National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for improving cancer detection

  1. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur (Newport News, VA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Welch, Benjamin L. (Hampton, VA)

    2008-10-28

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  2. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur (Seattle, WA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Morgantown, WV); Welch, Benjamin L. (Hampton, VA)

    2012-07-03

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  3. Early Lung Cancer Detection Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2000, DOE has made screening for occupational lung cancer with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans available to workers at high risk for lung cancer. Because former workers undertook essential activities to fulfill the Department's mission, many of them were at risk for lung cancer.

  4. Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization Title: Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization Here we describe ...

  5. Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    localization (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization Here we describe superparamagnetic relaxometry (SPMR), a technology that utilizes highly sensitive magnetic sensors and superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cancer detection. Using SPMR, we sensitively and specifically detect nanoparticles

  6. Improved Microseismicity Detection During Newberry EGS Stimulations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    Effective enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) require optimal fracture networks for efficient heat transfer between hot rock and fluid. Microseismic mapping is a key tool used to infer the subsurface fracture geometry. Traditional earthquake detection and location techniques are often employed to identify microearthquakes in geothermal regions. However, most commonly used algorithms may miss events if the seismic signal of an earthquake is small relative to the background noise level or if a microearthquake occurs within the coda of a larger event. Consequently, we have developed a set of algorithms that provide improved microearthquake detection. Our objective is to investigate the microseismicity at the DOE Newberry EGS site to better image the active regions of the underground fracture network during and immediately after the EGS stimulation. Detection of more microearthquakes during EGS stimulations will allow for better seismic delineation of the active regions of the underground fracture system. This improved knowledge of the reservoir network will improve our understanding of subsurface conditions, and allow improvement of the stimulation strategy that will optimize heat extraction and maximize economic return.

  7. Improved Microseismicity Detection During Newberry EGS Stimulations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-11-01

    Effective enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) require optimal fracture networks for efficient heat transfer between hot rock and fluid. Microseismic mapping is a key tool used to infer the subsurface fracture geometry. Traditional earthquake detection and location techniques are often employed to identify microearthquakes in geothermal regions. However, most commonly used algorithms may miss events if the seismic signal of an earthquake is small relative to the background noise level or if a microearthquake occurs within the coda of a larger event. Consequently, we have developed a set of algorithms that provide improved microearthquake detection. Our objective is to investigate the microseismicity at the DOE Newberry EGS site to better image the active regions of the underground fracture network during and immediately after the EGS stimulation. Detection of more microearthquakes during EGS stimulations will allow for better seismic delineation of the active regions of the underground fracture system. This improved knowledge of the reservoir network will improve our understanding of subsurface conditions, and allow improvement of the stimulation strategy that will optimize heat extraction and maximize economic return.

  8. Improved Microseismicity Detection During Newberry EGS Stimulations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    Effective enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) require optimal fracture networks for efficient heat transfer between hot rock and fluid. Microseismic mapping is a key tool used to infer the subsurface fracture geometry. Traditional earthquake detection and location techniques are often employed to identify microearthquakes in geothermal regions. However, most commonly used algorithms may miss events if the seismic signal of an earthquake is small relative to the background noise level or if a microearthquake occurs within the coda of a larger event. Consequently, we have developed a set of algorithms that provide improved microearthquake detection. Our objective is to investigate the microseismicity at the DOE Newberry EGS site to better image the active regions of the underground fracture network during and immediately after the EGS stimulation. Detection of more microearthquakes during EGS stimulations will allow for better seismic delineation of the active regions of the underground fracture system. This improved knowledge of the reservoir network will improve our understanding of subsurface conditions, and allow improvement of the stimulation strategy that will optimize heat extraction and maximize economic return.

  9. Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All...

  10. Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software speeds detection of diseases Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets The Lab has released an updated version of software that is now capable of...

  11. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  12. 6.21 Improving Neutron Beams for Cancer Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 612011 6.21 Improving Neutron Beams for Cancer Treatment Beams of neutrons long have been used in scientific experiments, but recently, for the first time, a novel type of...

  13. Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    localization (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to

  14. Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    De Haro, Leyma P.; Karaulanov, Todor; Vreeland, Erika C.; Anderson, Bill; Hathaway, Helen J.; Huber, Dale L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Nettles, Christopher P.; Price, Andrew D.; Monson, Todd C.; et al

    2015-06-02

    Here we describe superparamagnetic relaxometry (SPMR), a technology that utilizes highly sensitive magnetic sensors and superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cancer detection. Using SPMR, we sensitively and specifically detect nanoparticles conjugated to biomarkers for various types of cancer. SPMR offers high contrast In SPMR measurements, a brief magnetizing pulse is used to align superparamagnetic nanoparticles of a discrete size. Following the pulse, an array of superconducting quantum interference detectors (SQUID) sensors detect the decaying magnetization field. NP size is chosen so that, when bound, the induced field decays in seconds. They are functionalized with specific biomarkers and incubated with cancer cellsmore » As a result, superparamagnetic NPs developed here have small size dispersion. Cell incubation studies measure specificity for different cell lines and antibodies with very high contrast.« less

  15. Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software speeds detection of diseases Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets The Lab has released an updated version of software that is now capable of identifying DNA from viruses and all parts of the Tree of Life. December 1, 2014 With Sequedex, a laptop computer can analyze DNA sequences faster than any current DNA sequencer can create them. With Sequedex, a laptop computer can analyze DNA sequences faster than any current DNA sequencer can create them. Contact

  16. Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A liquid scintillator with a substantially increased lithium weight was developed by ORNL researchers. Scintillators are widely used for the detection of neutron radiation emitted by radioactive sources. Conventional liquid scintillators are loaded with neutron absorbers. However, these scintillators generally have

  17. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases

  18. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  19. Device to improve detection in electro-chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garguilo, Michael G. (Livermore, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for improving the resolution of non-pressure driven capillary chromatographic systems, and particularly for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) systems. By reducing the cross-sectional area of a packed capillary column by means of a second open capillary contiguous with the outlet end of a packed capillary column, where the packed capillary column has a cross sectional area of between about 2 and 5 times that of the open capillary column, the phenomenon of band broadening in the transition region between the open capillary and the packed capillary column, where the individual components of the mixture are analyzed, can be eliminated, thereby providing for a significant improvement in resolution and more accurate detection and analysis.

  20. Device to improve detection in electro-chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garguilo, Michael G. (Livermore, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and method for improving the resolution of non-pressure driven capillary chromatographic systems, and particularly for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) systems. By reducing the cross-sectional area of a packed capillary column by means of a second open capillary contiguous with the outlet end of a packed capillary column, where the packed capillary column has a cross sectional area of between about 2 and 5 times that of the open capillary column, the phenomenon of band broadening in the transition region between the open capillary and the packed capillary column, where the individual components of the mixture are analyzed, can be eliminated, thereby providing for a significant improvement in resolution and more accurate detection and analysis.

  1. Bonus-- Cameras Designed To Strengthen Nuclear Security Can Also Detect Cancer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high-resolution gamma camera exists that can be used to detect prostate cancer.

  2. Detection of eight BRCA1 mutations in 10 breast/ovarian cancer families, including 1 family with male breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sruewing, J.P.; Brody, L.C.; Erdos, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    Genetic epidemiological evidence suggests that mutations in BRCA1 may be responsible for approximately one half of early onset familial breast cancer and the majority of familial breast/ovarian cancer. The recent cloning of BRCA1 allows for the direct detection of mutations, but the feasibility of presymptomatic screening for cancer susceptibility is unknown. We analyzed genomic DNA from one affected individual from each of 24 families with at least three cases of ovarian or breast cancer, using SSCP assays. Variant SSCP bands were subcloned and sequenced. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to verify sequence changes and to screen DNA from control individuals. Six frameshift and two missense mutations were detected in 10 different families. A frameshift mutation was detected in a male proband affected with both breast and prostate cancer. A 40-bp deletion was detected in a patient who developed intra-abdominal carcinomatosis 1 year after prophylactic oophorectomy. Mutations were detected throughout the gene, and only one was detected in more than a single family. These results provide further evidence that inherited breast and ovarian cancer can occur as a consequence of a wide array of BRCA1 mutations. These results suggests that development of a screening test for BRCA1 mutations will be technically challenging. The finding of a mutation in a family with male breast cancer, not previously thought to be related to BRCA1, also illustrates the potential difficulties of genetic counseling for individuals known to carry mutations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  4. Method for detecting the presence of prostate cancer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karin, Michael; Luo, Jun-Li; Tan, Wei

    2010-04-13

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for cancer diagnosis, treatment and drug screening. In particular, the present invention provides compositions and methods for targeting the nuclear translocation of IkB kinase-.alpha. (IKK.alpha.) and the IKK.alpha.-mediated suppression of Maspin expression observed in metastatic prostate cancer cells.

  5. Low-Dose Spiral CT Scans for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning is a noninvasive medical imaging test that has been used for the early detection of lung cancer for over 16 years (Sone et al. 1998; Henschke et.al. 1999).

  6. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  7. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, views, acquired with an automated U-Systems SomoV{sup } ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of marks (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2similar to radiologists performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader studyand 45.9% (28/61) 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  8. Methods to Improve the Lower Limit of Detection for Tritium in the Air and on Surfaces

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Group LANL Nov. 3 - 5, 2015 Methods to Improve the Lower Limit of Detection for Tritium in the Air and on Surfaces James T. (Tom) Voss, LANL LA-UR-15-28465 Present methods for the detection of tritium are adequate for most applications. However, the technology is becoming antiquated and in need of improvement, especially to address methods to achieve a lower limit of detection for Tritium in the air and on surfaces. The present methods to detect tritium in air are with the use of ion chamber

  9. Method for improving the limit of detection in a data signal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Synovec, Robert E. (Ames, IA); Yueng, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1989-10-17

    A method for improving the limit of detection for a data set in which experimental noise is uncorrelated along a given abscissa and an analytical signal is correlated to the abscissa, the steps comprising collecting the data set, converting the data set into a data signal including an analytical portion and the experimental noise portion, designating and adjusting a baseline of the data signal to center the experimental noise numerically about a zero reference, and integrating the data signal preserving the corresponding information for each point of the data signal. The steps of the method produce an enhanced integrated data signal which improves the limit of detection of the data signal.

  10. Early Detection of Melanoma and other Cancers in Residents of Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Ward, PhD and Nicholas Vogelzang, MD

    2006-10-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop simple and inexpensive tests to screen for the presence of early stage cancer in the residents of Nevada with a particular emphasis on the membership of the Hotel Employee Restaurant Employee International Union (HEREIU) in Las Vegas. Our specific goals were: 1) to develop a clinical database of individuals with cancer and to create a biological specimen Collection and Storage Systems (the NVCI bio-bank); 2) to initiate screening of individuals for proteomic markers indicating susceptibility to or the presence of specific cancers, e.g. breast, ovarian, prostate and bladder. In addition, we proposed the implementation of novel digital imaging technologies to detect melanoma; 3) to genotype blood samples from individuals who consent to participate in IRB approved research studies using a high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) method based on optical thin-film biosensor chip technology; and 4) to conduct biostatistical analysis of clinical, demographic, genetic, proteomic and digital imaging data to stratify the population cohort into relative risk groups for cancers that are prevalent in Nevada.

  11. Method for improving the limit of detection in a data signal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Synovec, R.E.; Yueng, E.S.

    1989-10-17

    Disclosed is a method for improving the limit of detection for a data set in which experimental noise is uncorrelated along a given abscissa and an analytical signal is correlated to the abscissa, the steps comprising collecting the data set, converting the data set into a data signal including an analytical portion and the experimental noise portion, designating and adjusting a baseline of the data signal to center the experimental noise numerically about a zero reference, and integrating the data signal preserving the corresponding information for each point of the data signal. The steps of the method produce an enhanced integrated data signal which improves the limit of detection of the data signal. 8 figs.

  12. NNSA Conducts Experiment to Improve U.S. Ability to Detect Foreign Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Explosions | National Nuclear Security Administration Experiment to Improve U.S. Ability to Detect Foreign Nuclear Explosions | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional

  13. Amplifications and deletions in clinical ovarian cancer detected by Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakunaga, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Kallioniemi, A.; Kallioniemi, O.; Sudar, D.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, I.W. ); Yang-Feng, T. )

    1993-01-01

    CGH is a new powerful method for surveying the whole genome for DNA sequence copy number changes in a single hybridization. The method is based on the competition between biotinylated total tumor DNA and a digoxigenin-labeled normal genomic reference DNA during hybridization to normal metaphase chromosomes. After immunofluorescent staining with avidin-FITC and antidigoxigenin Rhodamine, variation of DNA sequence copy numbers in the tumor are detected as variations in the ratios of green and red fluorescence along each chromosome. The authors applied CGH analysis to DNA extracted from surgically removed ovarian cancer specimens (27 cases). Seven amplified regions were identified by CGH analysis. Three loci, 1p32-p34 (most likely, MYCL), 8q23-q24 (MYC), 12q12 (KRAS2), were known to be amplified in solid tumors and four other loci (3q26, 6p22, 9q31-q33, 17q22) were previously unknown to be amplified. Many regions indicating physical deletions were also identified by the analysis. Chromosomal regions showing frequent deletion were 1p, 3p, 17p, 17q, 19p, 19q and Xp. There were also significant similarities of the regions with amplifications and deletions between bilateral ovarian tumors or among several different tumors form the same ovarian cancer cases, suggesting that the genetic changes observed might be relatively early events during the progression of ovarian cancer.

  14. Phase-based x-ray scatteringA possible method to detect cancer cells in a very early stage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feye-Treimer, U. Treimer, W.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: This theoretical work contains a detailed investigation of the potential and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray scattering for cancer detection in biopsies if cancer is in a very early stage of development. Methods: Cancer cells in their early stage of development differ from healthy ones mainly due to their faster growing cell nuclei and the enlargement of their densities. This growth is accompanied by an altered nucleusplasma relation for the benefit of the cell nuclei, that changes the physical properties especially the index of refraction of the cell and the one of the cell nuclei. Interaction of radiation with matter is known to be highly sensitive to small changes of the index of refraction of matter; therefore a detection of such changes of volume and density of cell nuclei by means of high angular resolved phase-based scattering of x rays might provide a technique to distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones ifthe cellcell nucleus system is considered as a coherent phase shifting object. Then one can observe from a thin biopsy which represents a monolayer of cells (no multiple scattering) that phase-based x-ray scattering curves from healthy cells differ from those of cancer cells in their early stage of development. Results: Detailed calculations of x-ray scattering patterns from healthy and cancer cell nuclei yield graphs and numbers with which one can distinguish healthy cells from cancer ones, taking into account that both kinds of cells occur in a tissue within a range of size and density. One important result is the role and the influence of the (lateral) coherence width of the radiation on the scattering curves and the sensitivity of phase-based scattering for cancer detection. A major result is that a larger coherence width yields a larger sensitivity for cancer detection. Further import results are calculated limits for critical sizes and densities of cell nuclei in order to attribute the investigated tissue to be healthy or diseased. Conclusions: With this proposed method it should be in principle possible to detect cancer cells in apparently healthy tissues in biopsies and/or in samples of the far border region of abscised or excised tissues. Thus this method could support established methods in diagnostics of cancer-suspicious samples.

  15. Improvements of fuel failure detection in boiling water reactors using helium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    To certify a continuous and safe operation of a boiling water reactor, careful surveillance of fuel integrity is of high importance. The detection of fuel failures can be performed by off-line gamma spectroscopy of off-gas samples and/or by on-line nuclide specific monitoring of gamma emitting noble gases. To establish the location of a leaking fuel rod, power suppression testing can be used. The accuracy of power suppression testing is dependent on the information of the delay time and the spreading of the released fission gases through the systems before reaching the sampling point. This paper presents a method to improve the accuracy of power suppression testing by determining the delay time and gas spreading profile. To estimate the delay time and examine the spreading of the gas in case of a fuel failure, helium was injected in the feed water system at Forsmark 3 nuclear power plant. The measurements were performed by using a helium detector system based on a mass spectrometer installed in the off-gas system. The helium detection system and the results of the experiment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Detect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detect Detect Scientists and engineers develop detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive under a variety of scenarios. v Detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive Los Alamos scientists and engineers develop detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive under a variety of scenarios. Detection methods range from trace and signature characterization to bulk detection and new methods that address homemade or esoteric explosives. Los Alamos

  17. Improved Design of Active Pixel CMOS Sensors for Charged Particle Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz

    2007-11-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear physics program requires developments in detector instrumentation electronics with improved energy, position and timing resolution, sensitivity, rate capability, stability, dynamic range, and background suppression. The current Phase-I project was focused on analysis of standard-CMOS photogate Active Pixel Sensors (APS) as an efficient solution to this challenge. The advantages of the CMOS APS over traditional hybrid approaches (i.e., separate detection regions bump-bonded to readout circuits) include greatly reduced cost, low power and the potential for vastly larger pixel counts and densities. However, challenges remain in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and readout speed (currently on the order of milliseconds), which is the major problem for this technology. Recent work has shown that the long readout time for photogate APS is due to the presence of (interface) traps at the semiconductor-oxide interface. This Phase-I work yielded useful results in two areas: (a) Advanced three-dimensional (3D) physics-based simulation models and simulation-based analysis of the impact of interface trap density on the transient charge collection characteristics of existing APS structures; and (b) Preliminary analysis of the feasibility of an improved photogate pixel structure (i.e., new APS design) with an induced electric field under the charge collecting electrode to enhance charge collection. Significant effort was dedicated in Phase-I to the critical task of implementing accurate interface trap models in CFDRC's NanoTCAD 3D semiconductor device-physics simulator. This resulted in validation of the new NanoTCAD models and simulation results against experimental (published) data, within the margin of uncertainty associated with obtaining device geometry, material properties, and experimentation details. Analyses of the new, proposed photogate APS design demonstrated several promising trends.

  18. Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly H.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

  19. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [14]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%) presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  20. Analytical platform evaluation for quantification of ERG in prostate cancer using protein and mRNA detection methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jintang; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shi, Tujin; Wu, Chaochao; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Gao, Yuqian; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Rastogi, Anshu; Tan, Shyh-Han; Yan, Wusheng; Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Huang, Wei; Banerjee, Sreedatta; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; McLeod, David; Srivastava, Shiv; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Dobi, Albert; Srinivasan, Alagarsamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The established methods for detecting prostate cancer (CaP) are based on tests using PSA (blood), PCA3 (urine), and AMACR (tissue) as biomarkers in patient samples. The demonstration of ERG oncoprotein overexpression due to gene fusion in CaP has thus provided ERG as an additional biomarker. Based on this, we hypothesized that ERG protein quantification methods can be of use in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: Therefore, an antibody-free assay for ERG3 protein detection was developed based on PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) mass spectrometry. We utilized TMPRSS2-ERG positive VCaP and TMPRSS2-ERG negative LNCaP cells to simulate three different sample types (cells, tissue, and post-DRE urine sediment). Results: Recombinant ERG3 protein spiked into LNCaP cell lysates could be detected at levels as low as 20 pg by PRISM-SRM analysis. The sensitivity of the PRISM-SRM assay was around approximately 10,000 VCaP cells in a mixed cell population model of VCaP and LNCaP cells. Interestingly, ERG protein could be detected in as few as 600 VCaP cells spiked into female urine. The sensitivity of the in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was similar to the PRISM-SRM assay, with detection of 30 pg of purified recombinant ERG3 protein and 10,000 VCaP cells. On the other hand, qRT-PCR exhibited a higher sensitivity, as TMPRSS2-ERG transcripts were detected in as few as 100 VCaP cells, in comparison to NanoString methodologies which detected ERG from 10,000 cells. Conclusions: Based on this data, we propose that the detection of both ERG transcriptional products with RNA-based assays, as well as protein products of ERG using PRISM-SRM assays, may be of clinical value in developing diagnostics and prognostics assays for prostate cancer given their sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility.

  1. Analytical platform evaluation for quantification of ERG in prostate cancer using protein and mRNA detection methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Jintang; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shi, Tujin; Wu, Chaochao; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Gao, Yuqian; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; et al

    2015-01-01

    Background: The established methods for detecting prostate cancer (CaP) are based on tests using PSA (blood), PCA3 (urine), and AMACR (tissue) as biomarkers in patient samples. The demonstration of ERG oncoprotein overexpression due to gene fusion in CaP has thus provided ERG as an additional biomarker. Based on this, we hypothesized that ERG protein quantification methods can be of use in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: Therefore, an antibody-free assay for ERG3 protein detection was developed based on PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) mass spectrometry. We utilized TMPRSS2-ERG positive VCaP and TMPRSS2-ERGmore » negative LNCaP cells to simulate three different sample types (cells, tissue, and post-DRE urine sediment). Results: Recombinant ERG3 protein spiked into LNCaP cell lysates could be detected at levels as low as 20 pg by PRISM-SRM analysis. The sensitivity of the PRISM-SRM assay was around approximately 10,000 VCaP cells in a mixed cell population model of VCaP and LNCaP cells. Interestingly, ERG protein could be detected in as few as 600 VCaP cells spiked into female urine. The sensitivity of the in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was similar to the PRISM-SRM assay, with detection of 30 pg of purified recombinant ERG3 protein and 10,000 VCaP cells. On the other hand, qRT-PCR exhibited a higher sensitivity, as TMPRSS2-ERG transcripts were detected in as few as 100 VCaP cells, in comparison to NanoString methodologies which detected ERG from 10,000 cells. Conclusions: Based on this data, we propose that the detection of both ERG transcriptional products with RNA-based assays, as well as protein products of ERG using PRISM-SRM assays, may be of clinical value in developing diagnostics and prognostics assays for prostate cancer given their sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility.« less

  2. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of Endoleaks following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, T.; Uberoi, R.; Cil, B.; Munneke, G.; Tsetis, D.

    2013-02-15

    Major concerns after aortic aneurysm repair are caused by the presence of endoleaks, which are defined as persistent perigraft flow within the aortic aneurysm sac. Diagnosis of endoleaks can be performed with various imaging modalities, and indications for treatment are based on further subclassifications. Early detection and correct classification of endoleaks are crucial for planning patient management. The vast majority of endoleaks can be treated successfully by interventional means. Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of endoleaks are described in this article.

  3. Method for detecting cancer in a single cell using mitochondrial correlation microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, Paul L.

    2012-03-06

    A method for distinguishing a normal cell from an abnormal cell, such as, for example a cancer cell or diseased cell, of the same tissue type using mitochondrial correlation microscopy.

  4. Method of detecting cancer in a single cell using mitochondrial correlation microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, Paul L

    2013-06-25

    A method for distinguishing a normal cell from an abnormal cell, such as, for example a cancer cell or diseased cell, of the same tissue type using mitochondrial correlation microscopy.

  5. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  6. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Jennifer S. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM); Shively, John E. (Arcadia, CA); Li, Lin (Monrovia, CA)

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  7. Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Anthony; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A. [Semiconductor Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Freeman, Joshua R., E-mail: j.r.freeman@leeds.ac.uk; Cavali, Pierrick; Maysonnave, Jean; Tignon, Jrme; Dhillon, Sukhdeep S. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Suprieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universit P. et M. Curie, Universit D. Diderot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-02-24

    Coherent detection of emission from quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides is demonstrated through free-space coupling of a THz pulse to the sub-wavelength waveguide. We implement a simple, monolithic planar horn antenna design on the metal-metal waveguide that reduces the impedance mis-match to the waveguide. The resulting devices show up to 10 times more directed output power than conventional metal-metal waveguides. This enhanced coupling to free-space allows a more efficient injection of broad-band THz pulses into the waveguide. Through this, we are able to seed the laser emission and coherently detect the laser emission by electro-optic sampling.

  8. Improved multi-directional eddy current inspection test apparatus for detecting flaws in metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Roy A.; Hartley, William H.; Caffarel, Alfred J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus is described for detecting flaws in a tubular workpiece in a single scan. The coils of a dual coil bobbin eddy current inspection probe are wound at a 45.degree. angle to the transverse axis of the probe, one coil having an angular position about the axis about 90.degree. relative to the angular position of the other coil, and the angle of intersection of the planes containing the coils being about 60.degree..

  9. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  10. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  11. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  12. Can Locoregional Treatment of the Primary Tumor Improve Outcomes for Women With Stage IV Breast Cancer at Diagnosis?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, David H.A.; Truong, Pauline T.; Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, BC; University of British Columbia, BC ; Alexander, Cheryl; Walter, Caroline V.; Hayashi, Emily; Christie, Jennifer; Lesperance, Mary

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of locoregional treatment (LRT) of the primary tumor on survival in patients with Stage IV breast cancer at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 733 women referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency between 1996 and 2005 with newly diagnosed clinical or pathologic M1 breast cancer. Tumor and treatment characteristics, overall survival (OS), and locoregional progression-free survival were compared between patients treated with (n = 378) and without (n = 355) LRT of the primary disease. Multivariable analysis was performed with Cox regression modeling. Results: The median follow-up time was 1.9 years. LRT consisted of surgery alone in 67% of patients, radiotherapy alone in 22%, and both in 11%. LRT was used more commonly in women with age <50 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1, Stage T1-2 tumors, N0-1 disease, limited M1 burden, and asymptomatic M1 disease (all p < 0.05). Systemic therapy was used in 92% of patients who underwent LRT and 85% of patients who did not. In patients treated with LRT compared with those without LRT, the 5-year OS rates were 21% vs. 14% (p < 0.001), and the rates of locoregional progression-free survival were 72% vs. 46% (p < 0.001). Among 378 patients treated with LRT, the rates of 5-year OS were higher in patients with age <50, ECOG performance status 0-1, estrogen receptor-positive disease, clear surgical margins, single subsite, bone-only metastasis, and one to four metastatic lesions (all p < 0.003). On multivariable analysis, LRT was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.94, p = 0.009). Conclusion: Locoregional treatment of the primary disease is associated with improved survival in some women with Stage IV breast cancer at diagnosis. Among those treated with LRT, the most favorable rates of survival were observed in subsets with young age, good performance status, estrogen receptor-positive disease, clear margins, and distant disease limited to one subsite, bone-only involvement, or fewer than five metastatic lesions.

  13. Bonus-- Cameras Designed to Strengthen Nuclear Security Can Also Detect Cancer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technologies that are improving our ability to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and material are also saving lives on a daily basis.

  14. Improved Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marsano, Joseph; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To compare differences in dosimetric, clinical, and quality-of-life endpoints among a cohort of patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 51 patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Twenty-four patients (47%) were treated using CRT, and 27 (53%) were treated using IMRT. The proportions of patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy were 54% and 63%, respectively. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and disease-specific survival for the entire patient population were 86%, 89%, and84%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to radiation therapy technique (p > 0.05 for all). Dosimetric analysis revealed that the use of IMRT resulted in significant improvements with respect to mean dose and V30 to the contralateral (spared) parotid gland. In addition, mean doses to the ipsilateral inner and middle ear structures were significantly reduced with IMRT (p < 0.05 for all). The incidence of severe xerostomia in the late setting was 58% and 11% among patients treated by CRT and IMRT, respectively (p < 0.001). The percentages of patients who were G-tube dependent at 6 months after treatment were 42% and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT results in significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio among patients treated by radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin.

  15. SU-E-T-206: Improving Radiotherapy Toxicity Based On Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Daniel D; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, KSC; Parashar, Bhupesh; Chang, Jenghwa [Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study is to build the estimator of toxicity using artificial neural network (ANN) for head and neck cancer patients Materials/Methods: An ANN can combine variables into a predictive model during training and considered all possible correlations of variables. We constructed an ANN based on the data from 73 patients with advanced H and N cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy at our institution. For the toxicity estimator we defined input data including age, sex, site, stage, pathology, status of chemo, technique of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), length of treatment, dose of EBRT, status of post operation, length of follow-up, the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis. These data were digitized based on the significance and fed to the ANN as input nodes. We used 20 hidden nodes (for the 13 input nodes) to take care of the correlations of input nodes. For training ANN, we divided data into three subsets such as training set, validation set and test set. Finally, we built the estimator for the toxicity from ANN output. Results: We used 13 input variables including the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis and 20 hidden nodes for correlations. 59 patients for training set, 7 patients for validation set and 7 patients for test set and fed the inputs to Matlab neural network fitting tool. We trained the data within 15% of errors of outcome. In the end we have the toxicity estimation with 74% of accuracy. Conclusion: We proved in principle that ANN can be a very useful tool for predicting the RT outcomes for high risk H and N patients. Currently we are improving the results using cross validation.

  16. Ultrafast nanolaser device for detecting cancer in a single live cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2007-11-01

    Emerging BioMicroNanotechnologies have the potential to provide accurate, realtime, high throughput screening of live tumor cells without invasive chemical reagents when coupled with ultrafast laser methods. These optically based methods are critical to advancing early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. The first year goals of this project are to develop a laser-based imaging system integrated with an in- vitro, live-cell, micro-culture to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions. In the second year, the system will be used to elucidate the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in the normal cell respiration state and in the disease state for normal and disease states of the cell. In this work we designed and built an in-vitro, live-cell culture microsystem to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions of pH, temp, CO2, Ox, humidity, on engineered material surfaces. We demonstrated viability of cell culture in the microsystem by showing that cells retain healthy growth rates, exhibit normal morphology, and grow to confluence without blebbing or other adverse influences of the material surfaces. We also demonstrated the feasibility of integrating the culture microsystem with laser-imaging and performed nanolaser flow spectrocytometry to carry out analysis of the cells isolated mitochondria.

  17. A comparative study of lock-in-amplifiers and improved duffing chaotic oscillators for the detection and processing of weak signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yanmei; Li, Xinli; Bai, Yan

    2014-04-11

    The measurement of multiphase flow parameters is of great importance in a wide range of industries. In the measurement of multiphase, the signals from the sensors are extremely weak and often buried in strong background noise. It is thus desirable to develop effective signal processing techniques that can detect the weak signal from the sensor outputs. In this paper, two methods, i.e., lock-in-amplifier (LIA) and improved Duffing chaotic oscillator are compared to detect and process the weak signal. For sinusoidal signal buried in noise, the correlation detection with sinusoidal reference signal is simulated by using LIA. The improved Duffing chaotic oscillator method, which based on the Wigner transformation, can restore the signal waveform and detect the frequency. Two methods are combined to detect and extract the weak signal. Simulation results show the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed improved method. The comparative analysis shows that the improved Duffing chaotic oscillator method can restrain noise strongly since it is sensitive to initial conditions.

  18. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, Christopher; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Joffres, Michel; Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle; Moiseenko, Vitali; Pickles, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51-176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%-94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%-71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%-100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%-91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Biochemical control translates into improved overall survival in patients with high or intermediate risk disease and an estimated 10-year overall survival of >90%.

  19. The Effect of Early Detection of Occult Brain Metastases in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients on Survival and Cause of Death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwinska, Anna; Tacikowska, Malgorzata; Murawska, Magdalena

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate disease-free survival, survival from the detection of brain metastases, overall survival, and cause of death in patients with occult brain metastases (Group I) vs. patients with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II). Methods and Materials: In 80 HER2-positive breast cancer patients, treated with trastuzumab and cytostatic agents for metastatic disease, magnetic resonance imaging screening of the brain was performed, and in 29 patients (36%) occult brain metastasis was detected (Group I). Whole-brain radiotherapy was delivered to Group I. This first group was compared with 52 patients who had symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) and was treated the same way, at the same clinic, during the same time period. Results: Median disease-free survival was 17 months in Group I and 19.9 months in Group II (p = 0.58). The median time interval between the dissemination of the disease and the detection of occult or symptomatic brain metastases was 9 and 15 months, respectively (p = 0.11). When the brain metastases were detected, the median survival was 9 and 8.78 months, respectively (p = 0.80). The median overall survival was 53 and 51 months, respectively (p = 0.94). In the group with occult brain metastases (Group I) 16% of patients died because of progression within the brain. In the group with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) the rate of cerebral death was 48% (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Whole-brain radiotherapy of occult brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients with visceral dissemination produces a three-fold decrease in cerebral deaths but does not prolong survival.

  20. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy is Associated With Improved Global Quality of Life Among Long-term Survivors of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Vazquez, Esther G.; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the long-term quality of life among patients treated with and without intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: University of Washington Quality of Life instrument scores were reviewed for 155 patients previously treated with radiation therapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. All patients were disease free and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Eighty-four patients (54%) were treated with IMRT. The remaining 71 patients (46%) were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) by use of initial opposed lateral fields matched to a low anterior neck field. Results: The mean global quality of life scores were 67.5 and 80.1 for the IMRT patients at 1 and 2 years, respectively, compared with 55.4 and 57.0 for the 3D CRT patients, respectively (p < 0.001). At 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy, the proportion of patients who rated their global quality of life as 'very good' or 'outstanding' was 51% and 41% among patients treated by IMRT and 3DCRT, respectively (p = 0.11). At 2 years, the corresponding percentages increased to 73% and 49%, respectively (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis accounting for sex, age, radiation intent (definitive vs. postoperative), radiation dose, T stage, primary site, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and neck dissection, the use of IMRT was the only variable independently associated with improved quality of life (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The early quality of life improvements associated with IMRT not only are maintained but apparently become more magnified over time. These data provide powerful evidence attesting to the long-term benefits of IMRT for head-and-neck cancer.

  1. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  2. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Felix Y.; Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew; Sandler, Howard; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  3. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9years [range, 5.1-36.8years]; median attained age 22.0years [range, 7.0-49.7years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in CCS.

  4. IMPROVED VARIABLE STAR SEARCH IN LARGE PHOTOMETRIC DATA SETS: NEW VARIABLES IN CoRoT FIELD LRa02 DETECTED BY BEST II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmueller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kirste, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Kabath, P.; Chini, R.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

    2012-06-15

    The CoRoT field LRa02 has been observed with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) during the southern summer 2007/2008. A first analysis of stellar variability led to the publication of 345 newly discovered variable stars. Now, a deeper analysis of this data set was used to optimize the variability search procedure. Several methods and parameters have been tested in order to improve the selection process compared to the widely used J index for variability ranking. This paper describes an empirical approach to treat systematic trends in photometric data based upon the analysis of variance statistics that can significantly decrease the rate of false detections. Finally, the process of reanalysis and method improvement has virtually doubled the number of variable stars compared to the first analysis by Kabath et al. A supplementary catalog of 272 previously unknown periodic variables plus 52 stars with suspected variability is presented. Improved ephemerides are given for 19 known variables in the field. In addition, the BEST II results are compared with CoRoT data and its automatic variability classification.

  5. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

    1992-11-10

    A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

  6. Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Dean A. (60 San Juan St., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Moody, III, David C. (402 Pine Tree La., Boulder, CO 80304); Ellinwood, L. Edward (694 Sperber La., Grand Junction, CO 81506); Klein, M. Gerard (715 Victor Dr., Grand Junction, CO 81506)

    1992-01-01

    Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques cna be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

  7. Ultrasound guided fluorescence molecular tomography with improved quantification by an attenuation compensated born-normalization and in vivo preclinical study of cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Baoqiang; Berti, Romain; Abran, Maxime; Lesage, Frédéric; Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8

    2014-05-15

    Ultrasound imaging, having the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness over MRI and X-ray CT, was reported by several studies as an adequate complement to fluorescence molecular tomography with the perspective of improving localization and quantification of fluorescent molecular targets in vivo. Based on the previous work, an improved dual-modality Fluorescence-Ultrasound imaging system was developed and then validated in imaging study with preclinical tumor model. Ultrasound imaging and a profilometer were used to obtain the anatomical prior information and 3D surface, separately, to precisely extract the tissue boundary on both sides of sample in order to achieve improved fluorescence reconstruction. Furthermore, a pattern-based fluorescence reconstruction on the detection side was incorporated to enable dimensional reduction of the dataset while keeping the useful information for reconstruction. Due to its putative role in the current imaging geometry and the chosen reconstruction technique, we developed an attenuation compensated Born-normalization method to reduce the attenuation effects and cancel off experimental factors when collecting quantitative fluorescence datasets over large area. Results of both simulation and phantom study demonstrated that fluorescent targets could be recovered accurately and quantitatively using this reconstruction mechanism. Finally, in vivo experiment confirms that the imaging system associated with the proposed image reconstruction approach was able to extract both functional and anatomical information, thereby improving quantification and localization of molecular targets.

  8. Upfront Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Salvage Radiation May Improve Biochemical Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Post-Prostatectomy Rising PSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Joanne W.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Wein, Alan J.; Haas, Naomi B.; Both, Stefan; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to definitive external beam radiation therapy (RT) improves outcomes in higher-risk prostate cancer patients. However, the benefit of ADT with salvage RT in post-prostatectomy patients is not clearly established. Our study compares biochemical outcomes in post-prostatectomy patients who received salvage RT with or without concurrent ADT. Methods and Materials: Of nearly 2,000 post-prostatectomy patients, we reviewed the medical records of 191 patients who received salvage RT at University of Pennsylvania between 1987 and 2007. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review and electronic polling of the institutional laboratory database and Social Security Death Index. Biochemical failure after salvage RT was defined as a prostate-specific antigen of 2.0 ng/mL above the post-RT nadir or the initiation of ADT after completion of salvage RT. Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients received salvage RT alone, and 62 patients received combined ADT and salvage RT. Median follow-up was 5.4 years. Patients who received combined ADT and salvage RT were younger, had higher pathologic Gleason scores, and higher rates of seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and pelvic nodal irradiation compared with patients who received salvage RT alone. Patients who received combined therapy had improved biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) compared with patients who received RT alone (p = 0.048). For patients with pathologic Gleason scores {<=}7, combined RT and ADT resulted in significantly improved bPFS compared to RT alone (p = 0.013). Conclusions: These results suggest that initiating ADT during salvage RT in the post-prostatectomy setting may improve bPFS compared with salvage RT alone. However, prospective randomized data are necessary to definitively determine whether hormonal manipulation should be used with salvage RT. Furthermore, the optimal nature and duration of ADT and the patient subgroups in which ADT could provide the most benefit remain open questions.

  9. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martineau, Rebecca M

    2012-07-26

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these will be fatal. Although advances in medical technologies have greatly increased the odds of surviving the disease, the increase in screenings has not resulted in a significant reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate. Moreover, recent studies have even suggested that an increase in these methods might, in itself, cause cancer. A new tool for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, supported by an award from the Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs of Department of Defense, could give women a new advantage in the fight against breast cancer. This LANL-led project will integrate ultrasound tomography (UST) with recent discoveries in the field of cell and tissue biomechanics to improve breast cancer detection and characterization. UST uses ultrasound waves instead of X-rays to identify and characterize breast tumors. This technology reveals small mechanical-property changes within the breast. These changes are often the earliest signs of breast cancer. Additionally, UST is effective for women with dense breast tissue, who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Because the technology does not use radiation, UST can also be used as frequently as needed for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer. In contrast, mammography, the only routine breast-cancer screening tool currently available, is not effective for women with dense breast tissue and may come with unwanted side-effects caused by ionizing radiation. UST has great potential to become an alternative breast-cancer screening tool because of UST's advantages and benefits over mammography. Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to surrounding tissues. Thus, high-resolution breast images obtained using LANL's novel UST algorithms ha

  10. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breast cancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHK2 that contribute to the initiation of breast cancer, amplification of ERBB2 (formerly HER2) and mutations of elements of the PI3-kinase pathway that activate aspects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and deletion of CDKN2A/B that contributes to cell cycle deregulation and genome instability. It is now apparent that accumulation of these aberrations is a time-dependent process that accelerates with age. Although American women living to an age of 85 have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer, the incidence of cancer in women younger than 30 years is uncommon. This is consistent with a multistep cancer progression model whereby mutation and selection drive the tumor's development, analogous to traditional Darwinian evolution. In the case of cancer, the driving events are changes in sequence, copy number, and structure of DNA and alterations in chromatin structure or other epigenetic marks. Our understanding of the genetic, genomic, and epigenomic events that influence the development and progression of breast cancer is increasing at a remarkable rate through application of powerful analysis tools that enable genome-wide analysis of DNA sequence and structure, copy number, allelic loss, and epigenomic modification. Application of these techniques to elucidation of the nature and timing of these events is enriching our understanding of mechanisms that increase breast cancer susceptibility, enable tumor initiation and progression to metastatic disease, and determine therapeutic response or resistance. These studies also reveal the molecular differences between cancer and normal that may be exploited to therapeutic benefit or that provide targets for molecular assays that may enable early cancer detection, and predict individual disease progression or response to treatment. This chapter reviews current and future directions in genome analysis and summarizes studies that provide insights into breast cancer pathophysiology or that suggest strategies to improve breast cancer management.

  11. Searching for a system: The quest for ovarian cancer biomarkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodland, Karin D.; Maihle, Nita J.

    2011-11-01

    The stark difference in clinical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer diagnosed at early stages (95% at 5 years) versus late stages (27.6% at 5 years) has driven a decades-long quest for effective biomarkers that will enable earlier detection of ovarian cancer. Yet despite intense efforts, including the application of modern high throughput technologies such as transcriptomics and proteomics, there has been little improvement in performance compared to the gold standard of quantifying serum CA125 immunoreactivity paired with transvaginal ultrasound. This review describes the strategies that have been used for identification of ovarian cancer biomarkers, including the recent introduction of novel bioinformatic approaches. Results obtained using high throughput-based vs. biologically rational approaches for the discovery of diagnostic early detection biomarkers are compared and analyzed for functional enrichment.

  12. Field-in-field plan does not improve the dosimetric outcome compared with the wedged beams plan for breast cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Li-Min; Meng, Fan-Yun; Yang, Tsung-Han; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the dosimetry of field-in-field (FIF) and wedged beams (WB) techniques for patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative surgery. A total of 89 patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Each patient received a computed tomographybased treatment plan with opposed tangential fields. Two planning techniques (FIF and WB) were generated for each patient by using the Pinnacle treatment-planning system. Three indices, the homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), and uniformity index (UI), as well as maximum dose (D{sub max}), median dose (D{sub 50}), number of portals, monitor unit (MU), and lung volume at 20 Gy (lung{sub 20}) were used for comparison. The mean values tested using a t-test indicated that the WB technique had a significantly lower HI (p < 0.0001), a significantly higher CI (p < 0.0001), and a significantly higher D{sub 50} (p = 0.0002) than did the FIF technique. The FIF technique had a significantly higher D{sub max} compared with the WB technique, but lung{sub 20} did not exhibit a significant difference. By contrast, the FIF technique had a significantly higher UI and a significantly lower MU compared with the WB technique, but a significantly higher number of portals were found in the FIF technique. The FIF technique did not demonstrate superior dosimetric results. The WB technique had a significantly lower HI, higher CI, lower D{sub max}, and lower number of portals; but the FIF technique had a significantly higher UI and lower MU.

  13. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  14. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  15. Plasma Biomarker Profiles Differ Depending on Breast Cancer Subtype but RANTES is Consistently Increased

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Daly, Don S.; Tan, Ruimin; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-07-01

    Background: Current biomarkers for breast cancer have little potential for detection. We determined if breast cancer subtypes influence circulating protein biomarkers. Methods: A sandwich-ELISA microarray platform was used to evaluate 23 candidate biomarkers in plasma samples that were obtained from subjects with either benign breast disease or invasive breast cancer. All plasma samples were collected at the time of biopsy, after a referral due to a suspicious screen (e.g., mammography). Cancer samples were evaluated based on breast cancer subtypes, as defined by the HER2 and estrogen receptor statuses. Results: Ten proteins were statistically altered in at least one breast cancer subtype, including four epidermal growth factor receptor ligands, two matrix metalloproteases, two cytokines, and two angiogenic factors. Only one cytokine, RANTES, was significantly increased (P<0.01 for each analysis) in all four subtypes, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) that ranged from 0.76 to 0.82, depending on cancer subtype. The best AUC values were observed for analyses that combined data from multiple biomarkers, with values ranging from 0.70 to 0.99, depending on the cancer subtype. Although the results for RANTES are consistent with previous publications, the multi-assay results need to be validated in independent sample sets. Conclusions: Different breast cancer subtypes produce distinct biomarker profiles, and circulating protein biomarkers have potential to differentiate between true and false positive screens for breast cancer. Impact: Subtype-specific biomarker panels may be useful for detecting breast cancer or as an adjunct assay to improve the accuracy of current screening methods.

  16. TU-F-BRE-07: In Vivo Neutron Detection in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Primary Kidney Cancer Using 6Li and 7Li Enriched TLD Pairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonski, P; Kron, T; Franich, R; Keehan, S; Siva, S; Taylor, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for primary kidney cancer often involves the use of high-energy photons combined with a large number of monitor units. While important for risk assessment, the additional neutron dose to untargeted healthy tissue is not accounted for in treatment planning. This work aims to detect out-of-field neutrons in vivo for patients undergoing SABR with high-energy (>10 MV) photons and provides preliminary estimates of neutron effective dose. Methods: 3 variations of high-sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material, each with varying {sup 6}Li / {sup 7}Li concentrations, were used in custom-made Perspex holders for in vivo measurements. The variation in cross section for thermal neutrons between Li isotopes was exploited to distinguish neutron from photon signal. Measurements were made out-of-field for 7 patients, each undergoing 3D-conformal SABR treatment for primary kidney cancer on a Varian 21iX linear accelerator. Results: In vivo measurements show increased signal for the {sup 6}Li enriched material for patients treated with 18 MV photons. Measurements on one SABR patient treated using only 6 MV showed no difference between the 3 TLD materials. The out-of-field photon signal decreased exponentially with distance from the treatment field. The neutron signal, taken as the difference between {sup 6}Li enriched and {sup 7}Li enriched TLD response, remains almost constant up to 50 cm from the beam central axis. Estimates of neutron effective dose from preliminary TLD calibration suggest between 10 and 30 mSv per 1000 MU delivered at 18 MV for the 7 patients. Conclusion: TLD was proven to be a useful tool for the purpose of in vivo neutron detection at out-of-field locations. Further work is required to understand the relationship between TL signal and neutron dose. Dose estimates based on preliminary TLD calibration in a neutron beam suggest the additional neutron dose was <30 mSv per 1000 MU at 18 MV.

  17. Volume-Based Parameters of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Improve Disease Recurrence Prediction in Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Patients With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Ohsumi, Shozo; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether volume-based parameters on pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without adjuvant radiation therapy are predictive of recurrence. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 93 patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary nodes after surgery, who were studied with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for initial staging. We evaluated the relationship between positron emission tomography parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and clinical outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 45 months. Recurrence was observed in 11 patients. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were significantly related to tumor size, number of involved nodes, nodal ratio, nuclear grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and triple negativity (TN) (all P values were <.05). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MTV and TLG showed better predictive performance than tumor size, ER status, or TN (area under the curve: 0.85, 0.86, 0.79, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively). On multivariate analysis, MTV was an independent prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 34.42, 95% confidence interval 3.94-882.71, P=.0008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 13.92, 95% confidence interval 2.65-103.78, P=.0018). The 3-year DFS rate was 93.8% for the lower MTV group (<53.1; n=85) and 25.0% for the higher MTV group (?53.1; n=8; P<.0001, logrank test). The 3-year DFS rate for patients with both ER-positive status and MTV <53.1 was 98.2%; and for those with ER-negative status and MTV ?53.1 it was 25.0% (P<.0001). Conclusions: Volume-based parameters improve recurrence prediction in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes. The addition of MTV to ER status or TN has potential benefits to identify a subgroup at higher risk for recurrence.

  18. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

  19. Detection Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Project Description Chemistry used in measurement and detection science plays a crucial role in the Laboratory's Science of Signatures scientific thrust. Measurement and detection science areas that require chemistry include nuclear and radiological, materials, biological, energy, climate, and space. Los Alamos scientists integrate chemical-science capabilities to ensure that the Laboratory can

  20. Leak detection aid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeper, T.J.

    1989-12-26

    A leak detection apparatus and method for detecting leaks across an O-ring sealing a flanged surface to a mating surface is an improvement in a flanged surface comprising a shallow groove following O-ring in communication with an entrance and exit port intersecting the shallow groove for injecting and withdrawing, respectively, a leak detection fluid, such as helium. A small quantity of helium injected into the entrance port will flow to the shallow groove, past the O-ring and to the exit port. 2 figs.

  1. Leak detection aid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeper, Timothy J. (Graniteville, SC)

    1989-01-01

    A leak detection apparatus and method for detecting leaks across an O-ring sealing a flanged surface to a mating surface is an improvement in a flanged surface comprising a shallow groove following O-ring in communication with an entrance and exit port intersecting the shallow groove for injecting and withdrawing, respectively, a leak detection fluid, such as helium. A small quantity of helium injected into the entrance port will flow to the shallow groove, past the O-ring and to the exit port.

  2. Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

  3. Efficiency Improvements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that comprised the 120-Day Study implementation plan," said NIF Facility Manager Doug Larson. "It not only incorporated improving NIF's efficiency and shot rate, it also provides...

  4. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  5. detonation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  6. detonation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  7. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast cancer patients. Lowers medical costs due to lessened side effects Noninvasive, enhances healing and detects other conditions PDF icon thermal_tomography

  8. Relating to ion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

  9. MPI Runtime Error Detection with MUST: Advances in Deadlock Detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hilbrich, Tobias; Protze, Joachim; Schulz, Martin; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Müller, Matthias S.

    2013-01-01

    The widely used Message Passing Interface (MPI) is complex and rich. As a result, application developers require automated tools to avoid and to detect MPI programming errors. We present the Marmot Umpire Scalable Tool (MUST) that detects such errors with significantly increased scalability. We present improvements to our graph-based deadlock detection approach for MPI, which cover future MPI extensions. Our enhancements also check complex MPI constructs that no previous graph-based detection approach handled correctly. Finally, we present optimizations for the processing of MPI operations that reduce runtime deadlock detection overheads. Existing approaches often require 𝒪( p ) analysis timemore » per MPI operation, for p processes. We empirically observe that our improvements lead to sub-linear or better analysis time per operation for a wide range of real world applications.« less

  10. Fingerprint detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saunders, George C. (Rt. 1, Box 428B, Espanola, NM 87532)

    1992-01-01

    A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

  11. Detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  12. Detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  13. Jefferson Lab imager can detect beginnings of breast tumors ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and detector group continue to refine their abilities to detect the small beginnings of breast cancer tumors, and are hopeful for a new round of clinical testing on their latest...

  14. Improved ion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tullis, A.M.

    1986-01-30

    An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber type comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

  15. Improved aethalometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1988-01-25

    An improved aethalometer having a single light source and a single light detector and two light paths from the light source to the light detector. A quartz fiber filter is inserted in the device, the filter having a collection area in one light path and a reference area in the other light path. A gas flow path through the aethalometer housing allows ambient air to flow through the collection area of the filter so that aerosol particles can be collected on the filter. A rotating disk with an opening therethrough allows light for the light source to pass alternately through the two light paths. The voltage output of the detector is applied to a VCO and the VCO pulses for light transmission separately through the two light paths, are counted and compared to determine the absorption coefficient of the collected aerosol particles. 5 figs.

  16. Spectroscopic detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Hadidi, Kamal (Cambridge, MA)

    2003-01-01

    In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

  17. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G; Resasco, Daniel E; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2013-08-27

    The present invention is a method for detecting and destroying cancer tumors. The method is based on the concept of associating a linking protein or linking peptide such as, but not limited to, annexin V or other annexins to carbon nanotubes such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form a protein-CNT complex. Said linking protein or peptide can selectively bind to cancerous cells, especially tumor vasculature endothelial cells, rather than to healthy ones by binding to cancer-specific external receptors such as anionic phospholipids including phosphatidylserine expressed on the outer surfaces of cancer cells only. Irradiation of bound CNTs with one or more specific electromagnetic wavelengths is then used to detect and destroy those cells to which the CNTs are bound via the linking protein or peptide thereby destroying the tumor or cancer cells and preferably an immunostimulant is provided to the patient to enhance the immune response against antigens released from the tumor or cancer cells.

  18. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  19. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Wednesday, 27 July 2011 00:00 Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A

  20. Smoke detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  1. Smoke detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-11-05

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  2. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  3. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  4. Collaborative Approach Will Improve Malaria Diagnostic Test ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approach Will Improve Malaria Detection Test Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window)...

  5. Antibody-independent Targeted Quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Protein Products in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jintang; Sun, Xuefei; Shi, Tujin; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Rui; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Yang, Feng; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Chae, Sung Suk; Rubin, Mark; Siddiqui, Javed; Wei, John; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.

    2014-10-01

    Fusions between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and ETS related gene (ERG) represent one of the most specific biomarkers that define a distinct molecular subtype of prostate cancer. The studies on TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions have seldom been performed at the protein level, primarily due to the lack of high-quality antibodies or an antibody-independent method that is sufficiently sensitive for detecting the truncated ERG protein products resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions and alternative splicing. Herein, we applied a recently developed PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) strategy for quantifying ERG protein in prostate cancer cell lines and tumors. The highly sensitive PRISM-SRM assays led to confident detection of 6 unique ERG peptides in either the TMPRSS2-ERG positive cell lines or tissues but not in the negative controls, indicating that ERG protein expression is highly correlated with TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangements. Significantly, our results demonstrated for the first time that at least two groups of ERG protein isoforms were simultaneously expressed at variable levels in TMPRSS2-ERG positive samples as evidenced by concomitant detection of two mutually exclusive peptides. Three peptides shared across almost all fusion protein products were determined to be the most abundant peptides, and hence can be used as signature peptides for detecting ERG overexpression resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These PRISM-SRM assays provide valuable tools for studying TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein products, thus improving our understanding of the role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in the biology of prostate cancer.

  6. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thakur, Madhukar L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents.

  7. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  8. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  9. Target detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brusseau, Charles A. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening persons or objects for the presence of trace amounts of target substances such as explosives, narcotics, radioactive materials, and certain chemical materials. The portal apparatus can have a one-sided exhaust for an exhaust stream, an interior wall configuration with a concave-shape across a horizontal cross-section for each of two facing sides to result in improved airflow and reduced washout relative to a configuration with substantially flat parallel sides; air curtains to reduce washout; ionizing sprays to collect particles bound by static forces, as well as gas jet nozzles to dislodge particles bound by adhesion to the screened person or object. The portal apparatus can be included in a detection system with a preconcentrator and a detector.

  10. Methods to Improve the Lower Limit of Detection for Tritium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tritium Surface Contamination 10,000 DPM100 cm 2 STCs are Special Tritium Compounds STCs as metal tritides MAY be the MOST dangerous of ALL tritium forms. One case of death due to ...

  11. Detecting persons concealed in a vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Jr., Raymond W.

    2005-03-29

    An improved method for detecting the presence of humans or animals concealed within in a vehicle uses a combination of the continuous wavelet transform and a ratio-based energy calculation to determine whether the motion detected using seismic sensors placed on the vehicle is due to the presence of a heartbeat within the vehicle or is the result of motion caused by external factors such as the wind. The method performs well in the presence of light to moderate ambient wind levels, producing far fewer false alarm indications. The new method significantly improves the range of ambient environmental conditions under which human presence detection systems can reliably operate.

  12. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  13. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  14. Buried object detection in GPR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Chambers, David H; Bond, Steven W; Beer, W. Reginald

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  15. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  16. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  17. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  18. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  19. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  20. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment Print Notch receptors constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that function as conduits for cell communication, regulating cell fate and growth. Aberrant activation of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team from Bay Area companies Genentech and Exelixis has synthesized highly

  1. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  2. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2011-10-04

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  3. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-09-30

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  4. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  5. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  6. Portable modular detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  7. Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Detection Methods and Limitations Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations Presentation from the 33rd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Aiken, South Carolina on April 22-24, 2014. PDF icon Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations More Documents & Publications Methods to Improve the Lower Limit of Detectionfor Tritium in the Air and on Surfaces Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium Discharges from the Orphee Research Reactor

  8. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  9. ARM Installs Aircraft Detection Radar System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Installs Aircraft Detection Radar System For improved safety in and around the ARM SGP CART site, the ARM Program recently purchased and installed an aircraft detection radar system at the central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The new system will enhance safety measures already in place at the central facility. The SGP CART site, especially the central facility, houses several instruments employing laser technology. These instruments are designed to be eye-safe and are not a hazard to

  10. Bismuth 213 Cancer Treatment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are increasing supplies of radioactive medical isotopes to treat cancer. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Interactive Activity Detection Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Detection Tools Interactive Activity Detection Tools Tools for detecting specified activities in video data provide a key intelligence capability. High numbers of false alarms, however, reduce tool effectiveness and analyst patience. User feedback reduces false alarms * This project will reduce the number of false alarms generated by activity detection tools (including single vehicle start / stop, multi-vehicle meetings and coordinated driving patterns) by exploiting user feedback in a

  13. High sensitivity leak detection method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapatic R. (Grafton, VA)

    1994-01-01

    An improved leak detection method is provided that utilizes the cyclic adsorption and desorption of accumulated helium on a non-porous metallic surface. The method provides reliable leak detection at superfluid helium temperatures. The zero drift that is associated with residual gas analyzers in common leak detectors is virtually eliminated by utilizing a time integration technique. The sensitivity of the apparatus of this disclosure is capable of detecting leaks as small as 1.times.10.sup.-18 atm cc sec.sup.-1.

  14. High sensitivity leak detection method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1994-09-06

    An improved leak detection method is provided that utilizes the cyclic adsorption and desorption of accumulated helium on a non-porous metallic surface. The method provides reliable leak detection at superfluid helium temperatures. The zero drift that is associated with residual gas analyzers in common leak detectors is virtually eliminated by utilizing a time integration technique. The sensitivity of the apparatus of this disclosure is capable of detecting leaks as small as 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]18] atm cc sec[sup [minus]1]. 2 figs.

  15. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  16. Milestone Plan Process Improvement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Milestone Plan Process Improvement Milestone Plan Process Improvement Background In response to our community's concern over the milestone plan (MP) process within the system, the STRIPES Project Office initiated an in-depth evaluation of the required steps and issues surrounding this process. We concluded that the MP process could be improved for most users by tuning the system configuration. With the approval of both the STRIPES Executive Steering Committee and the STRIPES Project Office, we

  17. Efficiency Improvements - 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NIF & Photon Science News Press Releases Experimental Highlights Efficiency Improvements Science & Technology Meetings and Workshops Papers and Presentations NIF&PS People In the News Press Kit S&TR Articles home / news / efficiency improvements Efficiency Improvements - 2015 December ATLAS Laser Tracking System Will Speed NIF Alignment November Automating NIF Beam-Timing Delays New Power Supplies Will Keep NIF on Target September What Goes Into a NIF Shot? August NIF Fires 300th

  18. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  19. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  20. Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKigney, Edward A.; Stange, Sy

    2014-03-17

    These slides present a summary of previous work, conclusions, and anticipated schedule for the conclusion of our fast neutron detection evaluation.

  1. Neutron detection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    An atomic fission counting apparatus used for neutron detection is provided with spirally curved electrode plates uniformly spaced apart in a circular array and coated with fissile material.

  2. Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection System - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Geothermal Geothermal Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition Detection System A device to measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at subsurface conditions National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This device can measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at

  3. Improved wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  4. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  5. Hydropower Process Improvements

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Process Improvements William J. Palmer Hydropower Program Manager South Atlantic Division 2 April 2015 BUILDING STRONG ® Focus Areas For Process Improvements Inspections\Condition Assessments Project Identification & Prioritization Budget\PRC Funding Request Design Pre-solicitation Solicitation and Award Contract Execution and Administration Commissioning Contract Closeout Project Identification/Funding Solicitation Design BUILDING STRONG ® Project Identification/Funding  Utilize

  6. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  7. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Lareau, John P.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-09-30

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  8. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

    2007-04-03

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  9. GROUNDWATER/LEAK DETECTION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Attachment C Groundwater/Leak Detection and Leachate Monitoring Plan This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan Doc. No. S03496-8.0-Final Attachment C-Groundwater/Leak Detection and Leachate Monitoring Plan January 2015 Page i Contents Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................. iii 1.0 Introduction

  10. Array for detecting microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  11. Jefferson Lab imager can detect beginnings of breast tumors (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab https://www.jlab.org/news/articles/jefferson-lab-imager-can-detect-beginnings-breast-tumors-daily-press Jefferson Lab imager can detect beginnings of breast tumors The new device is capable of seeing things a mammogram might miss. By Patrick Lynch, Daily Press February 2, 2008 NEWPORT NEWS - The scientists and engineers at Jefferson Lab's imaging and detector group continue to refine their abilities to detect the small beginnings of breast cancer tumors, and are hopeful for a

  12. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thakur, M.L.

    1990-04-17

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents. No Drawings

  13. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey John (Barrington, RI); Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY)

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  14. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  15. Improving Project Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Improving Project Management Report of the Contract and Project Management Working Group November 2014 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2 2. Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 2.1 Summary of

  16. Efficiency Improvements - 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency improvements / 2015 Efficiency Improvements - 2015 July Electronic Checklists Keep NIF Running Smoothly Target Fabrication Steps Up to the Challenges Every NIF experiment needs a target. That might seem obvious, but it's far from routine. Fabricating targets for NIF is a multi-faceted process requiring constant adjustments to meet the changing demands of experimenters and to deal with new engineering and material science issues that have a way of cropping up unexpectedly. Annual

  17. Infrastructure Improvements - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Improvements As the designated Community Reuse Organization for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), our 22-member citizen-led Board of Directors has undertaken a study to point out the critical need for improving the deteriorating infrastructure at SRS. Priority attention needs to be made now to maximize SRS contributions and potential in the years ahead. SRS has all the assets required in people, land, expertise and community support to continue to play a

  18. Improving Meningococcal Vaccines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Digg: ALSBerkeleyLab Facebook Page: 208064938929 Flickr: advancedlightsource Twitter: AdvLightSource YouTube: AdvancedLightSource Home Science Highlights Science Briefs Improving Meningococcal Vaccines Improving Meningococcal Vaccines Print Tuesday, 16 February 2016 12:50 Two recently licensed vaccines against bacterial meningitis contain a bacterial surface protein antigen known as Factor H binding protein (FHbp). This protein can have low thermal stability, which affects its activity even at

  19. Improving Entrainment Rate Parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entrainment Rate Parameterization For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Parameterization of entrainment rate is critical for improving representation of cloud- and convection-related processes in climate models; however, much remains unclear. This work seeks to improve understanding and parameterization of entrainment rate by use of aircraft observations and large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus clouds over

  20. Nanomechanical Sensor Detects and Identifies Chemical Analytes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Nanomechanical Sensor Detects and Identifies Chemical Analytes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryORNL researchers developed a cost-efficient nanomechanical sensor that can detect chemicals adsorbed to a surface and then quickly analyze and identify those chemicals. The device is a significant improvement over current detection technologies, which are not able to perform reliable identification. Rapid identification

  1. Composition for detecting uranyl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Stephens, Susan M. (Athens, GA)

    1995-01-01

    A composition for detecting the presence and concentration of a substance such as uranyl, comprising an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for said substance. The composition has at least one active OH site for forming a complex with the substance to be detected. The composition is made by reacting equimolar amounts of the indicator and the organohalide in a polar organic solvent. The absorbance spectrum of the composition-uranyl complex is shifted with respect to the absorbance spectrum of the indicator-uranyl complex, to provide better spectral resolution for detecting uranyl.

  2. Bolt failure detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutton, Jr., Harry G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Bolts of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor, each bolt provided with an internal chamber filled with a specific, unique radioactive tag gas. Detection of the tag gas is indicative of a crack in an identifiable bolt.

  3. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  4. Detection of counterfeit currency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1250 namometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency.

  5. Explosive Detection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-10-26

    To standardize and accelerate implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) explosive detection program. DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01.

  6. Photovoltaic System Fault Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Fault Detection and Diagnostics using Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Network C. Birk Jones, Joshua S. Stein, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, U.S.A Abstract-Cost effective integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires increased reliability. This can be achieved with a robust fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool that auto- matically discovers faults. This paper introduces the Laterally

  7. Mesh Quality Improvement Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-11-15

    MESQUITE is a linkable software library to be used by simulation and mesh generation tools to improve the quality of meshes. Mesh quality is improved by node movement and/or local topological modifications. Various aspects of mesh quality such as smoothness, element shape, size, and orientation are controlled by choosing the appropriate mesh qualtiy metric, and objective function tempate, and a numerical optimization solver to optimize the quality of meshes, MESQUITE uses the TSTT mesh interfacemore » specification to provide an interoperable toolkit that can be used by applications which adopt the standard. A flexible code design makes it easy for meshing researchers to add additional mesh quality metrics, templates, and solvers to develop new quality improvement algorithms by making use of the MESQUITE infrastructure.« less

  8. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-05-29

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  9. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE-Environmental Management DOE-Complex Wide Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials Challenge Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement (transite) siding. Inhalation of asbestos can result in non-malignant asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma in workers. Currently, 40 CFR 763, Subpart E requires a certain number of bulk samples of suspected

  10. Efficiency Improvements - 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improvements / 2015 Efficiency Improvements - 2015 April NIF Lasers Continue to Fire at a Record Rate When the first half of Fiscal Year 2015 ended on March 31, NIF was on track to meet its "stretch goal" of 300 target shots for the year, compared to 191 target shots in FY 2014. The record pace reflects a nearly 50 percent reduction in the average time between NIF shots in the past six months, resulting in an average of 7.9 target shots per five-day week in the second quarter of FY

  11. Improved gaseous leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Juravic, F.E. Jr.

    1983-10-06

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  12. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  13. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  14. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  15. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  16. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  17. Error detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  18. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  19. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  20. Composition for detecting uranyl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, L.C.; Stephens, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to an indicator composition for use in spectrophotometric detection of a substance in a solution, and a method for making the composition. Useful indicators are sensitive to the particular substance being measured, but are unaffected by the fluid and other chemical species that may be present in the fluid. Optical indicators are used to measure the uranium concentration of process solutions in facilities for extracting uranium from ores, production of nuclear fuels, and reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The composition comprises an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for the substance, in such a manner that the product is itself an indicator that provides increased spectral resolution for detecting the substance. The indicator is preferably arsenazo III and the organohalide is preferably cyanuric chloride. These form a composition that is ideally suited for detecting uranyl.

  1. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  2. Detection of solar events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  3. Detection of neutrinos

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2014-02-04

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  4. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  5. Liposome-encapsulated actinomycin for cancer chemotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rahman, Yueh-Erh; Cerny, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for chemotherapy of malignant tumors by injection of antitumor drugs. The antitumor drug is encapsulated within liposomes and the liposomes containing the encapsulated drug are injected into the body. The encapsulated drug penetrates into the tumor cells where the drug is slowly released and induces degeneration and death of the tumor cells, while any toxicity to the host body is reduced. Liposome encapsulation of actinomycin D has been found to be particularly effective in treating cancerous abdominal tumors, while drastically reducing the toxicity of actinomycin D to the host.

  6. Detection of microcalcifications by characteristic magnetic susceptibility effects using MR phase image cross-correlation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baheza, Richard A.; Welch, E. Brian; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Sanders, Melinda; Harvey, Sara; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a new method for detecting calcium deposits using their characteristic magnetic susceptibility effects on magnetic resonance (MR) images at high fields and demonstrate its potential in practice for detecting breast microcalcifications. Methods: Characteristic dipole signatures of calcium deposits were detected in magnetic resonance phase images by computing the cross-correlation between the acquired data and a library of templates containing simulated phase patterns of spherical deposits. The influence of signal-to-noise ratio and various other MR parameters on the results were assessed using simulations and validated experimentally. The method was tested experimentally for detection of calcium fragments within gel phantoms and calcium-like inhomogeneities within chicken tissue at 7 T with optimized MR acquisition parameters. The method was also evaluated for detection of simulated microcalcifications, modeled from biopsy samples of malignant breast cancer, inserted in silico into breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) of healthy subjects at 7 T. For both assessments of calcium fragments in phantoms and biopsy-based simulated microcalcifications in breast MRIs, receiver operator characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the cross-correlation index cutoff, for achieving optimal sensitivity and specificity, and the area under the curve (AUC), for measuring the method’s performance. Results: The method detected calcium fragments with sizes of 0.14–0.79 mm, 1 mm calcium-like deposits, and simulated microcalcifications with sizes of 0.4–1.0 mm in images with voxel sizes between (0.2 mm){sup 3} and (0.6 mm){sup 3}. In images acquired at 7 T with voxel sizes of (0.2 mm){sup 3}–(0.4 mm){sup 3}, calcium fragments (size 0.3–0.4 mm) were detected with a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 78%–90%, 51%–68%, and 0.77%–0.88%, respectively. In images acquired with a human 7 T scanner, acquisition times below 12 min, and voxel sizes of (0.4 mm){sup 3}–(0.6 mm){sup 3}, simulated microcalcifications with sizes of 0.6–1.0 mm were detected with a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 75%–87%, 54%–87%, and 0.76%–0.90%, respectively. However, different microcalcification shapes were indistinguishable. Conclusions: The new method is promising for detecting relatively large microcalcifications (i.e., 0.6–0.9 mm) within the breast at 7 T in reasonable times. Detection of smaller deposits at high field may be possible with higher spatial resolution, but such images require relatively long scan times. Although mammography can detect and distinguish the shape of smaller microcalcifications with superior sensitivity and specificity, this alternative method does not expose tissue to ionizing radiation, is not affected by breast density, and can be combined with other MRI methods (e.g., dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted MRI), to potentially improve diagnostic performance.

  7. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  8. Innovative biomagnetic imaging sensors for breast cancer: A model-based study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; Golkowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancer is a serious potential health problem for all women and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The current screening procedures and imaging techniques, including x-ray mammography, clinical biopsy, ultrasound imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging, provide only 73% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. This gives the impetus to explore alternate techniques for imaging the breast and detecting early stage tumors. Among the complementary methods, the noninvasive biomagnetic breast imaging is attractive and promising, because both ionizing radiation and breast compressions that the prevalent x-ray mammography suffers from are avoided. It furthermore offers very high contrast because of the significant electromagnetic properties' differences between the cancerous, benign, and normal breast tissues. In this paper, a hybrid and accurate modeling tool for biomagnetic breast imaging is developed, which couples the electromagnetic and ultrasonic energies, and initial validations between the model predication and experimental findings are conducted.

  9. KPNA7, a nuclear transport receptor, promotes malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurila, Eeva; Vuorinen, Elisa; Savinainen, Kimmo; Rauhala, Hanna; Kallioniemi, Anne

    2014-03-10

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The high mortality rate is mostly due to the lack of appropriate tools for early detection of the disease and a shortage of effective therapies. We have previously shown that karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), the newest member of the alpha karyopherin family of nuclear import receptors, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that KPNA7 expression is absent in practically all normal human adult tissues but elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of KPNA7 expression in AsPC-1 and Hs700T pancreatic cancer cells led to a reduction in cell growth and decreased anchorage independent growth, as well as increased autophagy. The cell growth effects were accompanied by an induction of the cell cycle regulator p21 and a G1 arrest of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the p21 induction was caused by increased mRNA synthesis and not defective nuclear transport. These data strongly demonstrate that KPNA7 silencing inhibits the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and thereby provide the first evidence on the functional role for KPNA7 in human cancer. - Highlights: KPNA7 expression is elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. KPNA7 silencing in high expressing cancer cells leads to growth inhibition. The cell growth reduction is associated with p21 induction and G1 arrest. KPNA7 silencing is also accompanied with increased autophagy.

  10. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  11. Improving haul truck productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from Dion Domaschenz of Liebherr and Steve Plott of Cat Global Mining. 4 figs.

  12. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  13. Detection of counterfeit currency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, D.A.

    1998-05-26

    A method is disclosed of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1,250 nanometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency. 18 figs.

  14. Improved cycling cryopump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-12-04

    The present invention is designed to achieve continuous high efficiency cryopumping of a vacuum vessel by improving upon and combining in a novel way the cryopumping in a novel way the cryopumping methods. The invention consists of a continuous operation cryopump, with movable louvres, with a high efficiency pumping apparatus. The pumping apparatus includes three cryogenic tubes. They are constructed of a substance of high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum and their exterior surfaces are cryogenic condensing surfaces. Through their interior liquid or gaseous helium from two reservoirs can be made to flow, alternately promoting extreme cooling or allowing some warming.

  15. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  16. Improved ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  17. Fault Detection and Load Distribution for the Wind Farm Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borchehrsen, Anders B.; Larsen, Jesper A.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-08-24

    In this paper a fault detection system and a fault tolerant controller for a wind farm model. The wind farm model used is the one proposed as a public challenge. In the model three types of faults are introduced to a wind farm consisting of nine turbines. A fault detection system designed, by taking advantage of the fact that within a wind farm several wind turbines will be operating under all most identical conditions. The turbines are then grouped, and then turbines within each group are used to generate residuals for turbines in the group. The generated residuals are then evaluated using dynamical cumulative sum. The designed fault detection system is cable of detecting all three fault types occurring in the model. But there is room for improving the fault detection in some areas. To take advantage of the fault detection system a fault tolerant controller for the wind farm has been designed. The fault tolerant controller is a dispatch controller which is estimating the possible power at each individual turbine and then setting the reference accordingly. The fault tolerant controller has been compared to a reference controller. And the comparison shows that the fault tolerant controller performance better in all measures. The fault detection and a fault tolerant controller has been designed, and based on the simulated results the overall performance of the wind farm is improved on all measures. Thereby this is a step towards improving the overall performance of current and future wind farms.

  18. Protein detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fruetel, Julie A. (Livermore, CA); Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Bethesda, MD); Kliner, Dahv A. V. (San Ramon, CA); McIlroy, Andrew (Livermore, CA)

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  19. Chlorofluorocarbon leak detection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munday, E.B.

    1990-12-01

    There are about 590 large coolant systems located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) leaking nearly 800,000 lb of R-114 refrigerant annually (1989 estimate). A program is now under way to reduce the leakage to 325,000 lb/year -- an average loss of 551 lb/year (0.063 lb/h) per coolant system, some of which are as large as 800 ft. This report investigates leak detection technologies that can be used to locate leaks in the coolant systems. Included are descriptions, minimum leak detection rate levels, advantages, disadvantages, and vendor information on the following technologies: bubbling solutions; colorimetric leak testing; dyes; halogen leak detectors (coronea discharge detectors; halide torch detectors, and heated anode detectors); laser imaging; mass spectroscopy; organic vapor analyzers; odorants; pressure decay methods; solid-state electrolytic-cell gas sensors; thermal conductivity leak detectors; and ultrasonic leak detectors.

  20. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phones electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  1. Track 10: Feedback and Improvement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 10: Feedback and Improvement

  2. Biomolecular detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huo, Qisheng (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-10-21

    A device for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode.

  3. Method for detecting biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huo, Qisheng (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  4. Fraud Detection in Healthcare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandola, Varun; Schryver, Jack C; Sukumar, Sreenivas R

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the problem of fraud detection in healthcare in this chapter. Given the recent scrutiny of the ineciencies in the US healthcare system, identifying fraud has been on the forefront of the eorts towards reducing the healthcare costs. In this chapter we will focus on understanding the issue of healthcare fraud in detail, and review methods that have been proposed in the literature to combat this issue using data driven approach.

  5. Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yates, Lucy R.; Gerstung, Moritz; Knappskog, Stian; Desmedt, Christine; Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Aas, Turid; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Larsimont, Denis; Davies, Helen; et al

    2015-06-22

    Sequencing cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and latemore » in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer.« less

  6. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  7. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  8. Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  9. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  10. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  11. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  12. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and Development: This area of interest relates directly to helping maximize production of domestic oil and natural gas resources, including areas that are under explored or have not been adequately defined.

  13. Impact of Screening and Risk Factors for Local Recurrence and Survival After Conservative Surgery and Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer: Results From a Large Series With Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunkler, Ian H.; Kerr, Gillian R.; Thomas, Jeremy S.; Jack, Wilma J.L.; Bartlett, John M.S.; Pedersen, Hans C.; Cameron, David A.; Dixon, J. Michael; Chetty, Udi

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate conventional prognostic factors for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), distant metastasis (DM), and survival after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) in screen-detected and symptomatic cases on surveillance up to 25 years. Patients and Methods: A total of 1812 consecutive patients in three cohorts (1981-1989, 1990-1992, and 1993-1998) with T12N01M0 invasive breast cancer were treated with BCT (median follow-up, 14 years). Tumor type and grade were reviewed by a single pathologist. Hormone receptor status was measured by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess independent prognostic variables for relapse and survival. Results: A total of 205 IBTR occurred, with 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year actuarial relapse rates of 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.35-5.5%), 8.4% (95% CI 7.1-9.8%), 14.1% (95% CI 12.0-16%), and 17.4% (95% CI 14.5-20.2%). Number of nodes, young age, pathologic tumor size, and multifocality were significant factors for IBTR. Three hundred seventy-eight patients developed DM. The actuarial metastatic rate was 12% at 5 years and 17.9% at 10 years. Young age, number of positive nodes, pathologic tumor size, and tumor grade were significant factors for DM relapse. When conventional prognostic indices were taken into account screen-detected cancers showed no improvement in overall relapse or survival rate compared with symptomatic cases but did show a reduced risk of DM after IBTR. After 10 years IBTR relapse continued at a constant rate of 0.87% per annum. Conclusions: The Edinburgh BCT series has shown that screen-detected invasive breast cancers do not have significantly different clinical outcomes compared with symptomatic cases when pathologic risk factors are taken into account. This suggests that these patients be managed in a similar way.

  14. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follum, James D.

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  15. Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Boilers | Department of Energy Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical Recovery Boilers Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical Recovery Boilers Advanced Imaging System Improves Boiler Efficiency, Reduces Sootblowing Costs, and Improves Operational Safety The kraft chemical recovery boilers used for pulp processing are large and expensive and can be the limiting factor for mill capacity. Improvements in boiler efficiency

  16. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  17. Rapid detection of regionally clustered germ-line BRCA1 mutations by multiplex heteroduplex analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gayther, S.A.; Harrington, P.; Russell, P.

    1996-03-01

    Germ-line mutations of the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a substantial proportion of families with multiple cases of early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Since the isolation of BRCA1 last year, >65 distinct mutations scattered throughout the coding region have been detected, making analysis of the gene time consuming and technically challenging. We have developed a multiplex heteroduplex analysis that is designed to analyze one-quarter of the coding sequence in a single-step screening procedure and that will detect {approximately}50% of all BRCA1 mutations so far reported in breast/ovarian cancer families. We have used this technique to analyze BRCA1 in 162 families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified 12 distinct mutations in 35 families. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  19. Flaw detection and evaluation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilks, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum, PA)

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method of and apparatus for optically inspecting nuclear fuel pellets for surface flaws. The inspection system includes a prism and lens arrangement for scanning the surface of each pellet as the same is rotated. The resulting scan produces data indicative of the extent and shape of each flaw which is employed to generate a flaw quality index for each detected flaw. The flaw quality indexes from all flaws are summed and compared with an acceptable surface quality index. The result of the comparison is utilized to control the acceptance or rejection of the pellet.

  20. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  1. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang; Yang, Runxiang; Cai, Xinyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Jin, Congguo; Huang, Yunchao

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  4. Radiotherapy in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2011-03-15

    Although chemotherapy is an essential component in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer, improvements in survival in the past two decades have been mainly achieved by the appropriate application of radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to review the key developments in thoracic radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy and to discuss the rationale behind key ongoing studies in small-cell lung cancer.

  5. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  6. Physics of Cancer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium Physics of Cancer Professor Wolfgang Losert, Associate Professor, and ... PDF icon Wolfgang Losert Bio.pdf Physics of Cancer Contact Information ...

  7. Laser research shows promise for cancer treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer treatment Laser research shows promise for cancer treatment Scientists have observed for the first time how a laser penetrates dense, electron-rich plasma to generate ions....

  8. SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer Diagnostics: Combining...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cancer Diagnostics: Combining SQUID-Based Ultra-Low Field MRI and Superparamagnetic Relaxometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer ...

  9. IMPROVED BONDING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

    1964-04-28

    An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

  10. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  11. Project Management Improvements Drive Progress

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Improving project management has been a top priority of EM’s senior leadership.

  12. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system.

  13. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  14. Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozhkova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

  15. Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rozhkova, Elena

    2013-04-19

    Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

  16. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  17. Malware detection and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Ken; Lloyd, Levi; Crussell, Jonathan; Sanders, Benjamin; Erickson, Jeremy Lee; Fritz, David Jakob

    2016-03-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe systems and methods for malicious software detection and analysis. A binary executable comprising obfuscated malware on a host device may be received, and incident data indicating a time when the binary executable was received and identifying processes operating on the host device may be recorded. The binary executable is analyzed via a scalable plurality of execution environments, including one or more non-virtual execution environments and one or more virtual execution environments, to generate runtime data and deobfuscation data attributable to the binary executable. At least some of the runtime data and deobfuscation data attributable to the binary executable is stored in a shared database, while at least some of the incident data is stored in a private, non-shared database.

  18. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency of phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention.

  19. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  20. Portable outgas detection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven Julian; Malinowski, Michael E.

    2004-05-11

    A portable device for detecting surface outgas contaminants of an article includes: (i) a portable housing that has a chamber which is in communication with a port that is adapted to be sealably attached to a surface of the article; (ii) a mass spectrometer that is coupled to the chamber for analyzing gaseous materials in the chamber; and (iii) means for generating a vacuum within the chamber thereby drawing outgas contaminants from the surface of the article into the chamber for analysis by the mass spectrometer. By performing a mass spectrometric analysis of the surface of interest and comparing the data with mass spectrometric data ascertained with the device from a clean surface, the type and amount of outgas contaminants, if any, can be determined.

  1. Weld failure detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E. (Unity Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Sutton, Jr., Harry G. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

  2. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  3. Detection of gas leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven (Peralta, NM); Brown, Jason (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-19

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  4. Detection of gas leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M; Brown, Jason

    2015-02-17

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as a device, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), provides a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement. The PPM is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr) using a venturi pump, perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  5. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A. (Albany, CA); Nihei, Kurt T. (Oakland, CA); Myer, Larry R. (Benicia, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  6. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or ?Smart Wells? along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise in the pressure sensor and uncertainty in the reservoir model.

  7. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puckette, Margaret; Kim, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by providing: 1) the infrastructure to plug into and 2) the on-board equipment capable of plugging into the infrastructure. This project generated the largest dataset to date on shore power TSE utilization and use patterns, providing: insight into driver behavior and acceptance; evidence of cost savings; experience with system operations and management; and data for guiding future development of shore power, whether as a private enterprise or a publicly-subsidized service for meeting air quality goals.

  8. miRNA-205 affects infiltration and metastasis of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhouquan; Department of Tumor, SenGong Hospital of Shaanxi, Xian 710300 ; Liao, Hehe; Deng, Zhiping; Yang, Po; Du, Ning; Zhanng, Yunfeng; Ren, Hong

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: We detected expression of miR-205 in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. We suggest miR-205 is downregulated in human breast cancer tissues and MCF7 cells. We suggest the lower expression of miR-205 play a role in breast cancer onset. These data suggest that miR-205 directly targets HER3 in human breast cancer. -- Abstract: Background: An increasing number of studies have shown that miRNAs are commonly deregulated in human malignancies, but little is known about the function of miRNA-205 (miR-205) in human breast cancer. The present study investigated the influence of miR-205 on breast cancer malignancy. Methods: The expression level of miR-205 in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line was determined by quantitative (q)RT-PCR. We then analyzed the expression of miR-205 in breast cancer and paired non-tumor tissues. Finally, the roles of miR-205 in regulating tumor proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and target gene expression were studied by MTT assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay. Results: miR-205 was downregulated in breast cancer cells or tissues compared with normal breast cell lines or non-tumor tissues. Overexpression of miR-205 reduced the growth and colony-formation capacity of MCF7 cells by inducing apoptosis. Overexpression of miR-205 inhibited MCF7 cell migration and invasiveness. By bioinformation analysis, miR-205 was predicted to bind to the 3? untranslated regions of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)3 mRNA, and upregulation of miR-205 reduced HER3 protein expression. Conclusion: miR-205 is a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer by post-transcriptional inhibition of HER3 expression.

  9. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise in the pressure sensor and uncertainty in the reservoir model.« less

  10. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  11. Nanoscale mapping and organization analysis of target proteins on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi; Xiao, Xiubin; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili; Zhang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    CD20, a membrane protein highly expressed on most B-cell lymphomas, is an effective target demonstrated in clinical practice for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20. In this work, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to map the nanoscale distribution of CD20 molecules on the surface of cancer cells from clinical B-cell NHL patients under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition (ROR1 is a specific cell surface marker exclusively expressed on cancer cells). First, the ROR1 fluorescence labeling experiments showed that ROR1 was expressed on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients, but not on normal cells from healthy volunteers. Next, under the guidance of ROR1 fluorescence, the rituximab-conjugated AFM tips were moved to cancer cells to image the cellular morphologies and detect the CD20-rituximab interactions on the cell surfaces. The distribution maps of CD20 on cancer cells were constructed by obtaining arrays of (1616) force curves in local areas (500500 nm{sup 2}) on the cell surfaces. The experimental results provide a new approach to directly investigate the nanoscale distribution of target protein on single clinical cancer cells. - Highlights: Cancer cells were recognized from healthy cells by ROR1 fluorescence labeling. The nanoscale distribution of CD20 on cancer cells was characterized. The distribution of CD20 was non-uniform on the surface of cancer cells.

  12. Genes and the Microenvironment: Two Faces of Breast Cancer (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gray, Joe; Love, Susan M.; Bissell, Min; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-10-04

    In this April 21, 2008 Berkeley Lab event, a dynamic panel of Berkeley Lab scientists highlight breast cancer research advances related to susceptibility, early detection, prevention, and therapy - a biological systems approach to tackling the disease from the molecular and cellular levels, to tissues and organs, and ultimately the whole individual. Joe Gray, Berkeley Lab Life Sciences Division Director, explores how chromosomal abnormalities contribute to cancer and respond to gene-targeted therapies. Mina Bissell, former Life Sciences Division Director, approaches the challenge of breast cancer from the breast's three dimensional tissue microenvironment and how the intracellular ''conversation'' triggers malignancies. Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Deputy Director, Life Sciences Division, identifies what exposure to ionizing radiation can tell us about how normal tissues suppress carcinogenesis. The panel is moderated by Susan M. Love, breast cancer research pioneer, author, President and Medical Director of the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation.

  13. Incipient fire detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jr., William K. (Newport News, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  14. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  15. New Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers By Outlier Detection And Rejection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  16. Gene expression profiles in irradiated cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minafra, L.; Bravat, V.; Russo, G.; Ripamonti, M.; Gilardi, M. C.

    2013-07-26

    Knowledge of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying cellular response to radiation may provide new avenues to develop innovative predictive tests of radiosensitivity of tumours and normal tissues and to improve individual therapy. Nowadays very few studies describe molecular changes induced by hadrontherapy treatments, therefore this field has to be explored and clarified. High-throughput methodologies, such as DNA microarray, allow us to analyse mRNA expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in order to discover new genes and pathways as targets of response to hadrontherapy. Our aim is to elucidate the molecular networks involved in the sensitivity/resistance of cancer cell lines subjected to hadrontherapy treatments with a genomewide approach by using cDNA microarray technology to identify gene expression profiles and candidate genes responsible of differential cellular responses.

  17. Trinity / NERSC-8 Capability Improvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trinity / NERSC-8 Capability Improvement Trinity / NERSC-8 Capability Improvement As stated in Section 3.5 of the Technical Requirements, The performance of the ASC and NERSC capability improvement code suites will be evaluated at acceptance and used as acceptance criteria. All performance tests must continue to meet acceptance criteria throughout the lifetime of the system. These spreadsheets are here to provide examples but do not have to be returned with RFP response and will be required of

  18. Future missions require improving LANSCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future missions require improving LANSCE capabilities to support five principal research areas. 1) Improving capabilities at the Lujan Center-to use neutrons to probe soft materials-will improve understanding of the performance and aging of weapons materials, and will support development of the broad spectrum of materials needed for stockpile stewardship and threat reduction. 2) Enhancing high-accuracy nuclear cross-section measurements of actinide and short-lived isotopes for higher-fidelity

  19. ORISE: Peer Review Process Improvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Education (ORISE) uses process evaluation techniques to identify opportunities for continuous improvement. Input from independent reviewers, sponsors and ORISE staff are...

  20. Improved Saltstone Facilities Restart Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. The Saltstone Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have restarted operations following a nine-month planned improvement outage.

  1. Detecting bioterrorism: Is chemistry enough?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detecting bioterrorism: Is chemistry enough? Detecting bioterrorism: Is chemistry enough? In an online webinar, Kristin Omberg will offer discussion on the possibilities and problems of bioaerosol detection systems and the chemistry of keeping the population safe. March 12, 2014 Kristin Omberg Kristin Omberg Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "The 2001 anthrax letters contained only a few grams of material--about two sugar cubes' worth. The federal

  2. Luminescent MOFs for Mycotoxin Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luminescent MOFs for Mycotoxin Detection Luminescent MOFs for Mycotoxin Detection Print Thursday, 04 February 2016 16:26 Mycotoxins-toxic chemical products produced by fungi-contaminate 25% of global food crops, leading to the loss of 1 billion metric tons of food products annually. Although current mycotoxin detection methods are effective, they are also expensive and require complex sample preparation. Researchers from Rutgers University, Northern Illinois University, and the Advanced Light

  3. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein...

  4. Method for detecting an element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2007-02-06

    A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

  5. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Andy; Sanders, Geoffrey; Henson, Van; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  6. Remote NMR/MRI detection of laser polarized gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Saxena, Sunil; Moule, Adam; Spence, Megan; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pierce, Kimberly L.; Han, Song-I; Granwehr, Josef

    2006-06-13

    An apparatus and method for remote NMR/MRI spectroscopy having an encoding coil with a sample chamber, a supply of signal carriers, preferably hyperpolarized xenon and a detector allowing the spatial and temporal separation of signal preparation and signal detection steps. This separation allows the physical conditions and methods of the encoding and detection steps to be optimized independently. The encoding of the carrier molecules may take place in a high or a low magnetic field and conventional NMR pulse sequences can be split between encoding and detection steps. In one embodiment, the detector is a high magnetic field NMR apparatus. In another embodiment, the detector is a superconducting quantum interference device. A further embodiment uses optical detection of Rb--Xe spin exchange. Another embodiment uses an optical magnetometer using non-linear Faraday rotation. Concentration of the signal carriers in the detector can greatly improve the signal to noise ratio.

  7. YY1 modulates taxane response in epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumura, Noriomi; Huang, Zhiqing; Baba, Tsukasa; Lee, Paula S.; Barnett, Jason C.; Mori, Seiichi; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gusberg, Alison H.; Whitaker, Regina S.; Gray, JoeW.; Fujii, Shingo; Berchuck, Andrew; Murphy, Susan K.

    2008-10-10

    The results of this study show that a high YY1 gene signature (characterized by coordinate elevated expression of transcription factor YY1 and putative YY1 target genes) within serous epithelial ovarian cancers is associated with enhanced response to taxane-based chemotherapy and improved survival. If confirmed in a prospective study, these results have important implications for the potential future use of individualized therapy in treating patients with ovarian cancer. Identification of the YY1 gene signature profile within a tumor prior to initiation of chemotherapy may provide valuable information about the anticipated response of these tumors to taxane-based drugs, leading to better informed decisions regarding chemotherapeutic choice. Survival of ovarian cancer patients is largely dictated by their response to chemotherapy, which depends on underlying molecular features of the malignancy. We previously identified YIN YANG 1 (YY1) as a gene whose expression is positively correlated with ovarian cancer survival. Herein we investigated the mechanistic basis of this association. Epigenetic and genetic characteristics of YY1 in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) were analyzed along with YY1 mRNA and protein. Patterns of gene expression in primary SEOC and in the NCI60 database were investigated using computational methods. YY1 function and modulation of chemotherapeutic response in vitro was studied using siRNA knockdown. Microarray analysis showed strong positive correlation between expression of YY1 and genes with YY1 and transcription factor E2F binding motifs in SEOC and in the NCI60 cancer cell lines. Clustering of microarray data for these genes revealed that high YY1/E2F3 activity positively correlates with survival of patients treated with the microtubule stabilizing drug paclitaxel. Increased sensitivity to taxanes, but not to DNA crosslinking platinum agents, was also characteristic of NCI60 cancer cell lines with a high YY1/E2F signature. YY1 knockdown in ovarian cancer cell lines results in inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, motility and proliferation, but also increases resistance to taxanes, with no effect on cisplatin sensitivity. These results, together with the prior demonstration of augmentation of microtubule-related genes by E2F3, suggest that enhanced taxane sensitivity in tumors with high YY1/E2F activity may be mediated by modulation of putative target genes with microtubule function.

  8. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  9. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  10. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janerich, D.T.; Burnett, W.S.; Feck, G.; Hoff, M.; Nasca, P.; Polednak, A.P.; Greenwald, P.; Vianna, N.

    1981-06-01

    Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - MBPCC CAMD Cancer Therapy Program, 12...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bird Perkins Cancer Center's CAMD Cancer Therapy Research Program CAMD Cancer Therapy Research Program Kenneth R Hogstrom, PhD, PI Chief of Physics Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center...

  12. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15

    The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC from workers and controls to identify genes targeted for inactivation by plutonium in this other common histologic form of lung cancer. We will examine methylation of the p16, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT), and death associated protein kinase genes ([DAP-K], evaluated previously in adenocarcinomas) as well as the new genes being assessed in the adenocarcinomas. The second hypothesis will be tested in a cross-sectional study of cancer-free workers exposed to plutonium and an unexposed population. A cohort of 700 cancer-free workers and 700 unexposed persons is being assembled, exposures are being defined, and induced sputum collected at initial entry into the study and approximately 1-year later. Exposed and unexposed persons will be matched by 5-year age intervals and smoking status (current and former). The frequency for methylation of four genes that show the greatest difference in prevalence in tumors from workers and controls will be determined in exfoliated cells within sputum. These studies will extend those in primary tumors to determine whether difference in prevalence for individual or multiple genes are detected in sputum samples from high-risk subjects exposed to plutonium. Follow-up of this cohort offers the opportunity to validate these endpoints and future biomarkers as true markers for lung cancer risk.

  13. Longitudinal Bank for Serum, Plasma, and DNA for Detection of Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelzang, Nicolas; Fink, Louis

    2007-11-12

    The discovery of genetic or biochemical markers to discriminate malignant cancers from normal or benign disease states, markers to stage cancer or monitor disease progression and markers that provide an early indication of an individuals response to chemotherapy have become a major research objectives of the oncology community over the past few years. The goal of the project is to create a patient speciment bank of serum, plasma, urine and tissues from approximately 1500 individuals. The collection of samples from individuals on a longitudinal basis provided proteomic and biochemical data to be correlated with clinical endpoints. This greatly enhanced our ability to identify biiomarkers for staging different cancers and to detect patient responsiveness to therapy at an early state in the treatment process.

  14. Hamilton County- Home Improvement Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Home Improvement Program (HIP) in Hamilton County, Ohio, originally opened in 2002, and was reinstated in May 2008. The HIP loan allows homeowners in Hamilton County communities to borrow money...

  15. Local Option- Special Improvement Districts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessme...

  16. Local Option- Special Improvement Districts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessment...

  17. Local Option- Local Improvement Districts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing effectively allows property owners to borrow money to pay for energy improvements. The amount borrowed is typically repaid via a special assessme...

  18. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajenova, Olga; Chaika, Nina; Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander; Gapon, Svetlana; Thomas, Peter; OBrien, Stephen

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: ?-, ?- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: ?-, ?- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  19. Method For Detecting Biological Agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai (Los Alamos, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Whitten, David G. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2005-12-27

    A sensor is provided including a polymer capable of having an alterable measurable property from the group of luminescence and electrical conductivity, the polymer having an intermediate combination of a recognition element, a tethering element and a property-altering element bound thereto and capable of altering the measurable property, the intermediate combination adapted for subsequent separation from the polymer upon exposure to an agent having an affinity for binding to the recognition element whereupon the separation of the intermediate combination from the polymer results in a detectable change in the alterable measurable property, and, detecting said detectable change in the alterable measurable property.

  20. R&D proliferation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security program collaborates with partners world-wide to improve the security of proliferation-sensitive materials, particularly weapons-usable nuclear material in both civilian...

  1. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  2. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  3. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alex C; Hitt, Austin N; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  4. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  5. Novel targeted therapy for stomach cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel targeted therapy for stomach cancer Novel targeted therapy for stomach cancer This finding has the potential to save thousand of lives a year by delivering a more effective,...

  6. Financial Program Management for Continuous Improvement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on March 16, 2011, focuses on ways to improve financial programs and discusses strategies for continuous improvements.

  7. Supertruck - Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated Vehicle, Engine and Powertrain Research Supertruck - Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated Vehicle, Engine ...

  8. Acquisition and Project Management Continuous Improvement Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Project Management Continuous Improvement Presentation Acquisition and Project Management Continuous Improvement Presentation Presentation on Acquisition and Project Management...

  9. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Li; Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 ; Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong; Olson, Veronica; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Lin, Jiayuh

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower IC50 in colon cancer stem-like cells. In summary, our results indicate that STAT3 is a novel therapeutic target in colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibition of STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a potential treatment for colorectal cancer.

  10. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partin, Judy K.; Grey, Alan E.

    1994-04-05

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  11. Detection device for hazardous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chcal with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

  12. Genomic Prostate Cancer Classifier Predicts Biochemical Failure and Metastases in Patients After Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Den, Robert B.; Feng, Felix Y.; Showalter, Timothy N.; Mishra, Mark V.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Kelly, W. Kevin; Birbe, Ruth C.; McCue, Peter A.; Ghadessi, Mercedeh; Yousefi, Kasra; Davicioni, Elai; Knudsen, Karen E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Totest the hypothesis that a genomic classifier (GC) would predict biochemical failure (BF) and distant metastasis (DM) in men receiving radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Among patients who underwent post-RP RT, 139 were identified for pT3 or positive margin, who did not receive neoadjuvant hormones and had paraffin-embedded specimens. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the highest Gleason grade focus and applied to a high-density-oligonucleotide microarray. Receiver operating characteristic, calibration, cumulative incidence, and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess GC performance for predicting BF and DM after post-RP RT in comparison with clinical nomograms. Results: Thearea under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the Stephenson model was 0.70 for both BF and DM, with addition of GC significantly improving area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Stratified by GC risk groups, 8-year cumulative incidence was 21%, 48%, and 81% for BF (P<.0001) and for DM was 0, 12%, and 17% (P=.032) for low, intermediate, and high GC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with high GC had a hazard ratio of 8.1 and 14.3 for BF and DM. In patients with intermediate or high GC, those irradiated with undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA ?0.2ng/mL) had median BF survival of >8years, compared with <4years for patients with detectable PSA (>0.2ng/mL) before initiation of RT. At 8years, the DM cumulative incidence for patients with high GC and RT with undetectable PSA was 3%, compared with 23% with detectable PSA (P=.03). No outcome differences were observed for low GC between the treatment groups. Conclusion: The GC predicted BF and metastasis after post-RP irradiation. Patients withlower GC risk may benefit from delayed RT, as opposed to those with higher GC; however, this needs prospective validation. Genomic-based models may be useful forimproved decision-making for treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.

  13. Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy apparatus and method with detection of shear resonances for measuring anisotropy, thickness, and other properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levesque, Daniel (Terrebonne, CA); Moreau, Andre (St-Bruno-de-Montarville, CA); Dubois, Marc (Montreal, CA); Monchalin, Jean-Pierre (Montreal, CA); Bussiere, Jean (St-Bruno, CA); Lord, Martin (Beloeil, CA); Padioleau, Christian (Montreal, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.

  14. Founding BRCA1 mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in southern Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannsson, O.; Hakansson, S.; Johannson, U.

    1996-03-01

    Nine different germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene were identified in 15 of 47 kindreds from southern Sweden, by use of SSCP and heteroduplex analysis of all exons and flanking intron region and by a protein-truncation test for exon 11, followed by direct sequencing. All but one of the mutations are predicted to give rise to premature translation termination and include seven frameshift insertions or deletions, a nonsense mutation, and a splice acceptor site mutation. The remaining mutation is a missense mutation (Cys61Gly) in the zinc-binding motif. Four novel Swedish founding mutations were identified: the nucleotide 2595 deletion A was found in five families, the C 1806 T nonsense mutation in three families, the 3166 insertion TGAGA in three families, and the nucleotide 1201 deletion 11 in two families. Analysis of the intragenic polymorphism D17S855 supports common origins of the mutations. Eleven of the 15 kindreds manifesting BRCA1 mutations were breast-ovarian cancer families, several of them with a predominant ovarian cancer phenotype. The set of 32 families in which no BRCA1 alterations were detected included 1 breast-ovarian cancer kindred manifesting clear linkage to the BRCA1 region and loss of the wild-type chromosome in associated tumors. Other tumor types found in BRCA1 mutation/haplotype carriers included prostatic, pancreas, skin, and lung cancer, a malignant melanoma, an oligodendroglioma, and a carcinosarcoma. In all, 12 of 16 kindreds manifesting BRCA1 mutation or linkage contained ovarian cancer, as compared with only 6 of the remaining 31 families (P < .001). The present study confirms the involvement of BRCA1 in disease predisposition for a subset of hereditary breast cancer families often characterized by ovarian cancers. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Geneva Steel blast furnace improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Hills, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Geneva Steel is located in Utah and is situated near the western edge of the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Wasatch Front. Geneva's No. 1, 2 and 3 are the only remaining operating blast furnaces in the United States west of the Mississippi River. They were originally constructed in 1943 to support steelmaking during World War II. During the early 60's all three furnaces were enlarged to their current working volume. Very few major improvements were made until recently. This discussion includes a brief historical perspective of operating difficulties associated with practice, design and equipment deficiencies. Also included is an overview of blast furnace improvements at Geneva found necessary to meet the demands of modern steelmaking. Particular emphasis will be placed on casthouse improvements.

  16. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  17. Rapid detection of Ebola virus with a reagent-free, point-of-care biosensor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baca, Justin T.; Severns, Virginia; Lovato, Debbie; Branch, Darren W.; Larson, Richard S.

    2015-04-14

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors can rapidly detect Ebola antigens at the point-of-care without the need for added reagents, sample processing, or specialized personnel. This preliminary study demonstrates SAW biosensor detection of the Ebola virus in a concentration-dependent manner. The detection limit with this methodology is below the average level of viremia detected on the first day of symptoms by PCR. We observe a log-linear sensor response for highly fragmented Ebola viral particles, with a detection limit corresponding to 1.9 × 10⁴ PFU/mL prior to virus inactivation. We predict greatly improved sensitivity for intact, infectious Ebola virus. This point-of-care methodologymore » has the potential to detect Ebola viremia prior to symptom onset, greatly enabling infection control and rapid treatment. This biosensor platform is powered by disposable AA batteries and can be rapidly adapted to detect other emerging diseases in austere conditions.« less

  18. Rapid detection of Ebola virus with a reagent-free, point-of-care biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, Justin T.; Severns, Virginia; Lovato, Debbie; Branch, Darren W.; Larson, Richard S.

    2015-04-14

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors can rapidly detect Ebola antigens at the point-of-care without the need for added reagents, sample processing, or specialized personnel. This preliminary study demonstrates SAW biosensor detection of the Ebola virus in a concentration-dependent manner. The detection limit with this methodology is below the average level of viremia detected on the first day of symptoms by PCR. We observe a log-linear sensor response for highly fragmented Ebola viral particles, with a detection limit corresponding to 1.9 10? PFU/mL prior to virus inactivation. We predict greatly improved sensitivity for intact, infectious Ebola virus. This point-of-care methodology has the potential to detect Ebola viremia prior to symptom onset, greatly enabling infection control and rapid treatment. This biosensor platform is powered by disposable AA batteries and can be rapidly adapted to detect other emerging diseases in austere conditions.

  19. Improving OpenMP Scaling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving OpenMP Scaling Improving OpenMP Scaling Introduction Cori's Knights Landing (KNL) processors will each have more than 60 cores, with each core having the ability to support 4 hardware threads, leading to the possibility of up to 240 threads per single-socket node. Your application is likely to run on KNL without significant modification, but achieving good performance while using all the cores and threads may be more difficult. Applications may not fit into the memory of a Cori node if

  20. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cown, Steven H. (Rigby, ID); Derr, Kurt Warren (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  1. Apparatus for improved DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1996-05-07

    This invention is a means for the rapid sequencing of DNA samples. More specifically, it consists of a new design direct blotting electrophoresis unit. The DNA sequence is deposited on a membrane attached to a rotating drum. Initial data compaction is facilitated by the use of a machined multi-channeled plate called a ribbon channel plate. Each channel is an isolated mini gel system much like a gel filled capillary. The system as a whole, however, is in a slab gel like format with the advantages of uniformity and easy reusability. The system can be used in different embodiments. The drum system is unique in that after deposition the drum rotates the deposited DNA into a large non-buffer open space where processing and detection can occur. The drum can also be removed in toto to special workstations for downstream processing, multiplexing and detection. 18 figs.

  2. Apparatus for improved DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, Richard J. (Richland, WA); Crowell, Shannon L. (Eltopia, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a means for the rapid sequencing of DNA samples. More specifically, it consists of a new design direct blotting electrophoresis unit. The DNA sequence is deposited on a membrane attached to a rotating drum. Initial data compaction is facilitated by the use of a machined multi-channeled plate called a ribbon channel plate. Each channel is an isolated mini gel system much like a gel filled capillary. The system as a whole, however, is in a slab gel like format with the advantages of uniformity and easy reusability. The system can be used in different embodiments. The drum system is unique in that after deposition the drum rotates the deposited DNA into a large non-buffer open space where processing and detection can occur. The drum can also be removed in toto to special workstations for downstream processing, multiplexing and detection.

  3. A reevaluation of cancer incidence near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: The collision of evidence and assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wing, S.; Richardson, D.; Armstrong, D.; Crawford-Brown, D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies concluded that there was no evidence that the 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) affected cancer incidence in the surrounding area; however, there were logical and methodological problems in earlier reports that led us to reconsider data previously collected. A 10-mile area around TMI was divided into 69 study tracts, which were assigned radiation dose estimates based on radiation readings and models of atmospheric dispersion. Incident cancers from 1975 to 1985 were ascertained from hospital records and assigned to study tracts. Associations between accident doses and incidence rates of leukemia, lung cancer, and all cancer were assessed using relative dose estimates calculated by the earlier investigators. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic characteristics, and preaccident variation in incidence. Considering a 2-year latency, the estimated percent increase per dose unit {plus_minus} standard error was 0.020 {plus_minus} 0.012 for all cancer, 0.082 {plus_minus} 0.032 for lung cancer, and 0.116 {plus_minus} 0.067 for leukemia. Adjustment for socioeconomic variables increased the estimates to 0.034 {plus_minus} 0.013, 0.103 {plus_minus} 0.035, and 0.139 {plus_minus} 0.073 for all cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia, respectively. Associations were generally larger considering a 5-year latency, but were based on smaller numbers of cases. Results support the hypothesis that radiation doses are related to increased cancer incidence around TMI. The analysis avoids medical detection bias, but suffers from inaccurate dose classification; therefore, results may underestimate the magnitude of the association between radiation and cancer incidence. These associations would not be expected, based on previous estimates of near-background levels of radiation exposure following the accident. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

    1983-10-18

    The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

  5. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuomi, Lisa; Andrll, Paulin

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  6. Managing Critical Management Improvement Initiatives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-10-01

    Provides requirements and responsibilities for planning, executing and assessing critical management improvement initiatives within DOE. DOE N 251.59, dated 9/27/2004, extends this Notice until 10/01/2005. Archived 11-8-10. Does not cancel other directives.

  7. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  8. Zymomonas with improved xylose utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCutchen, Carol M.; McCole, Laura; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-16

    Strains of Zymomonas were engineered by introducing a chimeric xylose isomerase gene that contains a mutant promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. The promoter directs increased expression of xylose isomerase, and when the strain is in addition engineered for expression of xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase, improved utilization of xylose is obtained.

  9. Chromosome-Specific Staining To Detect Genetic Rearrangements Associated With Chromosome 3 And/Or Chromosone 17

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray; Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel; Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Kallioniemi; Olli-Pekka (Tampere, FI); Kallioniemi; Anne (Tampere, FI); Sakamoto; Masaru (Tokyo, JP)

    2002-02-05

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  10. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements associated with chromosome 3 and/or chromosome 17

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Kallioniemi, Anne; Sakamoto, Masaru

    2009-10-06

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ .[.nudeic.]. .Iadd.nucleic .Iaddend.acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  11. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements associated with chromosome 3 and/or chromosome 17

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka (Tampere, FI); Kallioniemi, Anne (Tampere, FI); Sakamoto, Masaru (Tokyo, JP)

    2002-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nudeic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  12. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements associated with chromosome 3 and/or chromosome 17

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W. (San Francisco, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Lafayette, CA); Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka (Turku, FI); Kallioniemi, Anne (Tampere, FI); Sakamoto, Masaru (Tokyo, JP)

    2008-09-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  13. Method for detecting an image of an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Leroy Dean (4 Vermont Cir., Bolingbrook, IL 60440); Thomlinson, William C. (32 E. Masem, East Patchogue, NY 11772); Zhong, Zhong (Apt. I 1131 Chaping 700 E. Loop Rd., Stonybrook, NY 11790)

    1999-11-16

    A method for detecting an absorption, refraction and scatter image of an object by independently analyzing, detecting, digitizing, and combining images acquired on a high and a low angle side of a rocking curve of a crystal analyzer. An x-ray beam which is generated by any suitable conventional apparatus can be irradiated upon either a Bragg type crystal analyzer or a Laue type crystal analyzer. Images of the absorption, refraction and scattering effects are detected, such as on an image plate, and then digitized. The digitized images are simultaneously solved, preferably on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to derive a combined visual image which has dramatically improved contrast and spatial resolution over an image acquired through conventional radiology methods.

  14. Open questions: The disrupted circuitry of the cancer cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2014-10-18

    Every new decade of biology brings with it a change in outlook driven by new technologies and fresh perspectives. Such is the case for cancer and how we consider the disease. The advent of molecular biology led to the identification of altered signaling molecules and 'oncogenes' that were proposed to drive uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rise of cell biology and new imaging and culturing technologies led to the idea that disruptions in the extracellular environment prime cells for transformation. In the current genomics era, cancer is most commonly seen as a genetic disorder where an unstable genome gives rise to a variety of different cell variants that are selected for proliferation and survival. All of these views are partially correct, of course, and are simply different ways of saying that genetic alterations in cancer cells result in a loss of growth homeostasis. They also take the view that molecular changes 'drive' a cell to grow uncontrollably, rather than tip the balance from one normal state (quiescence) to another (proliferation). Underlying this oversimplification is a profound ignorance of what controls homeostatic cell growth in the first place and how specific mutations impact it. Normal, proliferation-competent cells can accurately monitor their environment and respond appropriately to perturbation, whether it is a loss of neighbors or an inflammatory stimulus. Cancer cells either proliferate or refuse to die where and when they should not, which clearly indicates that they have problems in detecting or responding to their environment. Thus, an enormous amount of effort has gone into defining the signaling pathways that can trigger a proliferative response and the biochemical mechanisms underlying these pathways. Far less work has focused on understanding the higher-order logic of these pathways and the roles played by all of the components as part of an integrated system. In other words, we do not really understand how cells process information and make decisions and thus cannot predict how any given molecular change will alter what a cell does.

  15. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  16. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annala, Wayne C. (Durango, CO)

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  17. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Fazlul H. Banerjee, Sanjeev; Li, Yiwei

    2007-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-{kappa}B pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-{kappa}B, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  18. A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miki, Y.; Swenson, J.; Yakumo, K.; Lewis, C.; Neuhausen, S.; Goldgar, D.; Shattuck-Eidens, D.; Harshman, K.; Tavtigian, S.; Liu, Q.

    1994-10-07

    A strong candidate for the 17q-linked BRCA1 gene, which influences susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer, has been identified by positional cloning methods. Probable predisposing mutations have been detected in five of eight kindreds presumed to segregate BRCA1 susceptibility alleles. The mutations include an 11-base pair deletion, a 1-base pair insertion, a stop codon, a missense substitution, and an inferred regulatory mutation. The BRCA1 gene is expressed in numerous tissues, including breast and ovary, and encodes a predicted protein of 1863 amino acids. This protein contains a zinc finger domain in its amino-terminal region, but is otherwise unrelated to previously described proteins. Identification of BRCA1 should facilitate early diagnosis of breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility in some individuals as well as a better understanding of breast cancer biology.

  19. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

    1995-11-07

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

  20. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ann. N. (13170-B Central SE #188, Albuquerque, NM 87123); Anderson, Richard E. (2800 Tennessee NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  1. ''Magic'' Energies for Detecting Light Elements with Resonant Alpha Particle Backscattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetteland, C.J.; Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; He, X-M.; Lee, D-H.

    1998-11-04

    Resonant backscattering is widely used to improve the detection limit of the light elements such as B, C, N and O. One disadvantage, however, is that several incident energies are normally needed if the sample contains a number of the light elements. There are ''magic'' energies at which several light elements can be detected simultaneously with suitable sensitivities. When these energies are used along with the elastic recoil detection of hydrogen, multiple elements can be detected without changing the beam energy, and the analysis time is greatly reduced. These reactions along with examples will be discussed.

  2. Abuse Tolerance Improvements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvements Abuse Tolerance Improvements 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es036_orendorff_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: Abuse Tolerance Improvements Evaluation of Abuse Tolerance Improvements Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Abuse Tolerance Improvements

  3. Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    WMD Proliferation Detection Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection NNSA develops the tools, technologies, techniques, and expertise to address the most challenging problems...

  4. Improved computer models support genetics research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can lead to major changes, such as an Alzheimer's gene turning on or off or a cancer cell not responding to chemotheraphy. Are these random events due to chance or is there an...

  5. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of any of the four human Notch receptors has been linked to diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drug studies. A research team...

  6. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  7. Anomalous change detection in imagery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theiler, James P. (Los Alamos, NM); Perkins, Simon J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-05-31

    A distribution-based anomaly detection platform is described that identifies a non-flat background that is specified in terms of the distribution of the data. A resampling approach is also disclosed employing scrambled resampling of the original data with one class specified by the data and the other by the explicit distribution, and solving using binary classification.

  8. CBEI - Improving Benchmarking Data Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Benchmarking Data Quality 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Scott Wagner, swagner@engr.psu.edu CBEI - Pennsylvania State University Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 5/1/2014 Planned end date: 4/30/2016 Key Milestones: 1. Analysis of 2013 Philadelphia benchmarking data; Evaluation of Proficiency in Benchmarking Certificate program; Draft engagement strategy for Baltimore; 6/30/2014 2. Final Guide to Community-Wide Benchmarking Analysis, facts sheets and web content;

  9. GPU Accelerated Event Detection Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-05-25

    Smart grid external require new algorithmic approaches as well as parallel formulations. One of the critical components is the prediction of changes and detection of anomalies within the power grid. The state-of-the-art algorithms are not suited to handle the demands of streaming data analysis. (i) need for events detection algorithms that can scale with the size of data, (ii) need for algorithms that can not only handle multi dimensional nature of the data, but alsomore » model both spatial and temporal dependencies in the data, which, for the most part, are highly nonlinear, (iii) need for algorithms that can operate in an online fashion with streaming data. The GAEDA code is a new online anomaly detection techniques that take into account spatial, temporal, multi-dimensional aspects of the data set. The basic idea behind the proposed approach is to (a) to convert a multi-dimensional sequence into a univariate time series that captures the changes between successive windows extracted from the original sequence using singular value decomposition (SVD), and then (b) to apply known anomaly detection techniques for univariate time series. A key challenge for the proposed approach is to make the algorithm scalable to huge datasets by adopting techniques from perturbation theory, incremental SVD analysis. We used recent advances in tensor decomposition techniques which reduce computational complexity to monitor the change between successive windows and detect anomalies in the same manner as described above. Therefore we propose to develop the parallel solutions on many core systems such as GPUs, because these algorithms involve lot of numerical operations and are highly data-parallelizable.« less

  10. Imaging, object detection, and change detection with a polarized multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W.

    2015-07-21

    A polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection factoring in the orientation of an object relative to the orientation of transceivers. The polarized detection system may operate on one of several modes of operation based on whether the imaging, object detection, or change detection is performed separately for each transceiver orientation. In combined change mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines changes across polarizations. In combined object mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging and object detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines objects across polarizations and performs change detection on the result. In combined image mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines images across polarizations and performs object detection followed by change detection on the result.

  11. Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy With Capecitabine/Oxaliplatin and Cetuximab in Rectal Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Conradi, Lena; Weiss, Christian; Sprenger, Thilo; Middel, Peter; Rau, Tillman; Dellas, Kathrin; Kitz, Julia; Rdel, Franz; Sauer, Rolf; Rschoff, Josef; Beissbarth, Tim; Arnold, Dirk; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Rdel, Claus; Liersch, Torsten

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the addition of cetuximab to chemoradiation therapy failed to improve complete response rates (pCR) in rectal cancer. Here we report the long-term results of the cetuximab added to preoperative radiation therapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CET-CAPOX-RT) phase 1/2 study that evaluated preoperative chemoradiation with cetuximab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin in patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The median follow-up was 63 months (range, 5-73 months). Sixty patients were enrolled; 3 patients were excluded due to protocol violation, and 4 died before surgery. Total mesorectal excision was performed in 53 patients, in 85% (n=45) with curative intention (M0-status). Secondary end points including overall survival (OS) disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated. The prognostic value of KRAS mutation status was also assessed. Results: Histopathological examination confirmed ypUICC stages 0 (n=4; pCR), I (n=17), II (n=10), III (n=14), and IV (n=8). For patients who underwent surgery (n=53), OS at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88.7%, 83%, and 75.5%, respectively, whereas CSS rates were 94.1%, 88.1%, and 78.1%, respectively. In the 45 patients who were treated with curative intent (M0), the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 91.1%, 88.9%, and 86.7%, respectively; whereas CSS rates were 97.6%, 95.2%, and 90.3%, respectively; and DFS rates were 90.7%, 88.3%, and 88.3%, respectively. We did not find any locoregional failure in patients with M0-status (n=45). Chronic toxicity was rare. KRAS mutations, as detected in 33.3%, showed no correlation with the clinicopathological parameters nor significance for either OS (P=.112), CSS (P=.264), or DFS (P=.565). Conclusions: Taken together, chemoradiation therapy combined with cetuximab is safe, feasible, and offers excellent survival rates. KRAS mutation status was not a predictive factor. Importantly, lack of improvement in pCR rate did not translate to poor survival in our clinical trial.

  12. Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November 2014) Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November 2014) ...

  13. CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters - December 4, 2007 CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters - December 4, 2007 December 4, 2007...

  14. Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for...

  15. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  16. Research highlights potential for improved solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential for improved solar cells Research highlights potential for improved solar cells Research has shown that carrier multiplication is a real phenomenon in tiny semiconductor...

  17. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory...

  18. Industrial Energy Efficiency Projects Improve Competitiveness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Projects Improve Competitiveness and Protect Jobs Industrial Energy Efficiency Projects Improve Competitiveness and Protect Jobs U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

  19. Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex...

  20. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain February 12, 2014 - 10:47am...

  1. Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    projects Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Improved medical implants comes from...

  2. EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy August 27, 2010 - 10:05am Addthis New LED lighting fixtures...

  3. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instruments indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  4. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  5. Detection of Neutrons with Scintillation Counters

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hofstadter, R.

    1948-11-01

    Detection of slow neutrons by: detection of single gamma rays following capture by cadmium or mercury; detection of more than one gamma ray by observing coincidences after capture; detection of heavy charged particles after capture in lithium or baron nuclei; possible use of anthracene for counting fast neutrons investigated briefly.

  6. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: NNSA-Proliferation Detection |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Proliferation Detection Categorical Exclusion Determinations: NNSA-Proliferation Detection Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by NNSA-Proliferation Detection. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 17, 2010 CX-004080: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fisk University Nonproliferation Grant CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/17/2010 Location(s): Tennessee Office(s): NNSA-Proliferation Detection

  7. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASATs manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  8. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  9. Low doses ionizing radiation enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Qifeng; Moran, Meena S.

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Low doses ionizing irradiation would enhance the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. {yields} Low doses ionizing radiation induced morphologic changes in breast cancer cells. {yields} Low doses ionizing radiation led to upregulation of mesenchymal markers and down-regulation of epithelial markers. {yields} Low doses ionizing radiation increased migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process cellular morphologic and molecular alterations facilitate cell invasion. We hypothesized that low dose ionizing irradiation (LDIR) enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing EMT. The effects of LDIR on cellular morphology and the EMT markers of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were analyzed by western blot/RT-PCR and migration/invasion was examined using the transwell assay. We found that LDIR led to the phenotypic changes of EMT in MCF-7 cells and down-regulation of epithelial differentiation markers and transcriptional induction of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, the radiated cells demonstrated enhanced migration/invasion MCF-7 cells compared with non-radiated cells. In summary, LDIR promotes the invasiveness of breast cancer cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These findings may ultimately provide a new targeted approach for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of radiation in breast cancer.

  10. Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

    2012-09-11

    A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

  11. Evaluation of national seismograph network detection capabilities: Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Barker, T.G.; Bennett, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    This final report presents detection thresholds, detection probabilities, and location error ellipse projections for the US National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without real-time cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations in the USNSN and other stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. The USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all of the eastern and central US at the magnitude 3.8 level. When real-time cooperative stations are used in conjunction with the USNSN, the network should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. The planned expansion of the USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2 to 0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for the USNSN should be significantly improved by addition of real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes in the eastern and central US depend strongly upon location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 square km in the central US and degrade to 200 square km or more offshore and to the south and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  12. Method for detecting toxic gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Findlay, Jr., Melvin W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A method capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas, utilizing a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component, and an electrochemical sensor responsive to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor.

  13. Method for detecting toxic gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

    1991-10-08

    A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

  14. Superalloy material with improved weldability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, David B.; Wagner, Gregg P.; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-02-24

    A fusion weldable superalloy containing 0.005-0.5 wt. % scandium. In one embodiment, the superalloy may have a composition similar to IN-939 alloy, but having added scandium and having only 0.005-0.040 wt. % zirconium. A gas turbine component may be formed by an investment casting of such a scandium-containing superalloy, and may include a fusion weld repaired area. A scandium-containing nickel-based superalloy coated with an MCrAlY bond coat will have improved cyclic oxidation resistance due to the sulfur-gettering effect of the scandium.

  15. Sandia technology & entrepreneurs improve Lasik

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Neal, Dan; Turner, Tim

    2014-02-26

    Former Sandian Dan Neal started his company, WaveFront Sciences, based on wavefront sensing metrology technologies licensed from Sandia National Laboratories and by taking advantage of its Entrepreneurial Separation to Transfer Technology (ESTT) program. Abbott Medical Optics since acquired WaveFront and estimates that one million patients have improved the quality of their vision thanks to its products. ESTT is a valuable tool which allows Sandia to transfer technology to the private sector and Sandia employees to leave the Labs in order to start up new technology companies or help expand existing companies.

  16. Improved multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, I.A.; Stallard, R.P.; Woodward, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the results of an investigation of existing multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms and introduces two new algorithms which significantly improve some aspects of the performance of their predecessors. The two algorithms arise from different starting assumptions. One considers the case where the algorithm will terminate successfully whatever list structure is being processed and assumes that the extra data space should be minimised. The other seeks a very fast garbage collection time for list structures that do not contain loops. Results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms. 7 references.

  17. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  18. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  19. Detection of a concealed object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  20. Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Detection Methods and Limitations Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 2014 Tom Voss, Northern New Mexico DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING FOR TRITIUM FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy, Radiological Control Programs for Special Tritium Compounds, DOE-STD- draft, Washington, D.C.

  1. Detection of malicious computer executables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Dongming M. (Los Alamos, NM); Gokhale, Maya (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-04-14

    A method of detecting malicious binary executable files is accomplished by inputting a binary executable file; converting the binary executable file to byte hexadecimal text strings; calculating the frequency of each byte pattern in the byte hexadecimal text strings; selecting characteristic byte pattern frequencies as discriminating features; classifying the discriminating features as malicious or benign; labeling the binary executable file as malicious or benign; and outputting the labeled malicious or benign binary executable file.

  2. Detection of a concealed object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Paul E. (Richland, WA); Hall, Thomas E. (Kennewick, WA); McMakin, Douglas L. (Richland, WA)

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  3. detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  4. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-07

    August 4, 2009 Berkeley Lab lecture: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  5. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  6. Isotopes for cancer and cardiac care

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes for cancer Isotopes for cancer and cardiac care Eva Birnbaum is interviewed on KSFR radio on the Lab's Isotope Program February 4, 2016 hot cell facility A worker uses remote manipulator arms to handle a highly radioactive target inside the Lab's radiochemistry hot cell facility. Isotopes from Los Alamos are used for the diagnosis of cardiac disease, for the calibration of PET scanners which in turn diagnose cancer, neurological disease, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and other

  7. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gray, Joe

    2010-01-08

    August 4, 2009 Berkeley Lab lecture: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks ? particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  8. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN); Miller, William R. (Andersonville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  9. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  10. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-13

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  11. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-11

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  12. SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer Diagnostics: Combining...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer Diagnostics: Combining SQUID-Based Ultra-Low Field MRI and Superparamagnetic Relaxometry Citation Details In-Document Search...

  13. Breast Density and Cancer | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Innovation > Breast Cancer Awareness Series: Understanding Breast Density Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click...

  14. HIV/Cancer DB Match Document

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COLLECTION AND VERIFICATION OF DATA FOR MATCHED RECORDS FROM US CANCER AND HIVAIDS REGISTRIES Janice Watkins, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, T. Borges, Robert Stafford, Oak...

  15. Endoscopic Radiation Revolutionizes Cancer Treatment - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endoscopic Radiation Revolutionizes Cancer Treatment Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology

    Conventional X-ray radiation and electron beam therapy: a...

  16. Acquisition and Project Management Continuous Improvement Presentation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Project Management Continuous Improvement Presentation Acquisition and Project Management Continuous Improvement Presentation Presentation on Acquisition and Project Management Continuous Improvement. PDF icon Acquisition and Project Management Continuous Improvement presentation More Documents & Publications Occupational Safety Performance Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security - August 2012 Report on Acquisition and Project

  17. Method for improving instrument response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahn, David W. (7528 Oxford Cir., Dublin, Alameda County, CA 94568); Hencken, Kenneth R. (2665 Calle Alegre, Pleasanton, Alameda County, CA 94566); Johnsen, Howard A. (5443 Celeste Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Flower, William L. (5447 Theresa Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  18. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print Tuesday, 23 June 2015 13:00 The cancer drug...

  19. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and dont fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the communication counts. In a sequential analysis, anomalous behavior is then identified from outlying behavior with respect to the fitted predictive probability models. Seasonality is again incorporated into the model and is treated as a changepoint model on the transition probabilities of a discrete time Markov process. Second stage analytics are then developed which combine anomalous edges to identify anomalous substructures in the network.

  20. Autofluorescence detection and imaging of bladder cancer realized through a cystoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros G.; deVere White, Ralph W.

    2007-08-14

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence and utilizing interior examination techniques and equipment are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and/or tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  1. Design of the improved plutonium canister assay system (IPCAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhold, M. E.; Baker, M. C.; Bourret, S. C.; Polk, P. J.; Vo, Duc T.

    2001-01-01

    The improved Plutonium Canister Assay System (iPCAS) is designed to detect gross and partial defects in the declared plutonium content of plutonium and MOX storage canisters during transfer to storage and process areas of the MOX fuel fabrication facility in Kokkasho, Japan. In addition, an associated Gamma Isotopics System (GIS) will be used to confirm facility-declared plutonium isotopics with accuracy sufficient to reduce the amount of destructive isotopic analysis needed. The design of the iPCAS instrument and its associated GIS is described and the expected performance of the instrument is discussed.

  2. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xei, Hongshi; Anderson, Aaron S; Grace, Wynne K; Martinez, Jennifer S; Swanson, Basil

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  3. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  4. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein kinase Blc-Abl, while not targeting homologous protein...

  5. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

  6. Endoscopic Electron-Beam Cancer Therapy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endoscopic Electron-Beam Cancer Therapy Technology available for licensing: A successful and cost-effective means of treating cancer in previously inoperable or radiation-sensitive...

  7. Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Immortality is...

  8. Los Alamos researcher pens prizewinning essay on cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researcher pens prizewinning essay on cancer Los Alamos researcher pens prizewinning essay on cancer Ludmil Alexandrov made strong points this week in the journal Science winning a...

  9. Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility New capability expands existing program,...

  10. Harnessing Light in the Fight against Cancer | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harnessing Light in the Fight against Cancer A new semiconductor bioluminescent nanoparticle can be injected, then activated via the excessive ATP molecules emitted by cancer cells...

  11. Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: ...

  12. Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants and Inhibitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants and Inhibitor Complexes: Mechanism of ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants ...

  13. DOE Laboratories Help Develop Promising New Cancer Fighting Drug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratories Help Develop Promising New Cancer Fighting Drug, Vemurafenib DOE Laboratories Help Develop Promising New Cancer Fighting Drug, Vemurafenib August 18, 2011 - 1:03pm ...

  14. DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Resources with Additional ... made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron ...

  15. Preoperative chemoradiation of locally advanced T3 rectal cancer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    T3 rectal cancer combined with an endorectal boost Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preoperative chemoradiation of locally advanced T3 rectal cancer combined with ...

  16. Cornell dots research collaboration leads to $10M cancer center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at MSKCC in New York City - will focus on melanoma (skin) and malignant brain cancers. ... Assessment of particles in brain tumors for cancer therapy. C dots successfully have ...

  17. Improvements of biomass deconstruction enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sale, K. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and DSM Innovation, Inc. collaborated on the investigation of the structure and function of cellulases from thermophilic fungi. Sandia's role was to use its expertise in protein structure determination and X-ray crystallography to solve the structure of these enzymes in their native state and in their substrate and product bound states. Sandia was also tasked to work with DSM to use the newly solved structure to, using computational approaches, analyze enzyme interactions with both bound substrate and bound product; the goal being to develop approaches for rationally designing improved cellulases for biomass deconstruction. We solved the structures of five cellulases from thermophilic fungi. Several of these were also solved with bound substrate/product, which allowed us to predict mutations that might enhance activity and stability.

  18. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  19. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  20. More Rapid Detection of Strontium in Urine Samples (IN-10-037) - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search More Rapid Detection of Strontium in Urine Samples (IN-10-037) New and Improved Detection Method that Provides More Rapid and Accurate Identification of Sr-90 in Urine Samples Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <em>The urine is treated with sulfonic acid and then mixed with charcoal to remove the interferents. The resultant is passed through the chromatographic

  1. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Mary (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas (Livermore, CA); Birch, James M. (Albany, CA)

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  2. SEARCH DETECT ANALYZE U S

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SEARCH DETECT ANALYZE U . S . D E P A R T M E N T O F E N E R G Y N A T I O N A L N U C L E A R S E C U R I T Y A D M I N I S T R A T I O N NEST NUCLEAR EMERGENCY SUPPORT TEAM (NEST) The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has the world's leading scientists, engineers and technicians from over 50 years of managing the nation's nuclear weapons program. When the need arises, DOE is pre- pared to respond immediately to any type of radiological accident or

  3. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimblin, Clare; Miller, Kirk; Vogel, Bob; Quam, Bill; McHugh, Harry; Anthony, Glen; Mike, Grover

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

  4. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  5. Understanding the origins of human cancer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alexandrov, L. B.

    2015-12-04

    All cancers originate from a single cell that starts to behave abnormally, to divide uncontrollably, and, eventually, to invade adjacent tissues (1). The aberrant behavior of this single cell is due to somatic mutations—changes in the genomic DNA produced by the activity of different mutational processes (1). These various mutational processes include exposure to exogenous or endogenous mutagens, abnormal DNA editing, the incomplete fidelity of DNA polymerases, and failure of DNA repair mechanisms (2). Early studies that sequenced TP53, the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer, provided evidence that mutational processes leave distinct imprints of somatic mutations on themore » genome of a cancer cell (3). For example, C:G>A:T transversions predominate in smoking-associated lung cancer, whereas C:G>T:A transitions occurring mainly at dipyrimidines and CC:GG>TT:AA double-nucleotide substitutions are common in ultraviolet light–associated skin cancers. Moreover, these patterns of mutations matched the ones induced experimentally by tobacco mutagens and ultraviolet light, respectively, the major, known, exogenous carcinogenic influences in these cancer types, and demonstrated that examining patterns of mutations in cancer genomes can yield information about the mutational processes that cause human cancer (4).« less

  6. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  7. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  8. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  9. Evaluation of National Seismograph Network detection capabilities. Annual report, July 1994--July 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Bennett, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    This first annual report presents detection thresholds and probabilities, and location error ellipse projects for the United States National Seismic Network (USNSN) with and without cooperative stations in the eastern US. Network simulation methods are used with spectral noise levels at stations to simulate the processes of excitation, propagation, detection, and processing of seismic phases. USNSN alone should be capable of detecting 4 or more P waves for shallow crustal earthquakes in nearly all the eastern and central US at magnitude 3.8 level. When cooperative stations are added, the network should be able to detect 4 or more P waves from events 0.2 to 0.3 magnitude units lower. Planned expansion of USNSN and cooperative stations should improve detection levels by an additional 0.2-0.3 magnitudes units in many areas. Location uncertainties for USNSN can be improved by adding real-time cooperative stations. Median error ellipses for magnitude 4.5 earthquakes depend strongly on location, but uncertainties should be less than 100 km{sup 2} in the central US and degrade to 200 km{sup 2} or more offshore and sosuth and north of the international boundaries. Close cooperation with the Canadian National Network should substantially improve detection thresholds and location uncertainties along the Canadian border.

  10. Radiation detection and situation management by distributed sensor networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan, Frigo; Mielke, Angela; Cai, D Michael

    2009-01-01

    Detection of radioactive materials in an urban environment usually requires large, portal-monitor-style radiation detectors. However, this may not be a practical solution in many transport scenarios. Alternatively, a distributed sensor network (DSN) could complement portal-style detection of radiological materials through the implementation of arrays of low cost, small heterogeneous sensors with the ability to detect the presence of radioactive materials in a moving vehicle over a specific region. In this paper, we report on the use of a heterogeneous, wireless, distributed sensor network for traffic monitoring in a field demonstration. Through wireless communications, the energy spectra from different radiation detectors are combined to improve the detection confidence. In addition, the DSN exploits other sensor technologies and algorithms to provide additional information about the vehicle, such as its speed, location, class (e.g. car, truck), and license plate number. The sensors are in-situ and data is processed in real-time at each node. Relevant information from each node is sent to a base station computer which is used to assess the movement of radioactive materials.

  11. Multi-Spectral Detection of Microfluidic Separation Products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, Carl C.; Meagher, Robert

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a new scientific tool for studies of chemical processes at the single molecule level, and to provide enhanced capabilities for multiplexed, ultrasensitive separations and immunoassays. We have combined microfluidic separation techniques with our newly developed technology for spectrally and temporally resolved detection of single molecules. The detection of individual molecules can reveal fluctuations in molecular conformations, which are obscured in ensemble measurements, and allows detailed studies of reaction kinetics such as ligand or antibody binding. Detection near the single molecule level also enables the use of correlation techniques to extract information, such as diffusion rates, from the fluorescence signal. The micro-fluidic technology offers unprecedented control of the chemical environment and flow conditions, and affords the unique opportunity to study biomolecules without immobilization. For analytical separations, the fluorescence lifetime and spectral resolution of the detection makes it possible to use multiple parameters for identification of separation products to improve the certainty of identification. We have successfully developed a system that can measure fluorescence spectra, lifetimes and diffusion constants of the components of mixtures separated in a microfluidic electrophoresis chip.

  12. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  13. Chemoradiotherapeutic wrinkled mesoporous silica nanoparticles for use in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munaweera, Imalka; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr. E-mail: Anthony.DiPasqua@unthsc.edu; Koneru, Bhuvaneswari; Shi, Yi; Di Pasqua, Anthony J. E-mail: Anthony.DiPasqua@unthsc.edu

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the development and application of nanotechnology in cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy have been widely reported. Engineering of vehicles for the simultaneous delivery of chemo- and radiotherapeutics increases the effectiveness of the therapy and reduces the dosage of each individual drug required to produce an observable therapeutic response. We here developed a novel chemoradiotherapeutic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid coated/uncoated platinum drug loaded, holmium-containing, wrinkled mesoporous silica nanoparticle. The materials were characterized with TEM, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, energy dispersive x-ray, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and zeta potential measurements. In vitro platinum drug release from both lipid coated and uncoated chemoradiotherapeutic wrinkled mesoporous silica are reported. Various kinetic models were used to analyze the release kinetics. The radioactivity of the chemoradiotherapeutic nanocarriers was measured after neutron-activation.

  14. Widget:FlashDetect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FlashDetect Jump to: navigation, search This widget sets the wgFlashEnabled javascript variable as true and adds the class "flash" to the body tag if Flash is detected using...

  15. On the Detection of the Free Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

    1953-08-06

    The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

  16. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  17. Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering...

  18. Advancing the art of tuberculosis detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing art of tuberculosis detection Advancing the art of tuberculosis detection New approach to finding a TB biomarker could provide earlier diagnosis. April 19, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Harshini Mukundan is exploring new ways to detect and diagnose tuberculosis. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Harshini Mukundan is exploring new ways to detect and diagnose tuberculosis. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email This observation has

  19. Energy Detectives (3 Activities) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detectives (3 Activities) Energy Detectives (3 Activities) Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8 Subject Energy Basics Summary Students explore the classroom as they look and feel for signs of energy. They record the ways they use energy throughout a typical day in an energy detective journal. There are three activities: Where is the energy? Exploring the energy around you. Energy detective journals. Curriculum Science, Visual Arts, Language

  20. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  1. Nanostructured Materials for Improved Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Sarah E.; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Rawlins, James W.

    2004-07-18

    This research addresses the fundamental issues of cell morphology and phase dimensions that determine conversion efficiency in polymeric organic photovoltaic devices. The approach will help explain the relationships between morphological control, domain size, and power conversion efficiency in OPV devices, with the goal of providing direction for development of OPV systems with greater efficiency. The program addresses the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy goals of providing economically sustainable clean energy technologies to reduce dependence on foreign oil. This research focused on synthesis, fabrication and analysis of both active and protective layers for improved organic and inorganic hybrid PV (PhotoVoltaic) materials. A systematic study of phase size, shape, and distance was conducted to determine the effects of morphology in each process. Four classes of nanostructured materials were studied: 1) functional block copolymers (AB, acceptor-donor blocks) that self-assemble into matched domain sizes 2) synthetic core-shell particles with separate acceptor and donor layers 3) bacterial micro-compartment (BMC) proteins as self-assembling shells for core-shell nanoparticle constructs and 4) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals for enhanced efficiency and durability.

  2. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2011-08-01

    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  4. Method to improve superconductor cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  5. Novel Materials and Devices for Solid-State Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    2015-11-01

    There is a need in many fields, such as nuclear medicine, non-proliferation, energy exploration, national security, homeland security, nuclear energy, etc, for miniature, thermal neutron detectors. Until recently, thermal neutron detection has required physically large devices to provide sufficient neutron interaction and transduction signal. Miniaturization would allow broader use in the fields just mentioned and open up other applications potentially. Recent research shows promise in creating smaller neutron detectors through the combination of high-neutron-cross-section converter materials and solid-state devices. Yet, till recently it is difficult to measure low neutron fluxes by solidstate means given the need for optimized converter materials (purity, chemical composition and thickness) and a lack of designs capable of efficient transduction of the neutron conversion products (x-rays, electrons, gamma rays). Gadolinium-based semiconductor heterojunctions have detected electrons produced by Gd-neutron reactions but only at high neutron fluxes. One of the main limitations to this type of approach is the use of thin converter layers and the inability to utilize all the conversion products. In this LDRD we have optimized the converter material thickness and chemical composition to improve capture of conversion electrons and have detected thermal neutrons with high fidelity at low flux. We are also examining different semiconductor materials and converter materials to attempt to capture a greater percentage of the conversion electrons, both low and higher energy varieties. We have studied detector size and bias scaling, and cross-sensitivity to xrays and shown that we can detect low fluxes of thermal neutrons in less than 30 minutes with high selectivity by our approach. We are currently studying improvements in performance with direct placement of the Gd converter on the detector. The advancement of sensitive, miniature neutron detectors will have benefits in energy production, nonproliferation and medicine.

  6. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  7. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum wells structures (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well

  8. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Using Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power As part of its Sustainable Energy Program, Sandia National Laboratories works to find new ways to use fuel cell membranes to improve energy...

  10. Georgia Power- Energy Efficiency Home Improvement Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia Power offers up to $2,575 in rebates to customers who choose to improve home performance with whole building BPI certified efficiency measures or up to $700 for individual improvements from...

  11. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  12. Impact of Concomitant Chemotherapy on Outcomes of Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Shlok; Kong, Weidong; Booth, Christopher M.; Mackillop, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials have shown that the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy (RT) improves survival in advanced head-and-neck cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of concomitant chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) in routine practice. Methods and Materials: This was a population-based cohort study. Electronic records of treatment from all provincial cancer centers were linked to a population--based cancer registry to describe the adoption of C-CRT for head-and-neck cancer patients in Ontario, Canada. The study population was then divided into pre- and postadoption cohorts, and their outcomes were compared. Results: Between 1992 and 2008, 18,867 patients had diagnoses of head-and-neck cancer in Ontario, of whom 7866 (41.7%) were treated with primary RT. The proportion of primary RT cases that received C-CRT increased from 2.2% in the preadoption cohort (1992-1998) to 39.3% in the postadoption cohort (2003-2008). Five-year survival among all primary RT cases increased from 43.6% in the preadoption cohort to 51.8% in the postadoption cohort (P<.001). Over the same period, treatment-related hospital admissions increased significantly, but there was no significant increase in treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: C-CRT was widely adopted in Ontario after 2003, and its adoption was temporally associated with an improvement in survival.

  13. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  14. A subsea pipeline comprising secondary containment and leak detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempen, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    This paper introduces a corrosion-resistant double-wall composite subsea pipe that provides the pipe with secondary containment and leak detection capability. Tables are presented that describe the pressures attainable with the mechanically coupled double-wall composite subsea pipe illustrated in several figures. A description is provided of the construction of the composite subsea pipe and the mechanical coupling assembly used to rapidly connect it during ocean deployment. The paper concludes with a series of questions and answers that provide cost and production information useful for feasibility studies that evaluate factors relating to the replacement of steel subsea pipe with one that promises improved performance.

  15. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Degradation Mechanism Studies Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting,...

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity May 20, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The Advanced Manufacturing Initiative (AMI) at DOE's Sandia National Laboratories is working with industry to improve manufacturing processes and create U.S. jobs by improving labor productivity in wind turbine blade

  17. Solar Forecast Improvement Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Forecast Improvement Project Solar Forecast Improvement Project NOAA.png For the Solar Forecast Improvement Project (SFIP), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is partnering with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and IBM to develop more accurate methods for solar forecasts using their state-of-the-art weather models. APPROACH NOAA solar.png SFIP has three main goals: 1) to develop solar forecasting metrics tailored to the utility sector; 2) to improve solar

  18. Hanford Safety Traffic Improvements - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Hanford Site Wide Programs Hanford Safety Traffic Improvements About Us Traffic Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office and Office of River Protection are taking steps to improve traffic safety on the Hanford Site. These measures are meant to improve the safety of the workforce and visitors to the Hanford Site. There will also be benefits in improving the flow of traffic and reducing traffic

  19. Improving Project Management | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Project Management Improving Project Management Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz has made improving project management a priority at the Energy Department. In August 2013, the Secretary established a special working group that includes project management experts from across the Department. Over the past year, this group's in-depth analysis culminated in a new report titled Improving Project Management. The report provides valuable case studies and recommendations regarding funding,

  20. Home Improvement Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improvement Catalyst Home Improvement Catalyst Lead Performer: U.S. Department of Energy - Washington, D.C. Project Term: Ongoing Program Funding Type: Direct Funded PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project work is designed to support the planning, management, and evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Home Improvement Catalyst (HI Cat). The project is designed to use existing home improvement, repair and remodeling transactions and leverage DOE's Residential Buildings Integration program's

  1. Secretary Richardson Accepts Recommendations for Improving Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Richardson Accepts Recommendations for Improving Security at Nuclear Weapons Laboratories | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People ...

  2. Enabling Sustainable Acquisition by Improving Procurement Systems |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Enabling Sustainable Acquisition by Improving Procurement Systems Enabling Sustainable Acquisition by Improving Procurement Systems Enabling Sustainable Acquisition by Improving Procurement Systems Fact sheet describes a case study of the Department of Energy Waste Pilot Plant (WIPP) enabling a sustainable acquisition by improving the procurement systems. The periodic review of the Environmental Management System (EMS) sub-systems is necessary to ensure that desired

  3. Sequential detection of web defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eichel, Paul H.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Stalker, K. Terry; Yee, Amy A.

    2001-01-01

    A system for detecting defects on a moving web having a sequential series of identical frames uses an imaging device to form a real-time camera image of a frame and a comparitor to comparing elements of the camera image with corresponding elements of an image of an exemplar frame. The comparitor provides an acceptable indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically identical; and a defective indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically not identical. If the pair of elements is neither acceptable nor defective, the comparitor recursively compares the element of said exemplar frame with corresponding elements of other frames on said web until one of the acceptable or defective indications occur.

  4. Intrusion detection using secure signatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Trent Darnel; Haile, Jedediah

    2014-09-30

    A method and device for intrusion detection using secure signatures comprising capturing network data. A search hash value, value employing at least one one-way function, is generated from the captured network data using a first hash function. The presence of a search hash value match in a secure signature table comprising search hash values and an encrypted rule is determined. After determining a search hash value match, a decryption key is generated from the captured network data using a second hash function, a hash function different form the first hash function. One or more of the encrypted rules of the secure signatures table having a hash value equal to the generated search hash value are then decrypted using the generated decryption key. The one or more decrypted secure signature rules are then processed for a match and one or more user notifications are deployed if a match is identified.

  5. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  6. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  7. Explosives detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  8. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank James (Russellville, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow.

  9. Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques article submitted to

  10. Abuse Tolerance Improvement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es036_orendorff_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Evaluation of Abuse Tolerance Improvements Abuse Tolerance Improvements Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Abuse Tolerance Improvements

  11. Connecticut Weatherization Project Improves Lives, Receives National

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recognition | Department of Energy Connecticut Weatherization Project Improves Lives, Receives National Recognition Connecticut Weatherization Project Improves Lives, Receives National Recognition May 6, 2014 - 12:24pm Addthis Donna Hawkins Technology Transfer Specialist, Weatherization Assistance Program Harris Walker Communications Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program MORE WEATHERIZATION STORIES Improving Energy Efficiency and Creating Jobs through Weatherization

  12. Spectral analysis method for detecting an element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-02-12

    A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

  13. Open questions: The disrupted circuitry of the cancer cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2014-10-18

    Every new decade of biology brings with it a change in outlook driven by new technologies and fresh perspectives. Such is the case for cancer and how we consider the disease. The advent of molecular biology led to the identification of altered signaling molecules and 'oncogenes' that were proposed to drive uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rise of cell biology and new imaging and culturing technologies led to the idea that disruptions in the extracellular environment prime cells for transformation. In the current genomics era, cancer is most commonly seen as a genetic disorder where an unstable genome gives rise tomore » a variety of different cell variants that are selected for proliferation and survival. All of these views are partially correct, of course, and are simply different ways of saying that genetic alterations in cancer cells result in a loss of growth homeostasis. They also take the view that molecular changes 'drive' a cell to grow uncontrollably, rather than tip the balance from one normal state (quiescence) to another (proliferation). Underlying this oversimplification is a profound ignorance of what controls homeostatic cell growth in the first place and how specific mutations impact it. Normal, proliferation-competent cells can accurately monitor their environment and respond appropriately to perturbation, whether it is a loss of neighbors or an inflammatory stimulus. Cancer cells either proliferate or refuse to die where and when they should not, which clearly indicates that they have problems in detecting or responding to their environment. Thus, an enormous amount of effort has gone into defining the signaling pathways that can trigger a proliferative response and the biochemical mechanisms underlying these pathways. Far less work has focused on understanding the higher-order logic of these pathways and the roles played by all of the components as part of an integrated system. In other words, we do not really understand how cells process information and make decisions and thus cannot predict how any given molecular change will alter what a cell does.« less

  14. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  15. A high incidence of BRCA1 mutations in 20 breast-ovarian cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serova, O.; Montagna, M.; Sylla, B.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed 20 breast-ovarian cancer families, the majority of which show positive evidence of linkage to chromosome 17q12, for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene. BRCA1 mutations cosegregating with breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility were identified in 16 families, including 1 family with a case of male breast cancer. Nine of these mutations have not been reported previously. The majority of mutations were found to generate a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a truncated BRCA1 protein of 2%-88% of the expected normal length. Two mutations altered the RING finger domain. Sequencing of genomic DNA led to the identification of a mutation in the coding region of BRCA1 in 12 families, and cDNA analysis revealed an abnormal or missing BRCA1 transcript in 4 of the 8 remaining families. A total of eight mutations were associated with a reduced quantity of BRCA1 transcript. We were unable to detect BRCA1 mutations in 4 of the 20 families, but only 1 of these was clearly linked to BRCA1. It is expected that the majority of clear examples of the breast-ovarian cancer syndrome will be associated with germ-line mutations in the coding region of BRCA1. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Ran GTPase protein promotes human pancreatic cancer proliferation by deregulating the expression of Survivin and cell cycle proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Lin; Department of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian, Shaanxi 710038 ; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaodi; Sun, Yi; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Changhao; Zhou, Jinfeng; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Guo, Xuegang

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: Overexpression of Ran in pancreatic cancer was correlated with histological grade. Downregulation of Ran could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. The effects were mediated by cell cycle proteins, Survivin and cleaved Caspase-3. -- Abstract: Ran, a member of the Ras GTPase family, has important roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Herein, we detected Ran expression in pancreatic cancer and explored its potential role on tumour progression. Overexpressed Ran in pancreatic cancer tissues was found highly correlated with the histological grade. Downregulation of Ran led to significant suppression of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase and induction of apoptosis. In vivo studies also validated that result. Further studies revealed that those effects were at least partly mediated by the downregulation of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, phospho-Rb and Survivin proteins and up regulation of cleaved Caspase-3.

  17. Clean Diesel Component Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-06-30

    The research conducted in this program significantly increased the knowledge and understanding in the fields of plasma physics and chemistry in diesel exhaust, the performance and characteristics of multifunctional catalysts in diesel exhaust, and the complexities of controlling a combination of such systems to remove NOx. Initially this program was designed to use an in-line plasma system (know as a plasma assisted catalyst system or PAC) to convert NO {yields} NO{sub 2}, a more catalytically active form of nitrogen oxides, and to crack hydrocarbons (diesel fuel in particular) into active species. The NO{sub 2} and the cracked hydrocarbons were then flowed over an in-line ceramic NOx catalyst that removed NO{sub 2} from the diesel exhaust. Even though the PAC system performed well technically and was able to remove over 95% of NOx from diesel exhaust the plasma component proved not to be practical or commercially feasible. The lack of practical and commercial viability was due to high unit costs and lack of robustness. The plasma system and its function was replaced in the NOx removal process by a cracking reforming catalyst that converted diesel fuel to a highly active reductant for NOx over a downstream ceramic NOx catalyst. This system was designated the ceramic catalyst system (CCS). It was also determined that NO conversion to NO{sub 2} was not required to achieve high levels of NOx reduction over ceramic NOx catalyst if that catalyst was properly formulated and the cracking reforming produced a reductant optimized for that NOx catalyst formulation. This system has demonstrated 92% NOx reduction in a diesel exhaust slipstream and 65% NOx reduction from the full exhaust of a 165 hp diesel engine using the FTP cycle. Although this system needs additional development to be commercial, it is simple, cost effective (does not use precious metals), sulfur tolerant, operates at high space velocities, does not require a second fluid be supplied as a reductant, has low parasitic loss of 2-3% and achieves high levels of NOx reduction. This project benefits the public by providing a simple low-cost technology to remove NOx pollutants from the exhaust of almost any combustion source. The reduction of NOx emissions emitted into the troposphere provides well documented improvement in health for the majority of United States citizens. The emissions reduction produced by this technology helps remove the environmental constraints to economic growth.

  18. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  19. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein kinase Blc-Abl, while not targeting homologous protein kinases found in normal, healthy cells. It has been widely used to fight colon cancers and chronic myeloid leukemia. The protein kinase Abl is involved in regulating cell growth. Protein kinases have in general been the target of many cancer drug designs, since

  20. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein kinase Blc-Abl, while not targeting homologous protein kinases found in normal, healthy cells. It has been widely used to fight colon cancers and chronic myeloid leukemia. The protein kinase Abl is involved in regulating cell growth. Protein kinases have in general been the target of many cancer drug designs, since

  1. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein kinase Blc-Abl, while not targeting homologous protein kinases found in normal, healthy cells. It has been widely used to fight colon cancers and chronic myeloid leukemia. The protein kinase Abl is involved in regulating cell growth. Protein kinases have in general been the target of many cancer drug designs, since

  2. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein kinase Blc-Abl, while not targeting homologous protein kinases found in normal, healthy cells. It has been widely used to fight colon cancers and chronic myeloid leukemia. The protein kinase Abl is involved in regulating cell growth. Protein kinases have in general been the target of many cancer drug designs, since

  3. Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Ancient Proteins Help Unravel a Modern Cancer Drug's Mechanism Print Tuesday, 23 June 2015 13:00 The cancer drug Gleevec is extremely specific, binding and inhibiting only the cancer-causing tyrosine protein kinase Blc-Abl, while not targeting homologous protein kinases found in normal, healthy cells. It has been widely used to fight colon cancers and chronic myeloid leukemia. The protein kinase Abl is involved in regulating cell

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of breast-ovarian cancer revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narod, S.; Ford, D.; Easton, D.

    1995-10-01

    We have recently reported the results of a linkage analysis of 145 breast-ovarian cancer families. Each family has three or more cases of early-onset breast cancer (age {le}60) or of ovarian cancer, and all families have at least one case of ovarian cancer (there were nine site-specific ovarian cancer families). Overall, we estimated that 76% of the families were linked to the BRCA1 locus. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  6. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  7. DN detection during SLSF tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Gilbert, D.M.; Baxter, D.E.; Gillins, R.L.; Jeffries, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W2 and P4), two systems were operated to detect delayed neutrons from exposed fuel. One monitored directly the sodium in the in-pile loop with a transit delay from the flux region of approx.2 seconds; the other conducted a sample stream of sodium to external detectors with a transit delay which could be varied from approx.10 to approx. 40 seconds. Detectors of a wide range of sensitivity were operated in pulse and current mode; DN signals varying from <1 mm/sup 2/ recoil to many grams of molten fuel could be recorded reliably without saturation. During the W2 and P4 tests a continuous DN record was made. Massive fuel failure signals were observed during reactor transients in both tests, including events interpreted as fuel melting and exposure of large areas. The steady signal from the blockage in P4 was studied as a function of reactor power and sodium temperature.

  8. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline; Villar, Rosangela Correa; Castro, Gilberto de; Antequera, Reynaldo; Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral; Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might translate into improved CRT efficacy.

  9. WE-E-BRE-10: Level of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Correlated with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WE-E-BRE-10: Level of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Correlated with Tumor Radioresistence: An Indication for Individualized Breast Cancer Therapy Adapted to Cancer Stem Cell Fractions ...

  10. GE Cancer Research | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology "Relay Race" Against Cancer Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  11. Colon Cancer Mapping | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vanderbilt, GE Team Seek Deeper Understanding of Colon Cancer Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in...

  12. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  13. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  14. Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection and ... Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center As part of our increased global nuclear nonproliferation efforts, Y-12 commissioned the Nuclear Detection and Sensor...

  15. Breast Density and Cancer | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breast Cancer Awareness Series: Understanding Breast Density Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Breast Cancer Awareness Series: Understanding Breast Density Researcher Andrea Schmitz describes what breast density is and discusses important health and diagnostics points related to breast density. You Might

  16. Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection A system for ultrasensitive mass and/or force detection of this invention includes a mechanical oscillator driven to oscillate in a nonlinear regime. The mechanical oscillator includes a piezoelectric base with at least one cantilever resonator etched into the

  17. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  18. Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science » Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Randy Drake Actinide Analytical Chemistry Email Kirk Rector Physical Chemistry & Applied Spectroscopy Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email Los Alamos is one of

  19. Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DelVecchio, Vito G. (Scranton, PA); Gallia, Gary L. (Philadelphia, PA); McCleskey, Ferne K. (San Antonio, TX)

    1997-01-21

    The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

  20. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  1. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for ultrasensitive detection of botulinum toxin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koh, Chung -Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sandstone Diagnostics, Livermore, CA; Piccini, Matthew E.; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA; Stanker, Larry H.; Cheng, Luisa W.; Ravichandran, Easwaran; Singh, Bal -Ram; Sommer, Greg J.; et al

    2014-12-18

    In this study, we present an innovative centrifugal microfluidic immunoassay platform (SpinDx) to address the urgent biodefense and public health need for ultrasensitive point-of-care/incident detection of botulinum toxin. The simple, sample-to-answer centrifugal microfluidic immunoassay approach is based on binding of toxins to antibody-laden capture particles followed by sedimentation of the particles through a density-media in a microfluidic disk and quantification by laser-induced fluorescence. A blind, head-to-head comparison study of SpinDx versus the gold-standard mouse bioassay demonstrates 100-fold improvement in sensitivity (limit of detection = 0.09 pg/mL), while achieving total sample-to-answer time of <30 min with 2-μL required volume of themore » unprocessed sample. We further demonstrate quantification of botulinum toxin in both exogeneous (human blood and serum spiked with toxins) and endogeneous (serum from mice intoxicated via oral, intranasal, and intravenous routes) samples. SpinDx can analyze, without any sample preparation, multiple sample types including whole blood, serum, and food. It is readily expandable to additional analytes as the assay reagents (i.e., the capture beads and detection antibodies) are disconnected from the disk architecture and the reader, facilitating rapid development of new assays. SpinDx can also serve as a general-purpose immunoassay platform applicable to diagnosis of other conditions and diseases.« less

  2. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations improve space weather models Observations and simulations improve space weather models Researchers used data from the Van Allen Probes to improve a three-dimensional model created by Los Alamos scientists called DREAM3D. June 25, 2014 NASA's Van Allen Probes sample the Earth's magnetosphere. NASA's Van Allen Probes sample the Earth's magnetosphere. The work demonstrated that DREAM3D accurately simulated the behavior of a complex and dynamic event in the radiation belt that was

  3. Wind Forecasting Improvement Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forecasting Improvement Project Wind Forecasting Improvement Project October 3, 2011 - 12:12pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Third Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. In July, the Department of Energy launched a $6 million project with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and private partners to improve wind forecasting. Wind power forecasting allows system operators to anticipate the electrical output of wind plants and adjust the electrical

  4. ORISE: Performance Improvement Management System (PIMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Improvement Management System (PIMS) PIMS web-based application aids Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Emergency Management in response to local emergencies and national disasters The Veterans Health Administration Performance Improvement Management System (VHA PIMS) is a web-based system for use by the VHA to systematically support the VHA's Comprehensive Emergency Management Program. The system provides a consistent and efficient approach to plan, develop, evaluate and improve

  5. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations improve space weather models Observations and simulations improve space weather models Researchers used data from the Van Allen Probes to improve a three-dimensional model created by Los Alamos scientists called DREAM3D. June 25, 2014 NASA's Van Allen Probes sample the Earth's magnetosphere. NASA's Van Allen Probes sample the Earth's magnetosphere. The work demonstrated that DREAM3D accurately simulated the behavior of a complex and dynamic event in the radiation belt that was

  6. Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring Together, LANL and Russia institutes modify metals to better match and integrate, or bond, with human bone tissue. April 3, 2012 Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring In addition to possessing strength beyond what is possible in conventional pure metals, Biotanium(tm) has also been optimized for integration with living bone. Scientific studies of the attachment and growth of

  7. Strategic Energy Management and Continuous Improvement Resouces |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Strategic Energy Management and Continuous Improvement Resouces Strategic Energy Management and Continuous Improvement Resouces A successful strategic energy management plan sets goals, tracks progress, and reports results while building long-term relationships with energy users and targeting persistent energy savings. Effective planning ensures continuous improvement of energy efficiency, increases the property value of buildings, and can reduce costs across many end

  8. Web Improvement Strategy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Web Improvement Strategy Web Improvement Strategy Objective: Improve Digital Communications While Eliminating Wasteful Spending In June 2011, the Obama Administration launched the Campaign to Cut Waste, an effort to root out wasteful spending at every agency and department in the Federal government, and highlighted Federal Web Reform as a key part of the initiative. Since the Energy Department owns hundreds of websites -- about 87 domains and hundreds of subdomains -- we're answering the

  9. Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administratio...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA builds the nation's operational sensors that monitor the entire planet from space to detect and report surface, atmospheric, or space nuclear detonations; produces and updates...

  10. Linux Kernel Error Detection and Correction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-11

    EDAC-utils consists fo a library and set of utilities for retrieving statistics from the Linux Kernel Error Detection and Correction (EDAC) drivers.

  11. Transport Test Problems for Radiation Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2012-09-30

    This is the final report and deliverable for the project. It is a list of the details of the test cases for radiation detection scenarios.

  12. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  13. Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administratio...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the entire planet from space to detect and report surface, atmospheric, or space nuclear detonations; produces and updates the regional geophysical datasets enabling...

  14. Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current systems use public notice, patches, or a description of how to detect the security vulnerability, that may grant computer crackers information on the dangerous...

  15. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the doseresponse relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched casecontrol study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ?5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation doseresponse relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear doseresponse relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  16. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves AgencyCompany Organization: various Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Prepare a Plan,...

  17. Continous Improvement, 3/21/95

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to verify that contractor personnel are effectively managing environment, safety, and health issues in a manner that fosters continuous improvement. The...

  18. Improving Project Management | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz has made improving project management a priority at the Energy Department. In August 2013, the Secretary established a special working group that...

  19. Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Materialscientist, Wikipedia) (click image to enlarge) Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable alternative to platinum By Angela Hardin * October 26, 2015...

  20. WEBA transfer chutes improve coal distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-08-15

    American Electric Power has improved material flow and reduced dust generation by installing WEBA transfer chutes at some of their power plants. 4 photos.