Sample records for in cludes charges

  1. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  2. Child neurology: Autism as a model: Considerations for advanced training in behavioral child neurology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeste, SS; Friedman, SL; Urion, DK

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through outpatient clinics and didactics, there is no formalneuropsychological assessments. Didactics would in- clude

  3. 2. Cantino EC (1966) In: The Fungi, Vol 2 (Ainsworth, GS and Sussman AS, eds),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogenosomes are probably derived from mitochondria. This data in- cludes primary sequences of hydrogeno- somal

  4. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  5. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  7. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Carlos Silva University of...

  8. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  9. Randomly charged polymers in porous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

  10. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  11. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  12. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  13. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  14. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  15. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  16. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  17. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  18. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  19. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,§ Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Ma¨nnik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

  20. Static charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. It specifies which two of the fluid's characteristics are given functions and picks up accordingly one of the three main field equations, the other two being universal. General formulae are found for charged de Sitter solutions, the case of constant energy component of the energy-momentum tensor, the case of known pressure (including charged dust) and the case of linear equation of state. Explicit new global solutions, mainly in elementary functions, are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed and corrected.

  1. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  2. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  3. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  4. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  5. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  6. Fermion space charge in narrow-band gap semiconductors, Weyl semimetals and around highly charged nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene B. Kolomeisky; Joseph P. Straley; Hussain Zaidi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of charged impurities in narrow-band gap semiconductors and Weyl semimetals can create electron-hole pairs when the total charge $Ze$ of the impurity exceeds a value $Z_{c}e$. The particles of one charge escape to infinity, leaving a screening space charge. The result is that the observable dimensionless impurity charge $Q_{\\infty}$ is less than $Z$ but greater than $Z_{c}$. There is a corresponding effect for nuclei with $Z >Z_{c} \\approx 170$, however in the condensed matter setting we find $Z_{c} \\simeq 10$. Thomas-Fermi theory indicates that $Q_{\\infty} = 0$ for the Weyl semimetal, but we argue that this is a defect of the theory. For the case of a highly-charged recombination center in a narrow band-gap semiconductor (or of a supercharged nucleus), the observable charge takes on a nearly universal value. In Weyl semimetals the observable charge takes on the universal value $Q_{\\infty} = Z_{c}$ set by the reciprocal of material's fine structure constant.

  7. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  8. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  9. Charge migration in organic materials: Can propagating charges affect the key physical quantities controlling their motion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollub, C; Gutierrez, R; Berlin, Y; Cuniberti, G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge migration is a ubiquitous phenomenon with profound implications throughout many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. The long-term vision of designing functional materials with tailored molecular scale properties has triggered an increasing quest to identify prototypical systems where truly molecular conduction pathways play a fundamental role. Such pathways can be formed due to the molecular organization of various organic materials and are widely used to discuss electronic properties at the nanometer scale. Here, we present a computational methodology to study charge propagation in organic molecular stacks at nano and sub-nanoscales and exploit this methodology to demonstrate that moving charge carriers strongly affect the values of the physical quantities controlling their motion. The approach is also expected to find broad application in the field of charge migration in soft matter systems.

  10. Charged black holes in expanding Einstein-de Sitter universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuela G. Rodrigues; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired in a previous work by McClure and Dyer (Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 1971 (2006)), we analyze some solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which were originally written to describe charged black holes in cosmological backgrounds. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic sources for a sufficiently general metric is performed, and then we focus on deriving the electromagnetic four-current as well as the conserved electric charge of each metric. The charged McVittie solution is revisited and a brief study of its causal structure is performed, showing that it may represent a charged black hole in an expanding universe, with the black hole horizon being formed at infinite late times. Charged versions of solutions originally put forward by Vaidya (Vd) and Sultana and Dyer (SD) are also analyzed. It is shown that the charged Sultana-Dyer metric requires a global electric current, besides a central (pointlike) electric charge. With the aim of comparing to the charged McVittie metric, new charged solutions of Vd and SD type are considered. In these cases, the original mass and charge parameters are replaced by particular functions of the cosmological time. In the new generalized charged Vaidya metric the black hole horizon never forms, whereas in the new generalized Sultana-Dyer case both the Cauchy and the black hole horizons develop at infinite late times. A charged version of the Thakurta metric is also studied here. It is also a new solution. As in the charged Sultana-Dyer case, the natural source of the electromagnetic field is a central electric charge with an additional global electric current. The global structure is briefly studied and it is verified that the corresponding spacetime may represent a charged black hole in a cosmological background. All the solutions present initial singularities as found in the McVittie metric.

  11. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMapping Particle Charges in Battery

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMapping Particle Charges in BatteryMapping

  13. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  14. Space charge emission in cylindrical diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres-Córdoba, Rafael; Martínez-García, Edgar [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)] [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a mathematical model to describe cylindrical electron current emissions through a physics approximation method is presented. The proposed mathematical approximation consists of analyzing and solving the nonlinear Poisson's equation, with some determined mathematical restrictions. Our findings tackle the problem when charge-space creates potential barrier that disable the steady-state of the beam propagation. In this problem, the potential barrier effects of electron's speed with zero velocity emitted through the virtual cathode happens. The interaction between particles and the virtual cathode have been to find the inter-atomic potentials as boundary conditions from a quantum mechanics perspective. Furthermore, a non-stationary spatial solution of the electrical potential between anode and cathode is presented. The proposed solution is a 2D differential equation that was linearized from the generalized Poisson equation. A single condition was used solely, throughout the radial boundary conditions of the current density formation.

  15. Study of ?-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions, various approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithwish Tribedy; Subhasis Chattopadhyay; Aihong Tang

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Event-by-event \\gamma-charge correlation is used in studying systems going through QCD chiral phase transition. In this paper various methods for measuring \\gamma-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions have been discussed. Dynamical fluctuation due to formation of domains of DCC that can affect \\gamma-charge correlation has been discussed. We study known detector and statistical effects involved in these measurements and suggest suitable robust observables \\Delta\

  16. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  17. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  18. Dynamics and thermodynamics of decay in charged clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Mark A; Moerland, Christian P; Gray, Sarah J; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method for quantifying charge-driven instabilities in clusters, based on equilibrium simulations under confinement at constant external pressure. This approach makes no assumptions about the mode of decay and allows different clusters to be compared on an equal footing. A comprehensive survey of stability in model clusters of 309 Lennard-Jones particles augmented with Coulomb interactions is presented. We proceed to examine dynamic signatures of instability, finding that rate constants for ejection of charged particles increase smoothly as a function of total charge with no sudden changes. For clusters where many particles carry charge, ejection of individual charges competes with a fission process that leads to more symmetric division of the cluster into large fragments. The rate constants for fission depend much more sensitively on total charge than those for ejection of individual particles.

  19. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal, Avraham

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The large charge symmetry breaking (CSB) implied by the $\\Lambda$ binding energy difference $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\equiv B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$He)$-$$B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$H) = 0.35$\\pm$0.06 MeV of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei ground states, determined from emulsion studies, has defied theoretical attempts to reproduce it in terms of CSB in hyperon masses and in hyperon-nucleon interactions, including one pion exchange arising from $\\Lambda-\\Sigma^0$ mixing. Using a schematic strong-interaction $\\Lambda N\\leftrightarrow\\Sigma N$ coupling model developed by Akaishi and collaborators for $s$-shell $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we revisit the evaluation of CSB in the $A=4$ $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei and extend it to $p$-shell mirror $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The model yields values of $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda} (0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\sim 0.25$ MeV. Smaller size and mostly negative $p$-shell binding energy differences are calculated for the $A=7-10$ mirror hypernuclei, in rough agreement with the few available dat...

  20. Charge separation in photoredox reactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevan, L.

    1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural aspects controlling charge separation in molecular photoionization reactions in organized molecular assemblies involving micelles, reverse micelles and vesicles are being studied by optical and electron magnetic resonance techniques including the time domain technique of deuterium electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and matrix proton electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) to measure weak electron-nuclear dipolar interactions. ESEM and matrix ENDOR are particularly well adapted to the study of disordered systems as exemplified by micelles and vesicles. The photoionization yields of alkylphenothiazines in micelles and vesicles have been shown to depend on the alkyl chain length and to correlate with relative distances from the surfactant assembly interface measured by deuterium ESEM and matrix proton ENDOR. The photoionization of alkylmethylviologens versus alkyl chain length has also been studied in vesicles, micelles and reverse micelles. Nitroxide spin probes have been used to study the degree of water penetration into mixed ionic/nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) and cationic/anionic micelles by using ESEM methods and selectively deuterated surfactants. The effect of urea interaction at micellar interfaces on the interface hydration has also been evaluated by studying nitroxide probes with ESEM.

  1. Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges N° 2006-08 Mai 2006 Evens SALIES OFCE hal-00972962,version1-3Apr2014 #12;Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges-efficiency as variables relating to price and profitability. The retail electricity market is a case in point, as high

  2. Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    . To overcome this challenge, we develop a low-complexity algorithm that efficiently computes the pricingCompetitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Wei Yuan, Member, IEEE, Jianwei considers the problem of charging station pricing and station selection of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs

  3. GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Prashant

    1 GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant that combines market-based electricity pricing models with on-site renewables and modest energy storage (in renewables). We show that GreenCharge's savings for a typical home today are near 20%, which are greater than

  4. GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurose, Jim

    GreenCharge: Managing Renewable Energy in Smart Buildings Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant of buildings is challenging. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach that combines market show that GreenCharge's savings for a typical home today are near 20%, which are greater than

  5. Self-similar and charged spheres in the diffusion approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Barreto; A. Da Silva

    2005-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spherical, charged and self--similar distributions of matter in the diffusion approximation. We propose a simple, dynamic but physically meaningful solution. For such a solution we obtain a model in which the distribution becomes static and changes to dust. The collapse is halted with damped mass oscillations about the absolute value of the total charge.

  6. Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveiro, Iván [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Javier García de Abajo, F., E-mail: javier.garciadeabajo@icfo.es [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.

  7. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  8. Charge-induced phase separation in lipid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Himeno; Naofumi Shimokawa; Shigeyuki Komura; David Andelman; Tsutomu Hamada; Masahiro Takagi

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase separation in lipid bilayers that include negatively charged lipids is examined experimentally. We observed phase-separated structures and determined the membrane miscibility temperatures in several binary and ternary lipid mixtures of unsaturated neutral lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), saturated neutral lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), unsaturated charged lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$), saturated charged lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$), and cholesterol. In binary mixtures of saturated and unsaturated charged lipids, the combination of the charged head with the saturation of hydrocarbon tail is a dominant factor for the stability of membrane phase separation. DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ enhances phase separation, while DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ suppresses it. Furthermore, the addition of DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ to a binary mixture of DPPC/cholesterol induces phase separation between DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$-rich and cholesterol-rich phases. This indicates that cholesterol localization depends strongly on the electric charge on the hydrophilic head group rather than on the ordering of the hydrocarbon tails. Finally, when DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ was added to a neutral ternary system of DOPC/DPPC/Cholesterol (a conventional model of membrane rafts), a three-phase coexistence was produced. We conclude by discussing some qualitative features of the phase behaviour in charged membranes using a free energy approach.

  9. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

  10. Charge pumping techniques in ultra-low current transconductor design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker-Gomez, Adriana

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce the use of interface-trap charge pumping devices (ITCP) in an analog application based in ultra-low-current transconductors. This application naturally exploits the continuous nature of the current...

  11. Exciton/Charge-transfer Electronic Couplings in Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    Charge transfer (CT) states and excitons are important in energy conversion processes that occur in organic light emitting devices (OLEDS) and organic solar cells. An ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method for ...

  12. Topological charge in 1+1 dimensional lattice $?^4$ theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asit K. De; A. Harindranath; Jyotirmoy Maiti; Tilak Sinha

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the topological charge in 1+1 dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory on a lattice with Anti Periodic Boundary Condition (APBC) in the spatial direction. We propose a simple order parameter for the lattice theory with APBC and we demonstrate its effectiveness. Our study suggests that kink condensation is a possible mechanism for the order-disorder phase transition in the 1+1 dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory. With renormalizations performed on the lattice with Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC), the topological charge in the renormalized theory is given as the ratio of the order parameters in the lattices with APBC and PBC. We present a comparison of topological charges in the bare and the renormalized theory and demonstrate invariance of the charge of the renormalized theory in the broken symmetry phase.

  13. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Particle in an Electroscalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Podgainy; O. A. Zaimidoroga

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This article devoted to relativistic dynamics of a charged massive particle in an electroscalar field. It represents a continuation of paper [1] where the authors constructed a non-relativistic theory which describes transverse electromagnetic waves along with longitudinal electroscalar ones, responsible for the wave transport of the Coulomb field. A new type of relativistic force exerted by electroscalar field on an electrically charged particle and the relativistic law of superposition of electromagnetic transverse and electroscalar longitudinal fields are established. Also, a relativistically invariant form of a Lagrangian describing the interaction between an electroscalar field and massive electrically charged particle is defined.

  14. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Particle in an Electroscalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgainy, D V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article devoted to relativistic dynamics of a charged massive particle in an electroscalar field. It represents a continuation of paper [1] where the authors constructed a non-relativistic theory which describes transverse electromagnetic waves along with longitudinal electroscalar ones, responsible for the wave transport of the Coulomb field. A new type of relativistic force exerted by electroscalar field on an electrically charged particle and the relativistic law of superposition of electromagnetic transverse and electroscalar longitudinal fields are established. Also, a relativistically invariant form of a Lagrangian describing the interaction between an electroscalar field and massive electrically charged particle is defined.

  15. Interpretation of the atmospheric muon charge ratio in MINOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Schreiner; Maury Goodman

    2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    MINOS is the first large magnetic detector deep underground and is the first to measure the muon charge ratio with high statistics in the region near 1 TeV.\\cite{bib:adamson} An approximate formula for the muon charge ratio can be expressed in terms of $\\epsilon_\\pi$ = 115 GeV, $\\epsilon_K$ = 850 GeV and $\\ec$. The implications for K production in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  16. Residual dust charges in an afterglow plasma , M. Mikikian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance]. For the study concerning residual charges, the top electrode was cooled. An upward thermophoretic force

  17. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  18. Surface charge algebra in gauge theories and thermodynamic integrability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnich, Glenn [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Compere, Geoffrey [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Gravity Group, University of California at Santa Barbara, Broida Hall 9530, California 93106-9530 (United States)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface charges and their algebra in interacting Lagrangian gauge field theories are constructed out of the underlying linearized theory using techniques from the variational calculus. In the case of exact solutions and symmetries, the surface charges are interpreted as a Pfaff system. Integrability is governed by Frobenius' theorem and the charges associated with the derived symmetry algebra are shown to vanish. In the asymptotic context, we provide a generalized covariant derivation of the result that the representation of the asymptotic symmetry algebra through charges may be centrally extended. Comparison with Hamiltonian and covariant phase space methods is made. All approaches are shown to agree for exact solutions and symmetries while there are differences in the asymptotic context.

  19. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy Apr 17, 2014 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM John Papanikolas Professor of Chemistry &...

  20. Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene solar cells April 13, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Koen Vandewal Linkping University vandewal-small abstract: For an efficient...

  1. Charge, orbital and magnetic ordering in transition metal oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senn, Mark Stephen

    2013-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron and x-ray diffraction has been used to study charge, orbital and magnetic ordering in some transition metal oxides. The long standing controversy regarding the nature of the ground state (Verwey structure) of the ...

  2. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Wu, Peng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  3. Effect of topology on the critical charge in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the critical charge for the Dirac excitations in gapless graphene depends on the spatial topology of the sample. In particular, for graphene cones, the effective value of the critical charge can tend towards zero for a suitable angle of the conical sample. We discuss the nature of the scattering phase shifts, quasi-bound state energies and local density of states for a gapless graphene cone and determine the dependence of these physical quantities on the sample topology.

  4. Effect of topology on the critical charge in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Baishali; Gupta, Kumar S. [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700064 (India); Sen, Siddhartha [CRANN School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the critical charge for the Dirac excitations in gapless graphene depends on the spatial topology of the sample. In particular, for graphene cones, the effective value of the critical charge can tend toward zero for a suitable angle of the conical sample. We discuss the nature of the scattering phase shifts, quasibound state energies, and local density of states for a gapless graphene cone and determine the dependence of these physical quantities on the sample topology.

  5. Method for mapping charge pulses in semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient method for determining the distribution of charge pulses produced by semiconductor detectors is presented. The method is based on a quasi-steady-state model for semiconductor detector operation. A complete description of the model and underlying assumptions is given. Mapping of charge pulses is accomplished by solving an adjoint carrier continuity equation. The solution of the adjoint equation yields Green`s function, a time- and position-dependent map that contains all possible charge pulses that can be produced by the detector for charge generated at discrete locations (e.g., by gamma-ray interactions). Because the map is generated by solving a single, time-dependent problem, the potential for reduction in computational effort over direct mapping methods is significant, particularly for detectors with complex electrode structures. In this paper, the adjoint equation is derived and the mapping method is illustrated for a simple case.

  6. Accurate Evaluation of Charge Asymmetry in Aqueous Solvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Abhishek; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) -- a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge -- quantifies the asymmetric response of water to electric field at microscopic level. Accurate estimates of CHA are critical for understanding of hydration effects ubiquitous in chemistry and biology. However, measuring hydration energies of charged species is fraught with significant difficulties, which lead to unacceptably large (up to 300 %) variation in the available estimates of the CHA effect. We circumvent these difficulties by developing a framework which allows us to extract and accurately estimate the intrinsic propensity of water to exhibit CHA from accurate experimental hydration free energies of neutral polar molecules. Specifically, from a set of 504 small molecules we identify two pairs that are analogous, with respect to CHA, to the K+/F- pair -- a classical probe for the effect. We use these "CHA-conjugate" molecule pairs to quantify the intrinsic charge-asymmetric respon...

  7. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  8. Effect of charge distribution on RDX adsorption in IRMOF-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Ruichang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Michalkova, Andrea [Jackson State University; Petrova, Tetyana [Jackson State University; Leszczynski, Jerzy [Computational Center for Molecular Structure and Interactions, Jackson, MS; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Doss, Bryant [West Virginia University; Lewis, James [West Virginia University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to test the effect of charge distribution on hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) adsorption and diffusion in IRMOF-10. Several different methods for mapping QM electron distributions onto atomic point charges are explored, including the electrostatic potential (ESP) method, Mulliken population analysis, L{sub 0}wdin population analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis. Classical GCMC and MD simulations of RDX in IRMOF-10 are performed using 15 combinations of charge sources of RDX and IRMOF-10. As the charge distributions vary, interaction potential energies, the adsorption loading, and the self-diffusivities are significantly different. None of the 15 combinations are able to quantitatively capture the dependence of the energy of adsorption on local configuration of RDX as observed in the QM calculations. We observe changes in the charge distributions of RDX and IRMOF-10 with the introduction of an RDX molecule into the cage. We also observe a large dispersion contribution to the interaction energy from QM calculations that is not reproduced in the classical simulations, indicating that the source of discrepancy may not lie exclusively with the assignment of charges.

  9. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  10. Isovector spin observables in nuclear charge reactions at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClelland, J.B.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LAMPF has undertaken a major development program to upgrade facilities for nuclear charge-exchange studies at intermediate energies. The major components of this upgrade are a medium-resolution spectrometer and neutron time-of-flight system for good resolution (delta E < 1 MeV) charge-exchange perograms in (n,p) and (p,n) respectively. Major emphasis is placed on polarization phenomena using polarized beams and analyzing the polarization of the outgoing particle.

  11. Stability, creation and annihilation of charges in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)], E-mail: antoni@maths.tcd.ie; Lavelle, Martin [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL48AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: martin.lavelle@plymouth.ac.uk; McMullan, David [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL48AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: david.mcmullan@plymouth.ac.uk

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how to construct physical, minimal energy states for systems of static and moving charges. These states are manifestly gauge invariant. For charge-anticharge systems we also construct states in which the gauge fields are restricted to a finite volume around the location of the matter fields. Although this is an excited state, it is not singular, unlike all previous finite volume descriptions. We use our states to model the processes of pair creation and annihilation.

  12. Surface-Charge-Governed Ion Transport in Nanofluidic Channels Derek Stein, Maarten Kruithof, and Cees Dekker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Surface-Charge-Governed Ion Transport in Nanofluidic Channels Derek Stein, Maarten Kruithof the role of surface charge in governing conductance at low salt concentrations. Nanofluidic channels [Fig

  13. Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

  14. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  15. Space-Charge Effects in the Super B-Factory LER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Oide, and A. Wolski, Space-Charge and EquilibriumVenturini and K. Oide, Direct Space-Charge E?ects on the ILCLBNL-62259 January 2007 Space-Charge E?ects in the Super B-

  16. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electricfast charging of the lithium batteries should be possiblefast charging of the lithium batteries will be is possible

  17. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, and considerations for station owners, property owners, and station hosts.

  18. Dynamics of Charge Transfer in Ordered and Chaotic Nucleotide Sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fialko, N S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge transfer is considered in systems composed of a donor, an acceptor and bridge sites of (AT) nucleotide pairs. For a bridge consisting of 180 (AT) pairs, three cases are dealt with: a uniform case, when all the nucleotides in each strand are identical; an ordered case, when nucleotides in each DNA strand are arranged in an orderly fashion; a chaotic case, when (AT) and (TA) pairs are arranged randomly. It is shown that in all the cases a charge transfer from a donor to an acceptor can take place. All other factors being equal, the transfer is the most efficient in the uniform case, the ordered and chaotic cases are less and the least efficient, accordingly. The results obtained are in agreement with experimental data on long-range charge transfer in DNA.

  19. Conserved charges in (Lovelock) gravity in first order formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gravanis, Elias [Akropoleos 1 Nicosia 2101 (Cyprus)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive conserved charges as quasilocal Hamiltonians by covariant phase space methods for a class of geometric Lagrangians that can be written in terms of the spin connection, the vielbein, and possibly other tensorial form fields, allowing also for nonzero torsion. We then recalculate certain known results and derive some new ones in three to six dimensions hopefully enlightening certain aspects of all of them. The quasilocal energy is defined in terms of the metric and not its first derivatives, requiring 'regularization' for convergence in most cases. Counterterms consistent with Dirichlet boundary conditions in first order formalism are shown to be an efficient way to remove divergencies and derive the values of conserved charges, the clear-cut application being metrics with anti-de Sitter (or de Sitter) asymptotics. The emerging scheme is: all is required to remove the divergencies of a Lovelock gravity is a boundary Lovelock gravity.

  20. Energy conservation for a radiating charge in classical electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singal, Ashok K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the well-known disparity in classical electrodynamics between the power radiated in electromagnetic fields and the power-loss, as calculated from the radiation reaction on a charge undergoing a non-uniform motion, is successfully resolved when a proper distinction is made between quantities expressed in terms of a "real time" and those expressed in terms of a retarded time. It is shown that the expression for the real-time radiative power loss from a charged particle is somewhat different from the familiar Larmor's formula, or in a relativistic case, from Li\\'{e}nard's formula.

  1. Shielding of a moving test charge in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Else, D.; Kompaneets, R.; Vladimirov, S. V. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The linearized potential of a moving test charge in a one-component fully degenerate fermion plasma is studied using the Lindhard dielectric function. The motion is found to greatly enhance the Friedel oscillations behind the charge, especially for velocities larger than half of the Fermi velocity, in which case the asymptotic behavior of their amplitude changes from 1/r{sup 3} to 1/r{sup 2.5}. In the absence of the quantum recoil (tunneling) the potential reduces to a form similar to that in a classical Maxwellian plasma, with a difference being that the plasma oscillations behind the charge at velocities larger than the Fermi velocity are not Landau damped.

  2. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus; Klaus Reygers

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions are discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(pbar) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space, and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(pbar) collisions at the LHC energies of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, 10 TeV, and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  3. Charge symmetry breaking in n p --> d pi^0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Opper; E. Korkmaz; D. A. Hutcheon; R. Abegg; C. A. Davis; R. W. Finlay; P. W. Green; L. G. Greeniaus; D. V. Jordan; J. A. Niskanen; G. V. O'Rielly; T. A. Porcelli; S. D. Reitzner; P. L. Walden; S. Yen

    2003-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The forward--backward asymmetry in n p --> d pi^0, which must be zero in the center-of-mass system if charge symmetry is respected, has been measured to be [17.2 +/- 8 (stat) +/- 5.5 (sys)] * 10^{-4}, at an incident neutron energy of 279.5 MeV. This charge symmetry breaking observable was extracted by fitting the data with GEANT-based simulations and is compared to recent chiral effective field theory calculations, with implications regarding the value of the u d quark mass difference.

  4. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  5. Space charge effects in ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao Zhensheng; Zhang He; Duxbury, P. M.; Berz, Martin; Ruan, Chong-Yu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-2320 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding space charge effects is central for the development of high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy techniques for imaging material transformation with atomic scale detail at the fs to ps timescales. We present methods and results for direct ultrafast photoelectron beam characterization employing a shadow projection imaging technique to investigate the generation of ultrafast, non-uniform, intense photoelectron pulses in a dc photo-gun geometry. Combined with N-particle simulations and an analytical Gaussian model, we elucidate three essential space-charge-led features: the pulse lengthening following a power-law scaling, the broadening of the initial energy distribution, and the virtual cathode threshold. The impacts of these space charge effects on the performance of the next generation high-brightness ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging systems are evaluated.

  6. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  7. Studies of space-charge physics in beams for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J. G.; Bernal, S.; Chin, P.; Kishek, R. A.; Li, Y.; Reiser, M.; Venturini, M.; Zhang, W. W.; Zou, Y.; Godlove, T.; Kehne, D.; Haber, I.; York, R. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); FM Technologies, Fairfax, Virginia 22032 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1998-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review experimental observations of space-charge effects and collective phenomena in charged particle beams for accelerator applications. These include halo formation and emittance growth, bunch profile evolution, space-charge waves, and longitudinal instabilities. We also report on the development of the University of Maryland Electron Ring for the study of space-charge physics in a circular lattice.

  8. Charge splitting of directed flow and charge-dependent effects in pion spectra in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rybicki; A. Szczurek; M. Klusek-Gawenda; M. Kielbowicz

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The large and rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields induced by the spectator systems moving at ultrarelativistic velocities induce a charge splitting of directed flow, $v_1$, of positive and negative pions in the final state of the heavy ion collision. The same effect results in a very sizeable distortion of charged pion spectra as well as ratios of charged pions ($\\pi^+/\\pi^-$) emitted at high values of rapidity. Both phenomena are sensitive to the actual distance between the pion emission site and the spectator system. This distance $d_E$ appears to decrease with increasing rapidity of the pion, and comes below $\\sim$1~fm for pions emitted close to beam rapidity. In this paper we discuss how these findings can shed new light on the space-time evolution of pion production as a function of rapidity, and on the longitudinal evolution of the system created in heavy ion collisions.

  9. Ultrafast charge localization in a stripe-phase nickelate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coslovich, Giacomo; Huber, Bernhard; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Sasagawa, Takao; Hussain, Zahid; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; W. Schoenlein, Robert; A. Kaindl, Robert

    2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-organized electronically-ordered phases are a recurring feature in correlated materials, resulting in e.g. fluctuating charge stripes whose role in high-Tc superconductivity is under debate. However, the relevant cause-effect relations between real-space charge correlations and low-energy excitations remain hidden in time-averaged studies. Here, we reveal ultrafast charge localization and lattice vibrational coupling as dynamical precursors of stripe formation in the model compound La1.75Sr0.25NiO4, using ultrafast and equilibrium mid-infrared spectroscopy. The opening of a pseudogap at a crossover temperature T* far above long-range stripe formation establishes the onset of electronic localization which is accompanied by an enhanced Fano asymmetry of Ni-O stretch vibrations. Ultrafast excitation triggers a sub-picosecond dynamics exposing the synchronous modulation of electron-phonon coupling and charge localization. These results illuminate the role of localization in forming the pseudogap in nickelates, opening a path to understanding this mysterious phase in a broad class of complex oxides.

  10. Transport in charged colloids driven by thermoelectricity Alois Wrger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . There is no complete description for the underlying physical forces, and even the sign of the thermophoretic mobility negative thermophoretic mobility has been reported for charged latex spheres in a bu¤ered so- lution. Like any linear transport coe¢ cient in a viscous uid, the thermophoretic mobility DT has

  11. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to boilers in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  12. PULVERIZATION INDUCED CHARGE: IN-LINE DRY COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHN M. STENCEL

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  13. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Stencel

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  14. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Stencel

    1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  15. PREASYMPTOTIC CHARGE OSCILLATIONS AROUND 3d IMPURITIES IN ALUMINIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on aluminium based transi- tion metal alloys can be explained in the LSF approxi- mation of the Anderson modelL-87 PREASYMPTOTIC CHARGE OSCILLATIONS AROUND 3d IMPURITIES IN ALUMINIUM V. ZLATI0106 and G. GRÜNER modèle d'Anderson la perturbation de densité électronique autour de certaines impuretés 3d dans l'aluminium

  16. Charge Separation via Strain in Silicon Zhigang Wu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    been used in hybrid organic polymer/inorganic nanocrystal solar cells2,3 and in dye-sensitized solar cells by morphology control, where effectively a type-II homojunction is formed and charge separation expensive solar cells, comparable to the costs of fossil-based electricity, from abundant, environmen- tally

  17. Adiabatic Charge Pumping in Open Quantum Systems JOSEPH E. AVRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avron, Joseph

    Adiabatic Charge Pumping in Open Quantum Systems JOSEPH E. AVRON Technion ALEXANDER ELGART Courant pumps con- nected to a number of external leads. It is proven that under the rather general assumption on the Hamiltonian describing the system, in the adiabatic limit, the current through the pump is given by a formula

  18. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  19. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  20. Charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajeev Kumar; Bobby G. Sumpter; S. Michael Kilbey II

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the effect of inhomogeneity on the charge regulation and dielectric properties, and how it depends on the conformational characteristics of the macromolecules is a long-standing problem. In order to address this problem, we have developed a field-theory to study charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes. The theory is used to study a polyacid brush, which is comprised of chains end-grafted at the solid-fluid interface, in equilibrium with a bulk solution containing monovalent salt ions, solvent molecules and pH controlling acid. In particular, we focus on the effects of the concentration of added salt and pH of the bulk in determining the local charge and dielectric function. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the dipole moment of the ion-pairs formed as a result of counterion adsorption on the chain backbones play a key role in affecting the local dielectric function. For polyelectrolytes made of monomers having dipole moments lower than the solvent molecules, dielectric decrement is predicted inside the brush region. However, the formation of ion-pairs (due to adsorption of counterions coming from the dissociation of added salt) more polar than the solvent molecules is shown to increase the magnitude of the dielectric function with respect to its bulk value. Furthermore, an increase in the bulk salt concentration is shown to increase the local charge inside the brush region.

  1. Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges: Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30% of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and, by means of the hot detonation products, the energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum flakes, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or hexosen (sucrose) and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in four different chambers: two cylindrical vessels of 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume with a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1, a rectangular chamber of 41 (10.5 x 10.5 x 38.6 cm) and a 299.6 cm long tunnel model with a cross section of 8 x 8 cm (volume 19.21) closed at both ends.

  2. Charge Distributions in Transverse Coordinate Space and in Impact Parameter Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dae Sung Hwang; Dong Soo Kim; Jonghyun Kim

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the charge distributions of the valence quarks inside nucleon in the transverse coordinate space, which is conjugate to the transverse momentum space. We compare the results with the charge distributions in the impact parameter space.

  3. Charge transfer and in-cloud structure of large-charge-moment positive lightning strokes in a mesoscale convective system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    in a mesoscale convective system Gaopeng Lu,1 Steven A. Cummer,1 Jingbo Li,1 Feng Han,1 Richard J. Blakeslee,2 positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) strokes in a mesoscale convective system. Although no high altitude images of large-charge-moment positive lightning strokes in a mesoscale convective system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36

  4. Search for charged Higgs bosons in top quark decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Clutter, Justace Randall; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; DØ Collaboration; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahsan, M.

    2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a search for charged Higgs bosons in top quark decays. We analyze the e+jetse+jets, ?+jets?+jets, ee, e?, ??, ?e and ?? final states from top quark pair production events, using data from about 1 fb^(?1) of integrated luminosity recorded...

  5. Charge regulation in ionic solutions: thermal fluctuations and Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

    2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behavior of two macroions with dissociable charge groups, regulated by local variables such as pH and electrostatic potential, immersed in a mono-valent salt solution, considering cases where the net charge can either change sign or remain of the same sign depending on these local parameters. The charge regulation, in both cases, is described with the proper free energy function for each of the macroions, while the coupling between the charges is evaluated on the approximate Debye-H\\"uckel level. The charge correlation functions and the ensuing charge fluctuation forces are calculated analytically and numerically. Strong attraction between like-charged macroions is found close to the point of zero charge, specifically due to asymmetric, anticorrelated charge fluctuations of the macroion charges. The general theory is then implemented for a system of two protein-like macroions, generalizing the form and magnitude of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.

  6. Influence of Induced Charges in the Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rui-Feng Wang

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper states that the induced charge should not be neglected in the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect. If the induced charge is taken into account, the interference pattern of the moving charge will not change with the potential difference between the two metal tubes. It means that the scale potential itself can not affect the phase of the moving charge, and the true factor affecting the phase of the moving charge is the energy of the system including the moving charge and the induced charge.

  7. A Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Charge Transfer in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polarons, respectively, are modeled by delocalizing the polaron’s charge over a titanium or oxygen ion, respectively, and its first nearest-neighbors. The charge...

  8. Diffuse charge effects in fuel cell membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, ...

  9. Charge, spin and pseudospin in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abanin, Dmitry A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene, a one-atom-thick form of carbon, has emerged in the last few years as a fertile electron system, highly promising for both fundamental research and applications. In this thesis we consider several topics in ...

  10. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  11. Charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giazitzidis, Paraskevas; Bisquert, Juan; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a simple model for the geminate electron-hole separation process in organic photovoltaicssss cells, in order to illustrate the influence of dimensionality of conducting channels on the efficiency of the process. The Miller-Abrahams expression for the transition rates between nearest neighbor sites was used for simulating random walks of the electron in the Coulomb field of the hole. The non-equilibrium kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results qualitatively confirm the equilibrium estimations, although quantitatively the efficiency of the higher dimensional systems is less pronounced. The lifetime of the electron prior to recombination is approximately equal to the lifetime prior to dissociation. Their values indicate that electrons perform long stochastic walks before they are captured by the collector or recombined. The non-equilibrium free energy considerably differs from the equilibrium one. The efficiency of the separation process decreases with increasing the distance to the collector, and this...

  12. Teacher In Charge: Improving teaching practices through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Tad

    , and analyzing various types of data, among other tasks, it is imperative that professional learning be directed of learning for all students, teachers, and administrators requires a form of professional learning in ongoing teams that meet on a regular basis, preferably several times a week, for the purposes of learning

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy Manufacturing Energy

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy Manufacturing EnergyMapping Particle

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy Manufacturing EnergyMapping

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy Manufacturing EnergyMappingMapping

  17. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electronEnergy Manufacturing EnergyMappingMappingMapping

  18. Bounds on charge and heat diffusivities in momentum dissipating holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Amoretti; Alessandro Braggio; Nicodemo Magnoli; Daniele Musso

    2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by a recently conjectured universal bound for thermo-electric diffusion constants in quantum critical, strongly coupled systems and relying on holographic analytical computations, we investigate the possibility of formulating Planckian bounds in different holographic models featuring momentum dissipation. For a simple massive gravity dilaton model at zero charge density we find robust linear in temperature resistivity and entropy density alongside a constant electric susceptibility. In addition we explicitly find that the sum of the thermo-electric diffusion constants is bounded.

  19. Plasma effect in Silicon Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Estrada; Jorge Molina; J. Blostein; G. Fernandez

    2011-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma effect is observed in CCDs exposed to heavy ionizing alpha-particles with energies in the range 0.5 - 5.5 MeV. The results obtained for the size of the charge clusters reconstructed on the CCD pixels agrees with previous measurements in the high energy region (>3.5 MeV). The measurements were extended to lower energies using alpha-particles produced by (n,alpha) reactions of neutrons in a Boron-10 target. The effective linear charge density for the plasma column is measured as a function of energy. The results demonstrate the potential for high position resolution in the reconstruction of alpha particles, which opens an interesting possibility for using these detectors in neutron imaging applications.

  20. Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Science and Arts College in Al-Rass, Physics Department, Qassim University, Al-Rass Province (Saudi Arabia); Abdelwahed, H. G. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Alkharj University, Al-kharj (Saudi Arabia); Elmessary, M. A. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

  1. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    have a valid UCSB parking permit displayed on my vehicle. Purchase a Power-only permit for the amount of time required to charge your vehicle. I do not have a valid UCSB parking permit. Purchase a Power. Valid UCSB parking permit holders pay for power only. Non-UCSB permit holders pay for power and parking

  2. Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granados, Carlos G. [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  3. Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

  4. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  5. Jet Reconstruction with charged tracks only in CMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Azzurri

    2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of jet finding using only charged tracks in CMS has been investigated. Different jet algorithms have been applied to QCD di-jet events, to hadronic tt multi-jet events and on Z+jets events. Results using jets made with tracks only or calorimeter towers are compared for energy response, angular resolution and jet matching to the leading partons. The jet reconstruction performance in the presence of pile-up interactions is presented for the Z+jets sample.

  6. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  7. Photoinduced charge separation in a porphyrin-tetraviologen supramolecular array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batteas, J.D.; Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA)); Kanda, Yu.; Mataga, Noboru (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Nowak, A.K. (Royal Institution, London (England))

    1990-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A porphyrin-tetraviologen supramolecule P-V{sub 4}, in which a viologen molecule is appended to each of the porphyrin meso positions via a 1,3-propanoxy-4-phenyl chain, has been studied by picosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis techniques. In DMSO solution, rapid charge separation (CS) occurs from the first excited singlet state of the porphyrin, giving rise to long-lived redox products. These products recombine via first-order kinetics ({tau} = 6.4 {plus minus} 0.7 {mu}s) to restore the ground-state reactants. Similar, but much slower, CS takes place from the porphyrin triplet excited state, which is formed in competition to CS from the singlet state. Quantum yields for formation of redox products and rates of both CS and charge recombination (CR) are solvent dependent, protic solvents favoring rapid CR.

  8. Gravity Role in Classical Electrodynamics of Charged Point Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Golubev

    1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the problem of a point-like charged source under the influence of the external electromagnetic field in terms of perturbation theory for GR equations. It is obtained that GR, in contrast with the classical electrodynamics, in linear perturbation theory predicts an unlimited growth of the dipole perturbation. It is shown that the reason for this unlimited perturbation growth might be related to the presence of the unstable rotational perturbation mode. The analysis of the conditions under which this instability may disappear is performed. The momentum value at which the stability is reached is estimated. These estimations give the electron spin by the order of magnitude (when charge value is equal to elementary one).

  9. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  10. Polarization and Charge Transfer in the Hydration of Chloride Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Zhao; David M. Rogers; Thomas L. Beck

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation, and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared with the estimated quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2 level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  11. Nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in Chiral EFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girlanda, Luca [Università del Salento; Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Univ. Pisa; Pastore, Saori [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Piarulli, Maria [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, Michele

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe our method for deriving the nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in chiral perturbation theory, based on time-ordered perturbation theory. We then discuss possible strategies for fixing the relevant low-energy constants, from the magnetic moments of the deuteron and of the trinucleons, and from the radiative np capture cross sections, and identify a scheme which, partly relying on {Delta} resonance saturation, leads to a reasonable pattern of convergence of the chiral expansion.

  12. Structure and vibrations of different charge Ge impurity in ?-quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kislov, A. N., E-mail: a.n.kislov@urfu.ru; Mikhailovich, A. P., E-mail: a.n.kislov@urfu.ru; Zatsepin, A. F., E-mail: a.n.kislov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 Mira St., Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic structure and localized vibrations of ??SiO{sub 2}:Ge are studied using computer modeling techniques. The simulation was carried out by the lattice dynamics calculation of the local density of vibrational states. Local structures parameters are calculated, localized symmetrized vibrations frequency caused by Ge impurity in different charge states are defined. The movements of atoms located near Ge impurity are analyzed and their contribution into localized vibrations of different type is evaluated.

  13. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. James D. Batteas Organic molecules such as porphyrins and alkanethiols are currently being investigated for applications such as sensors, light-emitting diodes and single electron transistors. Porphyrins are stable, highly..., molecules have shown their potential for applications such as information storage, charge separation, single electron transistors, current routers and gates and continue to be designed for use in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors...

  14. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  15. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beall, Erik B; /Minnesota U.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5.4 kiloton (5.2 kt steel plus 0.2 kt scintillator plus aluminum skin) magnetized tracking calorimeter located 710 meters underground in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. MINOS is the first large, deep underground detector with a magnetic field and thus capable of making measurements of the momentum and charge of cosmic ray muons. Despite encountering unexpected anomalies in distributions of the charge ratio (N{sub {mu}{sup +}}/N{sub {mu}{sup -}}) of cosmic muons, a method of canceling systematic errors is proposed and demonstrated. The result is R{sub eff} = 1.346 {+-} 0.002 (stat) {+-} 0.016 (syst) for the averaged charge ratio, and a result for a rising fit to slant depth of R(X) = 1.300 {+-} 0.008 (stat) {+-} 0.016 (syst) + (1.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5} x X, valid over the range of slant depths from 2000 < X < 6000 MWE. This slant depth range corresponds to minimum surface muon energies between 750 GeV and 5 TeV.

  16. Vacuum space charge effect in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graf, Jeff

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. et al. Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-basedB¨ hlow, M. & Kipp, L. Vacuum space-charge e?ects u inVacuum space charge e?ect in laser-based solid-state

  17. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtanen, J. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Sosnick, T. R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Freed, K. F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other.

  18. Charged star in (2+1)-dimensional gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayan Banerjee; Farook Rahaman; Tanuka Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a new class of exact solutions for the Einstein-Maxwell system in static spherically symmetric charged star in (2+1)-dimensional gravity. In order to obtain the analytical solutions we treat the matter distribution anisotropic in nature admitting linear or nonlinear equation of state and the electric field intensity was specified. By choosing a suitable choice of mass function m(r), it is possible to integrate the system in closed form. All the solution, which are obtained in both linear and nonlinear cases are regular at the center and well behaved in the stellar interior.

  19. Charge recombination in organic small-molecule solar cells by Jiye Lee.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jiye

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance the power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells, charge recombination loss needs to be minimized. First, we perform transient absorption spectroscopy to study the charge recombination dynamics of thin ...

  20. Extension of the high load limit in the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine offers diesel-like efficiency with very low soot and NOx emissions. In a HCCI engine, a premixed charge of air, fuel and burned gas is compressed to achieve ...

  1. Defects activated photoluminescence in two-dimensional semiconductors: interplay between bound, charged, and free excitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tongay, Sefaattin

    Point defects in semiconductors can trap free charge carriers and localize excitons. The interaction between these defects and charge carriers becomes stronger at reduced dimensionalities, and is expected to greatly influence ...

  2. Studies of space-charge physics in beams for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.G.; Bernal, S.; Chin, P.; Kishek, R.A.; Li, Y.; Reiser, M.; Venturini, M.; Zhang, W.W.; Zou, Y. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Godlove, T.; Kehne, D. [FM Technologies, Fairfax, Virginia 22032 (United States); Haber, I. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); York, R.C. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review experimental observations of space-charge effects and collective phenomena in charged particle beams for accelerator applications. These include halo formation and emittance growth, bunch profile evolution, space-charge waves, and longitudinal instabilities. We also report on the development of the University of Maryland Electron Ring for the study of space-charge physics in a circular lattice. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Space charge behaviour in an epoxy resin: the influence of fillers, temperature and electrode material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Space charge behaviour in an epoxy resin: the influence of fillers, temperature and electrode material Short title: Space charge in an epoxy resin O. Gallot-lavallée 1 *, G. Teyssedre 1 , C. Laurent 1 the possibility of performing space charge measurement on filled epoxy resin despite the piezoelectricity

  4. Charged particle acceleration in dense plasma channels I. Y. Dodin and N. J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charged particle acceleration in dense plasma channels I. Y. Dodin and N. J. Fisch Department amplitude and the energy of a charged particle accelerated in a plasma channel. The maximum energy gain accelerators can operate at much higher magnitudes as they utilize electrostatic fields due to charge

  5. Topological Charge Pumping in a One-Dimensional Optical Lattice Lei Wang,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Topological Charge Pumping in a One-Dimensional Optical Lattice Lei Wang,1,2 Matthias Troyer,1 (Received 30 January 2013; published 9 July 2013) A topological charge pump transfers charge in a quantized fashion. The quantization is stable against the detailed form of the pumping protocols and external noises

  6. Experimental Study of Thermodiffusion and Thermoelectricity in Charged Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Huang; M. Roger; M. Bonetti; T. J. Salez; C. Wiertel-Gasquet; E. Dubois; R. Cabreira Gomes; G. Demouchy; G. Mériguet; V. Peyre; M. Kouyaté; C. L. Filomeno; J. Depeyrot; F. A. Tourinho; R. Perzynski; S. Nakamae

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seebeck and Soret coefficients of ionically stabilized suspension of maghemite nanoparticles in dimethyl sulfoxide are experimentally studied as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction. In the presence of a temperature gradient, the charged colloidal nanoparticles experience both thermal drift due to their interactions with the solvent molecules and electric forces proportional to the internal thermoelectric field. The resulting thermodiffusion of nanoparticles is observed through Forced Rayleigh scattering, while the thermoelectric field is accessed through voltage measurements in a thermocell. Both techniques provide independent estimates of nanoparticle's entropy of transfer as high as 75 meV/K. Such a property may be used to improve the thermoelectric coefficients in liquid thermocells.

  7. Measurement of charge asymmetries in charmless hadronic B meson decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhao, X.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for continuum background stud- ies. CLEO is a general purpose solenoidal magnet detector, described in detail elsewhere [12]. Cylindrical drift cham- bers in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field measure momenta and specific ionization (dEH20862dx) of charged tracks... for q?q events and is helium-propane mixture. These modifications led to im- proved dEH20862dx resolution in the main drift chamber, as well as improved momentum resolution. Two-thirds of the data used in the present analysis were taken with the improved...

  8. Optimizing small wind turbine performance in battery charging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouilhet, S; Muljadi, E; Holz, R [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Div.; Gevorgian, V [State Engineering Univ. of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many small wind turbine generators (10 kW or less) consist of a variable speed rotor driving a permanent magnet synchronous generator (alternator). One application of such wind turbines is battery charging, in which the generator is connected through a rectifier to a battery bank. The wind turbine electrical interface is essentially the same whether the turbine is part of a remote power supply for telecommunications, a standalone residential power system, or a hybrid village power system, in short, any system in which the wind generator output is rectified and fed into a DC bus. Field experience with such applications has shown that both the peak power output and the total energy capture of the wind turbine often fall short of expectations based on rotor size and generator rating. In this paper, the authors present a simple analytical model of the typical wind generator battery charging system that allows one to calculate actual power curves if the generator and rotor properties are known. The model clearly illustrates how the load characteristics affect the generator output. In the second part of this paper, the authors present four approaches to maximizing energy capture from wind turbines in battery charging applications. The first of these is to determine the optimal battery bank voltage for a given WTG. The second consists of adding capacitors in series with the generator. The third approach is to place an optimizing DC/DC voltage converter between the rectifier and the battery bank. The fourth is a combination of the series capacitors and the optimizing voltage controller. They also discuss both the limitations and the potential performance gain associated with each of the four configurations.

  9. State of health and charge measurements in lithium-ion batteries using mechanical stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    State of health and charge measurements in lithium-ion batteries using mechanical stress John 2014 Keywords: Mechanical stress Lithium-ion battery State of charge (SOC) State of health (SOH importance of state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC) measurement to lithium-ion battery systems

  10. Spur Reduction in Wideband PLLs by Random Positioning of Charge Pump Current Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    Spur Reduction in Wideband PLLs by Random Positioning of Charge Pump Current Pulses Chembiyan, Madras, Chennai 600 036, India Abstract-- Charge pump PLL is prone to reference spurs due to non-idealities like feedthrough, charge pump current mismatch and loop filter leakage. To resolve the problem

  11. Implications of Rapid Charging and Chemo-Mechanical Degradation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Mohammed Fouad

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................... 18 Charging Protocols ................................................................................................... 30 Electrode Design Parameters .................................................................................... 44 Summary...) and the accompanied internal cell resistances in (b), during the charge/discharge pulse followed by CCCV ...... 44 Figure 20 The effect of electrode design parameters with (3 C-rate) CCCV charging starting at 25?C and using self-heating thermal condition (h = 28 W...

  12. Photon production by charged particles in narrow optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Artru; C. Ray

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle passing through or by an optical fiber induces emission of light guided by the fiber. The formula giving the spontaneous emission amplitude are given in the general case when the particle trajectory is not parallel to the fiber axis. At small angle, the photon yield grows like the inverse power of the angle and in the parallel limiting case the fiber Cherenkov effect studied by Bogdankevich and Bolotovskii is recovered. Possible application to beam diagnostics are discussed, as well as resonance effects when the particle trajectory or the fiber is bent periodically.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  14. Parallel Multiphysics Simulations of Charged Particles in Microfluidic Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartuschat, Dominik

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes parallel multiphysics simulations of charged particles in microfluidic flows with the waLBerla framework. To this end, three physical effects are coupled: rigid body dynamics, fluid flow modelled by a lattice Boltzmann algorithm, and electric potentials represented by a finite volume discretisation. For solving the finite volume discretisation for the electrostatic forces, a cell-centered multigrid algorithm is developed that conforms to the lattice Boltzmann meshes and the parallel communication structure of waLBerla. The new functionality is validated with suitable benchmark scenarios. Additionally, the parallel scaling and the numerical efficiency of the algorithms are analysed on an advanced supercomputer.

  15. Experimental Characterization of Space Charge in IZIP Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, T; /UC, Berkeley; Pyle, M.; /Stanford U.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Serfass, B.; /UC, Berkeley; Kamaev, O.; /Queen's U., Kingston; Hertel, S.; Leman, S.W.; /MIT; Brink, P.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Interleaved ionization electrode geometries offer the possibility of efficient rejection of near-surface events. The CDMS collaboration has recently implemented this interleaved approach for the charge and phonon readout for our germanium detectors. During a recent engineering run, the detectors were found to lose ionization stability quickly. This paper summarizes studies done in order to determine the underlying cause of the instability, as well as possible running modes that maintain stability without unacceptable loss of livetime. Additionally, results are shown for the new version IZIP mask which attempts to improve the overall stability of the detectors.

  16. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron beam chargesJenniferJohannJohnJohn MoonFemtosecond

  17. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac Charge Dynamcs in

  18. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiro Oda

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  19. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oda, Ichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  20. Control of charge migration in molecules by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay V. Golubev; Alexander I. Kuleff

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to electronic many-body effects, the ionization of a molecule can trigger ultrafast electron dynamics appearing as a migration of the created hole charge throughout the system. Here we propose a scheme for control of the charge migration dynamics with a single ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate by fully ab initio calculations on a molecule containing a chromophore and an amine moieties that simple pulses can be used for stopping the charge-migration oscillations and localizing the charge on the desired site of the system. We argue that this control may be used to predetermine the follow-up nuclear rearrangement and thus the molecular reactivity.

  1. Control of charge migration in molecules by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golubev, Nikolay V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to electronic many-body effects, the ionization of a molecule can trigger ultrafast electron dynamics appearing as a migration of the created hole charge throughout the system. Here we propose a scheme for control of the charge migration dynamics with a single ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate by fully ab initio calculations on a molecule containing a chromophore and an amine moieties that simple pulses can be used for stopping the charge-migration oscillations and localizing the charge on the desired site of the system. We argue that this control may be used to predetermine the follow-up nuclear rearrangement and thus the molecular reactivity.

  2. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic, electronic and spectroscopic properties of two?dimensional oxide?supported catalysts were investigated in order to understand the role of charge transfer in catalysis. Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanodiodes were fabricated and used as catalysts for hydrogen oxidation. During the reaction, the current through the diode, as well as its I?V curve, were monitored, while gas chromatography was used to measure the reaction rate. The current and the turnover rate were found to have the same temperature dependence, indicating that hydrogen oxidation leads to the non?adiabatic excitation of electrons in Pt. A fraction of these electrons have enough energy to ballistically transport through Pt and overcome the Schottky barrier at the interface with TiO{sub 2}. The yield for this phenomenon is on the order of 10{sup ?4} electrons per product molecule formed, similar to what has been observed for CO oxidation and for the adsorption of many different molecules. The same Pt/TiO{sub 2} system was used to compare currents in hydrogen oxidation and deuterium oxidation. The current through the diode under deuterium oxidation was found to be greater than under hydrogen oxidation by a factor of three. Weighted by the difference in turnover frequencies for the two isotopes, this would imply a chemicurrent yield 5 times greater for D{sub 2} compared to H{sub 2}, contrary to what is expected given the higher mass of D{sub 2}. Reversible changes in the rectification factor of the diode are observed when switching between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These changes are a likely cause for the differences in current between the two isotopes. In the nanodiode experiments, surface chemistry leads to charge flow, suggesting the possibility of creating charge flow to tune surface chemistry. This was done first by exposing a Pt/Si diode to visible light while using it as a catalyst for H{sub 2} oxidation. Absorption of the light in the Si, combined with the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady?state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO{sub 2} films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO{sub 2}, F was found to act as an n?type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO{sub 2} films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} as the support, F?doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO{sub 2}. With non?stoichiometric TiO{sub 2}, F?doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X?Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to investigate this F?doping effect in reaction conditions. In O2 alone, and in CO oxidation conditions, the O1s spectrum showed a high binding energy peak that correlated in intensity with the activity of the different films: for stoichiomet

  3. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Michael C; Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Z.; Martin, Michael C; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with the Schrödinger equation, electronic excitations in graphene are governed by the Dirac hamiltonian. Some of the intriguing electronic properties of graphene, such as massless Dirac quasiparticles with linear energy-momentum dispersion, have been confirmed by recent observations. Here, we report an infrared spectromicroscopy study of charge dynamics in graphene integrated in gated devices. Our measurements verify the expected characteristics of graphene and, owing to the previously unattainable accuracy of infrared experiments, also uncover significant departures of the quasiparticle dynamics from predictions made for Dirac fermions in idealized, free-standing graphene. Several observations reported here indicate the relevance of many-body interactions to the electromagnetic response of graphene.

  4. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    miles across all available vehicles, not only the one being studied. Find out where the "other" gasoline/needs, Important destinations, HOV usage · Home and work charging infrastructure · Electricity prices · Purchase · Charging behavior · Location · Time · Frequency · Power · Level · Efficiency · Gasoline operation · MPG

  5. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

  6. Quantum phase transition from triangular to stripe charge order in NbSe[subscript 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, E. W.

    The competition between proximate electronic phases produces a complex phenomenology in strongly correlated systems. In particular, fluctuations associated with periodic charge or spin modulations, known as density waves, ...

  7. On the absence of scalar hair for charged rotating blackholes in non minimally coupled theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Sen; N. Banerjee

    2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we check the validity of the no scalar hair theorem in charged axisymmetric stationary black holes for a wide class of scalar tensor theories.

  8. Holographic fermions in charged Gauss-Bonnet black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Pin Wu

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the properties of the Green's functions of the fermions in charged Gauss-Bonnet black hole. What we want to do is to investigate how the presence of Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant $\\alpha$ affects the dispersion relation, which is a characteristic of Fermi or non-Fermi liquid, as well as what properties such a system has, for instance, the Particle-hole (a)symmetry. One important result of this research is that we find for $q=1$, the behavior of this system is different from that of the Landau Fermi liquid and so the system can be candidates for holographic dual of generalized non-Fermi liquids. More importantly, the behavior of this system increasingly similar to that of the Landau Fermi liquid when $\\alpha$ is approaching its lower bound. Also we find that this system possesses the Particle-hole asymmetry when $q\

  9. Rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions and particle acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sadeghi; B. Pourhassan; H. Farahani

    2013-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.

  10. Statistical charge distribution over dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Misra, Shikha, E-mail: shikhamish@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of statistical mechanics and charging kinetics, the charge distribution over uniform size spherical dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma is investigated. Two specific situations, viz., (i) the plasma in thermal equilibrium and (ii) non-equilibrium state where the plasma is dark (no emission) or irradiated by laser light (including photoemission) are taken into account. The formulation includes the population balance equation for the charged particles along with number and energy balance of the complex plasma constituents. The departure of the results for the Lorentzian plasma, from that in case of Maxwellian plasma, is graphically illustrated and discussed; it is shown that the charge distribution tends to results corresponding to Maxwellian plasma for large spectral index. The charge distribution predicts the opposite charging of the dust particles in certain cases.

  11. Unraveling the origin of the pseudogap in a charge density wave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charge density waves has also been associated with phenomena in materials that can superconduct, or conduct electricity perfectly without any loss at extremely low temperatures,...

  12. Net-charge probability distributions in heavy ion collisions at chemical freeze-out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Braun-Munzinger; B. Friman; F. Karsch; K. Redlich; V. Skokov

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore net charge probability distributions in heavy ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas model. The distributions for strangeness, electric charge and baryon number are derived. We show that, within this model, net charge probability distributions and the resulting fluctuations can be computed directly from the measured yields of charged and multi-charged hadrons. The influence of multi-charged particles and quantum statistics on the shape of the distribution is examined. We discuss the properties of the net proton distribution along the chemical freeze-out line. The model results presented here can be compared with data at RHIC energies and at the LHC to possibly search for the relation between chemical freeze-out and QCD cross-over lines in heavy ion collisions.

  13. Physical limits for high ion charge states in pulsed discharges in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yushkov, Georgy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to change if ultrahigh vacuum was available. In conclusion,charge state in a short pulse discharge in vacuum. Fig. 2.power for gold discharges in vacuum for the three circuit

  14. Coupling between pore formation and phase separation in charged lipid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Himeno; Hiroaki Ito; Yuji Higuchi; Tsutomu Hamada; Naofumi Shimokawa; Masahiro Takagi

    2015-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effect of charge on the membrane morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of various mixtures containing charged lipids. We observed the membrane morphologies by fluorescent and confocal laser microscopy in lipid mixtures consisting of a neutral unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC)], a neutral saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)], a charged unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$)], a charged saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$)], and cholesterol (Chol). In binary mixtures of neutral DOPC/DPPC and charged DOPC/DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$, spherical vesicles were formed. On the other hand, pore formation was often observed with GUVs consisting of DOPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ and DPPC. In a DPPC/DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$/Chol ternary mixture, pore-formed vesicles were also frequently observed. The percentage of pore-formed vesicles increased with the DPPG$^{\\scriptsize{(-)}}$ concentration. Moreover, when the head group charges of charged lipids were screened by the addition of salt, pore-formed vesicles were suppressed in both the binary and ternary charged lipid mixtures. We discuss the mechanisms of pore formation in charged lipid mixtures and the relationship between phase separation and the membrane morphology. Finally, we reproduce the results seen in experimental systems by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.

  15. On-line Decentralized Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qiao; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are gaining increasing popularity in recent years, due to the growing societal awareness of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the dependence on foreign oil or petroleum. Large-scale implementation of PEVs in the power system currently faces many challenges. One particular concern is that the PEV charging can potentially cause significant impact on the existing power distribution system, due to the increase in peak load. As such, this work tries to mitigate the PEV charging impact by proposing a decentralized smart PEV charging algorithm to minimize the distribution system load variance, so that a 'flat' total load profile can be obtained. The charging algorithm is on-line, in that it controls the PEV charging processes in each time slot based entirely on the current power system state. Thus, compared to other forecast based smart charging approaches in the literature, the charging algorithm is robust against various uncertainties in the power system, such as random PE...

  16. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. V. Buividovich; T. Kalaydzhyan; M. I. Polikarpov

    2012-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d = 2..3 towards the total space dimension. Therefore, the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution.

  17. Role of positively charged dust grains on dust acoustic wave propagation in presence of nonthermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Susmita; Maity, Saumyen [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An expression for ion current flowing to the dust grains is proposed, when dust charge is positive and the ions are nonthermal. Secondary electron emission has been considered as the source of positive charging of the dust grains. Investigation shows that presence of positively charged dust grains along with thermal electrons and nonthermal ions generate purely growing dust acoustic waves for both the cases of ion nonthermal parameter greater than one and less than one. In the later case, the growth is conditional.

  18. CHARGE STATE EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND. II. PLASMA CHARGE STATE COMPOSITION IN THE INNER CORONA AND ACCELERATING FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, E.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution within the fast solar wind. We use the temperature, density, and velocity profiles predicted by Cranmer et al. to calculate the ionization history of the most important heavy elements in the solar corona and solar wind: C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. The evolution of each charge state is calculated from the source region in the lower chromosphere to the final freeze-in point. We show that the solar wind velocity causes the plasma to experience significant departures from equilibrium at very low heights, well inside the field of view (within 0.6 R{sub sun} from the solar limb) of nearly all the available remote-sensing instrumentation, significantly affecting observed spectral line intensities. We also study the evolution of charge state ratios with distance from the source region, and the temperature they indicate if ionization equilibrium is assumed. We find that virtually every charge state from every element freezes in at a different height, so that the definition of freeze-in height is ambiguous. We also find that calculated freeze-in temperatures indicated by charge state ratios from in situ measurements have little relation to the local coronal temperature of the wind source region, and stop evolving much earlier than their correspondent charge state ratio. We discuss the implication of our results on plasma diagnostics of coronal holes from spectroscopic measurements as well as on theoretical solar wind models relying on coronal temperatures.

  19. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wörner, L. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France); Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Couëdel, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille-Université, Laboiratoire de Physique des Intéractions Ioniques et Moléculaires, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille cedex 20 (France)] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille-Université, Laboiratoire de Physique des Intéractions Ioniques et Moléculaires, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Schwabe, M. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L. [Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France)] [Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France); Skvortsov, A. [Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center, RU-141160 Star City (Russian Federation)] [Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center, RU-141160 Star City (Russian Federation); Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RU-125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RU-125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon “free decharging” conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between ?10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  20. Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization and thermodynamic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    643 Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization of oxygen defects in CoO using classical simulations. The charge localization in the oxygen vacancy has]. The defect concentration in the oxygen sublattice is several orders of magnitude smaller, but never- theless

  1. Electrostatic interactions in the presence of surface charge regulation: exact results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Maggs; R. Podgornik

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of charge regulation and its effects on electrostatic interactions between dissociable charge groups immersed in a univalent electrolyte, within a family of one dimensional exactly solvable models. We consider the case of both charge regulated plates, but also the interaction of pairs of finite size dielectric "particles". Using the transfer matrix formalism we are able to determine the disjoining pressure as well as the correlations between the charge and the dipole moments of the objects as a function of their separation and electrolyte concentration

  2. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  3. Dynamics in Organic Ionic Liquids in Distinct Regions Using Charged and Uncharged Orientational Relaxation Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Dynamics in Organic Ionic Liquids in Distinct Regions Using Charged and Uncharged Orientational probe molecules display markedly different rotational dynamics when analyzed using Stokes increasingly subslip as the length of ionic liquid alkyl chain is increased. The dynamics approach those

  4. In-Order Pulsed Charge Recycling in Off-Chip Data Buses Kimish Patel, Wonbok Lee, Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    In-Order Pulsed Charge Recycling in Off-Chip Data Buses Kimish Patel, Wonbok Lee, Massoud Pedram,wonbokle,pedram}@usc.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents in-order pulsed charge recycling to reduce energy consumption in an off-chip data bus. The proposed technique performs charge recycling by employing three steps: i

  5. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  6. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  7. Charging Games in Networks of Electrical Vehicles Olivier Beaude, Samson Lasaulce, and Martin Hennebel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Charging Games in Networks of Electrical Vehicles Olivier Beaude, Samson Lasaulce, and Martin charging in electrical vehicle (EV) networks is proposed. This formulation allows one to model games, electrical vehicle, distribution net- works, potential games, Nash equilibrium, price of anarchy

  8. RENORMALIZED ENERGY EQUIDISTRIBUTION AND LOCAL CHARGE BALANCE IN 2D COULOMB SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENORMALIZED ENERGY EQUIDISTRIBUTION AND LOCAL CHARGE BALANCE IN 2D COULOMB SYSTEMS SIMONA ROTA of the "Coulomb renormalized energy" of Sandier-Serfaty, which corresponds to the total Coulomb interaction point charges with Coulomb pair interaction, in a con- fining potential (minimizers of this energy also

  9. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac ChargeDirac Charge

  10. Selectivity in the interactions between positively charged small molecules and negatively charged biopolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elson-Schwab, Lev

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 H NMR (400 MHz, acetonitrile-d 3 ) ? 8.58-8.50 (q, 2H),HPLC (C-18, 0-30% acetonitrile (0.1% TFA) in water (0.1 %purification (C-8, 5-13% acetonitrile (0.1% TFA) in water

  11. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur, Kamrup 782402, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  12. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  13. Infrared Charge-Modulation Spectroscopy of Defects in Phosphorus Doped Amorphous Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    Infrared Charge-Modulation Spectroscopy of Defects in Phosphorus Doped Amorphous Silicon KAI ZHU Solar, Toano, VA 23168 USA ABSTRACT We present infrared charge-modulation absorption spectra have been developing an infrared modulation spectroscopy technique that probes the optical spectra

  14. Analysis of the Sommer technique for measurement of the mobility for charges in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, R.; Dahm, A.J.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique for measuring the low-frequency ac mobility of free surface charges first employed by Sommer is analyzed for arbitrary values of driving frequency, charge mobility, and effective mass. Analytical expressions for the cell admittance are given for both rectangular and circular geometries in the absence of edge corrections.

  15. Large statistics study of the topological charge distribution in the SU(3) gauge theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo Giusti; Silvano Petrarca; Bruno Taglienti

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary results for a high statistics study of the topological charge distribution in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory obtained by using the definition of the charge suggested by Neuberger fermions. We find statistical evidence for deviations from a gaussian distribution. The large statistics required has been obtained by using PCs of the INFN-GRID.

  16. Analysis of combustion in a small homogeneous charge compression assisted ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    237 Analysis of combustion in a small homogeneous charge compression assisted ignition engine H Ma1 characteristics to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Difficulties such as unknown ignition timing and the polytropic index have been addressed by combining both heat release and mass fraction burn

  17. Thermoelectric eect on charged colloids in the Hckel limit Julien Morthomas and Alois Wrger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the thermophoretic coe¢ cient DT of a charged colloid. The non-uniform electrolyte is characterized in terms, a host of experimental data pro- vided clear evidence that the thermophoretic coe¢ cient DT of charged the electrolyte composition. The thermophoretic mobility of latex nanoparticles was shown to depend

  18. Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382 428 (India)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

  19. Ion adsorption and equilibrium distribution of charges in a cell of finite thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    281 Ion adsorption and equilibrium distribution of charges in a cell of finite thickness G. Barbero-consistente, on évalue la distribution d'équilibre de charges dans une cellule d'épaisseur finie, en présence d'adsorption surface est évaluée, en étendant le problème classique d'adsorption de Langmuir aux situations loin du

  20. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  1. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 219 (2002) 7377 Protein charge transport in gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheu, Sheh-Yi

    temperature limit, the rotational energy can be transferred with very high efficiency and hence one obtainsInternational Journal of Mass Spectrometry 219 (2002) 73­77 Protein charge transport in gas phase high charge transport efficiency. (Int J Mass Spectrom 219 (2002) 73­77) © 2002 Elsevier Science B

  2. Relativistic Particle with Torsion and Charged Particle in a Constant Electromagnetic Field: Identity of Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail S. Plyushchay

    1995-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The identity of classical motion is established for two physically different models, one of which is the relativistic particle with torsion, whose action contains higher derivatives and which is the effective system for the statistically charged particle interacting with the Chern-Simons U(1) gauge field, and another is the (2+1)-dimensional relativistic charged particle in external constant electromagnetic field.

  3. The Role of Solution Conditions in the Bacteriophage PP7 Capsid Charge Rikkert J. Nap,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Article The Role of Solution Conditions in the Bacteriophage PP7 Capsid Charge Regulation Rikkert J of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts ABSTRACT We investigate and quantify the effects of pH and salt concentration on the charge regulation of the bacteriophage PP7 capsid. These effects are found to be extremely

  4. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  5. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  6. Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid: Characterization and Valley-Filling Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chee Wei

    Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid: Characterization and Valley-Filling Algorithms with different EV battery charging rate constraints, that is distributed across a smart power grid network the power grid. One way to tackle this problem is to adopt a "smart grid" solution, which allows EVs

  7. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Charged Carboxyl-Terminated Dendrimers in Solutions Q. R-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the solution behavior of charged carboxylic acid terminated- copy,16 small-angle X-ray scattering,17 and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),18-25 have been used

  8. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  9. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horowitz, C J; Jen, C -M; Rakhman, A; Souder, P A; Dalton, M M; Liyanage, N; Paschke, K D; Saenboonruang, K; Silwal, R; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Quinn, B; Kumar, K S; McNulty, D; Mercado, L; Riordan, S; Wexler, J

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(q?), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer q? = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW(q?) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW(q?). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness ? of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. Finally, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.

  10. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horowitz, C J; Jen, C -M; Rakhman, A; Souder, P A; Dalton, M M; Liyanage, N; Paschke, K D; Saenboonruang, K; Silwal, R; Franklin, G B; et al

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(q?), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer q? = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW(q?) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW(q?). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the modelmore »error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness ? of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. Finally, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.« less

  11. Charge structure and lightning sensitivity in a simulated multicell thunderstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansell, Edward "Ted"

    continental multicell storm. Five laboratory-based parameterizations of noninductive graupel-ice charge for rebounding graupel-droplet collisions. Each noninductive graupel-ice parameterization is combined. [3] Only a few studies have employed multidimensional dynamical simulation models with predicted ice-phase

  12. Analysis of the excess charge in WFPC2 overscans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirianni, Marco

    stars, but WFPC2 Technical Instrument Report 98-02 #12;2 they also reported a serial or "X-CTE" loss suffer from significant charge transfer efficiency (CTE) losses. CTE losses occur when a small number register at the bottom of the chip. CTE losses are one of the most significant systematic calibration

  13. Epoxy coating, acidproof brick a success in battery charging room

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dellicker, D.; Germain, A.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    East Penn Manufacturing Company produces automotive and large industrial lead-acid batteries, including a line of accessories on private and national labels. The Lyon Stations, Pennsylvania plant has good reason to pay close attention to surface degradation since sulfuric acid is an essential chemical in the manufacturing process. The forming room, where a charge is generated on battery plates in tanks which are periodically refilled, is exposed to occasional spills of 15 to 20% sulfuric acid solutions. In addition, the walls and ceiling are regularly exposed to fumes. After three years, the coating that was originally applied to the concrete block walls exhibited blistering and the concrete surface softened considerably. Noting, however, that the brick and membrane floor in the forming room and similar areas at the plant were unscathed by the acid spills, East Penn engineers decided to consult the supplier of those systems for a way to economically restore and protect the walls. East Penn's maintenance crew began what would become a six-month-long restoration of the curbs, walls and ceilings of the forming room. Preparatory steps included cleaning, sandblasting of all concrete surfaces and neutralization of residual acid with a soda ash solution. Having selected an aromatic amine-cured epoxy coating, workers applied a compatible concrete primer and then spray-applied the coating to a thickness of 1/8'' on walls, ceilings, and floors. The sprayable and trowel-applied aromatic epoxy coatings have been free of deterioration after two years of exposure to sulfuric acid fumes. Moreover, the acid-resistant brick set with 1/8'' bed and head joints of carbon-filled phenolic mortar remains unaffected after six years of chemical and physical abuse.

  14. Orbital-free density functional theory of out-of-plane charge screening in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianfeng Lu; Vitaly Moroz; Cyrill B. Muratov

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a density functional theory of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-von Weizs\\"acker type to describe the response of a single layer of graphene resting on a dielectric substrate to a point charge or a collection of charges some distance away from the layer. We formulate a variational setting in which the proposed energy functional admits minimizers, both in the case of free graphene layers and under back-gating. We further provide conditions under which those minimizers are unique and correspond to configurations consisting of inhomogeneous density profiles of charge carrier of only one type. The associated Euler-Lagrange equation for the charge density is also obtained, and uniqueness, regularity and decay of the minimizers are proved under general conditions. In addition, a bifurcation from zero to non-zero response at a finite threshold value of the external charge is proved.

  15. Orbital-free density functional theory of out-of-plane charge screening in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianfeng Lu; Vitaly Moroz; Cyrill B. Muratov

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a density functional theory of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-von Weizs\\"acker type to describe the response of a single layer of graphene resting on a dielectric substrate to a point charge or a collection of point charges some distance away from the layer. We formulate a variational setting in which the proposed energy functional admits minimizers, both in the case of free graphene layers and under back-gating. We further provide conditions under which those minimizers are unique and correspond to configurations consisting of inhomogeneous density profiles of charge carrier of only one type. The associated Euler-Lagrange equation for the charge density is also obtained, and uniqueness, regularity and decay of the minimizers are proved under general conditions. In addition, a bifurcation from zero to non-zero response at a finite threshold value of the external charge is proved.

  16. Detailed Calculation of Test-Mass Charging in the LISA Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Araujo; P. Wass; D. Shaul; G. Rochester; T. J. Sumner

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic charging of the LISA test masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to energetic particles in the space environment has implications in the design and operation of the gravitational inertial sensors and can affect the quality of the science data. Robust predictions of charging rates and associated stochastic fluctuations are therefore required for the exposure scenarios expected throughout the mission. We report on detailed charging simulations with the Geant4 toolkit, using comprehensive geometry and physics models, for Galactic cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei. These predict positive charging rates of 50 +e/s (elementary charges per second) for solar minimum conditions, decreasing by half at solar maximum, and current fluctuations of up to 30 +e/s/Hz^{1/2}. Charging from sporadic solar events involving energetic protons was also investigated. Using an event-size distribution model, we conclude that their impact on the LISA science data is manageable. Several physical processes hitherto unexplored as potential charging mechanisms have also been assessed. Significantly, the kinetic emission of very low-energy secondary electrons due to bombardment of the inertial sensors by primary cosmic rays and their secondaries can produce charging currents comparable with the Monte Carlo rates.

  17. Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alloatti, L.; Lauermann, M.; Koos, C.; Freude, W. [Institutes IPQ and IMT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany)] [Institutes IPQ and IMT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany); Sürgers, C. [Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 6980, Karlsruhe 76049 (Germany)] [Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 6980, Karlsruhe 76049 (Germany); Leuthold, J. [Institutes IPQ and IMT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany) [Institutes IPQ and IMT, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany); Institute of Electromagnetic Fields (IFH), ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the optical losses in gate-induced charge accumulation/inversion layers at a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Comparison between gate-induced charge layers and ion-implanted thin silicon films having an identical sheet resistance shows that optical losses can be significantly lower for gate-induced layers. For a given sheet resistance, holes produce higher optical loss than electrons. Measurements have been performed at ? = 1550 nm.

  18. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  19. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  20. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  1. WASTE DISPOSAL IN GRANITE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, N.G.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of intact specimens cf granite are of the order of onemost hard rock, in­ cluding granite. Is Interrupted by setsthe pro­ perties of the granite as measured in laboratory

  2. Charging and discharging in ion implanted dielectric films used for capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical systems switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Gang; Chen Xuyuan [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Vestfold University College, P.O. Box 2243, N-3103 Toensberg (Norway); San Haisheng [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structure was used to investigate the dielectric charging and discharging in the capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical switches. The insulator in MIS structure is silicon nitride films (SiN), which were deposited by either low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes. Phosphorus or boron ions were implanted into dielectric layer in order to introduce impurity energy levels into the band gap of SiN. The relaxation processes of the injected charges in SiN were changed due to the ion implantation, which led to the change in relaxation time of the trapped charges. In our experiments, the space charges were introduced by stressing the sample electrically with dc biasing. The effects of implantation process on charge accumulation and dissipation in the dielectric are studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the charging and discharging behavior of the ion implanted silicon nitride films deposited by LPCVD is quite different from the one deposited by PECVD. The charge accumulation in the dielectric film can be reduced by ion implantation with proper dielectric deposition method.

  3. Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeII/III electron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport in micas: The kinetics of FeIIIII electron transfer in the octahedral sheet. Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeIIIII electron transfer in the octahedral...

  4. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  5. D-branes, Wilson Bags, and Coherent Topological Charge Structure in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Thacker

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo studies of pure glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based topological charge operator have revealed a laminar structure in the QCD vacuum consisting of extended, thin, coherent, locally 3-dimensional sheets of topological charge embedded in 4D space, with opposite sign sheets interleaved. Studies of localization properties of Dirac eigenmodes have also shown evidence for the delocalization of low-lying modes on effectively 3-dimensional surfaces. In this talk, I review some theoretical ideas which suggest the possibility of 3-dimensionally coherent topological charge structure in 4-dimensional gauge theory and provide a possible interpretation of the observed structure. I begin with Luscher's ``Wilson bag'' integral over the 3-index Chern-Simons tensor. The analogy with a Wilson loop as a charged world line in 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma models suggests that the Wilson bag surface represents the world volume of a physical membrane. The large-N chiral Lagrangian arguments of Witten also indicate the existence of multiple ``k-vacuum'' states with discontinuous transitions between k-vacua at $\\theta=$ odd multiples of $\\pi$. The domain walls between these vacua have the properties of a Wilson bag surface. Finally, I review the AdS/CFT duality view of $\\theta$ dependence in QCD. The dual realtionship between topological charge in gauge theory and Ramond-Ramond charge in type IIA string theory suggests that the coherent topological charge sheets observed on the lattice are the holographic image of wrapped D6 branes.

  6. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  7. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    is the calculated non-space charge limited conductance. This photogated device is an early example of an all- organic molecular electronic. Reproduced from ref. [45] with permission of the copyright holders... for the progression of smaller and faster devices being able to replicate the invaluable techniques to scale down the feature size with little or no modification to their methods. ____________ This dissertation follows the style of the Journal...

  8. Electrically charged pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

  9. General Rotating Charged Kaluza-Klein AdS Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang-Qing Wu

    2011-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I construct exact solutions for general nonextremal rotating, charged Kaluza-Klein black holes with a cosmological constant and with arbitrary angular momenta in all higher dimensions. I then investigate their thermodynamics and find their generalizations with the NUT charges. The metrics are given in both Boyer-Lindquist coordinates and a form very similar to the famous Kerr-Schild ansatz, which highlights its potential application to include multiple electric charges into solutions yet to be found in gauged supergravity. It is also observed that the metric ansatz in $D = 4$ dimensions is similar to those previously suggested by Yilmaz and later by Bekenstein.

  10. Discrepancy between hadron matter and quark-gluon matter in net charge transfer fluctuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai-Mei Zhou; Xiao-Mei Li; Bao-Guo Dong; Ben-Hao Sa

    2006-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A parton and hadron cascade model, PACIAE, is employed to investigate the net charge transfer fluctuation within $|\\eta|$=1 in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV. It is turned out that the observable of net charge transfer fluctuation, $\\kappa$, in hadronic final state (HM) is nearly a factor of 3 to 5 larger than that in initial partonic state (QGM). However, only twenty percent of the net charge transfer fluctuation in the QGM can survive the hadronization

  11. Space-Charge Limits on the Transport of Ion Beams in a Long Alternating Gradient System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenback, M.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35j. The output voltage droops in time as the charge on thethe ion gun apertures. Any droop in beam energy re­ sults in0.6 msec (0.15% per /zsec droop) is coupled to the various

  12. Quantum dynamics in condensed phases : charge carrier mobility, decoherence, and excitation energy transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yuan-Chung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we develop analytical models for quantum systems and perform theoretical investigations on several dynamical processes in condensed phases. First, we study charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular ...

  13. Dynamical Studies of Charged Di-Block Copolymer in Different Dielectric Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownian Dynamics simulations are carried out to understand the effect of temperature and dielectric constant of the medium on microphase separation of charged-neutral diblock copolymer systems. For different dielectric media, we focus on the effect of temperature on the morphology and dynamics of model charged diblock copolymers. In this study we examine in detail a system with a partially charged block copolymer consisting of 75% neutral blocks and 25% of charged blocks with 50% degree of ionization. Our investigations show that due to the presence of strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions, the block copolymermorphologies are rather different than those of their neutral counterpart at low dielectric constant, however at high dielectric constant the neutral diblock behaviors are observed. This article highlights the effect of dielectric constant of two different media on different thermodynamic and dynamic quantities. At low dielectric constant, the morphologies are a direct outcome of the ion-counterion multiplet formation. At high dielectric constant, these charged diblocks behavior resembles that of neutral and weakly charged polymers with sustainable long-range order. Similar behavior has been observed in chain swelling, albeit with small changes in swelling ratio for large changes in polarity of the medium. The results of our simulations agree with recent experimental results and are consistent with recent theoretical predictions of counterion adsorption on flexible polyelectrolytes.

  14. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Tankosic, D., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.go [USRA/NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 {mu}m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  15. APS/123-QED Influence of the ambipolar-to-free diffusion transition on dust particle charge in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the thermophoretic force [10, 11]. Dust particle charge is a key parameter in a complex plasma. It determines

  16. Localization of positive charge in DNA induced by its interaction with environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry B. Uskov; Alexander L. Burin

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic mechanisms of positive charge transfer in DNA remain unclear. A quantum state of electron hole in DNA is determined by the competition of the pi-stacking interaction $b$ sharing a charge between different base pairs and the interaction $\\lambda$ with the local environment which attempts to trap charge. To determine which interaction dominates we investigated charge quantum states in various $(GC)_{n}$ sequences choosing DNA parameters satisfying experimental data for the balance of charge transfer rates $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n=2,3$ \\cite{FredMain}. We show that experimental data can be consistent with theory only assuming $b\\ll \\lambda$ meaning that charge is typically localized within the single $G$ site. Consequently any DNA sequence including the one consisting of identical base pairs behaves more like an insulating material then a molecular conductor. Our theory can be verified experimentally, for instance measuring balance of charge transfer reactions $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n \\geq 4$ and comparing the experimental results with our predictions.

  17. In Search of Big Instructions Arrvindh Shriraman, Sandhya Dwarkadas, and Michael L. Scott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Michael L.

    and energy efficiency. Examples in- clude vector and matrix operations, and common mathematical functions of instructions in the ISA. Our premise is that future ISAs need to return to the traditional CISC philoso- phy

  18. Research at the Universit de Sherbrooke Faculty of Engineering NSERC Industrial Research Chairs Professor in charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spino, Claude

    Research at the Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Engineering NSERC Industrial Research Chairs Professor in charge NSERC Industrial Research Chair in Concrete Structure Analysis (Civil Engineering Materials for Infrastructure (Civil Engineering) Brahim Benmokrane NSERC Industrial Research Chair on High

  19. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S. [Institute of Atomic Energy Science, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shiragata Shirakane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  20. Emission Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions in Plasma of an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Soria Orts, R.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); DuBois, R. [University of Missouri-Rolla, Physics Building, Rolla, MO 63409-0640 (United States); Shevelko, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fritzsche, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-St. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Zou, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Lab, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of experimental study of magnetic dipole (M1) transitions in highly charged ions of argon (Ar9+, Ar10+, Ar13+ and Ar14+) and krypton (Kr18+ and Kr22+) are presented. The forbidden transitions of the highly charged ions in the visible and near UV range of the photon emission spectra have been measured with accuracy better than 1 ppm. Our measurements for the 'coronal lines' are the most accurate yet reported using an EBIT as a spectroscopic source of highly charged ions. These precise wavelength determinations provide a useful test and challenge for atomic structure calculations of many-electron systems.

  1. General Non-extremal Rotating Charged Godel Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang-Qing Wu

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the general exact solutions for non-extremal rotating charged black holes in the Godel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four non-trivial parameters, namely the mass $m$, the charge $q$, the Kerr equal rotation parameter $a$, and the Godel parameter $j$. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. We also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Godel black hole backgrounds.

  2. Net charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, MM; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, BD; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, GS; Badyal, SK; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, LS; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, VV; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, BI; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhati, AK; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, LC; Blyth, CO; Bonner, BE; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, RV; Cai, XZ; Caines, H.; Sanchez, MCD; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, HF; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, SP; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, JP; Cormier, TM; Cramer, JG; Crawford, HJ; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, AA; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, X.; Draper, JE; Du, F.; Dubey, AK; Dunin, VB; Dunlop, JC; Majumdar, MRD; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, LG; Emelianov, V.; Elage, JE; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, KJ; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Ganti, MS; Gutierrez, TD; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, E.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, R.; Gonzalez, JE; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Gronstal, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, SM; Gupta, A.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, TJ; Hardtke, D.; Harris, JW; Heinz, M.; Henry, TW; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, GW; Horsley, M.; Huang, HZ; Huang, SL; Humanic, TJ; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, WW; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, PG; Judd, EG; Kabana, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, SR; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, DD; Kolleger, T.; Konstantmov, AS; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, AD; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, AI; Kumar, A.; Kunde, GJ; Kunz, CL; Kutuev, RK; Kuznetsov, AA; Lamont, MAC; Landgraf, JM; Lange, S.; Lansdell, CP; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Leontiev, VM; LeVine, MJ; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Lindenbatim, SJ; Lisa, MA; Liu, E.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Liu, QJ; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, WJ; Long, H.; Longacre, RS; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Love, WA; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, J.; Ma, YG; Maestro, D.; Mahajan, S.; Mangotra, LK; Mahapatra, DP; Majka, R.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Marx, J.; Matis, HS; Matulenko, YA; McShane, TS; Meissner, F.; Melnick, Y.; Meschanin, A.; Messer, M.; Miller, ML; Milosevich, Z.; Minaev, NG; Mironov, C.; Mishra, D.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, CF; Mora-Corral, MJ; Morozov, V.; de Moura, MM; Munhoz, MG; Nandi, BK; Nayak, SK; Nayak, TK; Nelson, JM; Nevski, P.; Nikitin, VA; Nogach, LV; Norman, B.; Nurushev, SB; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Paic, G.; Pandey, SU; Pal, SK; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, SY; Pavlinov, AI; Pawlak, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Peryt, W.; Petrov, VA; Phatak, SC; Picha, R.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, AM; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, BVKS; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Rai, G.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ravel, O.; Razin, SV; Reichhold, D.; Reid, JG; Renault, G.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, HG; Roberts, JB; Rogachevski, OV; Romero, JL; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, LJ; Rykov, V.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Savin, I.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, RP; Schmitz, N.; Schroeder, LS; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Seliverstov, D.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shestermanov, KE; Shimanskii, SS; Singaraju, RN; Simon, F.; Skoro, G.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, S.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Struck, C.; Suaide, AAP; Sugarbaker, E.; Suite, C.; Sumbera, M.; Surrow, B.; Symons, TJM; de Toledo, AS; Szarwas, P.; Tai, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, AH; Thein, D.; Thomas, JH; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tonjes, MB; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, Robert E.; Trivedi, MD; Trofimov, V.; Tsai, O.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, DG; Van Buren, G.; VanderMolen, AM; Vasiliev, AN; Vasiliev, M.; Vigdor, SE; Viyogi, YP; Voloshin, SA; Waggoner, W.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, XL; Wang, ZM; Ward, H.; Watson, JW; Wells, R.; Westfall, GD; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Willson, R.; Wissink, SW; Witt, R.; Wood, J.; Wu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, ZZ; Yakutin, AE; Yamamoto, E.; Yang, J.; Yepes, P.; Yurevich, VI; Zanevski, YV; Zborovsky, I.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, HY; Zhang, WM; Zhang, ZP; Zolnierczuk, PA; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, J.; Zubarev, AN; STAR Collaboration.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of charged particle fluctuations measurements in Au+Au collisions at rootS(NN)=130 GeV using the STAR detector. Dynamical fluctuations measurements are presented for inclusive charged particle multiplicities as well...

  3. Scaling of Charged Particle Production in d+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the PHOBOS Collaboration; B. B. Back

    2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles over a wide pseudorapidity range of |eta| N^{pp}_{ch} and the energy dependence of the density of charged particles produced in the fragmentation region exhibits extensive longitudinal scaling.

  4. Solvent eects on the charge storage ability in polypyrrole T.F. Otero, I. Cantero, H. Grande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otero, Toribio Fernández

    charge is in¯uenced by the conditions of synthesis of the poly- mer and by the charge storage variables electrode was an Ag/AgCl electrode from Crison Instruments which introduced directly into the cell. Pyrrole

  5. Measurement of the Inclusive Leptonic Asymmetry in Top-Quark Pairs that Decay to Two Charged Leptons at CDF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo

    We measure the inclusive forward–backward asymmetry of the charged-lepton pseudorapidities from top-quark pairs produced in proton–antiproton collisions and decaying to final states that contain two charged leptons (electrons ...

  6. Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Michele Graf; Gregorio Ortelli

    2007-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the charges transported in two systems, a spatially periodic and an open quantum pump, both depending periodically and adiabatically on time. The charge transported in a cycle was computed by Thouless, respectively by Buttiker et al. in the two cases. We show that the results agree in the limit where the two physical situations become the same, i.e., that of a large open pump.

  7. On the energy of charged black holes in generalized dilaton-axion gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Radinschi; Farook Rahaman; Asish Ghosh

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we calculate the energy distribution of some charged black holes in generalized dilaton-axion gravity. The solutions correspond to charged black holes arising in a Kalb-Ramond-dilaton background and some existing non-rotating black hole solutions are recovered in special cases. We focus our study to asymptotically flat and asymptotically non-flat types of solutions and resort for this purpose to the M{\\o}ller prescription. Various aspects of energy are also analyzed.

  8. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  9. Charged Particle Multiplicities in Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and Cu+Cu Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5 to 179.5 deg. corresponding to |eta|<5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  10. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel pricesDiesel28, 2007, 4:15pmDirac Charge

  11. Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEtheInspection15Department10PMPenrose C.Leading the Charge:

  12. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac Charge Dynamcs

  13. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac Charge DynamcsDirac

  14. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac Charge

  15. Charge tuning in [111] grown GaAs droplet quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouet, L.; Vidal, M.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Wang, G.; Urbaszek, B. [INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, 135 Ave. Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Mano, T.; Ha, N.; Kuroda, T.; Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Durnev, M. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute RAS, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate charge tuning in strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by droplet epitaxy on a GaAs(111)A substrate. Application of a bias voltage allows the controlled charging of the QDs from ?3|e| to +2|e|. The resulting changes in QD emission energy and exciton fine-structure are recorded in micro-photoluminescence experiments at T?=?4?K. We uncover the existence of excited valence and conduction states, in addition to the s-shell-like ground state. We record a second series of emission lines about 25?meV above the charged exciton emission coming from excited charged excitons. For these excited interband transitions, a negative diamagnetic shift of large amplitude is uncovered in longitudinal magnetic fields.

  16. Distance dependent rates of photoinduced charge separation and dark charge recombination in fixed distance porphyrin-quinone molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Niemczyk, M.P.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three zinc tetraphenylporphyrin-anthraquinone derivatives were prepared in which the edge-to-edge distances between the porphyrin and quinone ..pi.. systems are fixed by a rigid hydrocarbon spacer molecule. Triptycene, trans-1,2-diphenylcyclopentane, and adamantane were used to fix the porphyrin-anthraquinone distance at 2.5, 3.7, and 4.9 A, respectively. These molecules possess 1,2, and 3 saturated carbon atoms, respectively, between the porphyrin donor and the quinone acceptor. Rate constants for photoinduced electron transfer from the lowest excited singlet state of the zinc tetraphenylporphyrin donor to the anthraquinone acceptor were measured. In addition, the corresponding radical ion pair recombination rate constants for each of these molecules were also determined. The rate constants for both photoinduced charge separation and subsequent radical ion pair recombination decrease by approximately a factor of 10 for each saturated carbon atom intervening between the porphyrin donor and the quinone acceptor. These results are consistent with a model in which the rate of electron transfer is determined by weak mixing of the sigma orbitals of the saturated hydrocarbon spacer with the ..pi.. orbitals of the donor and acceptor. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Ultrafast Charge Separation and Nongeminate Electron-Hole Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel L Smith; Alex W Chin

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of electron-hole separation in organic solar cells is currently hotly debated. Recent experimental work suggests that these charges can separate on extremely short timescales (<100 fs). This can be understood in terms of delocalised transport within fullerene aggregates, which is thought to emerge on short timescales before vibronic relaxation induces polaron formation. However, in the optimal heterojunction morphology, electrons and holes will often re-encounter each other before reaching the electrodes. If such charges trap and cannot separate, then device efficiency will suffer. Here we extend the theory of ultrafast charge separation to incorporate polaron formation, and find that the same delocalised transport used to explain ultrafast charge separation can account for the suppression of nongeminate recombination in the best devices.

  18. Measurement Back-Action in Quantum Point-Contact Charge Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Küng, Bruno

    Charge sensing with quantum point-contacts (QPCs) is a technique widely used in semiconductor quantum-dot research. Understanding the physics of this measurement process, as well as finding ways of suppressing unwanted ...

  19. Study of high transverse momentum charged particle suppression in heavy ion collisions at LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Andre Sungho

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charged particle spectrum at large transverse momentum (PT), dominated by hadrons originating from parton fragmentation, is an important observable for studying the properties of the hot, dense medium produced in ...

  20. Defect-Enhanced Charge Transfer by Ion-Solid Interactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer effects on recoil atoms. Citation: Gao F, HY Xiao, XT Zu, M Posselt, and WJ Weber.2009."Defect-Enhanced Charge Transfer by Ion-Solid Interactions in SiC using...

  1. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casse, G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and s...

  2. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  3. Towards an understanding of induced-charge electrokinetics at large applied voltages in concentrated solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    The venerable theory of electrokinetic phenomena rests on the hypothesis of a dilute solution of point-like ions in quasi-equilibrium with a weakly charged surface, whose potential relative to the bulk is of order the ...

  4. Thermodynamics and fluctuations of conserved charges in Hadron Resonance Gas model in finite volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Samanta, Subhasis; Sur, Subrata

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamics of hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collision experiments are usually studied as a system of infinite volume. Here we report on possible effects for considering a finite system size for such matter in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. The bulk thermodynamic variables as well as the fluctuations of conserved charges are considered. We find that the finite size effects are insignificant once the observables are scaled with the respective volumes. The only substantial effect is found in the fluctuations of electric charge which may therefore be used to extract information about the volume of fireball created in heavy-ion collision experiments.

  5. Thermodynamics and fluctuations of conserved charges in Hadron Resonance Gas model in finite volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Rajarshi Ray; Subhasis Samanta; Subrata Sur

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamics of hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collision experiments are usually studied as a system of infinite volume. Here we report on possible effects for considering a finite system size for such matter in the framework of the Hadron Resonance Gas model. The bulk thermodynamic variables as well as the fluctuations of conserved charges are considered. We find that the finite size effects are insignificant once the observables are scaled with the respective volumes. The only substantial effect is found in the fluctuations of electric charge which may therefore be used to extract information about the volume of fireball created in heavy-ion collision experiments.

  6. Nuclear critical charge for two-electron ion in Lagrange mesh method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Olivares Pilón; A. V. Turbiner

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Schroedinger equation for two electrons in the field of a charged fixed center $Z$ is solved with the Lagrange mesh method for charges close to the critical charge $Z_{cr}$. We confirm the value of the nuclear critical charge $Z_{cr}$ recently calculated in Estienne et al. {\\em Phys. Rev. Lett. \\bf 112}, 173001 (2014) to 11 decimal digits using an inhomogeneous (non-uniform) three-dimensional lattice of size $70 \\times 70 \\times 20$. We show that the ground state energy for H$^-$ is accurate to 14 decimals on the lattice $50 \\times 50 \\times 40$ in comparison with the highly accurate result by Nakashima-Nakatsuji, {\\it J. Chem. Phys. \\bf 127}, 224104 (2007).

  7. Electron Electric Dipole Moment from CP Violation in the Charged Higgs Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Bowser-Chao; Darwin Chang; Wai-Yee Keung

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The leading contributions to the electron (or muon) electric dipole moment due to CP violation in the charged Higgs sector are at the two-loop level. A careful analysis of the model-independent contribution is provided. We also consider specific scenarios to demonstrate how charged Higgs sector CP violation can naturally give rise to large electric dipole moments. Numerical results show that the electron electric dipole moment in such models can lie at the experimentally accessible level.

  8. Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron(a) , A. Elgart(b) , G.M. Graf(c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of B¨uttiker, Pr^etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

  9. Shaped-charge tests in support of the coal-gasification program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheloske, R.F.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LLNL concept for in-situ coal gasification requires forming horizontal holes in deep coal beds to connect vertical bore shafts. These lateral holes are required to provide a passage for the gases between the vertical shafts. Shaped charges are being considered for producing these horizontal bore holes. This report describes a test method for evaluating new shaped charge designs and presents the results for three designs.

  10. Space charge modeling in electron-beam irradiated polyethylene: Fitting model and experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Roy, S.; Laurent, C.; Teyssedre, G. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Baudoin, F.; Griseri, V. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model for describing charge accumulation in electron-beam irradiated low density polyethylene has been put forward recently. It encompasses the generation of positive and negative charges due to impinging electrons and their transport in the insulation. However, the model was not optimized to fit all the data available regarding space charge dynamics obtained using up-to-date pulsed electro-acoustic techniques. In the present approach, model outputs are compared with experimental space charge distribution obtained during irradiation and post-irradiation, the irradiated samples being in short circuit conditions or with the irradiated surface at a floating potential. A unique set of parameters have been used for all the simulations, and it encompasses the transport parameters already optimized for charge transport in polyethylene under an external electric field. The model evolution in itself consists in describing the recombination between positive and negative charges according to the Langevin formula, which is physically more accurate than the previous description and has the advantage of reducing the number of adjustable parameters of the model. This also provides a better description of the experimental behavior underlining the importance of recombination processes in irradiated materials.

  11. Surface charge sensing by altering the phase transition in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S., E-mail: suhaskumar@stanford.edu, E-mail: rahimes@stanford.edu; Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Esfandyarpour, R., E-mail: suhaskumar@stanford.edu, E-mail: rahimes@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Genome Technology Center, 855 California Ave., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Davis, R. [Stanford Genome Technology Center, 855 California Ave., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of surface charges has various applications in medicine, electronics, biotechnology, etc. The source of surface charge induction may range from simple charge-polarized molecules like water to complicated proteins. It was recently discovered that surface charge accumulation can alter the temperature at which VO{sub 2} undergoes a Mott transition. Here, we deposited polar molecules onto the surface of two-terminal thin-film VO{sub 2} lateral devices and monitored the joule-heating-driven Mott transition, or conductance switching. We observed that the power required to induce the conductance switching reduced upon treatment with polar molecules and, using in-situ blackbody-emission direct measurement of local temperature, we show that this reduction in power was accompanied by reduction in the Mott transition temperature. Further evidence suggested that this effect has specificity to the nature of the species used to induce surface charges. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we also show that there is no detectable change in oxidation state of vanadium or structural phase in the bulk of the 40?nm VO{sub 2} thin-film even as the phase transition temperature is reduced by up to 20?K by the polar molecules. The ability to alter the phase transition parameters by depositing polar molecules suggests a potential application in sensing surface charges of different origins and this set of results also highlights interesting aspects of the phase transition in VO{sub 2}.

  12. Quantification of the solid-state charge mobility in a model radical polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Rostro, Lizbeth; Boudouris, Bryan W., E-mail: boudouris@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 475 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish that an oft-used radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA), has a solid-state hole mobility value on the order of 10{sup ?4} cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} in a space charge-limited device geometry. Despite being completely amorphous and lacking any ?-conjugation, these results demonstrate that the hole mobility of PTMA is comparable to many well-studied conjugated polymers [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene)]. Furthermore, we show that the space charge-limited charge carrier mobility of these macromolecules is only a weak function of temperature, in contrast to many thermally-activated models of charge transport in polymeric materials. This key result demonstrates that the charge transport in radical polymers is inherently different than that in semicrystalline, conjugated polymers. These results establish the mechanism of solid-state charge transport in radical polymers and provide macromolecular design principles for this emerging class of organic electronic materials.

  13. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  14. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  15. Charging effect simulation model used in simulations of plasma etching of silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishchuk, Valentyn; Volland, Burkhard E.; Hauguth, Maik; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, North End, Yatton, Bristol BS49 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the consequences of local surface charging on the evolving etching profile is a critical challenge in high density plasma etching. Deflection of the positively charged ions in locally varying electric fields can cause profile defects such as notching, bowing, and microtrenching. We have developed a numerical simulation model capturing the influence of the charging effect over the entire course of the etching process. The model is fully integrated into ViPER (Virtual Plasma Etch Reactor)-a full featured plasma processing simulation software developed at Ilmenau University of Technology. As a consequence, we show that local surface charge concurrently evolves with the feature profile to affect the final shape of the etched feature. Using gas chopping (sometimes called time-multiplexed) etch process for experimental validation of the simulation, we show that the model provides excellent fits to the experimental data and both, bowing and notching effects are captured-as long as the evolving profile and surface charge are simultaneously simulated. In addition, this new model explains that surface scallops, characteristic of gas chopping technique, are eroded and often absent in the final feature profile due to surface charging. The model is general and can be applied across many etching chemistries.

  16. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  17. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  18. Possible scaling behaviour of the multiplicities ratio in leptoproduction of charged pions in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akopov, N; Akopov, Z

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is demonstrated that based on two-dimensional distributions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data, obtained recently by the HERMES experiment at DESY on different nuclei, which contains data for charged pions produced in $z$ slices as a function of $\

  19. Possible scaling behaviour of the multiplicities ratio in leptoproduction of charged pions in nuclear medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Akopov; L. Grigoryan; Z. Akopov

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is demonstrated that based on two-dimensional distributions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data, obtained recently by the HERMES experiment at DESY on different nuclei, which contains data for charged pions produced in $z$ slices as a function of $\

  20. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  1. Synthesis of charged cyclodextrin highly soluble in organic solvents for enantiomer separations in capillary electrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maldonado, Omar

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of charged cyclodextrin highly soluble in organic solvents was made by exchanging the inorganic counter ion (Na+) of heptakis (2,3-di-Omethyl- 6-O-sulfo)-�²-CD (Na7HDMS) with tetrabutylammonium (TBA+), to produce TBA7HDMS. The same ion...

  2. Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

  3. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L., E-mail: plawsky@rpi.edu; Gill, William N. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22?nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k{sub 0}?(t+1){sup ??1}, where 0?in studies of charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films.

  4. Correlation between conserved charges in PNJL Model with multi-quark interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Paramita Deb; Anirban Lahiri; Rajarshi Ray

    2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of correlations among conserved charges like baryon number, electric charge and strangeness in the framework of 2+1 flavor Polyakov loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at vanishing chemical potentials, up to fourth order. Correlations up to second order have been measured in Lattice QCD which compares well with our estimates given the inherent difference in the pion masses in the two systems. Possible physical implications of these correlations and their importance in understanding the matter obtained in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. We also present comparison of the results with the commonly used unbound effective potential in the quark sector of this model.

  5. Light charged particle emission from hot $^{32}$S$^{*}$ formed in $^{20}$Ne + $^{12}$C reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aparajita Dey; S. Bhattacharya; C. Bhattacharya; K. Banerjee; T. K. Rana; S. Kundu; S. R. Banerjee; S. Mukhopadhyay; D. Gupta; R. Saha

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusive energy distributions for light charged particles ($p, d, t$ and $\\alpha$) have been measured in the $^{20}$Ne (158, 170, 180, 200 MeV) + $^{12}$C reactions in the angular range 10$^{o}$ -- 50$^{o}$. Exclusive light charged particle energy distribution measurements were also done for the same system at 158 MeV bombarding energy by in-plane light charged particle -- fragment coincidence. Pre-equilibrium components have been separated out from proton energy spectra using moving source model considering two sources. The data have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code CASCADE. It has been observed that significant deformation effects were needed to be introduced in the compound nucleus in order to explain the shape of the evaporated $d, t$ energy spectra. For protons, evaporated energy spectra were rather insensitive to nuclear deformation, though angular distributions could not be explained without deformation. Decay sequence of the hot $^{32}$S nucleus has been investigated through exclusive light charged particle measurements using the $^{20}$Ne (158 MeV) + $^{12}$C reaction. Information on the sequential decay chain has been extracted through comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the statistical model. It is observed from the present analysis that exclusive light charged particle data may be used as a powerful tool to probe the decay sequence of hot light compound systems.

  6. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  7. Electrodynamics of a generalized charged particle in doubly special relativity framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pramanik, Souvik, E-mail: souvick.in@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Ghosh, Subir, E-mail: subir_ghosh2@rediffmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Pal, Probir, E-mail: probirkumarpal@rediffmail.com [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper, dynamics of generalized charged particles are studied in the presence of external electromagnetic interactions. This particular extension of the free relativistic particle model lives in Non-Commutative ?-Minkowski space–time, compatible with Doubly Special Relativity, that is motivated to describe Quantum Gravity effects. Furthermore we have also considered the electromagnetic field to be dynamical and have derived the modified forms of Lienard–Wiechert like potentials for these extended charged particle models. In all the above cases we exploit the new and extended form of ?-Minkowski algebra where electromagnetic effects are incorporated in the lowest order, in the Dirac framework of Hamiltonian constraint analysis.

  8. Electric Field-Induced Skyrmion Crystals via Charged Monopoles in Insulating Helimagets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haruki Watanabe; Ashvin Vishwanath

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrons propagating in a magnetically ordered medium experience an additional gauge field associated with the Berry phase of their spin following the local magnetic texture. In contrast to the usual electromagnetic field, this gauge field admits monopole excitations, corresponding to hedgehog defects of the magnetic order. In an insulator, these hedgehogs carry a well-defined electric charge allowing for them to be controlled by electric fields. One particularly robust mechanism that contributes to the charge is the orbital magnetoelectric effect, captured by a $\\theta$ angle, which leads to a charge of $e\\theta/2\\pi$ on hedgehogs. This is a direct consequence of the Witten effect for magnetic monopoles in a $\\theta$ medium. A physical consequence is that external electric fields can induce skyrmion crystal phases in insulating helimagnets.

  9. Numerical studies of emittance exchange in 2-D charged-particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, F.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe results obtained from a two-dimensional particle-following computer code that simulates a continuous, nonrelativistic, elliptical charged-particle beam with linear continuous focusing. Emittances and focusing strengths can be different in the two transverse directions. The results can be applied, for example, for a quadrupole transport system in a smooth approximation to a real beam with unequal emittances in the two planes. The code was used to study emittance changes caused by kinetic-energy exchange between transverse directions and by shifts in charge distributions. Simulation results for space-charge-dominated beams agree well with analytic formulas. From simulation results, an empirical formula was developed for a ''partition parameter'' (the ratio of kinetic energies in the two directions) as a function of initial conditions and beamline length. Quantitative emittance changes for each transverse direction can be predicted by using this parameter. Simulation results also agree with Hofmann's generalized differential equation relating emittance and field energy.

  10. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V. [Radiophysics Department of St. Petersburg University, 1 Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  11. Evaluating charge noise acting on semiconductor quantum dots in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10{sup ?5}?e/?(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10{sup ?6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1?Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.

  12. Theoretical model of charge mobility in DNA: The path integral approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikarin Yoo-Kong; Watchara Liewrian

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of the charge-transfer process in DNA is investigated by using the Feynman path integral \\cite{FHIP,HP,TF,T}. The base-pairs' coordinates are eliminated resulting to the effective action of the system. The trial action is introduced in order to obtain the expectation value of the equation of motion. The electron will be in the equilibrium between lose and gain energy under the presence of an external electric field when the steady-state is reached. Using the result of the steady-state condition, the impedance function of the charge moving along the DNA chain is also studied. The mobility of charge moving in DNA was obtained and the limits at low and high temperature are also studied. The results of how the mobility depends on temperatures indicate that DNA may possibly be treated as a semiconductor qunatum wire.

  13. Simulation of Charged Systems in Heterogeneous Dielectric Media via a True Energy Functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vikram Jadhao; Francisco J. Solis; Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    For charged systems in heterogeneous dielectric media, a key obstacle for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is the need to solve the Poisson equation in the media. This obstacle can be bypassed using MD methods that treat the local polarization charge density as a dynamic variable, but such approaches require access to a true free energy functional; one that evaluates to the equilibrium electrostatic energy at its minimum. In this letter, we derive the needed functional. As an application, we develop a Car-Parrinello MD method for the simulation of free charges present near a spherical emulsion droplet separating two immiscible liquids with different dielectric constants. Our results show the presence of non-monotonic ionic profiles in the dielectric with lower dielectric constant.

  14. Charge transfer in strongly correlated systems: An exact diagonalization approach to model Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schöppach, Andreas; Gnandt, David; Koslowski, Thorsten, E-mail: koslowsk@uni-freiburg.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Albertstraße 23a, D-79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Albertstraße 23a, D-79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study charge transfer in bridged di- and triruthenium complexes from a theoretical and computational point of view. Ab initio computations are interpreted from the perspective of a simple empirical Hamiltonian, a chemically specific Mott-Hubbard model of the complexes' ? electron systems. This Hamiltonian is coupled to classical harmonic oscillators mimicking a polarizable dielectric environment. The model can be solved without further approximations in a valence bond picture using the method of exact diagonalization and permits the computation of charge transfer reaction rates in the framework of Marcus' theory. In comparison to the exact solution, the Hartree-Fock mean field theory overestimates both the activation barrier and the magnitude of charge-transfer excitations significantly. For triruthenium complexes, we are able to directly access the interruthenium antiferromagnetic coupling strengths.

  15. Studies of Charge Exchange in a High?Pressure Pulsed Electron Impact Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, D. K. Sen; Hierl, Peter M.; Franklin, J. L.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure pulsed ion source has been used in a time?of?flight mass spectrometer in order to study the charge exchangereactions in Ar–H2 and Ar–D2 systems using the ion source in the ?ermák mode of operation. As the source was used in a pulsed...

  16. Electrostatic Potential of a Point Charge in a Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maya Watanabe; A. W. C Lun

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime in isotropic coordinates and the electrostatic field of an electric point charge placed outside its surface of inversion. We treat the static electric point charge as a linear perturbation on the Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom background. We develop a method based upon the Copson method to convert the governing Maxwell equation on the electrostatic potential generated by the static electric point charge into a solvable linear second order ordinary differential equation. We obtain a closed form fundamental solution of the curved space Laplace equation arising from the background metric, which is shown to be regular everywhere except at the point charge and its image point inside the surface of inversion. We also develop a method that demonstrates that the solution does not contain any other charge that may creep into the region that lies beyond the surface of inversion and which is not covered by the isotropic coordinates. The Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime therefore is linearly stable under electrostatic perturbations. This stability result includes the three degenerate cases of the fundamental solution that correspond to the Brans Type 1, the Reissner-Nordstrom and the Schwarzschild background spacetimes.

  17. Effect of charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations on flow harmonics in even-by-event hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, A K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In nucleon-nucleon collisions, charged particle's multiplicity fluctuates. We have studied the effect of multiplicity fluctuation on flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collision in event-by-event hydrodynamics. Assuming that the charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations are governed by the negative binomial distribution, the Monte-Carlo Glauber model of initial condition is generalised to include the fluctuations. Explicit simulations with the generalised Monte-Carlo Glauber model initial conditions indicate that the multiplicity fluctuations do not have large effect on the flow harmonics.

  18. Effect of charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations on flow harmonics in even-by-event hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In nucleon-nucleon collisions, charged particle's multiplicity fluctuates. We have studied the effect of multiplicity fluctuation on flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collision in event-by-event hydrodynamics. Assuming that the charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations are governed by the negative binomial distribution, the Monte-Carlo Glauber model of initial condition is generalised to include the fluctuations. Explicit simulations with the generalised Monte-Carlo Glauber model initial conditions indicate that the multiplicity fluctuations do not have large effect on the flow harmonics.

  19. Attosecond timing the ultrafast charge-transfer process in atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S. X. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we have demonstrated that the ultrafast charge-transfer process in ion-atom collisions can be mapped out with attosecond extreme uv (xuv) pulses. During the dynamic-charge transfer from the target atom to the projectile ion, the electron coherently populates the two sites of both nuclei, which can be viewed as a 'short-lived' molecular state. A probing attosecond xuv pulse can instantly unleash the delocalized electron from such a ''transient molecule,'' so that the resulting photoelectron may exhibit a ''double-slit'' interference. On the contrary, either reduced or no photoelectron interference will occur if the attosecond xuv pulse strikes well before or after the collision. Therefore, by monitoring the photoelectron interference visibility, one can precisely time the ultrafast charge-transfer process in atomic collisions with time-delayed attosecond xuv pulses.

  20. Demonstration of Cathode Emittance Dominated High Bunch Charge Beams in a DC gun-based Photoinjector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (greater than or equal to 100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittance measured at 9-9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Free Electron Lasers (FELs).

  1. First principles calculation of polarization induced interfacial charges in GaN/AlN heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohan Mishra; Oscar D. Restrepo; Siddharth Rajan; Wolfgang Windl

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method to calculate polarization induced interfacial charges in semiconductor heterostructures using classical electrostatics applied to real-space band diagrams from first principles calculations and apply it to GaN/AlN heterostructures with ultrathin AlN layers (4-6 monolayers). We show that the calculated electric fields and interfacial charges are independent of the exchange-correlation functionals used (local-density approximation and hybrid functionals). We also find the calculated interfacial charge of (6.8 +/- 0.4) x 10^13 cm-2 to be in excellent agreement with experiments and the value of 6.58 x 10^13 cm-2 calculated from bulk polarization constants, validating the use of bulk constants even for very thin films.

  2. Holographic superconductors in the AdS black hole with a magnetic charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Setare; D. Momeni; R. Myrzakulov; Muhammad Raza

    2012-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study the analytical properties of a 2+1 dimensional magnetically charged holographic superconductor in $AdS_4$. We obtain the critical chemical potential $\\mu_c$ analytically, using the Sturm-Liouville variational approach. Also, the obtained analytic result can be used to back up the numerical computations in the holographic superconductor in the probe limit.

  3. Energetics of Primary Charge Separation in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Mutants: Triplet Decay in Large Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    energy change associated with primary charge separation in wild-type reaction centers. Introduction decay pathway leads to an approach for obtaining information on the relative energies of the radical of the absolute energy of 3 P from its phosphorescence, the energy of the initial charge separation reaction can

  4. Impact of quantized vibrations on the efficiency of interfacial charge separation in photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soumya Bera; Nicolas Gheeraert; Simone Fratini; Sergio Ciuchi; Serge Florens

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that charge separation at donor-acceptor interfaces is a complex process that is controlled by the combined action of Coulomb binding for electron-hole pairs and partial relaxation due to quantized phonons. A joint electron-vibration quantum dynamical study reveals that high energy vibrations sensitively tune the charge transfer probability as a function of time and injection energy, due to polaron formation. These results have bearings for the optimization of energy transfer both in organic and quantum dot photovoltaics, as well as in biological light harvesting complexes.

  5. Stability of charged thin-shell wormholes in (2 + 1) dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayan Banerjee

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we construct charged thin-shell wormholes in (2+1)-dimensions applying the cut-and -paste technique implemented by Visser, from a BTZ black hole which was discovered by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli, and the surface stress are determined using the Darmois-Israel formalism at the wormhole throat. We analyzed the stability of the shell considering phantom-energy or generalised Chaplygin gas equation of state for the exotic matter at the throat. We also discussed the linearized stability of charged thin-shell wormholes around the static solution.

  6. Ion thermal double layers in a pair-ion warm magnetized plasma containing charged dust impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt); El-Bedwehy, N. A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta El-Gedida 34517 (Egypt)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the formation and the dynamics of ion thermal double layers (ITDLs) in a magnetized plasma, composed of positive and negative ions as well as a fraction of stationary charged (positive or negative) dust impurities have been studied. Using plasma hydrodynamics and Poisson equations for the two ion species, a modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation has been derived. The effects of the external magnetic field, the concentration of charged dust impurities, and the negative to positive ion temperature ratio on the ITDLs structure are investigated.

  7. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  8. Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reconfiguration-Assisted Charging in Large-Scale Lithium-ion Battery Systems Liang He1 , Linghe, TX, USA ABSTRACT Large-scale Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted in many systems and heterogeneous discharging con- ditions, cells in the battery system may have differ- ent statuses

  9. Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen interstitial mobility in ThO2 than in CeO2. Citation: Xiao HY, Y Zhang, and WJ Weber.2013."Stability and Migration of Charged Oxygen Interstitials in ThO2 and CeO2."Acta...

  10. Improving Charging Efficiency with Workload Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Qinru

    University Syracuse, New York, 13244, USA {yzhan158, yage, qiqiu}@syr.edu ABSTRACT In energy harvestingImproving Charging Efficiency with Workload Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems Yukan in the electrical energy storage (EES) bank. How much energy can be stored is affected by many factors including

  11. Two-charged non-extremal rotating black holes in seven-dimensional gauged supergravity: The single-rotation case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang-Qing Wu

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct the solution for non-extremal charged rotating black holes in seven-dimensional gauged supergravity, in the case with only one rotation parameter and two independent charges. Using the Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, the metric is expressed in a generalized form of the ansatz previously presented in [S.Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. D 83 (2011) 121502(R)], which may be helpful to find the most general non-extremal two-charged rotating black hole with three unequal rotation parameters. The conserved charges for thermodynamics are also computed.

  12. Point of zero charge determination in soils and minerals via traditional methods and detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    -specific ion adsorption as a function of pH and I (point of zero net charge), and (3) electroacoustic mobility Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Point of zero charge; Point of zero net charge; Point, or positive, or no charge. The pH where the net total particle charge is zero is called the point of zero

  13. Scaling of Temperature Dependence of Charge Mobility in Molecular Holstein Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Tikhonov; N. S. Fialko; E. V. Sobolev; V. D. Lakhno

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for 4 types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all 4 types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e. those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

  14. Parametric excitation and chaos through dust-charge fluctuation in a dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bora, Madhurjya P

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a van der Pol-Mathieu (vdPM) equation with parametric forcing, which arises in a simplified model of dusty plasma with dust-charge fluctuation. We make a detailed numerical investigation and show that the system can be driven to chaos either through a period doubling cascade or though a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation over an wide range of parameter space. We also discuss the frequency entrainment or frequency-locked phase of the dust-charge fluctuation dynamics and show that the system exhibits 2:1 parametric resonance away from the chaotic regime.

  15. Parametric excitation and chaos through dust-charge fluctuation in a dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhurjya P Bora; Dipak Sarmah

    2007-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a van der Pol-Mathieu (vdPM) equation with parametric forcing, which arises in a simplified model of dusty plasma with dust-charge fluctuation. We make a detailed numerical investigation and show that the system can be driven to chaos either through a period doubling cascade or though a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation over an wide range of parameter space. We also discuss the frequency entrainment or frequency-locked phase of the dust-charge fluctuation dynamics and show that the system exhibits 2:1 parametric resonance away from the chaotic regime.

  16. Photochemical charge separation in zeolites: Electron transfer dynamics, nanocrystals and zeolitic membranes. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminosilicate zeolites provide an excellent host for photochemical charge separation. Because of the constraints provided by the zeolite, the back electron transfer from the reduced acceptor to the oxidized sensitizer is slowed down. This provides the opportunity to separate the charge and use it in a subsequent reaction for water oxidation and reduction. Zeolite-based ruthenium oxide catalysts have been found to be efficient for the water splitting process. This project has demonstrated the usefulness of zeolite hosts for photolytic splitting of water.

  17. Fast ion charge exchange spectroscopy adapted for tangential viewing geometry in LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, T.; Osakabe, M.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Goto, M.; Isobe, M.; Toi, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Okamura, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Murakami, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ogawa, K. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A tangential Fast Ion Charge eXchange Spectroscopy is newly applied on a Large Helical Device (LHD) for co/countercirculating fast ions, which are produced by high energy tangential negative-ion based neutral beam injection. With this new observation geometry, both the tangential-neutral beam (NB) and a low-energy radial-NB based on positive ions can be utilized as probe beams of the measurement. We have successfully observed Doppler-shifted H-alpha lights due to the charge exchange process between the probing NB and circulating hydrogen ions of around 100 keV in LHD plasmas.

  18. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel [LSA Biophysics, University of Michigan, 930 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)] [LSA Biophysics, University of Michigan, 930 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ?B97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  19. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  20. Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

  1. Charge Migration Efficiency Optimization in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage (HEES) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Charge Migration Efficiency Optimization in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage (HEES) Systems the excessive electric energy in the electrical energy storage (EES) rather than converting into a different) are typically not balanced with each other. Storage of excessive en- ergy and compensation of the energy

  2. 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How did the Climate and Energy Project (CEP), a small environmental organization that has received Recovery Act funding, achieve $2.3 million in savings annually for Kansans? Learn more about the Take Charge Challenge, a 9-month competition in which residents across 16 communities competed against each other to save the most energy and money.

  3. Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    stack storage capacity, shortening the battery lifetime and, eventually, permanently damaging the cellsCell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling Carmelo Speltino but it reduces the computational load of multiple EKF for every cell in the stack. Keywords: Battery Equalization

  4. Charged spinning fluids with magnetic dipole moment in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amorim, R.

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A classical perfect charged spinning fluid with magnetic dipole moment in the Einstein-Cartan theory is described by using an Eulerian Lagrangian formalism. The field equations and equations of motion so obtained generalize those proposed by Ray and Smalley. We also clarify some open questions which appear in the works of Ray and Smalley and of de Ritis et al.

  5. Real-Time PEV Charging/Discharging Coordination in Smart Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    , if not managed effectively, can entail potential risk to the electric power system, even with low PEV penetration to the power system infrastructure or through the deployment of distributed generation (DG) units to meet for the charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart distribution networks. The goal of the proposed

  6. Unusual Salt Stability in Highly Charged Diblock Co-polypeptide Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    Unusual Salt Stability in Highly Charged Diblock Co-polypeptide Hydrogels Andrew P. Nowak, Victor of poly(L-lysine HBr) or poly(L-glutamic acid sodium salt), and helical, hydrophobic segments of poly as low as 0.25 wt %, stability in salt or buffer solutions was found to be only achieved at moderately

  7. Charge-Separation in Uranium Diazomethane Complexes Leading to C-H Activation and Chemical Transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    coordination and organometallic chemistry.1-3 The covalency in uranium ligand bonds is weaker thanCharge-Separation in Uranium Diazomethane Complexes Leading to C-H Activation and ChemicalVersity of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry, 9500 Gilman DriVe, La Jolla, California 92093, and Uni

  8. Amplitude of Coulomb scattering for charged scalar field in de Sitter spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crucean Cosmin

    2015-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The scattering of a charged scalar field on Coulomb potential is studied using solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation which have a definite momentum. One obtains that in contrast with what happens on Minkowski case the modulus of momentum is not conserved in the scattering process on de Sitter space.

  9. Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan? K about Sudan and the similarity of conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the authors support this study using background from the experiences of other developing countries). Sudan, like other developing countries, has

  10. Non-Gaussianities in the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cé; Cristian Consonni; Georg P. Engel; Leonardo Giusti

    2015-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory with high precision in order to be able to detect deviations from Gaussianity. The computation is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by implementing a naive discretization of the topological charge evolved with the Yang--Mills gradient flow. This definition is far less demanding than the one suggested from Neuberger's fermions and, as shown in this paper, in the continuum limit its cumulants coincide with those of the universal definition appearing in the chiral Ward identities. Thanks to the range of lattice volumes and spacings considered, we can extrapolate the results for the second and fourth cumulant of the topological charge distribution to the continuum limit with confidence by keeping finite volume effects negligible with respect to the statistical errors. Our best results for the topological susceptibility is t_0^2*chi=6.67(7)*10^-4, where t_0 is a standard reference scale, while for the ratio of the forth cumulant over the second we obtain R=0.233(45). The latter is compatible with the expectations from the large Nc expansion, while it rules out the theta-behavior of the vacuum energy predicted by the dilute instanton model. Its large distance from 1 implies that, in the ensemble of gauge configurations that dominate the path integral, the fluctuations of the topological charge are of quantum non-perturbative nature.

  11. Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage massimo.poncino@polito.it Abstract-- Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems consist of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements that are connected to each other through

  12. Principles and Efficient Implementation of Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Principles and Efficient Implementation of Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage--Hybrid electrical energy storage systems (HEES) are comprised of multiple banks of inhomogeneous EES elements storage device, i.e., high energy capacity, high output power level, low self-discharge, low cost

  13. Electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity in charged black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Manzoor, R., E-mail: rubabmanzoor9@yahoo.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the propagation regions of electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity in the ergosphere of static charged black strings. For such a propagation, some conditions for negative phase velocity are established that depend on the metric components and the choice of the octant. We conclude that these conditions remain unaffected by the negative values of the cosmological constant.

  14. Particle Environment in Low-and High-Earth Orbit! Sacrificial Charge and Particle Background!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    energy due to sacrificial charge. "Solar Min Solar Max · Calibration sources - Radioactive Fe-55/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Measured energy scale evolution is due to radiation damage modified is higher and subject to variations due to the solar cycle and solar storms. This is in contrast to the rate

  15. Mass and charge overlaps in beamline implantation into compound semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Current, M. I.; Eddy, R.; Hudak, C.; Serfass, J.; Mount, G. [Current Scientific, 1729 Comstock Way, San Jose, CA 95124 (United States); Core Systems, 1050 Kifer Rd., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Evans Analytical Group, 810 Kifer Rd., Sunnyvale, CA 95051 (United States)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass overlaps occurring as a result of extraction of ions from an arc discharge and gas collisions, producing molecular break up and charge exchange in the accelerator beamline, are examined for ion implantation into compound semiconductors. The effects of the choice of plasma gas elements for Be{sup +} implants are examined as an example.

  16. SEARCH FOR CHARGED -PARTICLE d -d FUSION PRODUCTS IN AN ENCAPSULATED Pd THIN FILM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhauser, Barbara

    SEARCH FOR CHARGED - PARTICLE d - d FUSION PRODUCTS IN AN ENCAPSULATED Pd THIN FILM E. López, B the possibility of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion at room temperature within the bulk palladium electrode / Pd ratio exceeding 100 %. The palladium film was encapsulated with a thin layer of silicon nitride

  17. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  18. Charge Collection in the MERIT Diamond Detectors Kirk T. McDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    , Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (February 18, 2010) The polycrystalline diamond detectors usedCharge Collection in the MERIT Diamond Detectors Kirk T. McDonald Joseph Henry Laboratories detectors used a bias field of 1 V/m, i.e., 500 V.1 The capacitance of the diamond detector itself was about

  19. CHARGE STABILITY IN LPCVD SILICON NITRIDE FOR SURFACE PASSIVATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHARGE STABILITY IN LPCVD SILICON NITRIDE FOR SURFACE PASSIVATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS Yongling Ren, Natalita M Nursam, Da Wang and Klaus J Weber Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, College of Engineering and Computer Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia ABSTRACT

  20. IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat diameter implies a refrigerant distribution much more penalizing for these exchangers than for round tube

  1. Microalloy Precipitation in Hot Charged Slabs , J.G. Speer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    Microalloy Precipitation in Hot Charged Slabs M.S. Dyer1 , J.G. Speer1 , D. K. Matlock1 , A. J. Shutts2 , S. Jansto3 , K. Xu4 , B.G. Thomas4 1 Myra S. Dyer, John G. Speer, David K. Matlock The George S

  2. Brussels, Belgium, November 19-22, 2012 Energy Demand Prediction in a Charge Station: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EEVC Brussels, Belgium, November 19-22, 2012 Energy Demand Prediction in a Charge Station over a real database which can be associated with the energy demand generated by electric vehicles simplifying assumptions about the EV drivers' energy demand. To improve the accuracy of the modelling

  3. Electrochemistry and capacitive charging of porous electrodes in asymmetric multicomponent electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. 4 Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Abstract We present porous on the current via a shift in local pH, i.e. "current-induced charge regulation." We present results

  4. Mathematical Model of Charge and Density Distributions in Interfacial Polymerization of Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freger, Viatcheslav "Slava"

    Mathematical Model of Charge and Density Distributions in Interfacial Polymerization of Thin Films INTRODUCTION Interfacial polymerization (IP) as a method of prepa- ration of thin film composite (TFC- tion. It has been shown that the formation of a thin film occurs very quickly and often results

  5. Thin-shell wormholes from charged black holes in generalized dilaton-axion gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Usmani; F. Rahaman; Saibal Ray; Sk. A. Rakib; Z. Hasan; Peter K. F. Kuhfittig

    2010-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a new type of thin-shell wormhole constructed by applying the cut-and-paste technique to two copies of a charged black hole in generalized dilaton-axion gravity, which was inspired by low-energy string theory. After analyzing various aspects of this thin-shell wormhole, we discuss its stability to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations.

  6. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  7. Photochemical Charge Separation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) Films Observed with Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United of excitation energy. Both positive and negative photovoltage signals were observed under sub-band-gap ( the identification of interface, charge transfer (CT), and band-gap states in the amorphous and crystalline regions

  8. Electric Vehicle Charging in Smart Grid: Optimality and Valley-filling Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chee Wei

    ForReview Only 1 Electric Vehicle Charging in Smart Grid: Optimality and Valley-filling Algorithms infrastructure cost. On the other hand, we can adopt a "smart grid" solution, which allows EVs to communicate and unacceptable voltage variation that overload the power grid [1]. To tackle this problem, we may increase

  9. Entropy bound of a charged object and electrostatic self-energy in black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Without pretending to any rigour, we find a general expression of the electrostatic self-energy in static black holes with spherical symmetry. We determine the entropy bound of a charged object by assuming the existence of thermodynamics for these black holes. By combining these two results, we show that the entropy bound does not depend on the considered black hole.

  10. Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, J.S. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)); Wangler, T.P.; Mills, R.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Crandall, K.R. (AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and an outer halo. The halo is very prominent in mismatched beams, and the potential for accelerator activation is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied for intense neutron generators to process nuclear materials. We present new results about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams from multiparticle simulation of initial laminar beams in a uniform linear focusing channel, and from a model consisting of single particle interactions with a uniform-density beam core. We study the energy gain from particle interactions with the space-charge field of the core, and we identify the resonant characteristic of this interaction as the basic cause of the separation of the beam into the two components. We identify three different particle-trajectory types, and we suggest that one of these types may lead to continuous halo growth, even after the halo is removed by collimators.

  11. Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connell, J.S. [Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Wangler, T.P.; Mills, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crandall, K.R. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and an outer halo. The halo is very prominent in mismatched beams, and the potential for accelerator activation is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied for intense neutron generators to process nuclear materials. We present new results about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams from multiparticle simulation of initial laminar beams in a uniform linear focusing channel, and from a model consisting of single particle interactions with a uniform-density beam core. We study the energy gain from particle interactions with the space-charge field of the core, and we identify the resonant characteristic of this interaction as the basic cause of the separation of the beam into the two components. We identify three different particle-trajectory types, and we suggest that one of these types may lead to continuous halo growth, even after the halo is removed by collimators.

  12. Charge transport in mixed CdSe and CdTe colloidal nanocrystal films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.

    We report the influence of trap states on charge transport through films of mixed CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) between lateral electrodes, through layered films of CdTe and CdSe NCs in a layered geometry, and through ...

  13. Charge states rather than propensity for -structure determine enhanced fibrillogenesis in wild-type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straub, John E.

    Charge states rather than propensity for -structure determine enhanced fibrillogenesis in wild -peptide relative to that of the wild-type peptide has been observed. The increased activity has been; Watson et al. 1999; Esler et al. 2000a). Two particular natu- rally occurring mutant forms of the wild

  14. Inclusive Pion Double Charge Exchange in 4He at Intermediate Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. R. Kinney; J. L. Matthews; P. A. M. Gram; D. W. MacArthur; E. Piasetzky; G. A. Rebka, Jr.; D. A. Roberts

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic experimental study of inclusive pion double charge exchange in 4He has been undertaken. The reaction 4He(pi+,pi-)4p was observed at incident energies 120, 150, 180, 240 and 270 MeV; the 4He(pi-,pi+)4n reaction was observed at incident energies 180 and 240 MeV. At each incident energy, the doubly differential cross section was measured at three to five outgoing pion laboratory angles between 25 deg and 130 deg. At each angle, cross sections were measured over the range of outgoing pion energies from 10 MeV up to the kinematic limit for the reaction in which the final state consists of the oppositely charged pion plus four free nucleons. The spectra of outgoing pions are strikingly different from those observed for the inclusive double charge exchange reaction in heavier nuclei, but resemble those observed in the (pi-,pi+) reaction in 3He. The forward-angle spectra in the 3He and 4He reactions exhibit a prominent peak at high outgoing pion energies. Interpretation of the peaks in 3He (4He) as a three- (four-)nucleon resonance is ruled out by kinematic analysis. The results of a calculation, wherein the double charge exchange reaction is assumed to proceed as two sequential single charge exchange interactions, suggest that the high-energy peak is naturally explained by this double scattering mechanism. Non-static treatment of the pi-N interactions and the inclusion of nuclear binding effects appear to be important in reproducing the shape of the energy spectra at forward angles.

  15. THE WIDTH OF THE CHARGE DISTRIBUTION IN FISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, W.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strongly damped nuclear collisions or in fission. Since theDistribution in Fission William 0. Myers Nuclear Science

  16. A Novel Scheme to Search for Fractional Charge Particles in Low Energy Accelerator Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianguo Bian; Jiahui Wang

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the quarks and anti-quarks have fractional charge equal to $\\pm1/3$ or $\\pm2/3$ of the electron's charge. There has been a large number of experiments searching for fractional charge, isolatable, elementary particles using a variety of methods, including $e^+e^-$ collisions using dE/dx ionization energy loss measurements, but no evidence has been found to confirm existence of free fractional charge particles, which leads to the quark confinement theory. In this paper, a proposal to search for this kind particles is presented, which is based on the conservation law of four-momentum. Thanks to the CLEOc and BESIII detectors' large coverage, good particle identification, precision measurements of tracks' momenta and their large recorded data samples, these features make the scheme feasible in practice. The advantage of the scheme is independent of any theoretical models and sensitive for a small fraction of the quarks transitioning to the unconfinement phase from the confinement phase.

  17. Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

  18. Charge storage mechanism in nanoporous carbons and its consequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has already been achieved in various applications. One of the challenges in the supercapacitor area is to increase their energy density. Some recent discoveries regarding ion...

  19. Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: From RHIC to LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghunath Sahoo; Aditya Nath Mishra

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, RHIC to LHC energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behaviour when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, $\\frac{dE_{\\rm{T}}/d\\eta}{dN_{\\rm{ch}}/d\\eta} ~\\equiv \\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$) at mid-rapidity for Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}=5.5$ TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of $\\frac{E_{\\rm{T}}}{N_{\\rm{ch}}}$.

  20. Charge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    the large improvement in performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) achieved in 1991, mesoporousCharge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar sensitized solar cells, nanoparticle size, impedance, charge transport properties INTRODUCTION Since

  1. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  2. Dust acoustic solitons in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzekka, Moufida; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)] [Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust acoustic (DA) solitons are addressed in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity. A physically meaningful nonthermal nonextensive ion distribution is outlined. The correct non-Maxwellian ion charging current is derived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Under grain-current balance, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function. It is found that nonthermality and its nonextensive nature may act concurrently and influence the restoring force and hence the soliton profile. Due to the flexibility provided by the nonextensive parameter, we think that our model should provide a better fit of the space observations.

  3. Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    Porous electrodes instead of flat electrodes are widely used in electrochemical systems to boost storage

  4. Electricity Grid: Impacts of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the context of regional grid structure and operations,and Regional U.S. Power Grids. Part 1: Technical Analysis;ccyang@ucdavis.edu. Electricity Grid Impacts of Plug-In

  5. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow L. Couedel,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force

  6. Charge states and dynamic screening of swift ions in solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 26 of 30 papers presented. Four papers were previously included in the data base. (WHK)

  7. Wireless Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    efficiency in a test and demonstration vehicle - Loosely coupled magnetic resonant transformers having air core cannot meet health and safety targets, therefore, novel soft...

  8. Wireless Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    over moderate distances in stationary setting - Loosely coupled magnetic resonant transformers have the potential to accomplish this goal. - Target for Vehicle application: Level...

  9. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    about the new generation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. You. Gasoline- and diesel-powered ICE vehicles ended

  10. Charge-carrier transport in amorphous organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limketkai, Benjie, 1982-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first reports of efficient luminescence and absorption in organic semiconductors, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted increasing interest. Organic semiconductors have ...

  11. Charge transfer in photovoltaics consisting of interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymer and TiO2 nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Sue

    Charge transfer in photovoltaics consisting of interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymer and interpenetrating polymer networks6 can substantially im- prove the photoconductivity, and thus quantum efficiency and layered titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer

  12. Charge localization and JahnTeller distortions in the benzene dimer cation Piotr A. Pieniazek, Stephen E. Bradforth,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Anna I.

    Charge localization and Jahn­Teller distortions in the benzene dimer cation Piotr A. Pieniazek August 2008 Jahn­Teller JT distortions and charge localization in the benzene dimer cation are analyzed.1063/1.2969107 I. INTRODUCTION The benzene dimer cation is an important model system for radiation

  13. Volume 116B, number 4 PHYSICSLETTERS 14 October 1982 CHARGE DEFINITION IN NON-ABEL[AN GAUGE THEORIES ~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Volume 116B, number 4 PHYSICSLETTERS 14 October 1982 CHARGE DEFINITION IN NON-ABEL[AN GAUGE THEORIES ~ L.F. ABBOTT and S. DESER Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, USA Received 9 June 1982 Conserved gauge-invariant electric and magnetic charges are defined for non-abelian gauge theories in terms

  14. Particle size effects in particle-particle triboelectric charging studied with an integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilici, Mihai A.; Toth, Joseph R.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental studies of triboelectric charging of granular materials via particle-particle contact are challenging to control and interpret because of foreign material surfaces that are difficult to avoid during contacting and measurement. The measurement of particle charge itself can also induce charging, altering results. Here, we introduce a completely integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system that charges particles solely by interparticle interactions and characterizes their charge on line. Particles are contacted in a free-surface fluidized bed (no reactor walls) with a well-controlled fountain-like flow to regulate particle-particle contact. The charged particles in the fountain are transferred by a pulsed jet of air to the top of a vertically-oriented electrostatic separator consisting of two electrodes at oppositely biased high voltage. The free-falling particles migrate towards the electrodes of opposite charge and are collected by an array of cups where their charge and size can be determined. We carried out experiments on a bidisperse size mixture of soda lime glass particles with systematically varying ratios of concentration. Results show that larger particles fall close to the negative electrode and smaller particles fall close to the positive electrode, consistent with theory and prior experiments that larger particles charge positively and smaller particles charge negatively. The segregation of particles by charge for one of the size components is strongest when its collisions are mostly with particles of the other size component; thus, small particles segregate most strongly to the negative sample when their concentration in the mixture is small (and analogous results occur for the large particles). Furthermore, we find additional size segregation due to granular flow, whereby the fountain becomes enriched in larger particles as the smaller particles are preferentially expelled from the fountain.

  15. Short Communication Supersymmetry in hydrodynamics: vorticity as a ghost charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -integral approach [1] initially developed for quantum mechanics, is now widely used in classical statistical physics-integral approach to classical Hamiltonian dynamics (i.e. the functional- integral representation of classical.40G 1. Introduction. One ofexcellent tools in theoretical physics, the Feynmanfunctional

  16. Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius,...

  17. Space Charge Compensation in Laser Particle Accelerators L.C...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shown in Fig. 1, is composed of an energy modulator (e.g. an inverse free-electron laser) followed by a drift section. A macrobunch with little energy spread enters the...

  18. Static charged perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. General formulas are found in many cases. Explicit new global solutions are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed.

  19. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Thuiner; R. Hall-Wilton; R. B. Jackman; H. Müller; T. T. Nguyen; E. Oliveri; D. Pfeiffer; F. Resnati; L. Ropelewski; J. A. Smith; M. van Stenis; R. Veenhof

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  20. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thuiner, P; Jackman, R B; Müller, H; Nguyen, T T; Oliveri, E; Pfeiffer, D; Resnati, F; Ropelewski, L; Smith, J A; van Stenis, M; Veenhof, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  1. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  2. Charging and Heating Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Nonthermal Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this award was to understand the interactions of nanometer-sized particles with ionized gases, also called plasmas. Plasmas are widely used in the fabrication of electronic circuits such as microprocessors and memory devices, in plasma display panels, as well as in medical applications. Recently, these ionized gases are finding applications in the synthesis of advanced nanomaterials with novel properties, which are based on nanometer-sized particulate (nanoparticles) building blocks. As these nanoparticles grow in the plasma environment, they interact with the plasmas species such as electrons and ions which critically determines the nanoparticle properties. The University of Minnesota researchers conducting this project performed numerical simulations and developed analytical models that described the interaction of plasma-bound nanoparticles with the plasma ions. The plasma ions bombard the nanoparticle surface with substantial energy, which can result in the rearrangement of the nanoparticles’ atoms, giving them often desirable structures at the atomic scale. Being able to tune the ion energies allows to control the properties of nanoparticles produced in order to tailor their attributes for certain applications. For instance, when used in high efficiency light emitting devices, nanoparticles produced under high fluxes of highly energetic ions may show superior light emission to particles produced under low fluxes of less energetic ions. The analytical models developed by the University of Minnesota researchers enable the research community to easily determine the energy of ions bombarding the nanoparticles. The researchers extensively tested the validity of the analytical models by comparing them to sophisticated computer simulations based on stochastic particle modeling, also called Monte Carlo modeling, which simulated the motion of hundreds of thousands of ions and their interaction with the nanoparticle surfaces. Beyond the scientific intellectual merits, this award had significant broader impacts. Two graduate students received their doctoral degrees and both have joined a U.S. manufacturer of plasma-based semiconductor processing equipment. Four undergraduate students participated in research conducted under this grant and gained valuable hands-on laboratory experience. A middle school science teacher observed research conducted under this grant and developed three new course modules that introduce middle school students to the concepts of nanometer scale, the atomic structure of matter, and the composition of matter of different chemical elements.

  3. Charge induced coherence between intersubband plasmons in a quantum structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aymeric Delteil; Angela Vasanelli; Yanko Todorov; Cheryl Feuillet-Palma; Margaux Renaudat St-Jean; Grégoire Beaudoin; Isabelle Sagnes; Carlo Sirtori

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we investigate a low dimensional semiconductor system, in which the light-matter interaction is enhanced by the cooperative behavior of a large number of dipolar oscillators, at different frequencies, mutually phase locked by Coulomb interaction. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that, owing to this phenomenon, the optical response of a semiconductor quantum well with several occupied subbands is a single sharp resonance, associated to the excitation of a bright multisubband plasmon. This effect illustrates how the whole oscillator strength of a two-dimensional system can be concentrated into a single resonance independently from the shape of the confining potential. When this cooperative excitation is tuned in resonance with a cavity mode, their coupling strength can be increased monotonically with the electronic density, allowing the achievement of the ultra-strong coupling regime up to room temperature.

  4. Single Electron Charging in Optically Active Nanowire Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a back-gate. We combine these two field-effects to isolate a single electron and independently tune direction or by an electrostatic back-gate that modi- fies the overall potential landscape of the nanowire-6 nm high and 30 nm in diameter.10 The nanowires are contacted by a titanium (Ti) source and drain

  5. Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

  6. Conserved charges in timelike Warped-AdS$_3$ spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donnay, L; Giribet, G; Goya, A; Lavia, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the timelike version of Warped Anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the G\\"{o}del solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solutions can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistenly give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as New Massive Gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS$_{3}$ space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particle-like objects. For this type of sources, we investigate the definition of quasi-local gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning p...

  7. Charge pumping techniques in ultra-low current transconductor design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker-Gomez, Adriana

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irequency from 480 KHz to 16MHZ . 61 Figure III-5 Experimental and theoretical Gm values as a function of frequency for rl=l. g . 62 Figure III-6 Input offset as a function of tail current for the single ended OTA. . . 63 Figure III-7 Cross... in the occupancy of the traps until t=te Vo Voo Accum la i n mT b) Depletion Inversion ss vw-vr a t, tz ts ts t t tr Ec c) Fl Ev Ee E, Es Ez a stead -state (b)electron emission ' (c) hole capture lz s (e) h (d)steady-state (I...

  8. Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map Organization Chart EHSSEffects

  9. Survey Says: Workplace Charging is Growing in Popularity and Impact |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski -BlueprintThis document detailsEnergyIn theDepartment of

  10. Leading the Charge: Tribal Women in Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »of Energy Laser-FiringDevelopmentHaroldTribal Women in

  11. Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Charged Domain Walls in Ferroelectrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012Iowa

  12. Charge exchange and ionization cross sections of H{sup +}+H collision in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Qi, Xin; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Meng, Dong-yuan; Xiao, Guo-qing [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Duan, Wen-shan [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China)] [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Yang, Lei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on H{sup +}+H charge exchange and ionization cross sections are calculated by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. For charge exchange cross sections, it is found that the screening effects reduce cross sections slightly in weak screening conditions. However, cross sections are reduced substantially in strong screening conditions. For ionization cross sections, with the increase of screening effects, cross sections for low energies increase more rapidly than those for high energies. When the screening effects are strong enough, it is found that ionization cross sections decrease with the increase of incident H{sup +} energy. In addition, the cross sections have been compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. It is found that in weak screening conditions, plasma screening effects in the two plasmas are approximately the same, while in strong screening conditions, screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are stronger than those of weakly coupled plasmas.

  13. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in Magnetite (Fe3O4) (100) Surfaces from First Principles. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in...

  14. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 15, NO. 2, MARCH 2007 209 Stability Analysis in Homogeneous Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines With High Dilution Chia-Jui Chiang and Anna G of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) en- gines with exhaust dilution. We find conditions under which excursions and, hence, keeping the temperature trajectories within stable regions. Index Terms

  16. Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films Haesik Yang and Juhyoun Kwak* Department of Chemistry, Korea AdVember 24, 1997 For the first time, the complex charge transport mechanism for polypyrrole

  17. Decentralized Charging Control for Large Populations of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Application of the Nash Certainty Equivalence Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    strategy results in valley filling, i.e. the total demand, consisting of aggregated PEV charging load PEVs, is responsive to the total demand of the grid, which is the summation of the inelastic non-PEV base demand together with the aggregated charging rates of the whole population of PEVs. Because

  18. Measurement of the Inclusive Leptonic Asymmetry in Top-Quark Pairs that Decay to Two Charged Leptons at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; et al.,

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the inclusive forward-backward asymmetry of the charged-lepton pseudorapidities from top-quark pairs produced in proton-antiproton collisions, and decaying to final states that contain two charged leptons (electrons or muons), using data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab.

  19. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  20. Transverse-Momentum and Pseudorapidity Distributions of Charged Hadrons in pp Collisions at [sqrt] s=7 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paus, Christoph M. E.

    Charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions in proton-proton collisions at [sqrt]s=7??TeV are measured with the inner tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC. The charged-hadron yield is ...

  1. Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has attracted wide- spread. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, United Kingdom *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Solid-state dye-sensitized

  2. Charge Density Waves in Exfoliated Films of van der Waals Materials: Evolution of Raman Spectrum in TiSe2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charge Density Waves in Exfoliated Films of van der Waals Materials: Evolution of Raman Spectrum graphene-like mechanical exfoliation of TiSe2 crystals to prepare a set of films with different thicknesses

  3. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ettenauer; M. C. Simon; A. T. Gallant; T. Brunner; U. Chowdhury; V. V. Simon; M. Brodeur; A. Chaudhuri; E. Mané; C. Andreoiu; G. Audi; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; P. Delheij; G. Gwinner; A. Lapierre; D. Lunney; M. R. Pearson; R. Ringle; J. Ullrich; J. Dilling

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly-charged ions (HCI), using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly-charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb-isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q = 8 - 12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly-charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivalled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {\\beta} emitter 74Rb (T1/2 = 65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC-value are presented.

  4. Effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Radha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube. Using the Kirchhoff model for a tube with any given Poisson ratio, cross-sectional shape and intrinsic twist, we obtain a class of exact solutions for its conformation. The tube's torsion is found in terms of its intrinsic twist and its Poisson ratio, while its curvature satisfies a nonlinear differential equation which supports exact {\\it periodic} solutions in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions, which we call {\\it conformon lattice} solutions. These solutions typically describe conformations with loops. Each solution induces a corresponding quantum effective {\\it periodic} potential in the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an electron in the tube. The wave function describes the delocalization of the electron along the central axis of the tube. We discuss some possible applications of this novel mechanism of charge transport.

  5. Effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radha Balakrishnan; Rossen Dandoloff

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of conformations on charge transport in a thin elastic tube. Using the Kirchhoff model for a tube with any given Poisson ratio, cross-sectional shape and intrinsic twist, we obtain a class of exact solutions for its conformation. The tube's torsion is found in terms of its intrinsic twist and its Poisson ratio, while its curvature satisfies a nonlinear differential equation which supports exact {\\it periodic} solutions in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions, which we call {\\it conformon lattice} solutions. These solutions typically describe conformations with loops. Each solution induces a corresponding quantum effective {\\it periodic} potential in the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an electron in the tube. The wave function describes the delocalization of the electron along the central axis of the tube. We discuss some possible applications of this novel mechanism of charge transport.

  6. Mode-selective vibrational control of charge transport in $?$-conjugated molecular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artem A. Bakulin; Robert Lovrin?i?; Yu Xi; Oleg Selig; Huib J. Bakker; Yves L. A. Rezus; Pabitra K. Nayak; Alexandr Fonari; Veaceslav Coropceanu; Jean-Luc Brédas; David Cahen

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to control charge transport in organic electronic devices by inducing molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such control has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be controlled by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1500-1700 cm$^{-1}$ region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. Vibrational control thus presents a new tool for studying electron-phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  7. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  8. Fast and stable manipulation of a charged particle in a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kiely; J. P. L. McGuinness; J. G. Muga; A. Ruschhaupt

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose shortcuts to adiabaticity which achieve fast and stable control of the state of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. In particular we design a non-adiabatic change of the magnetic field strength in a Penning trap which changes the radial spread without final excitations. We apply a streamlined version of the fast-forward formalism as well as an invariant based inverse engineering approach. We compare both methods and examine their stability.

  9. Quantum mechanics of a charged particle in a background magnetic field interacting with linearized gravitational waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Anirban Saha

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the dynamics of a charged particle interacting with background electromagnetic field under the influence of linearized gravitational waves in the long wave-length and low-velocity limit. Following the prescription in \\cite{speli}, the system is quantized and the Hamiltonian is then solved by using standard algebraic iterative methods. The solution is in conformity with the classical analysis and shows the possibility of tuning the frequency by changing the magnetic field to set up resonance.

  10. Optical generation of free charge carriers in thin films of tin oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhurbina, I. A., E-mail: zhurbina@vega.phys.msu.ru; Tsetlin, O. I.; Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to study nanocrystalline SnO{sub x} films (1 {<=} x {<=} 2) prepared by thermal oxidation of metallic tin layers. A monotonic decrease in the transmittance of films in the infrared region has been observed as a result of exposure of the films to light with the wavelength of 380 nm at room temperature. The effect is at a maximum for the samples with x Almost-Equal-To 2 and is observed for {approx}10 min after switching off of illumination. The mentioned variations in optical properties, similarly to those observed in the case of heating of the samples in the dark, are accounted for by an increase in the concentration of free charge carriers (electrons) in nanocrystals of tin dioxide. The data of infrared spectroscopy and the Drude model are used to calculate the concentrations of photogenerated charge carriers ({approx}10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}); variations in these concentrations in the course of illumination and after switching off of illumination are determined. Mechanisms of observed photogeneration of charge carriers in SnO{sub x} films and possible applications of this effect to gas sensors are discussed.

  11. Charge-to-mass-ratio-dependent ion heating during magnetic reconnection in the MST RFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Craig, D. [Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States)] [Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature evolution during magnetic reconnection has been spectroscopically measured for various ion species in a toroidal magnetized plasma. Measurements are made predominantly in the direction parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. It is found that the increase in parallel ion temperature during magnetic reconnection events increases with the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. This trend can be understood if the heating mechanism is anisotropic, favoring heating in the perpendicular degree of freedom, with collisional relaxation of multiple ion species. The charge-to-mass ratio trend for the parallel temperature derives from collisional isotropization. This result emphasizes that collisional isotropization and energy transfer must be carefully modeled when analyzing ion heating measurements and comparing to theoretical predictions.

  12. Non-perturbative analysis of space charge limited electron flow in critical regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokhlenko, A.; Lebowitz, J. L. [Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined Eulerian-Lagrangian formalism, developed in our previous work for studying the turn on regime of a one-dimensional diode, is extended for wider versatility and better precision in the study of the time dependent space charge limited electron flow with fixed injected current. An analytical analysis is supplemented with an approximate numerical scheme which appears to be sufficiently accurate to calculate the flow evolution until the process approaches stabilization or becomes unstable. This can be compared with properties of stationary flows and showed to be in a good agreement with them. When the stabilization is impossible, the ratio of anode to cathode currents is decreasing and thus the space charge is accumulated in the diode. We discuss the limitations of our approach and give some qualitative estimates for the flow parameters when stabilization is impossible.

  13. Snapshots of the retarded interaction of charge carriers with ultrafast fluctuations in cuprates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, S Dal; Golež, D; Mierzejewski, M; Soavi, G; Peli, S; Banfi, F; Ferrini, G; Comin, R; Ludbrook, B M; Chauviere, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Eisaki, H; Greven, M; Lupi, S; Damascelli, A; Brida, D; Capone, M; Bon?a, J; Cerullo, G; Giannetti, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the pivotal questions in the physics of high-temperature superconductors is whether the low-energy dynamics of the charge carriers is mediated by bosons with a characteristic timescale. This issue has remained elusive since electronic correlations are expected to dramatically speed up the electron-boson scattering processes, confining them to the very femtosecond timescale that is hard to access even with state-of-the-art ultrafast techniques. Here we simultaneously push the time resolution and the frequency range of transient reflectivity measurements up to an unprecedented level that enables us to directly observe the 16 fs build-up of the effective electron-boson interaction in hole-doped copper oxides. This extremely fast timescale is in agreement with numerical calculations based on the t-J model and the repulsive Hubbard model, in which the relaxation of the photo-excited charges is achieved via inelastic scattering with short-range antiferromagnetic excitations.

  14. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Public

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP)MassachusettsExperimentalInfrastructureFuels inDuneCharging

  16. Nuclear Effects in Deep Inelastic Scattering of Charged-Current Neutrino off Nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan ChunGui; Li GuangLie; Shen PengNian

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear effect in the neutrino-nucleus charged-Current inelastic scattering process is studied by analyzing the CCFR and NuTeV data. Structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $xF_3(x,Q^2)$ as well as differential cross sections are calculated by using CTEQ parton distribution functions and EKRS and HKN nuclear parton distribution functions, and compared with the CCFR and NuTeV data. It is found that the corrections of nuclear effect to the differential cross section for the charged-current anti-neutrino scattering on nucleus are negligible, the EMC effect exists in the neutrino structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ in the large $x$ region, the shadowing and anti-shadowing effect occurs in the distribution functions of valence quarks in the small and medium $x$ region,respectively. It is also found that shadowing effects on $F_2(x,Q^2)$ in the small $x$ region in the neutrino-nucleus and the charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering processes are different. It is clear that the neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering data should further be employed in restricting nuclear parton distributions.

  17. X-RAY SIGNATURE OF CHARGE EXCHANGE IN L-SHELL SULFUR IONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankel, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Gu, M. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA, 94550 (United States); Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States)], E-mail: frankel4@llnl.gov, E-mail: beiersdorfer1@llnl.gov

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-ray signature of L-shell charge exchange in sulfur was studied in the laboratory. A comparison of the charge exchange (CX) spectra with those obtained under electron-impact excitation showed marked differences. In the CX spectra, an enhancement was observed in the transitions from levels with high principal quantum numbers, n = 4, 5, 6 {yields} n = 2 in comparison with the n = 3 {yields} n = 2 transitions that dominate the direct excitation spectra. An even greater enhancement was recorded in the transitions from the levels of electron capture to the ground states: n = 7, 8, 9 {yields} n = 2. The spectra mainly consist of emission from S XIV, but lower charge states such as S XIII, S XII, and S XI also contribute. The results have been compared with observations made by the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories of Jupiter's polar regions. The enhancement we noticed in transitions from the high-n levels is not seen in the Chandra spectra.

  18. On the space-charge formation in a collisional magnetized electronegative plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasserian, Kiomars [Department of Physics, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aslaninejad, Morteza [Plasma Physics Research Centre, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14665-678, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma sheath formation in the vicinity of a surrounding wall of magnetized plasma is studied in the presence of the electronegative ions and the positive ion-neutral background collisions. Fluid equations are used to treat the plasma particles species. By using the Sagdeev potential, the influence of the collisions and the magnetic field on the Bohm criterion are investigated. The space-charge profiles are obtained in the presence of a magnetic field in different collision frequencies as well as electronegative ions concentration. It is shown that the collision and the magnetic field raise a space-charge peak, while the presence of the electronegative ions results in damping the peaks. Moreover, it is observed that in the case of high magnetic field, some fluctuations emerge in the space-charge profiles. The influences of the magnetic field and electronegative ion concentration as well as negative ion temperature on the positive ion kinetic energy reaching the plasma surrounding wall and positive ion velocity perpendicular to the sheath axis are investigated. Finally, the net current through the sheath region is obtained for different collisionality and magnetic field values in both electropositive and electronegative plasmas.

  19. Delayed neutrons as a probe of nuclear charge distribution in fission of heavy nuclei by neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaev, S G; Piksaikin, V M; Roshchenko, V A

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of the determination of cumulative yields of delayed neutron precursors is developed. This method is based on the iterative least-square procedure applied to delayed neutron decay curves measured after irradiation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U sample by thermal neutrons. Obtained cumulative yields in turns were used for deriving the values of the most probable charge in low-energy fission of the above-mentioned nucleus.

  20. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xikai [ORNL] [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhao, Hui [University of Nevada, Las Vegas] [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University] [Clemson University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (M. Z. Bazant, B. D. Storey, and A. A. Kornyshev, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 046102, 2011). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface, allowing the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. Keywords: ionic

  1. Measurement of the Electric Charge of the Top Quark in $\\boldsymbol{t\\bar{t}}$ Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D0 Collaboration

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a measurement of the electric charge of top quarks using $t\\bar{t}$ events produced in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at the Tevatron. The analysis is based on fully reconstructed $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in lepton+jets final states. Using data corresponding to 5.3 $\\rm fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, we exclude the hypothesis that the top quark has a charge of $Q=-4/3\\,e$ at a significance greater than 5 standard deviations. We also place an upper limit of 0.46 on the fraction of such quarks that can be present in an admixture with the standard model top quarks ($Q=+2/3\\,e$) at a 95\\% confidence level.

  2. Kinetic Alfven waves in a homogeneous dusty magnetoplasma with dust charge fluctuation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubia, K.; Rubab, N.; Shah, H. A.; Salimullah, M.; Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan and Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan and Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic Alfven waves with finite Larmor radius effects have been examined rigorously in a uniform dusty plasma in the presence of an external/ambient magnetic field. Two-potential theory has been applied for these electromagnetic waves and the dispersion relation is derived which shows a cutoff frequency at the dust-lower-hybrid frequency due to the hybrid motion of magnetized ions and cold and unmagnetized dust dynamics. The dust charge fluctuation effect was analyzed for finding the damping of the electromagnetic kinetic Alfven waves, which arises on account of the electrostatic parallel component of the waves. The dust charge fluctuation damping is seen to be contributed dominantly by the perpendicular motion of electrons and ions in the dusty magnetoplasma.

  3. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  4. Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron-proton charge exchange at 726 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dymov, S; Bagdasarian, Z; Barsov, S; Carbonell, J; Chiladze, D; Engels, R; Gebel, R; Grigoryev, K; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A; Khoukaz, A; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Kurbatov, V; Lomidze, N; Lorentz, B; Macharashvili, G; Mchedlishvili, D; Merzliakov, S; Mielke, M; Mikirtychyants, M; Mikirtychyants, S; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Seyfarth, H; Shmakova, V; Ströher, H; Tabidze, M; Trusov, S; Tsirkov, D; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Weidemann, C; Wilkin, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td = 726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy E_{pp}, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn ~ 1/2 Td =363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both E_{pp} and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron-proton partial-wave solution that was used in the estimation.

  5. Chiral vortical wave and induced flavor charge transport in a rotating quark-gluon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the existence of a new gapless collective excitation in a rotating fluid system with chiral fermions, named as the Chiral Vortical Wave (CVW). The CVW has its microscopic origin at the quantum anomaly and macroscopically arises from interplay between vector and axial charge fluctuations induced by vortical effects. The wave equation is obtained both from hydrodynamic current equations and from chiral kinetic theory and its solutions show nontrivial CVW-induced charge transport from different initial conditions. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Lambda baryons that may be experimentally measured.

  6. Conserved charges and quantum-group transformations in noncommutative field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Giulia Gubitosi; Flavio Mercati; Giacomo Rosati

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently-developed techniques of Noether analysis of the quantum-group spacetime symmetries of some noncommutative field theories rely on the {\\it ad hoc} introduction of some peculiar auxiliary transformation parameters, which appear to have no role in the structure of the quantum group. We here show that it is possible to set up the Noether analysis directly in terms of the quantum-group symmetry transformations, and we therefore establish more robustly the attribution of the conserved charges to the symmetries of interest. We also characterize the concept of "time independence" (as needed for conserved charges) in a way that is robust enough to be applicable even to theories with space/time noncommutativity, where it might have appeared that any characterization of time independence should be vulnerable to changes of ordering convention.

  7. Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron-proton charge exchange at 726 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dymov; T. Azaryan; Z. Bagdasarian; S. Barsov; J. Carbonell; D. Chiladze; R. Engels; R. Gebel; K. Grigoryev; M. Hartmann; A. Kacharava; A. Khoukaz; V. Komarov; P. Kulessa; A. Kulikov; V. Kurbatov; N. Lomidze; B. Lorentz; G. Macharashvili; D. Mchedlishvili; S. Merzliakov; M. Mielke; M. Mikirtychyants; S. Mikirtychyants; M. Nioradze; H. Ohm; D. Prasuhn; F. Rathmann; V. Serdyuk; H. Seyfarth; V. Shmakova; H. Ströher; M. Tabidze; S. Trusov; D. Tsirkov; Yu. Uzikov; Yu. Valdau; C. Weidemann; C. Wilkin

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td = 726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy E_{pp}, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn ~ 1/2 Td =363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both E_{pp} and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron-proton partial-wave solution that was used in the estimation.

  8. Binding energy of singlet excitons and charge transfer complexes in MDMO-PPV:PCBM solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Julia; Deibel, Carsten; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of an external electric field on the photoluminescence intensity of singlet excitons and charge transfer complexes is investigated for a poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) diode and a bulk heterojunction of the PPV in combination with [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methylester (PCBM), respectively. The experimental data is related to the dissociation probability derived from the Onsager-Braun model. In this way, a lower limit for the singlet exciton binding energy of MDMO-PPV is determined as (327 +- 30) meV, whereas a significantly lower value of (203 +- 18) meV is extracted for the charge transfer complex in a MDMO-PPV:PCBM blend.

  9. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  10. On compensating tune spread induced by space charge in bunched beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V. N.; Wang, G.

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Space charge effects play significant role in modern-day accelerators. These effects frequently constrain attainable beam parameters in an accelerator, or, in an accelerator chain. They also could limit the luminosity of hadron colliders operating either at low energies or with a sub-TeV high brightness hadron beams. The latter is applied for strongly cooled proton and ion beams in eRHIC – the proposed future electron-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A number of schemes for compensating space charge effects in a coasting (e.g. continuous) hadron beam were proposed and some of them had been tested. Using a proper transverse profile of the electron beam (or plasma column) for a coasting beam would compensate both the tune shift and the tune spread in the hadron beam. But all of these methods do not address the issue of tune spread compensation of a bunched hadron beam, e.g. the tune shift dependence on the longitudinal position inside the bunch. In this paper we propose and evaluate a novel idea of using a co-propagating electron bunch with miss-matched longitudinal velocity to compensate the space charge induced tune-shift and tune spread. We present a number of practical examples of such system.

  11. pH-dependent charge trapping by quinones electrostatically bound in an electrode confined benzylviologen polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, 2,6-AQ, and anthraquinone-2-sulfonate, 2-AQ, have been electrostatically bound in an electrode-confined N,N{prime}-bis(p-(trimethoxysilyl)benzyl)-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium-based polymer, (BPQ{sup 2+/+}){sub n}. Under all conditions in aqueous electrolyte it appears that charge transport via the quinone redox system, AQ/AQH{sub 2}, is too slow to allow direct access to all quinone centers in the polymer. Generally, all quinone centers are electrode accessible only via the BPQ{sup 2+/+} redox mediator. At pH 6.5 the electrochemistry of ((BPQ{sup 2+}){sub n}{center dot}(AQ){sub m}){sub surf} is approximately the superposition of the AQ solution electrochemistry and the electrochemistry of surface-confined (BPQ{sup 2+/+}){sub n} examined separately. At pH 1.0 the reduction potential of AQ shifts positive and (BPQ{sup 2+/+}){sub n} can only mediate the reduction of AQ to the 2e{sup {minus}}/2H{sup +} reduced form, AQH{sub 2}, since the oxidation of AQH{sub 2} by BPQ{sup 2+} is thermodynamically uphill. Therefore, the charge associated with the reduced quinone, AQH{sub 2}, remains trapped in analogy to previous reports of charge trapping in bilayer systems. The trapped charge is released from the ((BPQ{sup 2+}){sub n}{center dot}(AQ){sub m}){sub surf} system by a sudden increase in pH which changes the thermodynamics to allow oxidation of the AQH{sub 2} by the BPQ{sup 2+}.

  12. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  13. Phonon-Assisted Ultrafast Charge Separation in a Realistic PCBM Aggregate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel L. Smith; Alex W. Chin

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solar cells must separate strongly bound electron-hole pairs into free charges. This is achieved at interfaces between electron donor and acceptor organic semiconductors. The most popular electron acceptor is the fullerene derivative PCBM. Electron-hole separation has been observed on femtosecond timescales, which is incompatible with conventional Marcus theories of organic transport. In this work we show that ultrafast charge transport in PCBM arises from its broad range of electronic eigenstates, provided by the presence of three closely spaced delocalised bands near the LUMO level. Vibrational fluctuations enable rapid transitions between these bands, which drives an electron transport of $\\sim$3 nm within 100 fs. All this is demonstrated within a realistic tight binding Hamiltonian containing transfer integrals no larger than 8 meV.

  14. Single-electron analysis of the space-charge effect in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, C.; Yariv, A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact treatment of the space-charge effect in the single-electron analysis of a free-electron laser is presented to calculate its small-signal gain. With the inclusion of the repulsive force between electrons, it is found that the trajectory of an electron can be solved from a generalized equation which includes a space-charge term. The results show the gain is saturated with decreasing growth rate due to high electron density. The radiation frequency is found to increase with the electron density and approach the value at plasma resonance. The condition ..omega../sub p/L/c=..pi.. clearly defines the boundary between the noninteracting and the collective regime of an electron beam, where w/sub p/ is the plasma frequency, L is the device length, and c is the light velocity in vacuum.

  15. Full electrical control of Charge and Spin conductance through Interferometry of Edge States in Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio Dolcini

    2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate electron interferometry of edge states in Topological Insulators. We show that, when inter-boundary coupling is induced at two quantum point contacts of a four terminal setup, both Fabry-P\\'erot-like and Aharonov-Bohm-like loop processes arise. These underlying interference effects lead to a full electrically controllable system, where the magnitude of charge and spin linear conductances can be tuned by gate voltages, without applying magnetic fields. In particular we find that, under appropriate conditions, inter-boundary coupling can lead to negative values of the conductance. Furthermore, the setup also allows to selectively generate pure charge or pure spin currents, by choosing the voltage bias configuration.

  16. Thermal effects and space-charge limited transition in crossed-field devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marini, Samuel; Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully kinetic model for the electron flow in a crossed field device is derived and used to determine the system stationary states. It is found that for low injection temperatures, there is a simultaneous presence of distinct stationary solutions and an abrupt transition between accelerating and space-charge limited regimes. On the other hand, for high injection temperatures, there is only a single stationary solution branch and the change between the regimes becomes continuous. For intermediate temperatures, it is then identified a critical point that separates the abrupt and continuous behaviors. It is also investigated how intrinsic space-charge oscillations may drive stationary states unstable in certain parameter regimes. The results are verified with N-particle self-consistent simulations.

  17. Charge density dependent nongeminate recombination in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rauh; C. Deibel; V. Dyakonov

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparent recombination orders exceeding the value of two expected for bimolecular recombination have been reported for organic solar cells in various publications. Two prominent explanations are bimolecular losses with a carrier concentration dependent prefactor due to a trapping limited mobility, and protection of trapped charge carriers from recombination by a donor--acceptor phase separation until reemission from these deep states. In order to clarify which mechanism is dominant we performed temperature and illumination dependent charge extraction measurements under open circuit as well as short circuit conditions at poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C$_{61}$butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC$_{61}$BM) and PTB7:PC$_{71}$BM (Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  18. Charge Relaxation in a Single Electron Si/SiGe Double Quantum Dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Wang; C. Payette; Y. Dovzhenko; P. W. Deelman; J. R. Petta

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the interdot charge relaxation time T_1 of a single electron trapped in an accumulation mode Si/SiGe double quantum dot. The energy level structure of the charge qubit is determined using photon assisted tunneling, which reveals the presence of a low lying excited state. We systematically measure T_1 as a function of detuning and interdot tunnel coupling and show that it is tunable over four orders of magnitude, with a maximum of 45 microseconds for our device configuration. Measured relaxation times are consistent with a phonon mediated energy relaxation process and indicate that low lying excited states may have important implications in the development of silicon spin qubits.

  19. Effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov--Bohm field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. R. Khalilov

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) potential in 2+1 dimensions is investigated. The causal Green's function of the Dirac equation with the AB potential is represented via the regular and irregular solutions of the two-dimensional radial Dirac equation. It is shown that the vacuum current density contains the contribution from free filled states of the negative energy continuum as well as that from a bound unfilled state, which can emerge in the above background due to the interaction of the fermion spin magnetic moment with the AB magnetic field while the induced charge density contains only the contribution from the bound state. The expressions for the vacuum charge and induced current densities are obtained (recovered for massless fermions) for the graphene in the field of infinitesimally thin solenoid perpendicular to the plane of a sample. We also find the bound state energy as a function of magnetic flux, fermion spin and the radius of solenoid as well as discuss the role of the so-called self-adjoint extension parameter and determine it in terms of the physics of the problem.

  20. Role of interfacial charge in the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.K.; Shin, F.G. [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Department of Applied Physics, Materials Research Center and Center for Smart Materials, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effects of compensating charges (at the inclusion-matrix interface) on the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites. Our previously developed model [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] has been extended to include the additional contribution from the deformation of the inclusion particles due to the applied stress in the piezoelectric measurement. The relative significance of this contribution is mainly determined by the amount of compensating interfacial charge, which is significantly governed by the degrees of poling of the constituent materials in the composite sample. This model provides an explanation to an anomaly in the piezoelectric coefficients of 0-3 composite samples with the matrix and inclusion phases polarized in opposite directions. Explicit expressions in closed form have been derived for the effective d{sub 33}, d{sub 31}, and d{sub h} coefficients. After taking into consideration the degree of poling of the constituents and the effects of the compensating interfacial charges, theoretical predictions show good agreement with published experimental data. Goodness of fit is not limited to low volume concentration of inclusions.

  1. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth [ORNL] [ORNL; Velamur Asokan, Badri [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering] [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering; Shelton, William A [Louisiana State University] [Louisiana State University; Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  2. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

  3. Pure-state dynamics of a pair of charge qubits in a random environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buric, Nikola [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Beograd, Vojvode Stepe 450, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pair of charge qubits in a random electromagnetic environment is studied, using the description of the random dynamics of its pure-state vector as given by quantum-state diffusion theory. It is shown by numerical computations that the pure-state dynamics provides a more detailed description than the density-matrix picture of the main effects such as phase dumping and depolarization.

  4. Nearest-neighbor distributions of free radicals produced within charged-particle tracks in liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Miles Clay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radicals, and hydrated electrons was tabulated in order to develop a radiochemical description of the charged-particle tracks. These radicals are of biological importance since they can damage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) through chemical action. For low... t2 s. . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Nearest like-neighbor distributions for hydrated electrons at 10 s . . 13 Nearest like-neighbor distributions for OH radicals at 10-6 s . . 14 Nearest like-neighbor distributions for H radicals at 10-s s...

  5. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  6. The transverse space-charge force in tri-gaussian distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In tracking, the transverse space-charge force can be represented by changes in the horizontal and vertical divergences, {Delta}x{prime} and {Delta}y{prime} at many locations around the accelerator ring. In this note, they are going to list some formulas for {Delta}x{prime} and {delta}y{prime} arising from space-charge kicks when the beam is tri-Gaussian distributed. They will discuss separately a flat beam and a round beam. they are not interested in the situation when the emittance growth arising from space charge becomes too large and the shape of the beam becomes weird. For this reason, they can assume the bunch still retains its tri-Gaussian distribution, with its rms sizes {sigma}{sub x}, {sigma}{sub y}, and {sigma}{sub z} increasing by certain factors. Thus after each turn, {sigma}{sub x}, {sigma}{sub y}, and {sigma}{sub z} can be re-calculated.

  7. Ions in mixed dielectric solvents: density profiles and osmotic pressure between charged interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Ben-Yaakov; David Andelman; Daniel Harries; Rudi Podgornik

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The forces between charged macromolecules, usually given in terms of osmotic pressure, are highly affected by the intervening ionic solution. While in most theoretical studies the solution is treated as a homogeneous structureless dielectric medium, recent experimental studies concluded that, for a bathing solution composed of two solvents (binary mixture), the osmotic pressure between charged macromolecules is affected by the binary solvent composition. By adding local solvent composition terms to the free energy, we obtain a general expression for the osmotic pressure, in planar geometry and within the mean-field framework. The added effect is due to the permeability inhomogeneity and nonelectrostatic short-range interactions between the ions and solvents (preferential solvation). This effect is mostly pronounced at small distances and leads to a reduction in the osmotic pressure for macromolecular separations of the order 1--2 nm. Furthermore, it leads to a depletion of one of the two solvents from the charged macromolecules (modeled as planar interfaces). Lastly, by comparing the theoretical results with experimental ones, an explanation based on preferential solvation is offered for recent experiments on the osmotic pressure of DNA solutions.

  8. Study of charge symmetry breaking in dd collisions with WASA-at-COSY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronska, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge symmetry is an approximate symmetry of the strong interaction. Studies of its breaking can yield information on the u and d quark mass difference. A theoretical collaboration is currently working on the description of charge symmetry breaking mechanisms for dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} and np{yields}d{pi}{sup 0} within Chiral Perturbation Theory, using the data from TRI-UMF and IUCF. One of the items in the program of the WASA-at-COSY collaboration is to extend the data base for the dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} reaction to higher energies, which would allow the extraction of the information on the p-wave. Status of the analysis of experimental data along with the preliminary results from the pilot run will be presented here.

  9. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  10. 3/4/13 FBI --Eighteen People Charged in International $200 Million Credit Card Fraud Scam www.fbi.gov/newark/press-releases/2013/eighteen-people-charged-in-international-200-million-credit-card-fraud-scam 1/3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandhu, Ravi

    3/4/13 FBI -- Eighteen People Charged in International $200 Million Credit Card Fraud Scam www.fbi $200 million in confirmed losses. This morning, hundreds of law enforcement officers from the FBI

  11. Hawking radiation as tunneling from charged black holes in 0A string theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongbin Kim

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been much work on explaining Hawking radiation as a quantum tunneling process through horizons. Basically, this intuitive picture requires the calculation of the imaginary part of the action for outgoing particle. And two ways are known for achieving this goal: the null-geodesic method and the Hamilton-Jacobi method. We apply these methods to the charged black holes in 2D dilaton gravity which is originated from the low energy effective theory of type 0A string theory. We derive the correct Hawking temperature of the black holes including the effect of the back reaction of the radiation, and obtain the entropy by using the 1st law of black hole thermodynamics. For fixed-charge ensemble, the 0A black holes are free of phase transition and thermodynamically stable regardless of mass-charge ratio. We show this by interpreting the back reaction term as the inverse of the heat capacity of the black holes. Finally, the possibility of the phase transition in the fixed-potential ensemble is discussed.

  12. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  13. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; et al

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  14. Single charge sensing and transport in double quantum dots fabricated from commercially grown Si/SiGe heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payette, C; Koppinen, P J; Dovzhenko, Y; Sturm, J C; Petta, J R

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform quantum Hall measurements on three types of commercially available modulation doped Si/SiGe heterostructures to determine their suitability for depletion gate defined quantum dot devices. By adjusting the growth parameters, we are able to achieve electron gases with charge densities 1-3 X 10^{11}/cm^2 and mobilities in excess of 100,000 cm^2/Vs. Double quantum dot devices fabricated on these heterostructures show clear evidence of single charge transitions as measured in dc transport and charge sensing and exhibit electron temperatures of 100 mK in the single quantum dot regime.

  15. Single charge sensing and transport in double quantum dots fabricated from commercially grown Si/SiGe heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Payette; K. Wang; P. J. Koppinen; Y. Dovzhenko; J. C. Sturm; J. R. Petta

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform quantum Hall measurements on three types of commercially available modulation doped Si/SiGe heterostructures to determine their suitability for depletion gate defined quantum dot devices. By adjusting the growth parameters, we are able to achieve electron gases with charge densities 1-3 X 10^{11}/cm^2 and mobilities in excess of 100,000 cm^2/Vs. Double quantum dot devices fabricated on these heterostructures show clear evidence of single charge transitions as measured in dc transport and charge sensing and exhibit electron temperatures of 100 mK in the single quantum dot regime.

  16. Unfolding of event-by-event net-charge distributions in heavy-ion collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Garg; D. K. Mishra; P. K. Netrakanti; A. K. Mohanty; B. Mohanty

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a method to obtain the true event-by-event net-charge multiplicity distributions from a corresponding measured distribution which is subjected to detector effects such as finite particle counting efficiency. The approach is based on the Bayes method for unfolding of distributions. We are able to faithfully unfold back the measured distributions to match with their corresponding true distributions obtained for a widely varying underlying particle production mechanism, beam energy and collision centrality. Particularly the mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, their products and ratios of net-charge distributions from the event generators are shown to be successfully unfolded from the measured distributions constructed to mimic a real experimental distribution. We demonstrate the necessity to account for detector effects before associating the higher moments of net-charge distributions with physical quantities or phenomena. The advantage of this approach being that one need not construct new observable to cancel out detector effects which loose their ability to be connected to physical quantities calculable in standard theories.

  17. High-resolution studies of charge exchange in supernova remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heine, Sarah Nicole Trowbridge

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. ...

  18. Double spin asymmetry AL?T? in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized ³He target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I discuss the first measurement of the beam-target double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. These data were ...

  19. Light Effects on the Charge Storage in the A-SI:H Pin Diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    was verified with a pre-fabricated circuit which is a charge storage readout device. The diode under the long wavelength light illumination condition stored more charges than that under the short wavelength light illumination condition because the former could...

  20. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4?-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully. Sample Workplace Charging Policy More Documents & Publications...

  2. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  3. Generalized space-charge limited current and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhanfeng; Liu, Guozhi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China); Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-13, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the space-charge limited current (SLC) and virtual cathode behaviors in one-dimensional grounded drift space. A simple general analytical solution and an approximate solution for the planar diode are given. Through a semi-analytical method, a general solution for SLC in one-dimensional drift space is obtained. The behaviors of virtual cathode in the drift space, including dominant frequency, electron transit time, position, and transmitted current, are yielded analytically. The relationship between the frequency of the virtual cathode oscillation and the injected current presented may explain previously reported numerical works. Results are significant in facilitating estimations and further analytical studies.

  4. Gravitational waves interacting with a spinning charged particle in the presence of a uniform magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Papadopoulos

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations which determine the response of a spinning charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field to an incident gravitational wave are derived in the linearized approximation to general relativity. We verify that 1) the components of the 4-momentum, 4-velocity and the components of the spinning tensor, both electric and magnetic moments, exhibit resonances and 2) the co-existence of the uniform magnetic field and the GW are responsible for the resonances appearing in our equations. In the absence of the GW, the magnetic field and the components of the spin tensor decouple and the magnetic resonances disappear.

  5. The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Wai K.

    The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the ...

  6. Design for implementation : fully integrated charging & docking infrastructure used in Mobility-on-Demand electric vehicle fleets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jean Mario Nations

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the technology used in electric vehicles continues to advance, there is an increased demand for urban-appropriate electric charging stations emphasizing a modern user interface, robust design, and reliable functionality. ...

  7. Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility and adjacent car charging stations. IN THIS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Cover: PNNL's Photovoltaic array produces electricity for our super-computing facility and adjacent car charging stations. #12;IN THIS REPORT 2 Message From the Director 3 PNNL Overview 5

  8. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d + Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back

    2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The measured pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in minimum-bias d + Au collisions at ${\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} = \\rm {200 GeV}}$ is presented for the first time. This distribution falls off less rapidly in the gold direction as compared to the deuteron direction. The average value of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is ${\\rm _{\\mid \\eta \\mid \\le 0.6} = 9.4 \\pm 0.7(syst)}$ and the integrated primary charged particle multiplicity in the measured region is 82 $\\pm$ 6(syst). Estimates of the total charged particle production, based on extrapolations outside the measured pseudorapidity region, are also presented. The pseudorapidity distribution, normalized to the number of participants in d + Au collisions, is compared to those of Au + Au and ${\\rm p}+\\bar{\\rm p}$ systems at the same energy. The d + Au distribution is also compared to the predictions of the parton saturation model, as well as microscopic models.

  9. Charged-Particle Decay from Giant Monopole Resonance in Si-28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toba, Y.; Lui, YW; Youngblood, David H.; Garg, U.; Grabmayr, P.; Knopfle, K. T.; Riedesel, H.; Wagner, G. J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 41, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1990 Charged particle decay from giant monopole resonance in Si Y. Toba, Y.-W. Lui, and D. H. Youngblood Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 U. Garg Physics... elusive with only a few percent of the sum rule located in most nuclei. Lui et al. reported the identification of 66/o of the EO EWSR with a width of 4.8 MeV centered at 17.9 MeV in Si. Si was also investigated by Kailas et al. , using 115 MeV proton...

  10. Limits on tau lepton flavor violating decays in three charged leptons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervelli, Alberto

    2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for the neutrinoless, lepton-flavor violating decay of the {tau} lepton into three charged leptons has been performed using an integrated luminosity of 468 fb{sup -1} collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider. In all six decay modes considered, the numbers of events found in data are compatible with the background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions are set in the range (1.8-3.3) x 10{sup -8} at 90% confidence level.

  11. Final Report - Interaction of radiation and charged particles in miniature plasma structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The extension of our program to the development of theories and models capable of describing the interactions of intense laser pulses and charged particles in miniature plasma channels is reported. These channels, which have recently been created in the laboratory, have unique dispersion properties that make them interesting for a variety of applications including particle acceleration, high harmonic generation, and THz generation. Our program systematically explored the properties of these channels, including dispersion, losses, and coupling. A particular application that was pursued is the generation of intense pulses of THz radiation by short laser pulses propagating these channels. We also explored the nonlinear dynamics of laser pulses propagating in these channels.

  12. Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, Jackson Levi [Physics Department, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Adami, Kristian Zarb [Physics Department, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

  13. Gibbs paradox and a possible mechanism of like-charge attraction in colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Lun Lee; Yiing-Rei Chen

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a reconsideration of the Gibbs paradox, we show that a residual, non-extensive term in entropy turns up upon mixing identical particles, whether they are indistinguishable or not. The positive contribution from this residual entropy leads to a decrease in free energy, and we suggest that this entropic mechanism may serve as a source of like-charge attractions between a pair of colloidal particles or other macroions. For a system of two colloidal particles along with their neutralizing counterions, such decrease in free energy is of a few thermal energies and therefore crucial to the effective interaction between the particles.

  14. Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Metcalfe; I. Mejia; J. Murphy; M. Quevedo; L. Smith; J. Alvarado; B. Gnade; H. Takai

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

  15. Observations of Space Charge effects in the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potts III, Robert E [ORNL] [ORNL; Cousineau, Sarah M [ORNL] [ORNL; Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring was designed to allow independent control of the transverse beam distribution in each plane. However, at high beam intensities, nonlinear space charge forces can strongly influence the final beam distribution and compromise our ability to independently control the transverse distributions. In this study we investigate the evolution of the beam at intensities of up to ~8x10^13 ppp through both simulation and experiment. Specifically, we analyze the evolution of the beam distribution for beams with different transverse aspect ratios and tune splits. We present preliminary results of simulations of our experiments.

  16. Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, J; Murphy, J; Quevedo, M; Smith, L; Alvarado, J; Gnade, B; Takai, H

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

  17. Charged pion production in C+C and Ar+KCl collisions measured with HADES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The HADES Collaboration; P. Tlusty; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; G. Bellia; D. Belver; A. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Boehmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; M. Destefanis; J. Diaz; F. Dohrmann; A. Dybczak; L. Fabbietti; O. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Froehlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzon; R. Gernhaeuser; A. Gil; C. Gilardi; M. Golubeva; D. Gonzalez-Diaz; E. Grosse; F. Guber; M. Heilmann; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kaempfer; K. Kanaki; T. Karavicheva; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; R. Kotte; A. Kozuch; A. Krasa; F. Krizek; R. Kruecken; W. Kuehn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; J. Lamas-Valverde; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Marin; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; D. Mishra; E. Moriniere; J. Mousa; C. Muentz; L. Naumann; R. Novotny; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; T. Perez Cavalcanti; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; R. Simon; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Stroebele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; I. Veretenkin; V. Wagner; M. Weber; M. Wisniowski; J. Wuestenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. Zanevsky; P. Zhou; P. Zumbruch

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a study of charged pion production in 12C+12C collisions at incident beam energies of 1A GeV and 2A GeV, and 40Ar+natKCl at 1.76AGeV, using the spectrometer HADES at GSI, are presented. We have performed a measurement of the transverse momentum distributions of pi+- mesons covering a fairly large rapidity interval, in case of the C+C collision system for the first time. The yields, transverse mass and angular distributions are compared with a transport model as well as with existing data from other experiments.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Charging Plug-In Electric Vehicles at Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP)MassachusettsExperimentalInfrastructureFuels inDuneCharging Plug-In

  19. The effects of topological charge change in heavy ion collisions: "Event by event P and CP violation"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri E. Kharzeev; Larry D. McLerran; Harmen J. Warringa

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) contains field configurations which can be characterized by a topological invariant, the winding number Q_w. Configurations with nonzero Q_w break the charge-parity CP symmetry of QCD. We consider a novel mechanism by which these configurations can separate charge in the presence of a background magnetic field - the "Chiral Magnetic Effect". We argue that sufficiently large magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions so that the Chiral Magnetic Effect causes preferential emission of charged particles along the direction of angular momentum. Since separation of charge is CP-odd, any observation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect could provide a clear demonstration of the topological nature of the QCD vacuum. We give an estimate of the effect and conclude that it might be observed experimentally.

  20. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahmood, Qasim [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University (Republic of Korea); Bak, Seong-Min [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Min G. [Beamline Research Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Republic of Korea); Yun, Sol [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon (Republic of Korea); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shin, Hyeon S. [Department of Energy Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Low Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST) (Republic of Korea); Kim, Woo S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University (Republic of Korea); Braun, Paul V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering Materials Research Laboratory and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana?Champaign, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Park, Ho S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon (Republic of Korea)

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  1. Baryon Number and Electric Charge Fluctuations in Pb+Pb Collisions at SPS energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. P. Konchakovski; M. I. Gorenstein; E. L. Bratkovskaya; H. Stocker

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Event-by-event fluctuations of the net baryon number and electric charge in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in Pb+Pb at SPS energies within the HSD transport model. We reveal an important role of the fluctuations in the number of target nucleon participants. They strongly influence all measured fluctuations even in the samples of events with rather rigid centrality trigger. This fact can be used to check different scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality in fixed kinematical regions of the projectile and target hemispheres. The HSD results for the event-by-event fluctuations of electric charge in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80 and 158 A GeV are in a good agreement with the NA49 experimental data and considerably larger than expected in a quark-gluon plasma. This demonstrate that the distortions of the initial fluctuations by the hadronization phase and, in particular, by the final resonance decays dominate the observable fluctuations.

  2. Fast Neutral Generation by Charge Exchange Reaction and Its Effect on Neutron Production Rate in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K. [Kyushu University (Japan)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast neutral generation by charge exchange reaction in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas is studied by solving the Poisson equation and the Boltzmann equation for fast neutrals. Fusion reactions carried by the charge exchange fast neutrals become appreciable compared with ion-background fusion reaction. It is shown that the fusion reaction between fast neutral and background gas is sensitively affected by experimental parameters (grid voltage, background gas pressure) and ion distribution function.

  3. Renormalized energy equidistribution and local charge balance in 2D Coulomb systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simona Rota Nodari; Sylvia Serfaty

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider two related problems: the first is the minimization of the "Coulomb renormalized energy" of Sandier-Serfaty, which corresponds to the total Coulomb interaction of point charges in a uniform neutralizing background (or rather variants of it). The second corresponds to the minimization of the Hamiltonian of a two-dimensional "Coulomb gas" or "one-component plasma", a system of n point charges with Coulomb pair interaction, in a confining potential (minimizers of this energy also correspond to "weighted Fekete sets"). In both cases we investigate the microscopic structure of minimizers, i.e. at the scale corresponding to the interparticle distance. We show that in any large enough microscopic set, the value of the energy and the number of points are "rigid" and completely determined by the macroscopic density of points. In other words, points and energy are "equidistributed" in space (modulo appropriate scalings). The number of points in a ball is in particular known up to an error proportional to the radius of the ball. We also prove a result on the maximal and minimal distances between points. Our approach involves fully exploiting the minimality by reducing to minimization problems with fixed boundary conditions posed on smaller subsets.

  4. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Grigorenko, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the -decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of -decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the -delayed three proton emission.

  5. Higher moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies in STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo; for the STAR Collaboration

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the higher order moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions for the Au+Au collisions at \\sNN = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The energy and centrality dependence of higher moments and their products (such as $\\sigma^2/M$, $S\\sigma$ and $\\kappa\\sigma^{2}$) are presented. The data are also compared to Poisson expectations and Hadron Resonance Gas model calculations.

  6. Like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in the Randall-Sundrum model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 108 Lewis Hall, University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi 38677-1848 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics at the British University in Egypt, Sherouk City, Cairo 11837 (Egypt) and Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo, 11566 (Egypt)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We confirm that in order to account for the recent D0 result of large like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry, a considerable large new physics effect in {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s} is required in addition to a large CP violating phase in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing. In the Randall-Sundrum model of warped geometry, where the fermion fields reside in the bulk, new sources of flavor and CP violation are obtained. We analyze the like-sign dimuon asymmetry in this class of model as an example of the desired new physics. We show that the wrong-charge asymmetry, a{sub sl}{sup s}, which is related to the dimuon asymmetry, is significantly altered compared to the standard model value. However, experimental limits from {Delta}M{sub s}, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} as well as K mixing and electroweak corrections constrain it to be greater than a {sigma} away from its experimental average value. This model cannot fully account for the D0 anomaly due to its inability to generate a sufficient new contribution to the width difference {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s}, even though the model can generate large contribution to the mass difference M{sub 12}{sup s}.

  7. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  8. Tunability of the terahertz space-charge modulation in a vacuum microdiode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, P.; Ilkov, Marjan; Manolescu, A.; Valfells, A. [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Pedersen, A. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain conditions, space-charge limited emission in vacuum microdiodes manifests as clearly defined bunches of charge with a regular size and interval. The frequency corresponding to this interval is in the terahertz range. In this computational study, it is demonstrated that, for a range of parameters, conducive to generating THz frequency oscillations, the frequency is dependant only on the cold cathode electric field and on the emitter area. For a planar micro-diode of given dimension, the modulation frequency can be easily tuned simply by varying the applied potential. Simulations of the microdiode are done for 84 different combinations of emitter area, applied voltage, and gap spacing, using a molecular dynamics based code with exact Coulomb interaction between all electrons in the vacuum gap, which is of the order 100. It is found, for a fixed emitter area, that the frequency of the pulse train is solely dependant on the vacuum electric field in the diode, described by a simple power law. It is also found that, for a fixed value of the electric field, the frequency increases with diminishing size of the emitting spot on the cathode. Some observations are made on the spectral quality, and how it is affected by the gap spacing in the diode and the initial velocity of the electrons.

  9. Regular electrically charged structures in Nonlinear Electrodynamics coupled to General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Dymnikova

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of existence of regular spherically symmetric electrically charged solutions in Nonlinear Electrodynamics coupled to General Relativity. Stress-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field has the algebraic structure $T_0^0=T_1^1$. In this case the Weak Energy Condition leads to the de Sitter asymptotic at approaching a regular center. In de Sitter center of an electrically charged NED structure, electric field, geometry and stress-energy tensor are regular without Maxwell limit which is replaced by de Sitter limit: energy density of a field is maximal and gives an effective cut-off on self-energy density, produced by NED coupled to gravity and related to cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. Regular electric solutions satisfying WEC, suffer from one cusp in the Lagrangian ${\\cal L}(F)$, which creates the problem in an effective geometry whose geodesics are world lines of NED photons. We investigate propagation of photons and show that their world lines never terminate which suggests absence of singularities in the effective geometry. To illustrate these results we present the new exact analytic spherically symmetric electric solution with the de Sitter center.

  10. Topological charged BPS vortices in Lorentz-violating Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Casana; G. Lazar

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a complete study of BPS vortex solutions in the Abelian sector of the standard model extension (SME). Specifically, we have coupled the SME electromagnetism with a Higgs field which is supplemented with a Lorentz-violating CPT-even term. We have verified that Lorentz violation (LV) belonging to the Higgs sector allows to interpolate between some well known models like, Maxwell-Higgs, Chern-Simons-Higgs and Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs. We can also observed that the electrical charged density distribution is nonnull in both CPT-even and CPT-odd models; however, the total electric charge in the CPT-even case is null, whereas in the CPT-odd one it is proportional to the quantized magnetic flux. The following general results can be established in relation to the LV introduced in the Higgs sector: it changes the vortex ansatz and the gauge field boundary conditions. A direct consequence is that the magnetic flux, besides being proportional to the winding number, also depends explicitly on the Lorentz-violation belonging to the Higgs sector.

  11. Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marchand, R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.

  12. On the ambiguities in the tri-bimaximal mixing matrix and corresponding charged lepton corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duarah, Chandan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two negative signs naturally appear in the $U_{\\mu 1}$ and $U_{\\tau 2}$ elements of the Tri-bimaximal (TBM) matrix for positive values of the mixing angles $\\theta_{12}$ and $\\theta_{23}$. Apart from this, in other TBM matrices negative signs are shifted to other elements in each case. They account for positive as well as negative values of $\\theta_{12}$ and $\\theta_{23}$. We discuss the sign ambiguity in the TBM matrix and find that the TBM matrices, in fact, can be divided into two groups under certain circumstances. Interestingly, this classification of TBM matrices is accompanied by two different $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric mass matrices which can separately be related to the groups. To accommodate non-zero value of $\\theta_{13}$ and deviate $\\theta_{23}$ towards first octant, we then perturb the TBM mixing ansatz with the help of charged lepton correction. The diagonalizing matrices for charged lepton mass matrices also possess sign ambiguity and respect the grouping of TBM matrices. They are parametrized in te...

  13. The role of charged particles in the positive corona-generated photon count in a rod to plane air gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, X. M.; Wang, Y. J.; MacAlpine, J. M. K.; Chen, L.; Wang, L. M.; Guan, Z. C. [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China)] [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Wan, S. W. [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China)] [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China); Liu, L. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)] [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the calculated charged-particle densities in positive corona, the rate of streamer production, and the photon count from the corona were investigated and found to be closely related. Both the densities of electrons and positive ions peaked at 11.8 kV, near the corona inception voltage; they then fell rapidly before slowly rising again. This behavior was exactly matched by the measured photon count. The calculation of the charged-particle density in a positive corona was achieved by means of a fluid model.

  14. Charged-Lepton-Flavour Violation in the Light of the Super-Kamiokande Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ellis; M. E. Gomez; G. K. Leontaris; S. Lola; D. V. Nanopoulos

    1999-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by the data from Super-Kamiokande and elsewhere indicating oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos, we study charged-lepton-flavour violation, in particular the radiative decays mu -> e gamma and tau -> mu gamma, but also commenting on mu -> 3e and tau -> 3 mu/e decays, as well as mu - e conversion on nuclei. We first show how the renormalization group may be used to calculate flavour-violating soft supersymmetry-breaking masses for charged sleptons and sneutrinos in models with universal input parameters. Subsequently, we classify possible patterns of lepton-flavour violation in the context of phenomenological neutrino mass textures that accommodate the Super-Kamiokande data, giving examples based on Abelian flavour symmetries. Then we calculate in these examples rates for mu -> e gamma and tau ->mu gamma, which may be close to the present experimental upper limits, and show how they may distinguish between the different generic mixing patterns. The rates are promisingly large when the soft supersymmetry-breaking mass parameters are chosen to be consistent with the cosmological relic-density constraints. In addition, we discuss mu -> e conversion on Titanium, which may also be accessible to future experiments.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  16. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H., E-mail: chensh@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)] [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Ang, L. K. [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)] [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  17. Stochastic Lagrangian dynamics for charged flows in the E-F regions of ionosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Wenbo; Mahalov, Alex [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a three-dimensional numerical model for the E-F region ionosphere and study the Lagrangian dynamics for plasma flows in this region. Our interest rests on the charge-neutral interactions and the statistics associated with stochastic Lagrangian motion. In particular, we examine the organizing mixing patterns for plasma flows due to polarized gravity wave excitations in the neutral field, using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). LCS objectively depict the flow topology-the extracted attractors indicate generation of ionospheric density gradients, due to accumulation of plasma. Using Lagrangian measures such as the finite-time Lyapunov exponents, we locate the Lagrangian skeletons for mixing in plasma, hence where charged fronts are expected to appear. With polarized neutral wind, we find that the corresponding plasma velocity is also polarized. Moreover, the polarized velocity alone, coupled with stochastic Lagrangian motion, may give rise to polarized density fronts in plasma. Statistics of these trajectories indicate high level of non-Gaussianity. This includes clear signatures of variance, skewness, and kurtosis of displacements taking polarized structures aligned with the gravity waves, and being anisotropic.

  18. Generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model: Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space and BRST charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Shestakova

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct Hamiltonian dynamics of the generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model in extended phase space. We start from the Faddeev - Popov effective action with gauge-fixing and ghost terms, making use of gauge conditions in differential form. It enables us to introduce missing velocities into the Lagrangian and then construct a Hamiltonian function according a usual rule which is applied for systems without constraints. The main feature of Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space is that it can be proved to be completely equivalent to Lagrangian dynamics derived from the effective action. We find a BRST invariant form of the effective action by adding terms not affecting Lagrangian equations. After all, we construct the BRST charge according to the Noether theorem. Our algorithm differs from that by Batalin, Fradkin and Vilkovisky, but the resulting BRST charge generates correct transformations for all gravitational degrees of freedom including gauge ones. Generalized spherically symmetric model imitates the full gravitational theory much better then models with finite number of degrees of freedom, so that one can expect appropriate results in the case of the full theory.

  19. Improving the accuracy of neutrino energy reconstruction in charged-current quasielastic scattering off nuclear targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artur M. Ankowski; Omar Benhar; Makoto Sakuda

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a theoretical study of quasielastic electron and neutrino interactions with carbon. Our approach takes into account the effects of final-state interactions between the struck nucleon and the residual nucleus, neglected in the impulse approximation, through a generalization of the spectral function formalism. The calculated electron-scattering cross sections turn out to be in very good agreement with the available data over a broad kinematical region. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy in charged-current quasielastic processes is also studied, and the results of our approach are compared to the predictions of the relativistic Fermi gas model, routinely employed in most Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the existing procedure for energy reconstruction and propose a new, improved, one. At energy ~600 MeV, we observe a sizable difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering, important for the measurements of charge-parity symmetry violation. Our analysis suggests that a reliable determination of neutrino energy can only be obtained from models validated by a systematic comparison to the available electron-scattering data.

  20. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.