent at EXPO? Each Hanford Prime Contractor may have

  12. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  13. Enhanced Charge Transport in Dissolved Polysulfide Li-S Cells with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supramolecular Redox Mediators - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research September 15, 2015, Research Highlights Enhanced Charge Transport in Dissolved Polysulfide Li-S Cells with Supramolecular Redox Mediators Schematic of nanostructured PBI 1 redox mediators in a Li-S battery, SEM image of the nanofiber morphology, reduced overpotential and 31 percent increase in S utilization at C/8, and cycling at C/4. Scientific Achievement A highly collaborative team of theorists and experimentalists

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Wisconsin...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Responding to increased requests for plug-in electric charging stations from parking customers, UW-Madison Transportation Services installed dual level, charging stations in Lots ...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Purchase College, State University of New York can accommodate six vehicles at four charging stations throughout campus. In addition to the two charging stations installed in 2012, ...

  16. workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Advanced Micro Devices...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    its commuter benefits to include workplace plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging, making AMD the first company in Austin, Texas to install multiple PEV charging stations. ...

  17. Thermodynamics of asymptotically flat charged black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Shamirzaie, M.

    2005-12-15

    We present a new class of asymptotically flat charge static solutions in third order Lovelock gravity. These solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes, or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We find that the uncharged asymptotically flat solutions can present black holes with two inner and outer horizons. This kind of solution does not exist in Einstein or Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and it is a special effect in third order Lovelock gravity. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis by computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix of the mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that there exists only an intermediate stable phase.

  18. Numerical Study of Three Dimensional Effects in Longitudinal Space-Charge Impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-06-01

    Longitudinal space-charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as detrimental in free-electron lasers as they can seed instabilities. Such “microbunching instabilities” were recently shown to be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation pulses [1, 2]. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beamlines capable of sustaining this LSC instability as a mechanism to produce a coherent light source. To date most of these studies have been carried out with a one-dimensional impedance model for the LSC. In this paper we use a N-body “Barnes-Hut” algorithm [3] to simulate the 3D space charge force in the beam combined with elegant [4] and explore the limitation of the 1D model often used

  19. Societal Benefits Charge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During 2011 and 2012 several minor changes were made to the originally enacted SBC law. In 2011 a section was added prohibiting gas utilities from imposing an SBC charge (or several other types o...

  20. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J.; Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

  1. Workplace Charging Equipment and Installation Costs | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Charging equipment costs depend on the type of charging station you decide to install in your workplace. Level 1 (300-1,500) and Level 2 (400-6,500) charging stations are ...

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: American Lung Association...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The ALAC was the first organization to install a charging station through the Charge Ahead Colorado grant program in 2013. The ALAC offers two charging stations to employees and ...

  3. Space-Charge Effects in the Super B-Factory LER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-31

    Space-charge effects in the low-energy ring of the proposedSuper-B Factory are studied using a weak-strong model of dynamics asimplemented in the code Marylie/Impact (MLI). The impact of space chargeappears noticeable but our results suggest the existence of workableregions of the tune space where the design emittance is minimallyaffected. However, additional studies are recommended to fullysubstantiate this conclusion.

  4. Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chain Alignment | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment Thursday, March 31, 2016 The control of the electronic and optical properties of conjugated polymer thin films is of great interest for building more efficient solution processed organic electronic devices, e.g. photovoltaic (OPV) and light emitting (OLED) devices. The crystallinity and the chain orientation in the polymer film has been shown

  5. The Lightest Organic Radical Cation for Charge Storage in Redox Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 25, 2016, Research Highlights The Lightest Organic Radical Cation for Charge Storage in Redox Flow Batteries A family of dimethoxybenzene derivatives have been designed and screened using a systematic pruning approach and a stepwise work flow. Compound 6 and 7 not only show promising results in the screening work flow, including cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis cell tests, flow cell tests and EPR kinetic test, but also offer

  6. Instantons and the fixed point topological charge in the two-dimensional O(3) {sigma} model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blatter, M.; Burkhalter, R.; Hasenfratz, P.; Niedermayer, F.

    1996-01-01

    We define a fixed point topological charge for the two-dimensional O(3) lattice {sigma} model which is free of topological defects. We use this operator in combination with the fixed point action to measure the topological susceptibility for a wide range of correlation lengths. The results strongly suggest that it is not a physical quantity in this model. The procedure, however, can be applied to other asymptotically free theories as well. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in One

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dimensional Nanostructures | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport in One Dimensional Nanostructures February 21, 2013 at 3pm/36-428 Andrei Piryatinski Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory Piryatinski-photo_000 Abstract: The ability to precisely control optical and transport properties of nanostructured materials opens up possibility of their use as functional materials in a broad range

  8. -delayed ?-proton decay in ??Zn: Analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrigo, S. E.A.; Rubio, B.; Fujita, Y.; Blank, B.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Ascher, P.; Cceres, L.; Cakirli, R. B.; Fujita, H.; Ganio?lu, E.; Gerbaux, M.; Kozer, H. C.; Kucuk, L.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Popescu, L.; Rogers, A. M.; Susoy, G.; Stodel, C.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ? decay of the proton-rich Tz = 2 nucleus ??Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, ?-de-layed ?-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the fp shell. Here, we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focusing on the charged particle spectrum.

  9. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-20

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. As a result, we obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both tomore » the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.« less

  10. Measurement of the Electric Charge of the Top Quark in $\\boldsymbol{t\\bar{t}}$ Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; et al.

    2014-09-08

    We present a measurement of the electric charge of top quarks using $t\\bar{t}$ events produced in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at the Tevatron. The analysis is based on fully reconstructed $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in lepton+jets final states. Using data corresponding to 5.3 $\\rm fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, we exclude the hypothesis that the top quark has a charge of $Q=-4/3\\,e$ at a significance greater than 5 standard deviations. We also place an upper limit of 0.46 on the fraction of such quarks that can be present in an admixture with the standard model top quarks ($Q=+2/3\\,e$) at a 95\\% confidence level.

  11. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  12. Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-12-07

    To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.

  13. On compensating tune spread induced by space charge in bunched beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V. N.; Wang, G.

    2014-05-09

    Space charge effects play significant role in modern-day accelerators. These effects frequently constrain attainable beam parameters in an accelerator, or, in an accelerator chain. They also could limit the luminosity of hadron colliders operating either at low energies or with a sub-TeV high brightness hadron beams. The latter is applied for strongly cooled proton and ion beams in eRHIC – the proposed future electron-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A number of schemes for compensating space charge effects in a coasting (e.g. continuous) hadron beam were proposed and some of them had been tested. Using a proper transverse profile of the electron beam (or plasma column) for a coasting beam would compensate both the tune shift and the tune spread in the hadron beam. But all of these methods do not address the issue of tune spread compensation of a bunched hadron beam, e.g. the tune shift dependence on the longitudinal position inside the bunch. In this paper we propose and evaluate a novel idea of using a co-propagating electron bunch with miss-matched longitudinal velocity to compensate the space charge induced tune-shift and tune spread. We present a number of practical examples of such system.

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Summit 2014: Session 1, Track A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Promoting your workplace charging program": A robust workplace charging program doesn't conclude once the charging stations are in the ground. Many partners are working to promote ...

  15. Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.

    2007-12-15

    A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

  16. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  17. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  18. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth; Velamur Asokan, Badri; Shelton, William A; Philip, Bobby; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2014-01-01

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Reports |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Workplace Charging Challenge Reports Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Reports The EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge aims to have 500 U.S. employers offering workplace charging by 2018. These reports describe the progress made in the Challenge. In 2015, the Workplace Charging Challenge celebrated a major milestone - it reached the halfway point to its goal of 500 Challenge partners committed to installing workplace charging by 2018. More

  1. Strong focus space charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex

    1981-01-01

    Strong focus space charge lens wherein a combination of current-carrying coils and charged electrodes form crossed magnetic and electric fields to focus charged particle beams.

  2. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  3. Quark Flavors and Conserved Charges at Finite Density in the QCD Phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagram | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility An illustration of the formation of protons, neutrons, and other hadrons at the QCD crossover transition from the Quark-Gluon Plasma to a gas of hadrons during the evolution of the universe. Credit: Sandor Katz, Eotvos University Quark Flavors and Conserved Charges at Finite Density in the QCD Phase Diagram PI Name: Rene Bellwied PI Email: bellwied@uh.edu Institution: University of Houston Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF:

  4. Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene solar cells |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene solar cells April 13, 2010 at 3pm/36-428 Koen Vandewal Linköping University vandewal-small abstract: For an efficient conversion of photons to electrons by organic materials, the presence of a material interface between an electron donating and electron accepting material is crucial. Most successful active layers for organic solar cells today comprise a blend of conjugated polymers as electron

  5. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plug-in Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables Preprint M. Simpson and T. Markel Presented at the International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 26 (EVS26) Los Angeles, California May 6 - 9, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5400-53914 August 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No.

  6. Structure and vibrations of different charge Ge impurity in α-quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kislov, A. N. Mikhailovich, A. P. Zatsepin, A. F.

    2014-10-21

    Atomic structure and localized vibrations of α‐SiO{sub 2}:Ge are studied using computer modeling techniques. The simulation was carried out by the lattice dynamics calculation of the local density of vibrational states. Local structures parameters are calculated, localized symmetrized vibrations frequency caused by Ge impurity in different charge states are defined. The movements of atoms located near Ge impurity are analyzed and their contribution into localized vibrations of different type is evaluated.

  7. Ligand-induced dependence of charge transfer in nanotube–quantum dot heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Lei; Han, Jinkyu; Sundahl, Bryan; Thornton, Scott; Zhu, Yuqi; Zhou, Ruiping; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Taylor, Gordon T.; et al

    2016-07-01

    As a model system to probe ligand-dependent charge transfer in complex composite heterostructures, we fabricated double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) – CdSe quantum dot (QD) composites. Whereas the average diameter of the QDs probed was kept fixed at ~4.1 nm and the nanotubes analyzed were similarly oxidatively processed, by contrast, the ligands used to mediate the covalent attachment between the QDs and DWNTs were systematically varied to include p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2-aminoethanethiol (AET), and 4-aminothiophenol (ATP). Herein, we have put forth a unique compilation of complementary data from experiment and theory, including results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), near-edge X-ray absorption finemore » structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrical transport measurements, and theoretical modeling studies, in order to fundamentally assess the nature of the charge transfer between CdSe QDs and DWNTs, as a function of the structure of various, intervening bridging ligand molecules. Specifically, we correlated evidence of charge transfer as manifested by changes and shifts associated with NEXAFS intensities, Raman peak positions, and threshold voltages both before and after CdSe QD deposition onto the underlying DWNT surface. Importantly, for the first time ever in these types of nanoscale composite systems, we have sought to use theoretical modeling to justify and account for our experimental results. Finally, our overall data suggest that (i) QD coverage density on the DWNTs varies, based upon the different ligand pendant groups used and that (ii) the presence of a π-conjugated carbon framework within the ligands themselves and the electron affinity of the pendant groups collectively play important roles in the resulting charge transfer from QDs to the underlying CNTs.« less

  8. Charge trapping of Ge-nanocrystals embedded in TaZrO{sub x} dielectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehninger, D. Seidel, P.; Geyer, M.; Schneider, F.; Heitmann, J.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D.; Borany, J. von

    2015-01-12

    Ge-nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized in amorphous TaZrO{sub x} by thermal annealing of co-sputtered Ge-TaZrO{sub x} layers. Formation of spherical shaped Ge-NCs with small variation of size, areal density, and depth distribution was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The charge storage characteristics of the Ge-NCs were investigated by capacitance-voltage and constant-capacity measurements using metal-insulator-semiconductor structures. Samples with Ge-NCs exhibit a maximum memory window of 5 V by sweeping the bias voltage from −7 V to 7 V and back. Below this maximum, the width of the memory window can be controlled by the bias voltage. The fitted slope of the memory window versus bias voltage characteristics is very close to 1 for samples with one layer Ge-NCs. A second layer Ge-NCs does not result in a second flat stair in the memory window characteristics. Constant-capacity measurements indicate charge storage in trapping centers at the interfaces between the Ge-NCs and the surrounding materials (amorphous matrix/tunneling oxide). Charge loss occurs by thermal detrapping and subsequent band-to-band tunneling. Reference samples without Ge-NCs do not show any memory window.

  9. Evidence and implications of direct charge excitation as the dominant mechanism in plasmon-mediated photocatalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boerigter, Calvin; Campana, Robert; Morabito, Matthew; Linic, Suljo

    2016-01-28

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles enhance chemical reactions on their surface when illuminated with light of particular frequencies. It has been shown that these processes are driven by excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The interaction of LSPR with adsorbate orbitals can lead to the injection of energized charge carriers into the adsorbate, which can result in chemical transformations. The mechanism of the charge injection process (and role of LSPR) is not well understood. Here we shed light on the specifics of this mechanism by coupling optical characterization methods, mainly wavelength-dependent Stokes and anti-Stokes SERS, with kinetic analysis of photocatalytic reactionsmore » in an Ag nanocube–methylene blue plasmonic system. We propose that localized LSPR-induced electric fields result in a direct charge transfer within the molecule–adsorbate system. Lastly, these observations provide a foundation for the development of plasmonic catalysts that can selectively activate targeted chemical bonds, since the mechanism allows for tuning plasmonic nanomaterials in such a way that illumination can selectively enhance desired chemical pathways.« less

  10. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonergan, Mark

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  11. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

    2012-08-01

    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  12. Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  13. Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in photo-excited charge ordered nickelate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.; Denes, P.; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.J.; Johnson, S.L.; Fö rst, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Kung, Y.F.; Sorini, A.P.; Kemper, A.F.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T.P.; Lee, D.-H.; Shen, Z.X.; Hussain, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and manufacturers to test different types and several different models of EVSE in the laboratory, including AC Level 1, AC Level 2, DC fast charging, and wireless charging. ...

  15. Workplace Charging Toolkit: Press Release Template

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Raise the profile of employers in the community who are offering workplace charging and encourage the adoption of workplace charging among other employers through this press release template.

  16. Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    WORKPLACE CHARGING CHALLENGE Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning ... Your responses to this survey will be used to determine employee interest in this benefit. ...

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: NRG Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NRG offers workplace charging to its employees, alongside a corporate incentive for employees to drive plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). NRG employee charging stations are ...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Argonne National Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Argonne provides its employees with access to electric vehicle charging stations for a nominal fee. Program participants are able to reserve charging time at plug-in stations ...

  19. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Controlled charging technology can be employed in the absence of solar, as well as when EV charging stations are combined with distributed solar technology. Modeling and limited ...

  20. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Baxter International Inc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    At its Illinois locations, Baxter has installed four duel head Level 2 plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations, capable of charging eight vehicles simultaneously. With ...

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lewis & Clark Community...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lewis & Clark views plug-in electric vehicle workplace charging as a key component of reducing commuter emissions. The College has installed two charging stations at its main ...

  2. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  3. Digital processing of solid state detector signals in pellet charge exchange measurements on LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T.; Sudo, S.; Tamura, N.; Isobe, M.; Sasao, M.; Saida, T.; Krasilnikov, A.V.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    2004-10-01

    Radially resolved measurements of the plasma ion distribution function by detecting charge exchange neutrals from an impurity pellet ablation cloud require a fast operating energy analyzer working at high count rates to build several spectra during the pellet flight. Currently a solid state detector in the pulse height analysis (PHA) mode is used for such measurements on the Large Helical Device. Traditional PHA techniques cannot provide the operating speed required for a good spatial resolution. An algorithm has been proposed based on digital processing of noisy data series containing charge-sensitive preamplifier signals with discontinuities corresponding to incident particles. The algorithm employs the modified Tikhonov regularization and the successive detection-estimation of signal increments at discontinuity points. Such an approach allows one to realize an ultrafast particle energy spectroscopy by taking advantage of detector/preamplifier capabilities without limiting the system throughput by subsequent electronics.

  4. The role of electrostatic charge in the adhesion of spherical particles onto planar surfaces in atmospheric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira Z.; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-06-19

    In this study, the influence of electrostatic charge on the adhesive force between spherical particles and planar surfaces in atmospheric systems was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical bias was applied to modify the surface charge, and it was found that application of a stronger positive bias to a particle induces a stronger total adhesive force. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the bias depended on the surface charge density. For larger-size particles, the contribution of the electrostatic force decreased, and the capillary force became the major contributor to the total adhesive force. The influence of water adsorption on the total adhesive force and, specifically, on the contribution of the electrostatic force depended on the hydrophobicity of interacting surfaces. For a hydrophilic surface, water adsorption either attenuated the surface charge or screened the effect of surface potential. An excessive amount of adsorbed water provided a path to surface charge leakage, which might cancel out the electrostatic force, leading to a reduction in the adhesive force. Theoretically calculated forces were comparable with measured adhesive forces except for mica which has a highly localized surface potential. The results of this study provide information on the behavior of charged colloidal particles in atmospheric systems.

  5. The role of electrostatic charge in the adhesion of spherical particles onto planar surfaces in atmospheric systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira Z.; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-06-19

    In this study, the influence of electrostatic charge on the adhesive force between spherical particles and planar surfaces in atmospheric systems was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical bias was applied to modify the surface charge, and it was found that application of a stronger positive bias to a particle induces a stronger total adhesive force. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the bias depended on the surface charge density. For larger-size particles, the contribution of the electrostatic force decreased, and the capillary force became the major contributor to the total adhesive force. The influence of water adsorptionmore » on the total adhesive force and, specifically, on the contribution of the electrostatic force depended on the hydrophobicity of interacting surfaces. For a hydrophilic surface, water adsorption either attenuated the surface charge or screened the effect of surface potential. An excessive amount of adsorbed water provided a path to surface charge leakage, which might cancel out the electrostatic force, leading to a reduction in the adhesive force. Theoretically calculated forces were comparable with measured adhesive forces except for mica which has a highly localized surface potential. The results of this study provide information on the behavior of charged colloidal particles in atmospheric systems.« less

  6. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B. Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-08-15

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  7. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4?V) at low operating voltage (6/?6?V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E???5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  8. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  9. Link between hopping models and percolation scaling laws for charge transport in mixtures of small molecules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ha, Dong -Gwang; Kim, Jang -Joo; Baldo, Marc A.

    2016-04-29

    Mixed host compositions that combine charge transport materials with luminescent dyes offer superior control over exciton formation and charge transport in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Two approaches are typically used to optimize the fraction of charge transport materials in a mixed host composition: either an empirical percolative model, or a hopping transport model. We show that these two commonly-employed models are linked by an analytic expression which relates the localization length to the percolation threshold and critical exponent. The relation is confirmed both numerically and experimentally through measurements of the relative conductivity of Tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl) amine (TCTA) :1,3-bis(3,5-dipyrid-3-yl-phenyl) benzene (BmPyPb)more » mixtures with different concentrations, where the TCTA plays a role as hole conductor and the BmPyPb as hole insulator. Furthermore, the analytic relation may allow the rational design of mixed layers of small molecules for high-performance OLEDs.« less

  10. Thermodynamics of rotating charged black branes in third order lovelock gravity and the counterterm method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2006-05-15

    We generalize the quasilocal definition of the stress-energy tensor of Einstein gravity to the case of third order Lovelock gravity, by introducing the surface terms that make the action well-defined. We also introduce the boundary counterterm that removes the divergences of the action and the conserved quantities of the solutions of third order Lovelock gravity with zero curvature boundary at constant t and r. Then, we compute the charged rotating solutions of this theory in n+1 dimensions with a complete set of allowed rotation parameters. These charged rotating solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are suitably chosen. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, mass and angular momenta of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that the system is thermally stable. This is commensurate with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black objects with zero curvature horizon.

  11. EERE Success Story-Plug-in Electric Vehicles Charge Forward in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Energizing Oregon plan described building code revisions to simplify infrastructure installation, a marketing campaign to raise awareness, a workplace charging strategy, a PEV ...

  12. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vittone, Ettore; Pastuovic, Zeljko; Breese, Mark B. H.; Lopez, Javier Garicia; Jaksic, Milko; Raisanen, Jyrki; Siegele, Rainer; Simon, Aliz; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2016-02-08

    This study investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and themore » charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.« less

  13. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J.

    2014-03-21

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4?-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  14. Fact #717: March 5, 2012 Availability of Electric Charging Stations Has Increased Dramatically in Recent Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the end of September 2009, there were just 465 electric vehicle charging stations nationwide. By the end of January 2012, the number of charging stations had grown to 6,033. California has...

  15. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; et al

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge-induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  16. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  17. A new approach to calculate charge carrier transport mobility in organic molecular crystals from imaginary time path integral simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-05-07

    We present a new non-perturbative method to calculate the charge carrier mobility using the imaginary time path integral approach, which is based on the Kubo formula for the conductivity, and a saddle point approximation to perform the analytic continuation. The new method is first tested using a benchmark calculation from the numerical exact hierarchical equations of motion method. Imaginary time path integral Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to explore the temperature dependence of charge carrier delocalization and mobility in organic molecular crystals (OMCs) within the Holstein and Holstein-Peierls models. The effects of nonlocal electron-phonon interaction on mobility in different charge transport regimes are also investigated.

  18. Examination of charge transfer in Au/YSZ for high-temperature optical gas sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Au-nanoparticle incorporated oxide thin film materials demonstrate significant promise as functionalsensor materials for high temperature optical gas sensing in severe environments relevant for fossil andnuclear based power generation. The Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) system has been extensivelystudied in the literature and serves as a model system for fundamental investigations that seek to betterunderstand the mechanistic origin of the plasmonic gas sensing response. In this work, X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy techniques are applied to Au/YSZ films in an attempt to provide further experimentalevidence for a proposed sensing mechanism involving a change in free carrier density of Au nanoparticles due to charge transfer.

  19. Restoring The Azimuthal Symmetry Of Charged Particle Lateral Density In The Range Of KASCADE-Grande

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Gils, H. J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Nehls, S.

    2010-11-24

    KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. An important observable for analyzing the EAS is the lateral density of charged particles in the intrinsic shower plane. This observable is deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposit - first in the observation plane, by using a Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF), then in the intrinsic shower plane, by applying an adequate mapping procedure. In both steps azimuthal.

  20. Observation of spin-charge conversion in chemical-vapor-deposition-grown single-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshima, Ryo; Sakai, Atsushi; Ando, Yuichiro; Shiraishi, Masashi; Shinjo, Teruya; Kawahara, Kenji; Ago, Hiroki

    2014-10-20

    Conversion of pure spin current to charge current in single-layer graphene (SLG) is investigated by using spin pumping. Large-area SLG grown by chemical vapor deposition is used for the conversion. Efficient spin accumulation in SLG by spin pumping enables observing an electromotive force produced by the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of SLG. The spin Hall angle of SLG is estimated to be 6.1 × 10{sup −7}. The observed ISHE in SLG is ascribed to its non-negligible spin-orbit interaction in SLG.

  1. Effect of dust-charge fluctuations on dust acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Selim, M. M. E-mail: mselim2000@yahoo.com; Al-Abbasy, O. M.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.

    2015-02-15

    The effects of adiabatic dust grain charge fluctuation and inhomogeneity on the nonlinear properties of dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves are studied. The plasma under consideration is a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust particles, Boltzmann ions, and nonextensive electrons. A modified Zakharov-Kusnetsov equation, which admits a solitary wave solution, is derived using the reductive perturbation theory. It is found that the charge fluctuation of the dust grain modifies the nature of DA solitary structures. The numerical results may be useful to understand phenomena in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  2. Final Report - Interaction of radiation and charged particles in miniature plasma structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2014-07-16

    The extension of our program to the development of theories and models capable of describing the interactions of intense laser pulses and charged particles in miniature plasma channels is reported. These channels, which have recently been created in the laboratory, have unique dispersion properties that make them interesting for a variety of applications including particle acceleration, high harmonic generation, and THz generation. Our program systematically explored the properties of these channels, including dispersion, losses, and coupling. A particular application that was pursued is the generation of intense pulses of THz radiation by short laser pulses propagating these channels. We also explored the nonlinear dynamics of laser pulses propagating in these channels.

  3. Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb

    2011-02-15

    Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

  4. Limits on tau lepton flavor violating decays in three charged leptons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervelli, Alberto

    2010-04-29

    A search for the neutrinoless, lepton-flavor violating decay of the {tau} lepton into three charged leptons has been performed using an integrated luminosity of 468 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider. In all six decay modes considered, the numbers of events found in data are compatible with the background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions are set in the range (1.8-3.3) x 10{sup -8} at 90% confidence level.

  5. Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Jing; Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

  6. Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Jing; Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing PHEV s share of driving on electricity and the resulting petroleum use reduction. Using vehicle activity data obtained from the GPS-tracking household travel survey in Austin, Texas, gasoline and electricity consumptions of PHEVs in real world driving context are estimated. Driver s within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger network, is modeled as a boundedly rational decision and incorporated in the energy use estimation. The key findings from the Austin dataset include: (1) public charging infrastructure makes PHEV a competitive vehicle choice for consumers without a home charger; (2) providing sufficient public charging service is expected to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of PHEVs; and (3) public charging opportunities offer greater benefits for PHEVs with a smaller battery pack, as within-day recharges compensate battery capacity.

  7. Renormalization group flow and fixed point of the lattice topological charge in the 2D O(3) {sigma} model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DElia, M.; Farchioni, F.; Papa, A.

    1997-02-01

    We study the renormalization group evolution up to the fixed point of the lattice topological susceptibility in the 2D O(3) nonlinear {sigma} model. We start with a discretization of the continuum topological charge by a local charge density polynomial in the lattice fields. Among the different choices we propose also a Symanzik-improved lattice topological charge. We check step by step in the renormalization group iteration the progressive dumping of quantum fluctuations, which are responsible for the additive and multiplicative renormalizations of the lattice topological susceptibility with respect to the continuum definition. We find that already after three iterations these renormalizations are negligible and an excellent approximation of the fixed point is achieved. We also check by an explicit calculation that the assumption of slowly varying fields in iterating the renormalization group does not lead to a good approximation of the fixed point charge operator. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Shanlin

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  9. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeger, Alan; Bazan, Guillermo; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Wudl, Fred

    2015-02-27

    The need for renewable sources of energy is well known. Conversion of sunlight to electricity using solar cells is one of the most important opportunities for creating renewable energy sources. The research carried out under DE-FG02-08ER46535 focused on the science and technology of “Plastic” solar cells comprised of organic (i.e. carbon based) semiconductors. The Bulk Heterojunction concept involves a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors each with dimensions in the nano-meter length scale --- one a material that functions as a donor for electrons and the other a material that functions as an acceptor for electrons. The nano-scale inter-penetrating network concept for “Plastic” solar cells was created at UC Santa Barbara. A simple measure of the impact of this concept can be obtained from a Google search which gives 244,000 “hits” for the Bulk Heterojunction solar cell. Research funded through this program focused on four major areas: 1. Interfacial effects in organic photovoltaics, 2. Charge transfer and photogeneration of mobile charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 3. Transport and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 4. Synthesis of novel organic semiconducting polymers and semiconducting small molecules, including conjugated polyelectrolytes. Following the discovery of ultrafast charge transfer at UC Santa Barbara in 1992, the nano-organic (Bulk Heterojunction) concept was formulated. The need for a morphology comprising two interpenetrating bicontinuous networks was clear: one network to carry the photogenerated electrons (negative charge) to the cathode and one network to carry the photo-generated holes (positive charge) to the anode. This remarkable self-assembled network morphology has now been established using Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) either in the Phase Contrast mode or via TEM-Tomography. The steps involved in delivering power from a solar cell to an external circuit

  10. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore » large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less

  11. Charge Transfer Fluorescence and 34 nm Exciton Diffusion Length in Polymers with Electron Acceptor End Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.

  12. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Ellingson, B. M.; Mathern, G. W.

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  13. Fokker-Planck Modelling of Delayed Loss of Charged Fusion Products in TFTR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenstrasser, J.W.; Goloborod'ko, V.Ya.; Reznik, S.N.; Yavorskij, V.A.; Zweben, S.

    1998-08-01

    The results of a Fokker-Planck simulation of the ripple-induced loss of charged fusion products in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are presented. It is shown that the main features of the measured "delayed loss" of partially thermalized fusion products, such as the differences between deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium discharges, the plasma current and major radius dependencies, etc., are in satisfactory agreement with the classical collisional ripple transport mechanism. The inclusion of the inward shift of the vacuum flux surfaces turns out to be necessary for an adequate and consistent explanation of the origin of the partially thermalized fusion product loss to the bottom of TFTR.

  14. PARALLEL 3-D SPACE CHARGE CALCULATIONS IN THE UNIFIED ACCELERATOR LIBRARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'IMPERIO, N.L.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MALITSKY, N.

    2006-06-26

    The paper presents the integration of the SIMBAD space charge module in the UAL framework. SIMBAD is a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. Its 3-D Parallel approach features an optimized load balancing scheme based on a genetic algorithm. The UAL framework enhances the SIMBAD standalone version with the interactive ROOT-based analysis environment and an open catalog of accelerator algorithms. The composite package addresses complex high intensity beam dynamics and has been developed as part of the FAIR SIS 100 project.

  15. Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gravador, E. B.; Bornales, J. B.; Liwanag, M. J.

    2008-06-18

    The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE({tau})x{identical_to}{radical}((m/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}))){xi}x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time.

  16. Self-Assembly, Molecular Ordering, and Charge Mobility in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Oligothiophene Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy,A.; Chang, P.; VanDyke, P.; Liu, J.; Frechet, J.; Subramanian, V.; Delongchamp, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Fischer, D.; Lin, E.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetrical {alpha}, {omega}-substituted quarter-(T4), penta-(T5), sexi-(T6), and heptathiophene (T7) oligomers containing thermally removable aliphatic ester solubilizing groups were synthesized, and their UV-vis and thermal characteristics were compared. Spun-cast thin films of each oligomer were examined with atomic force microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to evaluate the ability of the material to self-assemble from a solution-based process while maintaining complete surface coverage. Films of the T5-T7 oligomers self-assemble into crystalline terraces after thermal annealing with higher temperatures required to affect this transformation as the size of the oligomers increases. A symmetrical {alpha}, {omega}-substituted sexithiophene (T6-acid) that reveals carboxylic acids after thermolysis was also prepared to evaluate the effect of the presence of hydrogen-bonding moieties. The charge transport properties for these materials evaluated in top-contact thin film transistor devices were found to correlate with the observed morphology of the films. Therefore, the T4 and the T6-acid performed poorly because of incomplete surface coverage after thermolysis, while T5-T7 exhibited much higher performance as a result of molecular ordering. Increases in charge mobility correlated to increasing conjugation length with measured mobilities ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 cm2/(V{center_dot}s). The highest mobilities were measured when films of each oligomer had an average thickness between one and two monolayers, indicating that the molecules become exceptionally well-ordered during the thermolysis process. This unprecedented ordering of the solution-cast molecules results in efficient charge mobility rarely seen in such ultrathin films.

  17. Influence of electron-phonon interaction on soliton mediated spin-charge conversion effects in two-component polymer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergeenkov, S. Moraes, F.; Furtado, C.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2010-02-15

    By mapping a Hubbard-like model describing a two-component polymer in the presence of strong enough electron-phonon interactions ({kappa}) onto the system of two coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with U(2) symmetry group, some nontrivial correlations between topological solitons mediated charge Q and spin S degrees of freedom are obtained. Namely, in addition to a charge fractionalization and reentrant like behavior of both Q({kappa}) and S({kappa}), the model also predicts a decrease of soliton velocity with {kappa} as well as spin-charge conversion effects which manifest themselves through an explicit S(Q,{omega}) dependence (with {omega} being a mixing angle between spin-up and spin-down electron amplitudes). A possibility to observe the predicted effects in low-dimensional systems with charge and spin soliton carriers is discussed.

  18. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane WS lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of WW bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  19. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  20. EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries » EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge Join the Challenge! Join the Challenge! The Workplace Charging Challenge aims to achieve a tenfold increase in the number of U.S. employers offering workplace charging by 2018. Read more University Campuses Charge Up University Campuses Charge Up America's higher education institutions are at the forefront of workplace charging. Read more Want More Workplace Charging

  1. Baryon number and electric charge fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at relativistic energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konchakovski, V. P.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Stoecker, H.

    2006-12-15

    Event-by-event fluctuations of the net baryon number and electric charge in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in Pb+Pb at SPS energies within the Hadron-String Dynamics (HSD) transport model. We reveal an important role of the fluctuations in the number of target nucleon participants. They strongly influence all measured fluctuations even in the samples of events with rather rigid centrality trigger. This fact can be used to check different scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality in fixed kinematical regions of the projectile and target hemispheres. The HSD results for the event-by-event fluctuations of electric charge in central collisions at 20A,30A,40A,80A, and 158A GeV are in a good agreement with the NA49 experimental data and considerably larger than expected in a quark-gluon plasma. This demonstrates that the distortions of the initial fluctuations by the hadronization phase and, in particular, by the final resonance decays dominate the observable fluctuations.

  2. Workplace Charging: Tips to Install Charging Stations at your...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by choosing progressive facilities that offer state-of-the-art technologies such as plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations (or electric vehicle supply equipment). ...

  3. Workplace Charging: Safety and Management Policy For AC Level 1 Charging Receptacles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Organizations offering plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging at AC Level 1 charging receptacles, or wall outlets, can ensure a safe and successful workplace charging experience by considering the...

  4. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Grigorenko, L.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, R.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the -decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of -decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the -delayed three proton emission.

  5. Direct observation of charge mediated lattice distortions in complex oxide solid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang, Xiahan; Grimley, Everett D.; Niu, Changning; Irving, Douglas L.; LeBeau, James M.

    2015-02-09

    Using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with advanced imaging methods, we directly observe atom column specific, picometer-scale displacements induced by local chemistry in a complex oxide solid solution. Displacements predicted from density functional theory were found to correlate with the observed experimental trends. Further analysis of bonding and charge distribution was used to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the detected structural behavior. By extending the experimental electron microscopy measurements to previously inaccessible length scales, we identified correlated atomic displacements linked to bond differences within the complex oxide structure.

  6. Observation of a new charged charmoniumlike state inB0?J/?K-?+decays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chilikin, K.; Mizuk, R.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D.?M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; et al

    2014-12-16

    We present the results of an amplitude analysis of B0?J/?K-?+ decays. A new charged charmoniumlike state Zc(4200)+ decaying to J/??+ is observed with a significance of 6.2?. The mass and width of the Zc(4200)+ are 4196+31-29+17-13 MeV/c2 and 370+70-70+70-132 MeV, respectively; the preferred assignment of the quantum numbers is JP=1+. In addition, we find evidence for Zc(4430)+?J/??+. The analysis is based on a 711 fb-1 data sample collected by the Belle detector at the asymmetric-energy e+e- collider KEKB.

  7. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-10-21

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunchmore » model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. In addition, the resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out.« less

  8. General description of electromagnetic radiation processes based on instantaneous charge acceleration in ''endpoints''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Clancy W.; Falcke, Heino; Huege, Tim; Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-11-15

    We present a methodology for calculating the electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charged particles. Our formulation - the 'endpoint formulation' - combines numerous results developed in the literature in relation to radiation arising from particle acceleration using a complete, and completely general, treatment. We do this by describing particle motion via a series of discrete, instantaneous acceleration events, or 'endpoints', with each such event being treated as a source of emission. This method implicitly allows for particle creation and destruction, and is suited to direct numerical implementation in either the time or frequency domains. In this paper we demonstrate the complete generality of our method for calculating the radiated field from charged particle acceleration, and show how it reduces to the classical named radiation processes such as synchrotron, Tamm's description of Vavilov-Cherenkov, and transition radiation under appropriate limits. Using this formulation, we are immediately able to answer outstanding questions regarding the phenomenology of radio emission from ultra-high-energy particle interactions in both the earth's atmosphere and the moon. In particular, our formulation makes it apparent that the dominant emission component of the Askaryan effect (coherent radio-wave radiation from high-energy particle cascades in dense media) comes from coherent 'bremsstrahlung' from particle acceleration, rather than coherent Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation.

  9. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-10-21

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunch model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. In addition, the resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out.

  10. Like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in the Randall-Sundrum model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2011-05-01

    We confirm that in order to account for the recent D0 result of large like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry, a considerable large new physics effect in {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s} is required in addition to a large CP violating phase in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing. In the Randall-Sundrum model of warped geometry, where the fermion fields reside in the bulk, new sources of flavor and CP violation are obtained. We analyze the like-sign dimuon asymmetry in this class of model as an example of the desired new physics. We show that the wrong-charge asymmetry, a{sub sl}{sup s}, which is related to the dimuon asymmetry, is significantly altered compared to the standard model value. However, experimental limits from {Delta}M{sub s}, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} as well as K mixing and electroweak corrections constrain it to be greater than a {sigma} away from its experimental average value. This model cannot fully account for the D0 anomaly due to its inability to generate a sufficient new contribution to the width difference {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s}, even though the model can generate large contribution to the mass difference M{sub 12}{sup s}.

  11. Electrochemical-acoustic time of flight: in operando correlation of physical dynamics with battery charge and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, AG; Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Gjeltema, PJ; Goy, A; Fleischer, JW; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a simple acoustic time-of-flight experiment can measure the state of charge and state of health of almost any closed battery. An acoustic conservation law model describing the state of charge of a standard battery is proposed, and experimental acoustic results verify the simulated trends; furthermore, a framework relating changes in sound speed, via density and modulus changes, to state of charge and state of health within a battery is discussed. Regardless of the chemistry, the distribution of density within a battery must change as a function of state of charge and, along with density, the bulk moduli of the anode and cathode changes as well. The shifts in density and modulus also change the acoustic attenuation in a battery. Experimental results indicating both state-of-charge determination and irreversible physical changes are presented for two of the most ubiquitous batteries in the world, the lithium-ion 18650 and the alkaline LR6 (AA). Overall, a one-or two-point acoustic measurement can be related to the interaction of a pressure wave at multiple discrete interfaces within a battery, which in turn provides insights into state of charge, state of health, and mechanical evolution/degradation.

  12. Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marchand, R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.

  13. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jan-Mou; Jones, Perry T; Onar, Omer C; Starke, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  14. Longitudinal Space Charge Effect in Slowly Converging/Diverging Relativistic Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-07-22

    Beginning with the Green function for a rod beam in a round beam pipe we derive the space charge induced average energy change and rms spread for relativistic beams that are slowly converging or diverging in round beam pipes, a result that tends to be much larger than the 1/{gamma}{sup 2} dependence for parallel beams. Our results allow for beams with longitudinal-transverse correlation, and for slow variations in beam pipe radius. We calculate, in addition, the space charge component of energy change and spread in a chicane compressor. This component indicates source regions of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) energy change in systems with compression. We find that this component, at the end of example compressors, approximates the total induced voltage obtained by more detailed CSR calculations. Our results depend on beam pipe radius (although only weakly) whereas CSR calculations do not normally include this parameter, suggesting that results of such calculations, for systems with beam pipes, are not complete.

  15. Limiting current of axisymmetric relativistic charged-particle beam propagating in strong axial magnetic field in coaxial drift tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatsenko, T.; Ilyenko, K.; Sotnikov, G. V.

    2012-06-15

    In the strong axial magnetic field approximation, we calculate the space-charge limited (SCL) current of axisymmetric relativistic charged-particle beam in a coaxial drift tube of finite length. Results are compared to analytical estimates and numerical modeling of SCL current in the infinitely long drift tube. For the infinitely long drift tube, which inner conductor is biased and the outer conductor is lined with a finite-width dielectric insert, analytic approximations for the SCL current in the bias voltage are developed.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of saltsolution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl saltsolution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl saltsolution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a saltsolution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  17. Direct Observation of Photoinduced Charge Separation in Ruthenium Complex/Ni(OH)2 Nanoparticle Hybrid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Yu; Pattengale, Brian A.; Ludwig, John M.; Atifi, Abderrahman; Zinovev, Alexander V.; Dong, Bin; Kong, Qingyu; Zuo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jier

    2015-12-17

    We report that Ni(OH)2 have emerged as important functional materials for solar fuel conversion because of their potential as cost-effective bifunctional catalysts for both hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. However, their roles as photocatalysts in the photoinduced charge separation (CS) reactions remain unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the CS dynamics of a newly designed hybrid catalyst by integrating a Ru complex with Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles (NPs). Using time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XTA), we directly observed the formation of the reduced Ni metal site (~60 ps), unambiguously demonstrating CS process in the hybrid through ultrafast electron transfer from Ru complexmore » to Ni(OH)2 NPs. Compared to the ultrafast CS process, the charge recombination in the hybrid is ultraslow (>>50 ns). These results not only suggest the possibility of developing Ni(OH)2 as solar fuel catalysts, but also represent the first time direct observation of efficient CS in a hybrid catalyst using XTA.« less

  18. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2014-04-15

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  19. Doping evolution of spin and charge excitations in the Hubbard model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kung, Y. F.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Jia, C. J.; Johnston, S.; Moritz, B.; Scalettar, R. T.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-11-05

    We shed light on how electronic correlations vary across the phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors, examining the doping evolution of spin and charge excitations in the single-band Hubbard model using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC). In the single-particle response, we observe that the effects of correlations weaken rapidly with doping, such that one may expect the random phase approximation (RPA) to provide an adequate description of the two-particle response. In contrast, when compared to RPA, we find that significant residual correlations in the two-particle excitations persist up to 40% hole and 15% electron doping (the range of dopings achievedmore » in the cuprates). Ultimately, these fundamental differences between the doping evolution of single- and multi-particle renormalizations show that conclusions drawn from single-particle processes cannot necessarily be applied to multi-particle excitations. Eventually, the system smoothly transitions via a momentum-dependent crossover into a weakly correlated metallic state where the spin and charge excitation spectra exhibit similar behavior and where RPA provides an adequate description.« less

  20. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged Ion emissionmicroscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-04-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed.

  1. High dynamic range charge measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  2. A search for charge 1/3 third generation leptoquarks in muon channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzunyan, Sergey A.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2006-08-01

    Leptoquarks are exotic particles that have color, electric charge, and lepton number and appear in extended gauge theories and composite models. Current theory suggests that leptoquarks would come in three different generations corresponding to the three quark and lepton generations. We are searching for charge 1/3 third generation leptoquarks produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the D0 detector. Such leptoquarks would decay into either a tau-neutrino plus a b-quark or, if heavy enough, to a tau-lepton plus a t-quark. We present preliminary results on an analysis where both leptoquarks decay into neutrinos giving a final state with missing energy and two b-quarks using 367 pb{sup -1} of Run II D0 data taken between August 2002 and September 2004. We place upper limits on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} LQ{ovr LQ})B{sup 2} as a function of the leptoquark mass M{sub LQ}. Assuming B = 1, we exclude at the 95% confidence level third generation leptoquarks with M{sub LQ} < 197 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. Charge transfer mechanism in titanium-doped microporous silica for photocatalytic water-splitting applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sapp, Wendi; Koodali, Ranjit; Kilin, Dmitri

    2016-02-29

    Solar energy conversion into chemical form is possible using artificial means. One example of a highly-efficient fuel is solar energy used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient photocatalytic water-splitting remains an open challenge for researchers across the globe. Despite significant progress, several aspects of the reaction, including the charge transfer mechanism, are not fully clear. Density functional theory combined with density matrix equations of motion were used to identify and characterize the charge transfer mechanism involved in the dissociation of water. A simulated porous silica substrate, using periodic boundary conditions, with Ti4+ ions embedded on the inner poremore » wall was found to contain electron and hole trap states that could facilitate a chemical reaction. A trap state was located within the silica substrate that lengthened relaxation time, which may favor a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction would have to occur within the window of photoexcitation; therefore, the existence of a trapping state may encourage a chemical reaction. Furthermore, this provides evidence that the silica substrate plays an integral part in the electron/hole dynamics of the system, leading to the conclusion that both components (photoactive materials and support) of heterogeneous catalytic systems are important in optimization of catalytic efficiency.« less

  4. Unipolar time-differential charge sensing in non-dispersive amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldan, A. H.; Rowlands, J. A.; Tousignant, O.; Karim, K. S.

    2013-06-14

    The use of high resistivity amorphous solids as photodetectors, especially amorphous selenium, is currently of great interest because they are readily produced over large area at substantially lower cost compared to grown crystalline solids. However, amorphous solids have been ruled out as viable radiation detection media for high frame-rate applications, such as single-photon-counting imaging, because of low carrier mobilities, transit-time-limited photoresponse, and consequently, poor time resolution. To circumvent the problem of poor charge transport in amorphous solids, we propose unipolar time-differential charge sensing by establishing a strong near-field effect using an electrostatic shield within the material. For the first time, we have fabricated a true Frisch grid inside a solid-state detector by evaporating amorphous selenium over photolithographically prepared multi-well substrates. The fabricated devices are characterized with optical, x-ray, and gamma-ray impulse-like excitations. Results prove the proposed unipolar time-differential property and show that time resolution in non-dispersive amorphous solids can be improved substantially to reach the theoretical limit set by spatial spreading of the collected Gaussian carrier cloud.

  5. Atomistic Insight on the Charging Energetics in Sub-nanometer Pore Supercacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Feng, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Electrodes featuring sub-nanometer pores can significantly enhance the capacitance and energy density of supercapacitors. However, ions must pay an energy penalty to enter sub-nanometer pores as they have to shed part of their solvation shell. The magnitude of such energy penalty plays a key role in determining the accessibility and charging/discharging of these sub-nanometer pores. Here we report on the atomistic simulation of Na+ and Cl ions entering a polarizable slit pore with a width of 0.82 nm. We show that the free energy penalty for these ions to enter the pore is less than 14 kJ/mol for both Na+ and Cl ions. The surprisingly small energy penalty is caused by the van der Waals attractions between ion and pore walls, the image charge effects, the moderate (19-26%) de-hydration of the ions inside the pore, and the strengthened interactions between ions and their hydration water molecules in the sub-nanometer pore. The results provide strong impetus for further developing nanoporous electrodes featuring sub- nanometer pores.

  6. Contemporary Instrumentation and Application of Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Diagnostics in Magnetic Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medley, S. S.; Donn, A. J.H.; Kaita, R.; Kislyakov, A. I.; Petrov, M. P.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2007-07-21

    An overview of the developments post-circa 1980's of the instrumentation and application of charge exchange neutral particle diagnostics on Magnetic Fusion Energy experiments is presented.

  7. Spin and charge pseudogaps following Kondo effect in the normal state of the underdoped cuprates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mojumder, M.A.

    1999-10-30

    A study of experimental results on various parameters of underdoped cuprates in the normal state combined with analytic calculation of Hall parameters assuming a two-channel Kondo model for the system leads to the conclusion that the spin and charge pseudogaps are, respectively, a Kondo hybridization gap and an incipient d-wave superconducting gap. The former occurs due to resonant scattering of doped holes by the magnetic Cu{sup 2+} ions while the latter occurs due to incoherent Cooper pairing of Kondo-compensated quasi-itinerant Cu d-orbitals via exchange of spin excitations. The author comments on the essential similarity of the high-T{sub c} and heavy fermion superconductors and a certain crossover at lower temperatures from the two-channel to the one-channel Kondo model. An expression has been derived for the Kondo contribution to the spectral function of the charge pseudogap. The author believes this work unravels the long-standing conundrum of the high-T{sub c} cuprates.

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully.

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge: Partners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners Workplace Charging Challenge: Partners Use the interactive map and list below to learn more about employers who have joined the U.S. Department of Energy's Workplace Charging Challenge. These employers are providing workplace charging for their employees who drive plug-in electric vehicles. Partners receive assistance from DOE to help them establish and expand workplace charging while ambassador organizations work to promote and support partners' workplace charging efforts across the

  10. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  11. SELF-CONSISTENT LANGEVIN SIMULATION OF COULOMB COLLISIONS IN CHARGED-PARTICLE BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. QIANG; R. RYNE; S. HABIB

    2000-05-01

    In many plasma physics and charged-particle beam dynamics problems, Coulomb collisions are modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. In order to incorporate these collisions, we present a three-dimensional parallel Langevin simulation method using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach implemented on high-performance parallel computers. We perform, for the first time, a fully self-consistent simulation, in which the friction and diffusion coefficients are computed from first principles. We employ a two-dimensional domain decomposition approach within a message passing programming paradigm along with dynamic load balancing. Object oriented programming is used to encapsulate details of the communication syntax as well as to enhance reusability and extensibility. Performance tests on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E-900 have demonstrated good scalability. Work is in progress to apply our technique to intrabeam scattering in accelerators.

  12. Analysis of electron capture process in charge pumping sequence using time domain measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Masahiro Watanabe, Tokinobu; Ono, Yukinori; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki

    2014-12-29

    A method for analyzing the electron capture process in the charge pumping (CP) sequence is proposed and demonstrated. The method monitors the electron current in the CP sequence in time domain. This time-domain measurements enable us to directly access the process of the electron capture to the interface defects, which are obscured in the conventional CP method. Using the time-domain measurements, the rise time dependence of the capture process is systematically investigated. We formulate the capture process based on the rate equation and derive an analytic form of the current due to the electron capture to the defects. Based on the formula, the experimental data are analyzed and the capture cross section is obtained. In addition, the time-domain data unveil that the electron capture process completes before the electron channel opens, or below the threshold voltage in a low frequency range of the pulse.

  13. Pressure non-uniformity and mixing characteristics in stratified-charge rotary engine combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Wey, M.J.; Bracco, F.V.

    1988-01-01

    Stratified-charge combustion in rotary engines was studied using a three-dimensional model to compute intake, compression, liquid fuel injection, combustion, expansion, and exhaust. The model was applied to two engines of different displacement and at seven operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the measured pressure and the results of previous studies. The main feature of the combustion flowfield in the two engines, the slow and nonuniform mixing of fuel and air which leads to long and incomplete combustion, is attributed at least in part to low turbulent diffusivity within the rotor pocket. The TDC diffusivity in this type of rotary engine is shown to be lower than in corresponding reciprocating engines primarily because of the longer time between intake and TDC. The model also explains pressure nonuniformities that have been experimentally observed within the combustion chamber around TDC. The nonuniformity is due to the large fluid acceleration caused by the motion of the rotor. 34 references.

  14. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to themore » interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.« less

  15. Calculation of axial charge spreading in carbon nanotubes and nanotube Y junctions during STM measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, Geza I.; Biro, Laszlo P.; Lambin, Philippe

    2004-09-15

    Distribution of the probability current and the probability density of wave packets was calculated for nanotubes and nanotube Y junctions by solving the three dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a jellium potential model of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip-nanotube-support system. Four systems were investigated: an infinite single wall nanotube (SWNT) as reference case, a capped SWNT protruding a step of the support surface, a quantum dot (finite tube without support), and a SWNT Y junction. It is found that the spatial distribution of the probability current flowing into the sample is decided by the electron probability density of the tube and by the oscillation in time of the probability current, which in turn is governed by the quasibound states on the tube. For the infinite tube the width of the axial spreading of the wave packet during tunneling is about 5 nm. When the STM tip is above that part of the tube which protrudes from the atomic scale step of the support surface it is found that the current flows ballistically along the tube and the total transmission is the same as for the infinite tube. In the case of quantum dot, however, the finite tube is first charged in a short time then it is discharged very slowly through the tip-nanotube tunnel junction. In the Y junction both the above the junction and off the junction tip positions were investigated. For a 1.2 nm displacement of the tip from the junction the wave packet still 'samples' the junction point which means that in STM and scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments the signature of the junction should be still present for such tip displacement. For all tunneling situations analyzed the tunnel current is mainly determined by the tip-nanotube junction owing to its large resistance. The tunneling event through the STM model is characterized by two time scales, the nanotube is quickly 'charged' with the wave packet coming from the tip then this 'charge' flows into the

  16. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza

    2014-04-15

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.

  17. Real time cumulant approach for charge-transfer satellites in x-ray photoemission spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-01

    X-ray photoemission spectra generally exhibit satellite features in addition to quasi-particle peaks due to many-body excitations which have been of considerable theoretical and experimental interest. However, the satellites attributed to charge-transfer (CT) excitations in correlated materials have proved difficult to calculate from first principles. Here we report a real-time, real-space approach for such calculations based on a cumulant representation of the core-hole Green’s function and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach also yields an interpretation of CT satellites in terms of a complex oscillatory, transient response to a suddenly created core hole. Illustrative results for TiO2 and NiO are in good agreement with experiment.

  18. Effects of charge inhomogeneities on elementary excitations in La2-xSrxCuO₄

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, S. R.; Hamann, A.; Pintschovius, L.; Lamago, D.; Khaliullin, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Reznik, D.

    2011-12-12

    Purely local experimental probes of many copper oxide superconductors show that their electronic states are inhomogeneous in real space. For example, scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging shows strong variations in real space, and according to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies, the charge distribution in the bulk varies on the nanoscale. However, the analysis of the experimental results utilizing spatially averaged probes often ignores this fact. We have performed a detailed investigation of the doping dependence of the energy and linewidth of the zone-boundary Cu-O bond-stretching vibration in La2-xSrxCuO₄ by inelastic neutron scattering. Both our results as well as previously reported angle-dependentmore » momentum widths of the electronic spectral function detected by angle-resolved photoemission can be reproduced by including the same distribution of local environments extracted from the NQR analysis.« less

  19. Study on space charge effect in an electrostatic ion analyzer applied to measure laser produced ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Q. Y.; Li, Zh. M.; Liu, W.; Zhao, H. Y. Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-03-15

    The abundance of different ions produced by laser ion sources is usually analyzed by an electrostatic ion analyzer (EIA). Ion current intensities in the range of several mA/cm{sup 2} at the position of the EIA have been achieved from the laser ion source developed by the Institute of Modern Physics; this indicates that a noticeable influence of space charge effect during the ion transmission will occur. Hence, while the parameters of the EIA or the beams are changed, such as ion species, current intensity, the ions’ transmission efficiency through the EIA is different, which will result in an uncertainty in the estimation of the ions’ yields. Special attention is focused on this issue in this paper. Ion's transmissions through the EIA under different circumstances are studied with simulations and experiments, the results of which are consistent with each other.

  20. Charge state control in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots by external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jing; Cao, Shuo; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai; Geng, Weidong; Williams, David A.

    2014-07-28

    We report a photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of charge state control in single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots by applying electric and/or magnetic fields at 4.2?K. Neutral and charged exciton complexes were observed under applied bias voltages from ?0.5?V to 0.5?V by controlling the carrier tunneling. The highly negatively charged exciton emission becomes stronger with increasing pumping power, arising from the fact that electrons have a smaller effective mass than holes and are more easily captured by the quantum dots. The integrated PL intensity of negatively charged excitons is affected significantly by a magnetic field applied along the sample growth axis. This observation is explained by a reduction in the electron drift velocity caused by an applied magnetic field, which increases the probability of non-resonantly excited electrons being trapped by localized potentials at the wetting layer interface, and results in fewer electrons distributed in the quantum dots. The hole drift velocity is also affected by the magnetic field, but it is much weaker.

  1. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Twitter Attend local EV events Share your story Currently have 13 ChargePoint charging stations scattered throughout Vermont 2015 - 12 Freedom Stations & 10...

  2. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for annual capital fleet purchases 10 of 17 locations currently have charging stations Agreement with employees to provide workplace charging Ultimate goal is ...

  3. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr.; Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  4. Conversion of pure spin current to charge current in amorphous bismuth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emoto, H.; Ando, Y.; Shinjo, T.; Shiraishi, M.; Shikoh, E.; Fuseya, Y.

    2014-05-07

    Spin Hall angle and spin diffusion length in amorphous bismuth (Bi) are investigated by using conversion of a pure spin current to a charge current in a spin pumping technique. In Bi/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/Si(100) sample, a clear direct current (DC) electromotive force due to the inverse spin Hall effect of the Bi layer is observed at room temperature under a ferromagnetic resonance condition of the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} layer. From the Bi thickness dependence of the DC electromotive force, the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length of the amorphous Bi film are estimated to be 0.02 and 8?nm, respectively.

  5. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-08

    Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas.more » At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.« less

  6. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-08

    Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas. At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.

  7. Thermodynamics of charged rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke theory with quadratic scalar field potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pakravan, J.; Hendi, S. H.

    2006-11-15

    We construct a class of charged rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Maxwell-Brans-Dicke theory with flat horizon in the presence of a quadratic potential and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the finite Euclidean action through the use of counterterm method, and obtain the conserved and thermodynamic quantities by using the relation between the action and free energy in grand-canonical ensemble. We find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.

  8. Near equilibrium distributions for beams with space charge in linear and nonlinear periodic focusing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Cary, John R.

    2015-04-15

    A procedure to obtain a near equilibrium phase space distribution function has been derived for beams with space charge effects in a generalized periodic focusing transport channel. The method utilizes the Lie transform perturbation theory to canonically transform to slowly oscillating phase space coordinates. The procedure results in transforming the periodic focusing system to a constant focusing one, where equilibrium distributions can be found. Transforming back to the original phase space coordinates yields an equilibrium distribution function corresponding to a constant focusing system along with perturbations resulting from the periodicity in the focusing. Examples used here include linear and nonlinear alternating gradient focusing systems. It is shown that the nonlinear focusing components can be chosen such that the system is close to integrability. The equilibrium distribution functions are numerically calculated, and their properties associated with the corresponding focusing system are discussed.

  9. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-05-03

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  10. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Keiter, P.; Reynolds, H.; Rygg, J.  R.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma.

  11. Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I

    2010-01-11

    We report results of low-temperature thermodynamic and transport measurements of Pb{sub 1-x}Tl{sub x}Te single crystals for Tl concentrations up to the solubility limit of approximately x = 1.5%. For all doped samples, we observe a low-temperature resistivity upturn that scales in magnitude with the Tl concentration. The temperature and field dependence of this upturn are consistent with a charge Kondo effect involving degenerate Tl valence states differing by two electrons, with a characteristic Kondo temperature T{sub K} {approx} 6 K. The observation of such an effect supports an electronic pairing mechanism for superconductivity in this material and may account for the anomalously high T{sub c} values.

  12. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Tuning charge-discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-12-18

    For LiMO2 (M=Co, Ni, Mn) cathode materials, lattice parameters, a(b), contract during charge. Here we report such changes in opposite directions for lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3). A ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is proposed based on crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxides during charge-discharge. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of the metal-metal bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking metal-oxygen bond as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of molybdenum ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in the early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results may open a new strategy for designing layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Grigorenko, L.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, Mustafa; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the beta-decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of beta-decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the beta-delayed three proton emission.

  15. Noether charges and black hole mechanics in Einstein-aether theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Brendan Z.

    2006-01-15

    The Noether charge method for defining the Hamiltonian of a diffeomorphism-invariant field theory is applied to 'Einstein-aether' theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field. Using the method, expressions are obtained for the total energy, momentum, and angular momentum of an Einstein-aether space-time. The method is also used to discuss the mechanics of Einstein-aether black holes. The derivation of Wald, and Iyer and Wald, of the first law of black hole thermodynamics fails for this theory because the unit-vector is necessarily singular at the bifurcation surface of the Killing horizon. A general identity relating variations of energy and angular momentum to a surface integral at the horizon is obtained, but a thermodynamic interpretation, including a definitive expression for the black hole entropy, is not found.

  16. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories inmore » WDM plasma.« less

  17. Efficient terahertz-wave generation and its ultrafast optical modulation in charge ordered organic ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Hirotake Iwai, Shinichiro; Itoh, Keisuke; Goto, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Yakushi, Kyuya

    2014-04-28

    Efficient terahertz (THz) wave generation in strongly correlated organic compounds ?-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3} and ??-(ET){sub 2}IBr{sub 2} (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene) was demonstrated. The spontaneous polarization induced by charge ordering or electronic ferroelectricity was revealed to trigger the THz-wave generation via optical rectification; the estimated 2nd-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for ?-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3} is over 70 times larger than that for prototypical THz-source ZnTe. Ultrafast (<1 ps) and sensitive (?40%) photoresponse of the THz wave was observed for ?-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3}, which is attributable to photoinduced quenching of the polarization accompanied by insulator(ferroelectric)-to-metal transition. Modulation of the THz wave was observed for ??-(ET){sub 2}IBr{sub 2} upon the poling procedure, indicating the alignment of polar domains.

  18. Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai

    2010-05-01

    Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is obtained by counting the number of reconstructed hits, hit-pairs, and fully reconstructed charged-particle tracks. The combination of the three methods gives a charged-particle multiplicity per unit of pseudorapidity dN{sub ch}/d{eta}|{eta}|<0.5 = 5.78 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.23 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive events, higher than predicted by commonly used models. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from {radical}s = 0.9 to 7 TeV is 66.1% {+-} 1.0% (stat.) {+-} 4.2% (syst.). The mean transverse momentum is measured to be 0.545 {+-} 0.005 (stat.) {+-} 0.015 (syst.) GeV/c. The results are compared with similar measurements at lower energies.

  19. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong; Feng, Guang; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui; Meunier, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero

  20. Method and apparatus for linear low-frequency feedback in monolithic low-noise charge amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2006-02-14

    A charge amplifier includes an amplifier, feedback circuit, and cancellation circuit. The feedback circuit includes a capacitor, inverter, and current mirror. The capacitor is coupled across the signal amplifier, the inverter is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier, and the current mirror is coupled to the input of the signal amplifier. The cancellation circuit is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier. A method of charge amplification includes providing a signal amplifier; coupling a first capacitor across the signal amplifier; coupling an inverter to the output of the signal amplifier; coupling a current mirror to the input of the signal amplifier; and coupling a cancellation circuit to the output of the signal amplifier. A front-end system for use with radiation sensors includes a charge amplifier and a current amplifier, shaping amplifier, baseline stabilizer, discriminator, peak detector, timing detector, and logic circuit coupled to the charge amplifier.

  1. Mechanisms of charge transport in anisotype n-TiO{sub 2}/p-CdTe heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brus, V. V.; Ilashchuk, M. I.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Maryanchuk, P. D.; Ulyanytsky, K. S.; Gritsyuk, B. N.

    2011-08-15

    Surface-barrier anisotype n-TiO{sub 2}/p-CdTe heterojunctions are fabricated by depositing thin titanium-dioxide films on a freshly cleaved surface of single-crystalline cadmium-telluride wafers by reactive magnetron sputtering. It is established that the electric current through the heterojunctions under investigation is formed by generation-recombination processes in the space-charge region via a deep energy level and tunneling through the potential barrier. The depth and nature of the impurity centers involved in the charge transport are determined.

  2. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-antitop quark production with the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinelt, Julia; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-12-01

    The Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab) operates the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, the is therefore the only collider which is today able to produce the heaviest known particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and D0 collaborations in 1995. At the Tevatron, most top quarks are produced via the strong interaction, whereby quark-antiquark annihilation dominates with 85%, and gluon fusion contributes with 15%. Considering next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions in the cross section of top-antitop quark production, leads to a slight positive asymmetry in the differential distribution of the production angle {alpha} of the top quarks. This asymmetry is due to the interference of certain NLO contributions. The charge asymmetry A in the cosine of {alpha} is predicted [14] to amount to 4-6%. Information about the partonic rest frame, necessary for a measurement of A in the observable cos {alpha}, is not accessible in the experiment. Thus, they use the rapidity difference of the top and the antitop quark as sensitive variable. This quantity offers the advantage of Lorentz invariance and is uniquely correlated with the cosine of {alpha}, justifying the choice of the rapidity difference to describe the behavior of cos {alpha}. In preparation for a measurement of the charge asymmetry, they conduct several Monte Carlo based studies concerning the effect of different event selection criteria on the asymmetry in the selected event samples. They observe a strong dependence of the measured asymmetry on the number of required jets in the particular event sample. This motivates further studies to understand the influence of additional gluon radiation, which leads to more than four observed jets in an event, on the rapidity distribution of the produced top quarks. They find, that events containing hard gluon radiation are correlated with a strong negative shift of the rapidity

  3. Workplace Charging Toolkit: Outreach Letter Template

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reach out to employers in your community who may be interested in offering workplace charging with this template.

  4. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  5. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

    2006-05-31

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Riverside County | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One of the steps toward this brighter future involves building plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. A grant award in 2012 resulted in seven PEV charging stations ...

  7. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consumers Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Buying the Right Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Driving and Maintaining Your Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Charging Your Vehicle . . . . . . .

  8. Precursors to cold fusion phenomenon and the detection of energetic charged particles in deuterium/solid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, S.Y.; Wang, K.L.; Feng, Y.Y.; Chang, L.; Luo, C.M.; Hu, R.Y.; Zhou, P.L.; Mo, D.W.; Zhu, Y.F.; Song, C.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Yao, M.Y.; Ren, C.; Chen, Q.K.; Li, X.Z. )

    1991-11-01

    A precursor to the cold fusion phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems is sought in order to solve the problem of reproducibility. The results of the first experiments are discussed. Electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles have been detected. In this paper it is shown that the surface condition has an important effect on this phenomenon.

  9. Measurement of pretzelosity asymmetry of charged pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a polarized He target

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Qian, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized He target was performed at Jefferson Lab in the kinematic region of 0.16 on He3 and on neutron pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  10. Self-organized arrays of graphene and few-layer graphene quantum dots in fluorographene matrix: Charge transient spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonova, Irina V., E-mail: antonova@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov st. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nebogatikova, Nadezhda A.; Prinz, Victor Ya. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-12

    Arrays of graphene or few-layer graphene quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a partially fluorinated graphene matrix were created by chemical functionalization of layers. Charge transient spectroscopy employed for investigation of obtained QD systems (size 2070 nm) has allowed us to examine the QD energy spectra and the time of carrier emission (or charge relaxation) from QDs as a function of film thickness. It was found that the characteristic time of carrier emission from QDs decreased markedly (by about four orders of magnitude) on increasing the QD thickness from one graphene monolayer to 3 nm. Daylight-assisted measurements also demonstrate a strong decrease of the carrier emission time.

  11. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  12. The structure of the invariant charge in massive theories with one coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, E.

    1995-06-01

    Invariance under finite renormalization group (RG) transformations is used to structure the invariant charge in models with one coupling in the 4 lowest orders of perturbation theory. In every order there starts a RG-invariant, which is uniquely continued to higher orders. Whereas in massless models the RG-invariants are power series in logarithms, there is no such requirement in a massive model. Only when one applies the Callan-Symanzik (CS) equation of the respective theories is the high-energy behavior of the RG-invariants restricted. In models where the CS-equation has the same form as the RG-equation, the massless limit is reached smoothly, i.e., the {beta}-functions are constants in the asymptotic limit and the RG-functions starting the new invariant tend to logarithms. On the other hand, in the spontaneously broken models with fermions the CS-equation contains a {beta}-function of a physical mass. As a consequence the {beta}-functions depend on the normalization point also in the asymptotic region and a mass independent limit does not exist anymore. {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

  13. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvojka, Jesse John

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q2, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles

  14. EV Everywhere: Vehicle Charging | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere: Vehicle Charging EV Everywhere: Vehicle Charging The standard J1772 electric power receptacle (right) can receive power from Level 1 or Level 2 charging equipment. The CHAdeMO DC fast charge receptacle (left) uses a different type of connector. The standard J1772 electric power receptacle (right) can receive power from Level 1 or Level 2 charging equipment. The CHAdeMO DC fast charge receptacle (left) uses a different type of connector. To get the most out of your plug-in electric

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Genentech | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Genentech began installing Level 2 PEV charging stations at their campus in 2014, adding pilot projects for solar and wind powered charging in 2015, and planning for both Level 2 ...

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Power Integrations, Inc...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power Integrations installed ten level 2 plug-in electric vehicle charging stations at its San Jos headquarters in 2012, expanding the installation to a total of 22 charging ...

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: North Central College ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    North Central College has two plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations. Both stations may be used free of charge by students, faculty, staff and campus visitors. Serious in ...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge: Install and Manage PEV Charging | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Install and Manage PEV Charging Workplace Charging Challenge: Install and Manage PEV Charging pev_workplace_charging_hosts_150x194.jpg To determine if workplace charging is right for your organization, use the employer resources to learn more about PEVs and charging stations. The PEV Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts is particularly helpful for employers deciding if and how to install charging stations to ensure a successful workplace charging program. PEVs and Charging

  19. Features of space-charge-limited emission in foil-less diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ping; Yuan, Keliang; Liu, Guozhi; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-15

    Space-charge-limited (SCL) current can always be obtained from the blade surface of annular cathodes in foil-less diodes which are widely used in O-type relativistic high power microwave generators. However, there is little theoretical analysis regarding it due to the mathematical complexity, and almost all formulas about the SCL current in foil-less diodes are based on numerical simulation results. This paper performs an initial trial in calculation of the SCL current from annular cathodes theoretically under the ultra-relativistic assumption and the condition of infinitely large guiding magnetic field. The numerical calculation based on the theoretical research is coherent with the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation result to some extent under a diode voltage of 850?kV. Despite that the theoretical research gives a much larger current than the PIC simulation (41.3?kA for the former and 9.7?kA for the latter), which is induced by the ultra-relativistic assumption in the theoretical research, they both show the basic characteristic of emission from annular cathodes in foil-less diodes, i.e., the emission enhancement at the cathode blade edges, especially at the outer edge. This characteristic is confirmed to some extent in our experimental research of cathode plasma photographing under the same diode voltage and a guiding magnetic field of 4?T.

  20. Proposition of a stratified charge system by using in-cylinder gas motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Muroki, Takumi

    1995-12-31

    A new idea for controlling the in-cylinder mixture formation in SI engines is proposed. This concept was developed by applying the results of numerical calculations. Fuel that is directly injected into the cylinder is transferred toward the cylinder head to form a mixture stratification by using the in-cylinder gas motion that is generated by the interaction between the swirl and squish flows inside a combustion chamber. At first, the flow characteristics were measured in the whole in-cylinder space using an LDV system. Also, numerical calculations of the in-cylinder flow were made using measured data as the initial conditions. Secondly, the local equivalence ratio at several points inside the combustion chamber was measured by using a fast gas sampling device. The results showed that this idea generates the desired stratified charge when the fuel is injected with a higher injection pressure (about 1.3 MPa) at near the intake-BDC timing than with a usual pressure of 0.2 MPa in the port-injection case. Further numerical calculations were performed to examine other factors that might enhance mixture stratification during the compression stroke.